Gene Summary

Gene:STIL; STIL centriolar assembly protein
Aliases: SIL, MCPH7
Summary:This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein implicated in regulation of the mitotic spindle checkpoint, a regulatory pathway that monitors chromosome segregation during cell division to ensure the proper distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells. The protein is phosphorylated in mitosis and in response to activation of the spindle checkpoint, and disappears when cells transition to G1 phase. It interacts with a mitotic regulator, and its expression is required to efficiently activate the spindle checkpoint. It is proposed to regulate Cdc2 kinase activity during spindle checkpoint arrest. Chromosomal deletions that fuse this gene and the adjacent locus commonly occur in T cell leukemias, and are thought to arise through illegitimate V-(D)-J recombination events. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:SCL-interrupting locus protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Gene Deletion
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Precancerous Conditions
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Newborns
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Chromosome 1
  • T-Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Protein 1
  • Mutation
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Adolescents
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Translocation
  • Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Infant
  • Immunophenotyping
  • VDJ Recombinases
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • SIL
  • Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Young Adult
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Base Sequence
  • Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • HeLa Cells
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: STIL (cancer-related)

Cezar-Dos-Santos F, Ferreira RS, Okuyama NCM, et al.
FOXP3 immunoregulatory gene variants are independent predictors of human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer precursor lesions.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(8):2013-2025 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: FOXP3 is a marker of the T regulatory (Treg) cell subset and drives its function and homeostasis. Its expression maintains the host immunosuppressive state that favors persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) appearance. The present study evaluated the effects of the rs3761548 and rs2232365 intronic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and their haplotypes on HPV infection and SIL diagnosis in HPV-infected and -uninfected women.
METHODS: HPV DNA-based detection in cervical specimens was performed by PCR. FOXP3 variants were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and haplotype recombination sites were inferred for 208 HPV-infected and 218 HPV-uninfected women diagnosed or not with low- or high-grade intraepithelial lesions of cervix. Case-control analyses were carried out by logistic regression adjusted for several socio-demographic, sexual lifestyle, and clinical data.
RESULTS: The homozygous genotype of the rs3761548 variants (A/A) (related to decreased FOXP3 expression) may exert a protective role against HPV infection in women (OR
CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal the significant and independent associations between FOXP3 genetic variants and susceptibility to HPV infection and SIL diagnosis and their role as biomarkers of HPV infection and cervical lesion management.

Dutta S, Mahalanobish S, Saha S, et al.
Natural products: An upcoming therapeutic approach to cancer.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2019; 128:240-255 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death across the world. Different environmental and anthropogenic factors initiate mutations in different functional genes of growth factors and their receptors, anti-apoptotic proteins, self-renewal developmental proteins, tumor suppressors, transcription factors, etc. This phenomenon leads to altered protein homeostasis of the cell which in turn induces cancer initiation, development, progression and survival. From ancient times various natural products have been used as traditional medicine against different diseases. Natural products are readily applicable, inexpensive, accessible and acceptable therapeutic approach with minimum cytotoxicity. As most of the target-specific anticancer drugs failed to achieve the expected result so far, new multi-targeted therapies using natural products have become significant. In this review, we have summarized the efficacy of different natural compounds against cancer. They are capable of modulating cancer microenvironment and diverse cell signaling cascades; thus playing a major role in combating cancer. These compounds are found to be effective against several signaling pathways, mainly cell death pathways (apoptosis and autophagy) and embryonic developmental pathways (Notch pathway, Wnt pathway and Hedgehog pathway). This review article is expected to be helpful in understanding the recent progress of natural product research for the development of anticancer drug.

Chen YJ, Guo YN, Shi K, et al.
Down-regulation of microRNA-144-3p and its clinical value in non-small cell lung cancer: a comprehensive analysis based on microarray, miRNA-sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR data.
Respir Res. 2019; 20(1):48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that miR-144-3p might be a potential biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, the comprehensive mechanism behind the effects of miR-144-3p on the origin, differentiation, and apoptosis of NSCLC, as well as the relationship between miR-144-3p and clinical parameters, has been rarely reported.
METHODS: We investigated the correlations between miR-144-3p expression and clinical characteristics through data collected from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarrays, the relevant literature, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and real-time quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses to determine the clinical role of miR-144-3p in NSCLC. Furthermore, we investigated the biological function of miR-144-3p by Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was created to identify the hub genes.
RESULTS: From the comprehensive meta-analysis, the combined SMD of miR-144-3p was - 0.95 with 95% CI of (- 1.37, - 0.52), indicating that less miR-144-3p was expressed in the NSCLC tissue than in the normal tissue. MiR-144-3p expression was significantly correlated with stage, lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion (all P <  0.05). As for the bioinformatics analyses, a total of 37 genes were chosen as the potential targets of miR-144-3p in NSCLC. These promising target genes were highly enriched in various key pathways such as the protein digestion and absorption and the thyroid hormone signaling pathways. Additionally, PPI revealed five genes-C12orf5, CEP55, E2F8, STIL, and TOP2A-as hub genes with the threshold value of 6.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study validated that miR-144-3p was lowly expressed in NSCLC. More importantly, miR-144-3p might function as a latent tumor biomarker in the prognosis prediction for NSCLC. The results of bioinformatics analyses may present a new method for investigating the pathogenesis of NSCLC.

Wu X, Xiao Y, Yan W, et al.
The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (STIL) promotes tumor growth through MAPK/ERK, PI3K/Akt and AMPK pathways in prostate cancer.
Gene. 2019; 686:220-227 [PubMed] Related Publications
The morbidity and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) in China have increased obviously, which became the second leading cause of death in men with cancer. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a key signaling pathway involved in the prostate cancer progression. The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (STIL) can modulate the Hh signaling pathway, but its function in PCa has not been reported. Here, we showed that STIL was increased in high grade prostate cancer tissue. Knockdown of STIL in prostate cancer cells PC-3 and DU 145 significantly decreased the proliferation of cells and induced cellular apoptosis through casepase3/7 mediated pathway. Moreover, the colony formation ability was also inhibited when knockdown of STIL by lentivirus-mediated shRNA. Furthermore, the cellular signaling antibody array analysis revealed which signaling pathway was affected when silencing STIL. Altogether, we found that STIL could affect MAPK/ERK, PI3K/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways, thus promoting cellular proliferation, colony formation and suppressing cellular apoptosis in prostate cancer.

Tsiambas E, Riziotis C, Mastronikolis NS, et al.
Comparative p16
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(10):5805-5810 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: p16 (gene locus: 9p21) tumor suppressor gene is considered an important biomarker for the progression and prognosis in a variety of malignancies and pre-cancerous lesions, including high-risk (HR-) human papilloma virus (HPV)-mediated squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs), based on cytological and the corresponding cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) histopathological categorization. p16 acts as a cyclin-dependent kinase-4 inhibitor negatively regulating the cell cycle. In persistent HPV infection, E7 oncogenic protein binds retinoblastoma protein leading to its proteolytic transformation, also triggering E2F dissociation, which increases DNA transcription and progression to S phase. This mechanism promotes aberrant p16 over-expression. Our aim was to comparatively analyze p16 protein expression patterns in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC) and also in SILs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty (n=50) primary LSCCs tissues all non-HPV-dependent, and a set of 50 liquid-based SILs, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Concerning the screening process in cytological slides, a novel real-time reference and calibration grid platform was implemented and employed.
RESULTS: Decreased protein expression was observed in 34/50 (68%) tissues regarding LSCCs. Overall p16 expression was associated to smoking status of the patients (p=0.001), and also with the p-stage of the examined malignancies (p=0.033). A strong statistical significance was assessed correlating LSIL/HSIL cases with a progressive p16 over expression (p=0.001), also reflecting a higher CIN diagnosis (p=0.001).
CONCLUSION: p16 down-regulation is a frequent genetic event in LSCCs, which is associated with advanced disease. In contrast to this, p16 over-expression triggered by a specific molecular mechanism shows a strong relationship with a progressively aggressive phenotype due to upgraded SIL/CIN cervical categorization. The first described application of the grid platform demonstrated a considerable improvement in the immunocytochemistry slide screening process enhancing the diagnostic reliability.

Galván-Femenía I, Guindo M, Duran X, et al.
Genomic profiling in advanced stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients with platinum-based chemotherapy identifies germline variants with prognostic value in SMYD2.
Cancer Treat Res Commun. 2018; 15:21-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between germline variations as a prognosis biomarker in patients with advanced Non-Small-Cell-Lung-Cancer (NSCLC) subjected to first-line platinum-based treatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a two-stage genome-wide-association study in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with platinum-based chemotherapy in an exploratory sample of 181 NSCLC patients from Caucasian origin, followed by a validation on 356 NSCLC patients from the same ancestry (Valencia, Spain).
RESULTS: We identified germline variants in SMYD2 as a prognostic factor for survival in patients with advanced NSCLC receiving chemotherapy. SMYD2 alleles are associated to a decreased overall survival and with a reduced Time to Progression. In addition, enrichment pathway analysis identified 361 variants in 40 genes to be involved in poorer outcome in advanced-stage NSCLC patients.
CONCLUSION: Germline SMYD2 alleles are associated with bad clinical outcome of first-line platinum-based treatment in advanced NSCLC patients. This result supports the role of SMYD2 in the carcinogenic process, and might be used as prognostic signature directing patient stratification and the choice of therapy.
MICROABSTRACT: A two-Stage Genome wide association study in Caucasian population reveals germline genetic variation in SMYD2 associated to progression disease in first-line platinum-based treatment in advanced NSCLC patients. SMYD2 profiling might have prognostic / predictive value directing choice of therapy and enlighten current knowledge on pathways involved in human carcinogenesis as well in resistance to chemotherapy.

Chen X, Wang F, Zhang Y, et al.
Retrospective analysis of 36 fusion genes in 2479 Chinese patients of de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2018; 72:99-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fusion genes are major molecular biological abnormalities in hematological malignancies. To depict the common recurrent gene-fusion landscape in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 36 recurrent fusion genes in hematologic malignancies were assessed using multiplex-nested RT-PCR in 2479 patients with de novo ALL. 17 kinds of distinct fusion genes were detected in 712 (28.72%) cases. Co-occurrence of different fusion genes was observed in 6 (0.24%) patients. Incidence of fusion genes in B-ALL was significantly higher than in T-ALL (31.40% vs. 14.50%, P < 0.001). Pediatric ALL had higher prevalence of ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, and STIL-TAL1, while BCR-ABL1 and SET-NUP214 were more common in adult ALL. BCR-ABL1, TCF3-PBX1, KMT2A-AFF1 and ETV6-RUNX1 were more frequent in B-ALL. On the contrary, KMT2A-MLLT4, SET-NUP214 and STIL-TAL1 were of higher incidence in T-ALL. In comparison with Western cohorts, the incidence of BCR-ABL1 (5.94%) was much higher in our series, while the occurrence of ETV6-RUNX1 (13.19%) was significantly lower in pediatric B-ALL patients in our study than in Western reports. This study provides a genetic landscape of common fusion genes in ALL patients and may serve as a foundation for further improvement of a fusion gene screening panel for clinical applications.

Gustafsson BM, Mattsson K, Bogdanovic G, et al.
Origins of STIL-TAL1 fusion genes in children who later developed paediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: An investigation of neonatal blood spots.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018; 65(11):e27310 [PubMed] Related Publications
SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (STIL)-T-cell acute leukaemia (TAL1) fusion genes are present in approximately 11-27% of children with paediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), but the developmental timing of the rearrangement is still unknown. To investigate whether the fusion gene can be detected in neonatal blood spots (NBSs) from paediatric patients diagnosed with T-cell ALL, we analysed DNA from 38 paediatric patients with T-ALL by nested polymerase chain reaction and electrophoresis. The STIL-TAL1 fusion gene was not detected in NBSs from any of the 38 patients with T-ALL, suggesting that STIL-TAL1 fusion genes are most probably postnatal events in paediatric T-ALL.

Chatran M, Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi Y, Dadashpour M, et al.
Synergistic Anti-proliferative Effects of Metformin and Silibinin Combination on T47D Breast Cancer Cells via hTERT and Cyclin D1 Inhibition.
Drug Res (Stuttg). 2018; 68(12):710-716 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of data that chemotherapeutic combination strategies would be more effective in reducing drug toxicity, inhibiting tumor progression in comparison to either drug alone.
OBJECTIVE: To explore a chemopreventive strategy for improving breast cancer treatment efficacy, the anticancer effects of a combination of Metformin (MET) and Silibinin (SIL) were investigated in T47D breast cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity of the drugs individually and in combination was evaluated using MTT assay. The precise nature of the interaction between MET and SIL was further analyzed through the median-effect method. In addition, qRT-PCR was applied to determine the expression levels of hTERT and cyclin D1 genes after 48 h drug exposure.
RESULTS: MTT assays showed that MET and SIL individually inhibited the cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner, and the obtained combination indices (CIs) were<1 for all the combination treatments, indicating that the anticancer agents synergistically induced growth inhibition in the breast cancer cells. qPCR findings revealed that the drug combination also synergistically down-regulated the expression levels of hTERT and cyclin D1 at all used concentrations compared with the drugs used alone after 48 h treatment (P≤0.05).
CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence that synergistic antiproliferative effects of MET and SIL, linking to the down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and hTERT genes, and propose that MET+SIL may have therapeutic value in breast cancer therapy.

Cordas Dos Santos DM, Eilers J, Sosa Vizcaino A, et al.
MAP3K7 is recurrently deleted in pediatric T-lymphoblastic leukemia and affects cell proliferation independently of NF-κB.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):663 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deletions of 6q15-16.1 are recurrently found in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). This chromosomal region includes the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (MAP3K7) gene which has a crucial role in innate immune signaling and was observed to be functionally and prognostically relevant in different cancer entities. Therefore, we correlated the presence of MAP3K7 deletions with clinical parameters in a cohort of 327 pediatric T-ALL patients and investigated the function of MAP3K7 in the T-ALL cell lines CCRF-CEM, Jurkat and MOLT-4.
METHODS: MAP3K7 deletions were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). T-ALL cell lines were transduced with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing anti-MAP3K7 shRNA or a non-silencing shRNA together with a GFP reporter. Transduction efficiency was measured by flow cytometry and depletion efficiency by RT-PCR and Western blots. Induction of apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry after staining with PE-conjugated Annexin V. In order to assess the contribution of NF-κB signaling to the effects of MAP3K7 depletion, cells were treated with TNF-α and cell lysates analyzed for components of the NF-κB pathway by Western blotting and for expression of the NF-κB target genes BCL2, CMYC, FAS, PTEN and TNF-α by RT-PCR.
RESULTS: MAP3K7 is deleted in approximately 10% and point-mutated in approximately 1% of children with T-ALL. In 32 of 33 leukemias the deletion of MAP3K7 also included the adjacent CASP8AP2 gene. MAP3K7 deletions were associated with the occurrence of SIL-TAL1 fusions and a mature immunophenotype, but not with response to treatment and outcome. Depletion of MAP3K7 expression in T-ALL cell lines by shRNAs slowed down proliferation and induced apoptosis, but neither changed protein levels of components of NF-κB signaling nor NF-κB target gene expression after stimulation with TNF-α.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the recurrent deletion of MAP3K7/CASP8AP2 is associated with SIL-TAL1 fusions and a mature immunophenotype, but not with response to treatment and risk of relapse. Homozygous deletions of MAP3K7 were not observed, and efficient depletion of MAP3K7 interfered with viability of T-ALL cells, indicating that a residual expression of MAP3K7 is indispensable for T-lymphoblasts.

Zacapala-Gómez AE, Navarro-Tito N, Alarcón-Romero LDC, et al.
Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology: a prognostic marker for tumor progression in cervical cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):349 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth cause of mortality by neoplasia in women worldwide. The use of immunomarkers is an alternative tool to complement currently used algorithms for detection of cancer, and to improve selection of therapeutic schemes. Aberrant expression of Ezrin and E-cadherin play an important role in tumor invasion. In this study we analyzed Ezrin and E-cadherin expression in liquid-based cervical cytology samples, and evaluated their potential use as prognostic immunomarkers.
METHODS: Immunocytochemical staining of Ezrin and E-cadherin was performed in cervical samples of 125 patients. The cytological or histological diagnostic was performed by Papanicolaou staining or H&E staining, respectively. HPV genotyping was determined using INNO-LIPA Genotyping Extra kit and the HPV physical status by in situ hybridization. Ezrin expression in HaCaT, HeLa and SiHa cell lines was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot.
RESULTS: High Ezrin expression was observed in cervical cancer samples (70%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV (43%), and samples with integrated viral genome (47%). High Ezrin expression was associated with degree of SIL, viral genotype and physical status. In contrast, low E-cadherin expression was found in cervical cancer samples (95%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV/LR-HPV (87%) and integrated viral genome (72%). Low E-cadherin expression was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. Interestingly, Ezrin nuclear staining was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. High Ezrin expression, high percent of nuclear Ezrin and low E-cadherin expression behaved as risk factors for progression to HSIL and cervical cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology samples could be a potential prognostic marker, useful for identifying cervical lesions with a high-risk of progression to cervical cancer.

Furness CL, Mansur MB, Weston VJ, et al.
The subclonal complexity of STIL-TAL1+ T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(9):1984-1993 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Single-cell genetics were used to interrogate clonal complexity and the sequence of mutational events in STIL-TAL1+ T-ALL. Single-cell multicolour FISH was used to demonstrate that the earliest detectable leukaemia subclone contained the STIL-TAL1 fusion and copy number loss of 9p21.3 (CDKN2A/CDKN2B locus), with other copy number alterations including loss of PTEN occurring as secondary subclonal events. In three cases, multiplex qPCR and phylogenetic analysis were used to produce branching evolutionary trees recapitulating the snapshot history of T-ALL evolution in this leukaemia subtype, which confirmed that mutations in key T-ALL drivers, including NOTCH1 and PTEN, were subclonal and reiterative in distinct subclones. Xenografting confirmed that self-renewing or propagating cells were genetically diverse. These data suggest that the STIL-TAL1 fusion is a likely founder or truncal event. Therapies targeting the TAL1 auto-regulatory complex are worthy of further investigation in T-ALL.

Tvedt THA, Hovland R, Tsykunova G, et al.
A pilot study of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 receptor and their effects on pre- and post-transplant serum mediator level and outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Clin Exp Immunol. 2018; 193(1):130-141 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interleukin (IL)-6 is an important regulator of immunity and inflammation in many diseases. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-6 gene influence outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT), but the possible importance of SNPs in the IL-6 receptor has not been examined. We therefore investigated whether SNPs in the IL-6R gene influenced biochemical characteristics and clinical outcomes after ASCT. We examined the IL-6 promoter variant rs1800975 and the IL-6R SNPs rs4453032, rs2228145, rs4129267, rs4845374, rs4329505, rs4845617, rs12083537, rs4845618, rs6698040 and rs4379670 in a 101 population-based cohort of allotransplant recipients and their family donors. Patients being homozygous for the major alleles of the IL-6R SNPs rs2228145 and rs4845618 showed high pretransplant CRP serum levels together with decreased sIL-6R levels; the decreased IL-6R levels persisted 6 months post-transplant. In contrast, patients being homozygous for the minor allele of the IL-6R SNP rs4379670 showed decreased pretransplant CRP levels. Furthermore, the IL-6R rs4845618 donor genotype showed an association with severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), whereas the donor genotype of the IL-6 SNP rs1800795 was associated with decreased survival 100 days post-transplant. Finally, the recipient genotype of the IL-6R SNP rs4329505 showed a strong association with 2-years non-relapse mortality, and this effect was also highly significant in multivariate analysis. IL-6 and IL-6R SNPs influence the clinical outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Nunobiki O, Sano D, Hata S, et al.
Clinical significance of hWAPL polymorphisms in the risk of cervical carcinogenesis.
Hum Cell. 2018; 31(2):149-153 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the clinical significance of human wings apart-like (hWAPL) genetic polymorphisms in cervical carcinogenesis. hWAPL polymorphisms and human papillomavirus (HPV) types were examined in 175 cervical smears of exfoliated cervical cell samples using a real-time polymerase chain reaction system. A significant difference was detected in the frequency of the CC genotype between the HPV(+) low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) groups [Odds ratio 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.0723-0.61; P = 0.0029]. A significant difference was noted in the frequency of the CC genotype between the high-risk HPV-positive LSIL and HSIL groups (odds ratio 0.2955, 95% CI 0.0893-0.9771; P = 0.0414). The CC genotype of hWAPL gene promoter polymorphism may be associated with cervical carcinogenesis.

Patwardhan D, Mani S, Passemard S, et al.
STIL balancing primary microcephaly and cancer.
Cell Death Dis. 2018; 9(2):65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell division and differentiation are two fundamental physiological processes that need to be tightly balanced to achieve harmonious development of an organ or a tissue without jeopardizing its homeostasis. The role played by the centriolar protein STIL is highly illustrative of this balance at different stages of life as deregulation of the human STIL gene expression has been associated with either insufficient brain development (primary microcephaly) or cancer, two conditions resulting from perturbations in cell cycle and chromosomal segregation. This review describes the recent advances on STIL functions in the control of centriole duplication and mitotic spindle integrity, and discusses how pathological perturbations of its finely tuned expression result in chromosomal instability in both embryonic and postnatal situations, highlighting the concept that common key factors are involved in developmental steps and tissue homeostasis.

Thompson C, McCormick C, Kamran W, et al.
Risk reduction surgery (RRS) for tubo-ovarian cancer in an Irish gynaecological practice: an analysis of indications and outcomes.
Ir J Med Sci. 2018; 187(3):789-794 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common tubo-ovarian cancer. The fallopian tube harbours the precursor lesion: serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC). Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is an effective risk-reducing surgical (RRS) strategy for breast cancer susceptibility gene mutation carriers (BRCAm). The value of RRS in those without defined genetic risk is unknown but these women represent a substantial cohort in prophylactic surgical practice.
METHODS: This is a retrospective review of RRS at an Irish university teaching hospital.
RESULTS: One hundred and thirty women underwent RRS; group 1 = 46 BRCAm; group 2 = 19 BRCAm negative/65 genetic status unknown. Group 1 had one occult HGSC. Group 2 had no STIC or cancers and were older and more likely to have hysterectomy and benign pathology. Other pathologies included serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STIL) (2), p53 signatures (2), endometriosis (6), fibroids/adenomyosis (4) and atypical endometrial hyperplasia (1).
CONCLUSION: More than 60% of women undergoing RRS were BRCAm negative or untested. Counselling of high-risk women without defined germline mutations remains a challenge for gynaecologists because the likelihood of removing STIC lesions or occult invasive cancer is low. Removal of coincidental pathology may give added value to RRS in these women.

He J, Li X, Zhu W, et al.
Research of differential expression of sIL1RAP in low-grade gliomas between children and adults.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2018; 35(1):19-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma is the most common intracranial malignant tumor. Low-grade gliomas (LGG) occupy almost 80% in all of the gliomas. The prognosis of LGG in children is much better than in adult, however, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. In our investigation, it was first found that the level of soluble IL1RAP (sIL1RAP) was significantly higher in the LGG from children than that from adult. We also revealed that sIL1RAP could induce the apoptosis of U251. In cells with overexpression of sIL-1RAP, the cell proliferation promoted by IL-1 was significantly inhibited. These decreased tumor growth ability and better prognosis of low-grade gliomas in children patients than that in adult patients. The expression level of sIL1RAP may become one of the potential indexes for determining the prognosis of low-grade gliomas.

Carbotti G, Nikpoor AR, Vacca P, et al.
IL-27 mediates HLA class I up-regulation, which can be inhibited by the IL-6 pathway, in HLA-deficient Small Cell Lung Cancer cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 36(1):140 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recently, immunotherapy with anti-PD-1 antibodies has shown clinical benefit in recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC). Since anti-PD-1 re-activates anti-tumor Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) responses, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms regulating HLA class I, and PD-L1 expression in HLA-negative SCLC. Here we addressed the role of IL-27, a cytokine related to both IL-6 and IL-12 families.
METHODS: The human SCLC cell lines NCI-N592, -H69, -H146, -H446 and -H82 were treated in vitro with different cytokines (IL-27, IFN-γ, IL-6 or a soluble IL-6R/IL-6 chimera [sIL-6R/IL-6]) at different time points and analyzed for tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT proteins by Western blot, for surface molecule expression by immunofluorescence and FACS analyses or for specific mRNA expression by QRT-PCR. Relative quantification of mRNAs was calculated by the ΔΔCT method. The Student's T test was used for the statistical analysis of experimental replicates.
RESULTS: IL-27 triggered STAT1/3 phosphorylation and up-regulated the expression of surface HLA class I antigen and of TAP1 and TAP2 mRNA in four out of five SCLC cell lines tested. The IL-27-resistant NCI-H146 cells showed up-regulation of HLA class I by IFN-γ. IFN-γ also induced expression of PD-L1 in SCLC cells, while IL-27 was less potent in this respect. IL-27 failed to activate STAT1/3 phosphorylation in NCI-H146 cells, which display a low expression of the IL-27RA and GP130 receptor chains. As GP130 is shared in IL-27R and IL-6R complexes, we assessed its functionality in response to sIL-6R/IL-6. sIL-6R/IL-6 failed to trigger STAT1/3 signaling in NCI-H146 cells, suggesting low GP130 expression or uncoupling from signal transduction. Although both sIL-6R/IL-6 and IL-27 triggered STAT1/3 phosphorylation, sIL-6R/IL-6 failed to up-regulate HLA class I expression, in relationship to the weak activation of STAT1. Finally sIL-6R/IL-6 limited IL-27-effects, particularly in NCI-H69 cells, in a SOCS3-independent manner, but did not modify IFN-γ induced HLA class I up-regulation.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, IL-27 is a potentially interesting cytokine for restoring HLA class I expression for SCLC combined immunotherapy purposes. However, the concomitant activation of the IL-6 pathway may limit the IL-27 effect on HLA class I induction but did not significantly alter the responsiveness to IFN-γ.

Seidel C, Kirsch A, Fontana C, et al.
Epigenetic changes in the early stage of silica-induced cell transformation.
Nanotoxicology. 2017; 11(7):923-935 [PubMed] Related Publications
The increasing use of nanomaterials in numerous domains has led to growing concern about their potential toxicological properties, and the potential risk to human health posed by silica nanoparticles remains under debate. Recent studies proposed that these particles could alter gene expression through the modulation of epigenetic marks, and the possible relationship between particle exposure and these mechanisms could represent a critical factor in carcinogenicity. In this study, using the Bhas 42 cell model, we compare the effects of exposure to two transforming particles, a pyrogenic amorphous silica nanoparticle NM-203 to those of the crystalline silica particle Min-U-Sil

Ricciardi E, Tomao F, Aletti G, et al.
Risk-reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy in Women at Higher Risk of Ovarian and Breast Cancer: A Single Institution Prospective Series.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(9):5241-5248 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Occult cancers' reported rates vary from 2-12% and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) have been identified in 3-12% of the prophylactically removed tubes of women carrying a BRCA mutation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of tubal minor epithelial atypia (STIL), STIC, and occult invasive cancer and to evaluate the cancer-specific mortality in a prospective series of women at higher risk of ovarian and breast cancer undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) n a tertiary cancer center.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A series of RRSO specimens (including endometrial biopsy) from women carrying a BRCA mutation, BRCA-unknown and BRCA-negative were collected between January 1998 and April 2016 at the Division of Gynecology at the European Institute of Oncology. Inclusion criteria were: asymptomatic women who had a negative gynecologic screening within 3 months prior to RRSO. Exclusion criteria were: women with ovarian/tubal cancer prior to RRSO.
RESULTS: A total of 411 women underwent RRSO. Median age at RRSO was 47.0 years (range=32-70 years); 75.2% had a history of breast cancer. Fifteen women were diagnosed with an occult cancer (7 STIC, 4 invasive cancers, 2 breast cancers metastatic to the adnexa, 2 endometrial cancer) (3.6%). Sixteen showed a STIL (3.9%). When excluding cases with preoperative positive markers, the occult invasive cancer rate drops to 1.5%.
CONCLUSION: Our study, covering an 18-year period, shows a substantial low risk of occult cancer among a high-risk population of women undergoing RRSO. Our data still support the indication for RRSO in higher-risk patients. An endometrial biopsy should also be routinely obtained as it raises the chances of detecting occult endometrial cancers that may be otherwise missed.

Liu S, Chen B, Burugu S, et al.
Role of Cytotoxic Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Predicting Outcomes in Metastatic HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA Oncol. 2017; 3(11):e172085 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Importance: Accumulating evidence indicates that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are associated with clinical outcomes and may predict the efficacy of chemotherapy and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, encoded by the gene ERBB2)-targeted therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.
Objective: To investigate the role of TILs, particularly cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, in the prediction of outcomes in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer randomized to an antibody-based (trastuzumab) vs a small molecule-based (lapatinib) anti-HER2 therapy.
Design, Setting, and Participants: The Canadian Cancer Trials Group MA.31 phase 3 clinical trial accrued patients from 21 countries and randomized 652 with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer to receive trastuzumab or lapatinib, in combination with a taxane, from January 17, 2008, through December 1, 2011. Patients had received no prior chemotherapy or HER2-targeted therapy in the metastatic setting. The median follow-up was 21.5 months (interquartile range, 14.3-31.0). The tumor tissue collected for primary diagnosis was used in this ad hoc substudy. Sections were scored for TILs on hematoxylin-eosin (H&E)-stained sections, and immunohistochemical analysis was performed to assess CD8, FOXP3, CD56, and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression on stromal (sTILs) and intratumoral TILs. Data were analyzed from July 15, 2015, through July 27, 2016.
Interventions: Treatment with trastuzumab or lapatinib in combination with taxane chemotherapy (paclitaxel or docetaxel) for 24 weeks.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Prognostic effects of biomarkers were evaluated for progression-free survival by stratified univariate log-rank test with Kaplan-Meier curves and by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression; predictive effects were examined with a test of interaction between treatment allocation and biomarker classification.
Results: Of the 647 treated women (mean [SD] age, 55.0 [10.8] years), 614 had tumor tissue samples scored for H&E sTILs and 427 for CD8 biomarker assessments. Overall H&E sTIL counts of greater than 5% (high) were present in 215 cases (35%) but did not show significant prognostic or predictive effects. Univariate stratified analyses detected a significant predictive effect on risk for progression with lapatinib compared with trastuzumab among patients with low CD8+ sTIL counts (observed hazard ratio, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.40-6.17; P = .003) and among those with high CD8+ sTIL counts (observed hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.75; P = .02), confirmed in stepwise multivariate analysis (interaction P = .04). Other immunohistochemistry biomarkers were not associated with prognostic or predictive effects.
Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of a phase 3 randomized clinical trial, a low level of preexisting cytotoxic sTILs predicted the most benefit from an antibody- vs a small molecule-based drug against the same target.
Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT00667251.

Zhao X, Hong Y, Qin Y, et al.
The clinical significance of monitoring the expression of the SIL-TAL1 fusion gene in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2017; 39(6):613-619 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: SIL-TAL1 rearrangement is common in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). However, whether this fusion gene might be used as a reliable marker of minimal residual disease (MRD) following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains unknown METHODS: The clinical data of consecutive 29 patients with T-ALL who received allo-HSCT were collected. Their MRD were evaluated by SIL-TAL1, Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) expression, and the leukemia-associated immunophenotype (LAIP) .
RESULTS: The median follow-up was 354 days (71-2111 days). Of the enrolled patients, 14 (87.5%) patients died of leukemia relapse. A total of 15 (51.7%) patients experienced relapse at a median of 90 days (60-540 days) after transplantation. The SIL-TAL1 expression of 16 patients converted from negative prior to transplantation to positive at 77 days (30-281 days) following transplantation; furthermore, 15 (93.8%) of them eventually experienced relapse. In the 15 relapsed patients, 13 (86.7%) had increased SIL-TAL1 expression levels 30 days (11-220 days) earlier than the hematological relapse and the detection of abnormal WT1 and LAIP.
CONCLUSION: We are the first to demonstrate the reliability of the SIL-TAL1 fusion gene as a good MRD marker for patients with T-ALL after allo-HSCT.

Alonso-Calvo R, Paraiso-Medina S, Perez-Rey D, et al.
A semantic interoperability approach to support integration of gene expression and clinical data in breast cancer.
Comput Biol Med. 2017; 87:179-186 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of omics data and advances in technologies involved in clinical treatment has led to a broad range of approaches to represent clinical information. Within this context, patient stratification across health institutions due to omic profiling presents a complex scenario to carry out multi-center clinical trials.
METHODS: This paper presents a standards-based approach to ensure semantic integration required to facilitate the analysis of clinico-genomic clinical trials. To ensure interoperability across different institutions, we have developed a Semantic Interoperability Layer (SIL) to facilitate homogeneous access to clinical and genetic information, based on different well-established biomedical standards and following International Health (IHE) recommendations.
RESULTS: The SIL has shown suitability for integrating biomedical knowledge and technologies to match the latest clinical advances in healthcare and the use of genomic information. This genomic data integration in the SIL has been tested with a diagnostic classifier tool that takes advantage of harmonized multi-center clinico-genomic data for training statistical predictive models.
CONCLUSIONS: The SIL has been adopted in national and international research initiatives, such as the EURECA-EU research project and the CIMED collaborative Spanish project, where the proposed solution has been applied and evaluated by clinical experts focused on clinico-genomic studies.

Busse TM, Roth JJ, Wilmoth D, et al.
Copy number alterations determined by single nucleotide polymorphism array testing in the clinical laboratory are indicative of gene fusions in pediatric cancer patients.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(10):730-749 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene fusions resulting from structural rearrangements are an established mechanism of tumorigenesis in pediatric cancer. In this clinical cohort, 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based chromosomal microarrays from 1,211 pediatric cancer patients were evaluated for copy number alterations (CNAs) associated with gene fusions. Karyotype or fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were performed in 42% of the patients. Ten percent of the bone marrow or solid tumor specimens had SNP array-associated CNAs suggestive of a gene fusion. Alterations involving ETV6, ABL1-NUP214, EBF1-PDGFRB, KMT2A(MLL), LMO2-RAG, MYH11-CBFB, NSD1-NUP98, PBX1, STIL-TAL1, ZNF384-TCF3, P2RY8-CRLF2, and RUNX1T1-RUNX1 fusions were detected in the bone marrow samples. The most common alteration among the low-grade gliomas was a 7q34 tandem duplication resulting in a KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. Additional fusions identified in the pediatric brain tumors included FAM131B-BRAF and RAF1-QKI. COL1A1-PDGFB, CRTC1-MAML2, EWSR1, HEY1, PAX3- and PAX7-FOXO1, and PLAG1 fusions were determined in a variety of solid tumors and a novel potential gene fusion, FGFR1-USP6, was detected in an aneurysmal bone cyst. The identification of these gene fusions was instrumental in tumor diagnosis. In contrast to hematologic and solid tumors in adults that are predominantly driven by mutations, the majority of hematologic and solid tumors in children are characterized by CNAs and gene fusions. Chromosomal microarray analysis is therefore a robust platform to identify diagnostic and prognostic markers in the clinical setting.

Tesio M, Trinquand A, Ballerini P, et al.
Age-related clinical and biological features of PTEN abnormalities in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(12):2594-2600 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumour suppressor gene PTEN is commonly altered in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia but its prognostic impact is still debated. We screened a cohort of 573 fully characterised adult and paediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) patients for genomic PTEN abnormalities. PTEN-inactivating mutations and/or deletions were identified in 91 cases (16%), including 18% of paediatric (49/277) and 14% of adult cases (42/296). Thirty-four patients harboured only mutations, 12 cases demonstrated only large deletions and 9 only microdeletions. About 36 patients had combined alterations. Different mechanisms of PTEN inactivation predicted differences in the clinical outcome for both adult and paediatric patients treated according to the GRAALL03/05 and FRALLE2000 protocols. Whereas large deletions predicted lower 5-year overall survival (P=0.0053 in adults, P=0.001 in children) and disease-free survival (P=0.0009 in adults, P=0.0002 in children), mutations were not associated with a worse prognosis. The prognostic impact of PTEN loss is therefore linked to the underlying type of genomic abnormality, both in adult and paediatric T-ALLs, demonstrating that detailed analysis of the type of abnormality type would be useful to refine risk stratification.

Rabinowicz N, Mangala LS, Brown KR, et al.
Targeting the centriolar replication factor STIL synergizes with DNA damaging agents for treatment of ovarian cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(16):27380-27392 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Advanced ovarian cancer is an incurable disease. Thus, novel therapies are required. We wished to identify new therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. ShRNA screen performed in 42 ovarian cancer cell lines identified the centriolar replication factor STIL as an essential gene for ovarian cancer cells. This was verified in-vivo in orthotopic human ovarian cancer mouse models. STIL depletion by administration of siRNA in neutral liposomes resulted in robust anti-tumor effect that was further enhanced in combination with cisplatin. Consistent with this finding, STIL depletion enhanced the extent of DNA double strand breaks caused by DNA damaging agents. This was associated with centrosomal depletion, ongoing genomic instability and enhanced formation of micronuclei. Interestingly, the ongoing DNA damage was not associated with reduced DNA repair. Indeed, we observed that depletion of STIL enhanced canonical homologous recombination repair and increased BRCA1 and RAD51 foci in response to DNA double strand breaks. Thus, inhibition of STIL significantly enhances the efficacy of DNA damaging chemotherapeutic drugs in treatment of ovarian cancer.

Berti FCB, Pereira APL, Cebinelli GCM, et al.
The role of interleukin 10 in human papilloma virus infection and progression to cervical carcinoma.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2017; 34:1-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although Human Papillomavirus (HPV) exerts a vital influence on cervical carcinogenesis, other factors influence the development of a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) that may or not progress to cervical cancer. Among several cytokines, Interleukin 10 (IL-10) stands out as an important anti-inflammatory factor, leading to immune system evasion through an immunosuppressive state. In the cervical microenvironment, during different stages of HPV infection, IL-10 production can be induced and maintained by different cell sources, including infected keratinocytes, some subsets of dendritic cells (DC), tumor associated macrophages (TAM), T regulatory cells (Treg) and tumor cells. Further, a wide range of effects can be exerted by IL-10 on different cell populations, such as inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production, DCs differentiation, antigen presenting function and T-helper 1 (Th1) polarization. IL-10 is one of several cytokines involved in cancer development and sustenance, although its role in cancer is still controversial and poorly understood. However, cervical IL-10 levels tend to increase in parallel to SIL development and are even higher within cervical tumors. Accumulating data have shown that after HPV infection, IL-10 levels are enhanced as a result of HPV E2, E6 and E7 proteins action over IL-10 gene transcription, while IL-10 stimulates HPV E6 and E7 expression. Therefore, this interplay between HPV and IL-10 creates a vicious cycle that could favor an immunosuppressive microenvironment in the cervix, facilitating the progression of a simple HPV infection to SIL or cervical cancer.

Desai N, Sajed D, Arora KS, et al.
Diverse repetitive element RNA expression defines epigenetic and immunologic features of colon cancer.
JCI Insight. 2017; 2(3):e91078 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is tremendous excitement for the potential of epigenetic therapies in cancer, but the ability to predict and monitor response to these drugs remains elusive. This is in part due to the inability to differentiate the direct cytotoxic and the immunomodulatory effects of these drugs. The DNA-hypomethylating agent 5-azacitidine (AZA) has shown these distinct effects in colon cancer and appears to be linked to the derepression of repeat RNAs. LINE and HERV are two of the largest classes of repeats in the genome, and despite many commonalities, we found that there is heterogeneity in behavior among repeat subtypes. Specifically, the LINE-1 and HERV-H subtypes detected by RNA sequencing and RNA in situ hybridization in colon cancers had distinct expression patterns, which suggested that these repeats are correlated to transcriptional programs marking different biological states. We found that low LINE-1 expression correlates with global DNA hypermethylation, wild-type

Kalinich M, Bhan I, Kwan TT, et al.
An RNA-based signature enables high specificity detection of circulating tumor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(5):1123-1128 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed into the bloodstream by invasive cancers, but the difficulty inherent in identifying these rare cells by microscopy has precluded their routine use in monitoring or screening for cancer. We recently described a high-throughput microfluidic CTC-iChip, which efficiently depletes hematopoietic cells from blood specimens and enriches for CTCs with well-preserved RNA. Application of RNA-based digital PCR to detect CTC-derived signatures may thus enable highly accurate tissue lineage-based cancer detection in blood specimens. As proof of principle, we examined hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a cancer that is derived from liver cells bearing a unique gene expression profile. After identifying a digital signature of 10 liver-specific transcripts, we used a cross-validated logistic regression model to identify the presence of HCC-derived CTCs in nine of 16 (56%) untreated patients with HCC versus one of 31 (3%) patients with nonmalignant liver disease at risk for developing HCC (P < 0.0001). Positive CTC scores declined in treated patients: Nine of 32 (28%) patients receiving therapy and only one of 15 (7%) patients who had undergone curative-intent ablation, surgery, or liver transplantation were positive. RNA-based digital CTC scoring was not correlated with the standard HCC serum protein marker alpha fetoprotein (P = 0.57). Modeling the sequential use of these two orthogonal markers for liver cancer screening in patients with high-risk cirrhosis generates positive and negative predictive values of 80% and 86%, respectively. Thus, digital RNA quantitation constitutes a sensitive and specific CTC readout, enabling high-throughput clinical applications, such as noninvasive screening for HCC in populations where viral hepatitis and cirrhosis are prevalent.

Tang XY, Sun Y, Zhang A, et al.
Third-generation CD28/4-1BB chimeric antigen receptor T cells for chemotherapy relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a non-randomised, open-label phase I trial protocol.
BMJ Open. 2016; 6(12):e013904 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: There is no curative treatment available for patients with chemotherapy relapsed or refractory CD19+ B cells-derived acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (r/r B-ALL). Although CD19-targeting second-generation (2nd-G) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells carrying CD28 or 4-1BB domains have demonstrated potency in patients with advanced B-ALL, these 2 signalling domains endow CAR-T cells with different and complementary functional properties. Preclinical results have shown that third-generation (3rd-G) CAR-T cells combining 4-1BB and CD28 signalling domains have superior activation and proliferation capacity compared with 2nd-G CAR-T cells carrying CD28 domain. The aim of the current study is therefore to investigate the safety and efficacy of 3rd-G CAR-T cells in adults with r/r B-ALL.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a phase I clinical trial for patients with r/r B-ALL to test the safety and preliminary efficacy of 3rd-G CAR-T cells. Before receiving lymphodepleting conditioning regimen, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from eligible patients will be leukapheresed, and the T cells will be purified, activated, transduced and expanded ex vivo. On day 6 in the protocol, a single dose of 1 million CAR-T cells per kg will be administrated intravenously. The phenotypes of infused CAR-T cells, copy number of CAR transgene and plasma cytokines will be assayed for 2 years after CAR-T infusion using flow cytometry, real-time quantitative PCR and cytometric bead array, respectively. Moreover, several predictive plasma cytokines including interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, Soluble Interleukin (sIL)-2R-α, solubleglycoprotein (sgp)130, sIL-6R, Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP1), Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP1)-α, MIP1-β and Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which are highly associated with severe cytokine release syndrome (CRS), will be used to forecast CRS to allow doing earlier intervention, and CRS will be managed based on a revised CRS grading system. In addition, patients with grade 3 or 4 neurotoxicities or persistent B-cell aplasia will be treated with dexamethasone (10 mg intravenously every 6 hours) or IgG, respectively. Descriptive and analytical analyses will be performed.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for the study was granted on 10 July 2014 (YLJS-2014-7-10). Written informed consent will be taken from all participants. The results of the study will be reported, through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and an internal organisational report.

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