Gene Summary

Gene:ARID5B; AT rich interactive domain 5B (MRF1-like)
Aliases: MRF2, DESRT, MRF-2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the AT-rich interaction domain (ARID) family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein forms a histone H3K9Me2 demethylase complex with PHD finger protein 2 and regulates the transcription of target genes involved in adipogenesis and liver development. This gene also plays a role in cell growth and differentiation of B-lymphocyte progenitors, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 5B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)

Cancer Overview

Large-scale genome-wide association studies have implicated 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [rs7073837, rs10821936, rs10994982, rs7089424, and rs10740055] in the ARID5B gene as being associated with the increased risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Newborns
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Alleles
  • KMT2A
  • Genomics
  • ARID5B
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Gene Expression
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Incidence
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genotype
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Chromosome 10
  • Adolescents
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Haplotypes
  • Logistic Models
  • Young Adult
  • Ikaros Transcription Factor
  • Transcription Factors
  • Genetic Variation
  • Odds Ratio
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Chromosome 7
  • Infant
  • Chromosome 14
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Translocation
  • Genetic Predisposition
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), childSNP rs10821936 and increased risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblasic Leukemia
SNP rs10821936 of the ARID5B gene is associated with a modestly increased risk of childhood ALL. This was confirmed in a meta analysis of 39,116 subjects from 13 studies (Guo et al, 2014) (P < 0.0001, OR = 1.27, 95 %CI, 1.17-1.37)
View Publications12
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), childSNP rs10994982 and increased risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblasic Leukemia View Publications6
Endometrial CancerARID5B mutations in Endometrial Carcinoma
In an array- and sequencing-based analysis of 373 endometrial carcinomas Laird et al (2013 mutations in ARID5B. Also, from endometrial cancers in the ICGC and COSMIC databases (accessed 07/02/14) 13% and 12% had mutations in ARID5B respectfully.
View Publications1

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ARID5B (cancer-related)

Milanovich S, Peterson J, Allred J, et al.
Sall4 overexpression blocks murine hematopoiesis in a dose-dependent manner.
Exp Hematol. 2015; 43(1):53-64.e1-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) is a transcription factor that exists in two splice isoforms, SALL4a and SALL4b, and regulates transcription in embryonic stem cells, hematopoiesis, and acute myeloid leukemia. Constitutive overexpression of SALL4 in mice induces acute myeloid leukemia. Interestingly, a potential benefit of using SALL4 to facilitate ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell expansion has been proposed. However, distinct roles for how SALL4 contributes to normal versus malignant processes remain undefined. Here we show that SALL4b is the predominant isoform in murine hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. Overexpression of either SALL4 isoform in hematopoietic stem cells or progenitors impairs hematopoietic colony formation and expansion in vitro. Lineage-negative bone marrow overexpressing SALL4b fails to engraft and reconstitute hematopoiesis when transplanted. We found that both SALL4a and SALL4b overexpression impair hematopoiesis, in part through dose-dependent repression of BMI1. Additionally, we have identified the following potential novel SALL4 target genes in hematopoiesis: ARID5B (SALL4a and SALL4b), EZH2, and KLF2 (SALL4a). Lastly, we found that SALL4 expression is variable in acute myeloid leukemia, ranging from no expression to levels comparable to embryonic stem cells. These results show that SALL4 isoforms contribute to only a subset of acute myeloid leukemia and that overexpression of SALL4 isoforms impairs hematopoiesis through repression of BMI1. Together these data demonstrate the sensitivity of hematopoiesis to appropriately balanced SALL4 expression, highlighting the importance of regulating this dynamic in potential therapeutic applications such as ex vivo stem cell expansion.

Walsh KM, de Smith AJ, Welch TC, et al.
Genomic ancestry and somatic alterations correlate with age at diagnosis in Hispanic children with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Am J Hematol. 2014; 89(7):721-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Hispanic children have a higher incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) than non-Hispanic whites but tend to be diagnosed at older ages. In genome-wide association studies, Native American ancestry and polymorphisms in six genes have been associated with ALL risk. In multivariable regression models, we investigated whether genomic ancestry, inherited risk SNPs, or acquired somatic alterations were associated with differences in age at diagnosis in Hispanic children with B-cell ALL. Genome-wide array data were used to estimate each participant's percent membership in the three Hispanic ancestral populations: Native American, African, and European. Each 20% increase in European ancestry was associated with a six month younger age at diagnosis (95% CI = 0.36-11.6 months, P = 0.037). Correspondingly, each 20% increase in Native American ancestry was associated with a six-month older age at diagnosis (P = 0.037). Both the TEL-AML1 translocation and high-hyperdiploidy were associated with younger age at diagnosis (24.4 months, P = 2.0 x 10(-4) and 12.4 months, P = 0.011, respectively), while CDKN2A and IKZF1 deletions were associated with older age at diagnosis (19.7 months, P = 7.0 x 10(-4) and 18.1 months, P = 0.012, respectively). No associations with age at diagnosis were observed for RAS mutation, PAX5 deletion or for known heritable risk alleles in IKZF1, CDKN2A, PIP4K2A, GATA3, ARID5B, or CEBPE. Because younger age at diagnosis is associated with improved treatment outcomes for children with ALL, the effect of European ancestry on ALL survival may be mediated by its effect on age at diagnosis, or by proxy, its association with more treatable molecular subtypes of ALL.

Csordas K, Lautner-Csorba O, Semsei AF, et al.
Associations of novel genetic variations in the folate-related and ARID5B genes with the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of high-dose methotrexate in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 166(3):410-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) plays an important role in the consolidation therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in many treatment regimens worldwide. However, there is a large interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of the drug. We investigated the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the folate metabolic pathway, transporter molecules and transcription proteins on the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of MTX and 7-hydroxy-methotrexate (7-OH-MTX). 63 SNPs of 14 genes were genotyped and a total of 463 HD-MTX courses (administered according to the ALL-BFM 95 and ALL IC-BFM 2002 protocols) were analysed. Haematological, hepatic and renal toxicities, estimated by routine laboratory parameters were evaluated. Random forest and regression trees were used for variable selection and model building. Linear mixed models were established to prove the significance of the selected variables. SNPs (rs4948502, rs4948496, rs4948487) of the ARID5B gene were associated with the serum levels of MTX (P < 0·02), serum levels and area under the curve of 7-OH-MTX (P < 0·02) and with hypoproteinaemia (P = 0·004). SLCO1B1 rs4149056 also showed a significant association with serum MTX levels (P < 0·001). Our findings confirm the association of novel genetic variations in folate-related and ARID5B genes with the serum MTX levels and acute toxicity.

Zhang J, Park HS, Kim JA, et al.
Flavonoids identified from Korean Scutellaria baicalensis induce apoptosis by ROS generation and caspase activation on human fibrosarcoma cells.
Am J Chin Med. 2014; 42(2):465-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
The effects of flavonoids from Korean Scutellaria baicalensis on fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells and their underlying molecular mechanism were investigated in this study. Flavonoids affected HT1080 cell proliferation by interrupting cell cycle progress, obviously augmenting the proportion of sub-G1 and diminishing that of G1 phase, and undergoing apoptosis at the tested dosage (100-400 μg/mL). In addition, the mediated apoptosis was mainly caused by total reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and by up-regulating the ratio of Bax/Bcl-xL, triggering caspase cascades (caspase-3, -9 and -8), and inactivating PARP, dose-dependently. The proteomics results showed that AP-4, ARID 5B, HNRNP K, PLOG, Prdx6, and myosin-1, associated with cell growth, differentiation and development, and overexpressed in gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, etc., were statistically down-regulated after the flavonoids treatment. Taken together, our data demonstrated that flavonoids from Korean S. baicalensis induced apoptosis in HT1080 cells, which involved a hierarchy of cellular pathways and multiple signal proteins, and might be a potential anticancer therapeutic agent.

Emerenciano M, Barbosa TC, Lopes BA, et al.
ARID5B polymorphism confers an increased risk to acquire specific MLL rearrangements in early childhood leukemia.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:127 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute leukemia in early age (EAL) is characterized by acquired genetic alterations such as MLL rearrangements (MLL-r). The aim of this case-controlled study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IKZF1, ARID5B, and CEBPE could be related to the onset of EAL cases (<24 months-old at diagnosis).
METHODS: The SNPs (IKZF1 rs11978267, ARID5B rs10821936 and rs10994982, CEBPE rs2239633) were genotyped in 265 cases [169 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 96 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)] and 505 controls by Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between SNPs of cases and controls, adjusted on skin color and/or age. The risk was determined by calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS: Children with the IKZF1 SNP had an increased risk of developing MLL-germline ALL in white children. The heterozygous/mutant genotype in ARID5B rs10994982 significantly increased the risk for MLL-germline leukemia in white and non-white children (OR 2.60, 95% CI: 1.09-6.18 and OR 3.55, 95% CI: 1.57-8.68, respectively). The heterozygous genotype in ARID5B rs10821936 increased the risk for MLL-r leukemia in both white and non-white (OR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.12-3.79 and OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.09-5.10, respectively). Furthermore, ARID5B rs10821936 conferred increased risk for MLL-MLLT3 positive cases (OR 7.10, 95% CI:1.54-32.68). Our data do not show evidence that CEBPE rs2239633 confers increased genetic susceptibility to EAL.
CONCLUSIONS: IKZF1 and CEBPE variants seem to play a minor role in genetic susceptibility to EAL, while ARID5B rs10821936 increased the risk of MLL-MLLT3. This result shows that genetic susceptibility could be associated with the differences regarding MLL breakpoints and partner genes.

Burmeister T, Bartels G, Gröger D, et al.
Germline variants in IKZF1, ARID5B, and CEBPE as risk factors for adult-onset acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an analysis from the GMALL study group.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(2):e23-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications

Lim B, Park JL, Kim HJ, et al.
Integrative genomics analysis reveals the multilevel dysregulation and oncogenic characteristics of TEAD4 in gastric cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(5):1020-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumorigenesis is a consequence of failures of multistep defense mechanisms against deleterious perturbations that occur at the genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic and proteomic levels. To uncover previously unrecognized genes that undergo multilevel perturbations in gastric cancer (GC), we integrated epigenomic and transcriptomic approaches using two recently developed tools: MENT and GENT. This integrative analysis revealed that nine Hippo pathway-related genes, including components [FAT, JUB, LATS2, TEA domain family member 4 (TEAD4) and Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1)] and targets (CRIM1, CYR61, CTGF and ITGB2), are concurrently hypomethylated at promoter CpG sites and overexpressed in GC tissues. In particular, TEAD4, a link between Hippo pathway components and targets, was significantly hypomethylated at CpG site cg21637033 (P = 3.8 × 10(-) (20)) and overexpressed (P = 5.2 × 10(-) (10)) in 108 Korean GC tissues compared with the normal counterparts. A reduced level of methylation at the TEAD4 promoter was significantly associated with poor outcomes, including large tumor size, high-grade tumors and low survival rates. Compared with normal tissues, the TEAD4 protein was more frequently found in the nuclei of tumor cells along with YAP1 in 53 GC patients, demonstrating the posttranslational activation of this protein. Moreover, the knockdown of TEAD4 resulted in the reduced growth of GC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and microarray analysis revealed the oncogenic properties of TEAD4 and its novel targets (ADM, ANG, ARID5B, CALD1, EDN2, FSCN1 and OSR2), which are involved in cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, the multilevel perturbations of TEAD4 at epigenetic, transcriptional and posttranslational levels may contribute to GC development.

Lin CY, Li MJ, Chang JG, et al.
High-resolution melting analyses for genetic variants in ARID5B and IKZF1 with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia susceptibility loci in Taiwan.
Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2014 Feb-Mar; 52(2-3):140-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a heterogeneous disease that includes multiple subtypes is defined by cell lineage and chromosome anomalies. Previous genome-wide association studies have reported several ARID5B and IKZF1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the incidence of ALL. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid and convenient technique to detect SNPs; we thereby detected SNPs in ARID5B and IKZF1 genes.
METHODS: We enrolled 79 pediatric ALL patients and 80 healthy controls. Polymorphic variants of IKZF1 (rs6964823, rs4132601, and rs6944602) and ARID5B (rs7073837, rs10740055, and rs7089424) were detected by HRM, and SNPs were analyzed for association with childhood ALL.
RESULTS: The distribution of genotype rs7073837 in ARID5B significantly differed between ALL and controls (P=0.046), while those of IKZF1 (rs6964823, rs4132601, and rs6944602) and ARID5B (rs10740055 and rs7089424) did not. We analyzed the association for SNPs with B lineage ALL to find rs7073837 in ARID5B, conferring a higher risk for B lineage ALL (odds ratio, OR=1.70, 95% confidence interval, CI=1.01-2.87, P=0.049).
CONCLUSION: HRM is a practical method to detect SNPs in ARID5B and IKZF1 genes. We found that rs7073837 in ARID5B correlated with a risk for childhood B lineage ALL.

Gutiérrez-Camino Á, López-López E, Martín-Guerrero I, et al.
Intron 3 of the ARID5B gene: a hot spot for acute lymphoblastic leukemia susceptibility.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013; 139(11):1879-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AT-rich interactive domain 5B (ARID5B) have been associated with risk for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). After reviewing previous studies, we realized that the most significant associations were restricted to intron 3, but the mechanism(s) by which those SNPs affect ALL risk remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between genetic variants of the intron 3 region of ARID5B and the incidence of B-ALL in a Spanish population. We also aimed to find a functional explanation for the association, searching for copy number variations (CNVs), and changes in ARID5B expression associated with the genotypes of the SNPs.
METHODS: We analyzed 10 SNPs in intron 3 of ARID5B in a Spanish population of 219 B-ALL patients and 397 unrelated controls with the Taqman Open Array platform. CNVs were analyzed in 23 patients and 17 controls using the Cytogenetics Whole-genome 2.7 M platform. Expression of ARID5B transcript 1 was quantified by qPCR and related to SNPs genotype in seven ALL cell lines.
RESULTS: Association between intron 3 and B-ALL risk was confirmed for all of the SNPs evaluated in our Spanish population. We could not explain this association by the presence of CNVs. We neither detected changes in the expression of ARID5B isoform associated with the genotype of the SNPs.
CONCLUSIONS: The intron 3 of ARID5B gene was found to be strongly associated with B-ALL risk in the Spanish population examined. However, neither CNVs nor changes in mRNA expression were found to be responsible for this association.

Guo LM, Xi JS, Ma Y, et al.
ARID5B gene rs10821936 polymorphism is associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a meta-analysis based on 39,116 subjects.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(1):709-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among children. Two recent genome-wide association studies and several replicated studies have provided convincing evidence that inherited genetic variation in ARID5B contributes to childhood ALL predisposition. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis to systematically summarize the association between ARID5B genetic polymorphism and the risk for ALL. We conducted a search of case-control studies on the association of ARID5B genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility to ALL in PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang database in China, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Data from eligible studies were extracted for meta-analysis. ALL risk associated with ARID5B genetic polymorphism was estimated by pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Nine articles including 13 case-control studies were included in the present meta-analysis. We found that rs10821936 polymorphism in ARID5B gene was associated with increased risk for ALL (P < 0.0001; OR = 1.27; 95%CI, 1.17-1.37). This meta-analysis suggests that ARID5B genetic polymorphism was associated with the increased risk of ALL.

Chokkalingam AP, Hsu LI, Metayer C, et al.
Genetic variants in ARID5B and CEBPE are childhood ALL susceptibility loci in Hispanics.
Cancer Causes Control. 2013; 24(10):1789-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Recent genome-wide studies conducted in European Whites have identified novel susceptibility genes for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We sought to examine whether these loci are susceptibility genes among Hispanics, whose reported incidence of childhood ALL is the highest of all ethnic groups in California, and whether their effects differ between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). We genotyped 13 variants in these genes among 706 Hispanic (300 cases, 406 controls) and 594 NHW (225 cases, 369 controls) participants in a matched population-based case-control study in California. We found significant associations for the five studied ARID5B variants in both Hispanics (p values of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 0.004) and NHWs (p values of 2.2 × 10(-6) to 0.018). Risk estimates were in the same direction in both groups (ORs of 1.53-1.99 and 1.37-1.84, respectively) and strengthened when restricted to B-cell precursor high-hyperdiploid ALL (>50 chromosomes; ORs of 2.21-3.22 and 1.67-2.71, respectively). Similar results were observed for the single CEBPE variant. Hispanics and NHWs exhibited different susceptibility loci at CDKN2A. Although IKZF1 loci showed significant susceptibility effects among NHWs (p < 1 × 10(-5)), their effects among Hispanics were in the same direction but nonsignificant, despite similar minor allele frequencies. Future studies should examine whether the observed effects vary by environmental, immunological, or lifestyle factors.

Linabery AM, Blommer CN, Spector LG, et al.
ARID5B and IKZF1 variants, selected demographic factors, and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
Leuk Res. 2013; 37(8):936-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Interactions between common germline variants in ARID5B and IKZF1 and other known childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk factors were queried using biospecimens and data from 770 ALL cases and 384 controls. Case-control comparisons revealed dose-dependent associations between ARID5B rs10821936, ARID5B rs10994982, and IKZF1 rs11978267 and childhood ALL overall, and B lineage and B lineage hyperdiploid ALL examined separately (all allelic odds ratios ≥1.33, Ptrend≤0.001). No heterogeneity was observed between ORs for males and females (all Pinteraction≥0.48). Likewise, no significant genotype-birth weight interactions were detected (all Pinteraction≥0.12) among cases. These results indicate similar ALL risk across strata of known risk factors.

Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma.
Nature. 2013; 497(7447):67-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumours and ∼25% of high-grade endometrioid tumours had extensive copy number alterations, few DNA methylation changes, low oestrogen receptor/progesterone receptor levels, and frequent TP53 mutations. Most endometrioid tumours had few copy number alterations or TP53 mutations, but frequent mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1, PIK3CA, ARID1A and KRAS and novel mutations in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex gene ARID5B. A subset of endometrioid tumours that we identified had a markedly increased transversion mutation frequency and newly identified hotspot mutations in POLE. Our results classified endometrial cancers into four categories: POLE ultramutated, microsatellite instability hypermutated, copy-number low, and copy-number high. Uterine serous carcinomas share genomic features with ovarian serous and basal-like breast carcinomas. We demonstrated that the genomic features of endometrial carcinomas permit a reclassification that may affect post-surgical adjuvant treatment for women with aggressive tumours.

Wang Y, Chen J, Li J, et al.
Association of three polymorphisms in ARID5B, IKZF1 and CEBPE with the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a Chinese population.
Gene. 2013; 524(2):203-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that focus on childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common malignancy in children younger than 15 years old, have found evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IKZF1 (7p12.2), ARID5B (10q21.2) and CEBPE (14q11.2) are strongly related to the risk of childhood ALL. These polymorphisms may lead to abnormal expression and dysfunction of the corresponding transcription factors and are likely to increase the risk of ALL. To validate the relationship between these SNPs and the risk of childhood ALL in Chinese population, we conducted a case-control study of 570 ALL cases and 673 controls. We determined that the SNP rs10821936 in ARID5B was statistically significantly associated with the risk of childhood ALL (P<0.0001). The results were also significant for the subgroup analysis of high-risk, medium-risk and low-risk ALL as well as B-lineage ALL. Statistically significant differences were not found in the SNPs for IKZF1 and CEBPE. In conclusion, ARID5B rs10821936 could serve as a potential biomarker for assessing the risk of childhood ALL in Chinese children.

Xu H, Yang W, Perez-Andreu V, et al.
Novel susceptibility variants at 10p12.31-12.2 for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in ethnically diverse populations.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013; 105(10):733-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children and the incidence of ALL varies by ethnicity. Although accumulating evidence indicates inherited predisposition to ALL, the genetic basis of ALL susceptibility in diverse ancestry has not been comprehensively examined.
METHODS: We performed a multiethnic genome-wide association study in 1605 children with ALL and 6661 control subjects after adjusting for population structure, with validation in three replication series of 845 case subjects and 4316 control subjects. Association was tested by two-sided logistic regression.
RESULTS: A novel ALL susceptibility locus at 10p12.31-12.2 (BMI1-PIP4K2A, rs7088318, P = 1.1 × 10(-11)) was identified in the genome-wide association study, with independent replication in European Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans (P = .001, .009, and .04, respectively). Association was also validated at four known ALL susceptibility loci: ARID5B, IKZF1, CEBPE, and CDKN2A/2B. Associations at ARID5B, IKZF1, and BMI1-PIP4K2A variants were consistent across ethnicity, with multiple independent signals at IKZF1 and BMI1-PIP4K2A loci. The frequency of ARID5B and BMI1-PIP4K2A variants differed by ethnicity, in parallel with ethnic differences in ALL incidence. Suggestive evidence for modifying effects of age on genetic predisposition to ALL was also observed. ARID5B, IKZF1, CEBPE, and BMI1-PIP4K2A variants cumulatively conferred strong predisposition to ALL, with children carrying six to eight copies of risk alleles at a ninefold (95% confidence interval = 6.9 to 11.8) higher ALL risk relative to those carrying zero to one risk allele at these four single nucleotide polymorphisms.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate strong associations between inherited genetic variation and ALL susceptibility in children and shed new light on ALL molecular etiology in diverse ancestry.

Qian XF, Yang GH, Yin CY, et al.
[Research advances on correlation of ARID5B gene with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia - review].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2012; 20(5):1280-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (C-ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer. Although its etiology remains poorly understood, the hypothesis of ALL correlated with a genetic basis was examined through association studies based on candidate genes. Recently, two independent large-scale genome-wide association studies reported that the five single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs7073837; rs10821936; rs10994982; rs7089424; rs10740055) in the gene AT rich interactive domain 5B (ARID5B) at 10q21.2, were associated with the high incidence risk of C-ALL, especially with hyperdiploid lymphoblastic leukemia. Variations in these single nucleotide polymorphisms influence the risk of specific disease subtypes, and also possess race- and sex-differences in leukemia incidence. Further elucidation of the mechanisms through which ARID5B variants are involved in C-ALL not only has a great diagnostic value, but also a guidance for the clinical therapy, ultimately improving the prognosis of disease. Therefore, the related studies of ARID5B with C-ALL were summarized briefly in this review.

Lautner-Csorba O, Gézsi A, Semsei AF, et al.
Candidate gene association study in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia evaluated by Bayesian network based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance.
BMC Med Genomics. 2012; 5:42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We carried out a candidate gene association study in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to identify possible genetic risk factors in a Hungarian population.
METHODS: The results were evaluated with traditional statistical methods and with our newly developed Bayesian network based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA) method. We collected genomic DNA and clinical data from 543 children, who underwent chemotherapy due to ALL, and 529 healthy controls. Altogether 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 candidate genes were genotyped.
RESULTS: With logistic regression, we identified 6 SNPs in the ARID5B and IKZF1 genes associated with increased risk to B-cell ALL, and two SNPs in the STAT3 gene, which decreased the risk to hyperdiploid ALL. Because the associated SNPs were in linkage in each gene, these associations corresponded to one signal per gene. The odds ratio (OR) associated with the tag SNPs were: OR = 1.69, P = 2.22x10(-7) for rs4132601 (IKZF1), OR = 1.53, P = 1.95x10(-5) for rs10821936 (ARID5B) and OR = 0.64, P = 2.32x10(-4) for rs12949918 (STAT3). With the BN-BMLA we confirmed the findings of the frequentist-based method and received additional information about the nature of the relations between the SNPs and the disease. E.g. the rs10821936 in ARID5B and rs17405722 in STAT3 showed a weak interaction, and in case of T-cell lineage sample group, the gender showed a weak interaction with three SNPs in three genes. In the hyperdiploid patient group the BN-BMLA detected a strong interaction among SNPs in the NOTCH1, STAT1, STAT3 and BCL2 genes. Evaluating the survival rate of the patients with ALL, the BN-BMLA showed that besides risk groups and subtypes, genetic variations in the BAX and CEBPA genes might also influence the probability of survival of the patients.
CONCLUSIONS: In the present study we confirmed the roles of genetic variations in ARID5B and IKZF1 in the susceptibility to B-cell ALL. With the newly developed BN-BMLA method several gene-gene, gene-phenotype and phenotype-phenotype connections were revealed. We showed several advantageous features of the new method, and suggested that in gene association studies the BN-BMLA might be a useful supplementary to the traditional frequentist-based statistical method.

Peyrouze P, Guihard S, Grardel N, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in ARID5B, CEBPE, IKZF1 and CDKN2A in relation with risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in adults: a Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (GRAALL) study.
Br J Haematol. 2012; 159(5):599-602 [PubMed] Related Publications

Rudant J, Orsi L, Bonaventure A, et al.
Are ARID5B and IKZF1 polymorphisms also associated with childhood acute myeloblastic leukemia: the ESCALE study (SFCE)?
Leukemia. 2013; 27(3):746-8 [PubMed] Related Publications

Ross JA, Linabery AM, Blommer CN, et al.
Genetic variants modify susceptibility to leukemia in infants: a Children's Oncology Group report.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60(1):31-4 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene is commonly rearranged in infant leukemia (IL). Genetic determinants of susceptibility to IL are unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have identified susceptibility loci at IKZF1, ARID5B, and CEBPE.
PROCEDURE: We genotyped these loci in 171 infants with leukemia and 384 controls and evaluated associations overall, by subtype [ALL, acute myeloid leukemia (AML)], and by presence (+) or absence (-) of MLL rearrangements.
RESULTS: Homozygosity for a variant IKZF1 allele (rs11978267) increased risk of infant AML [Odds ratio (OR) = 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-8.4]; the increased risk was similar for AML/MLL+ and MLL- cases. In contrast, risk of ALL/MLL- was increased in infants homozygous for the IKZF1 variant (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.8-14.5) but the variant did not modify risk of ALL/MLL+. For ARID5B (rs10821936), homozygosity for the variant allele increased risk for the ALL/MLL- subgroup only (OR = 7.2, 95% CI = 2.5-20.6). There was little evidence of an association with the CEBP variant (rs2239633).
CONCLUSION: IKZF1 is expressed in early hematopoiesis, including precursor myeloid cells. Our data provide the first evidence that IKZF1 modifies susceptibility to infant AML, irrespective of MLL rearrangements, and could provide important new etiologic insights into this rare and heterogeneous hematopoietic malignancy.

Xu H, Cheng C, Devidas M, et al.
ARID5B genetic polymorphisms contribute to racial disparities in the incidence and treatment outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(7):751-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recent genome-wide screens have identified genetic variations in ARID5B associated with susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We sought to determine the contribution of ARID5B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to racial disparities in ALL susceptibility and treatment outcome.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared the association between ARID5B SNP genotype and ALL susceptibility in whites (> 95% European genetic ancestry; 978 cases and 1,046 controls) versus in Hispanics (> 10% Native American ancestry; 330 cases and 541 controls). We determined the relationships between ARID5B SNP genotype and ALL relapse risk in 1,605 children treated on the Children's Oncology Group (COG) P9904/9905 clinical trials.
RESULTS: Among 49 ARID5B SNPs interrogated, 10 were significantly associated with ALL susceptibility in both whites and Hispanics (P < .05), with risk alleles consistently more frequent in Hispanics than in whites. rs10821936 exhibited the most significant association in both races (P = 8.4 × 10(-20) in whites; P = 1 × 10(-6) in Hispanics), and genotype at this SNP was highly correlated with local Native American genetic ancestry (P = 1.8 × 10(-8)). Multivariate analyses in Hispanics identified an additional SNP associated with ALL susceptibility independent of rs10821936. Eight ARID5B SNPs were associated with both ALL susceptibility and relapse hazard; the alleles related to higher ALL incidence were always linked to poorer treatment outcome and were more frequent in Hispanics.
CONCLUSION: ARID5B polymorphisms are important determinants of childhood ALL susceptibility and treatment outcome, and they contribute to racial disparities in this disease.

Pastorczak A, Górniak P, Sherborne A, et al.
Role of 657del5 NBN mutation and 7p12.2 (IKZF1), 9p21 (CDKN2A), 10q21.2 (ARID5B) and 14q11.2 (CEBPE) variation and risk of childhood ALL in the Polish population.
Leuk Res. 2011; 35(11):1534-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have shown that SNPs mapping to 7p12.2 (IKZF1), 9p21 (CDKN2A), 10q21.2 (ARID5B), and 14q11.2 (CEBPE) and carrier status for recessively inherited Nijmegen Breakage syndrome (NBS) influence childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk. To examine these relationship, we analysed 398 ALL cases and 731 controls from Poland. Statistically significant association between genotype at 7p12.2 (IKZF1), 10q21.2 (ARID5B) and the NBS associated locus, 8q21.3 (NBN) and ALL risk was found; odds ratios (ORs), 1.34 (P=0.002), 1.33 (P=0.003), and 1325.21 (P=0.0028), respectively. These data provide further insights into the biological basis of ALL highlighting the existence of both common and rare disease susceptibility variants.

Paulsson K, Forestier E, Lilljebjörn H, et al.
Genetic landscape of high hyperdiploid childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010; 107(50):21719-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
High hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common malignancies in children. It is characterized by gain of chromosomes, typically +X, +4, +6, +10, +14, +17, +18, and +21,+21; little is known about additional genetic aberrations. Approximately 20% of the patients relapse; therefore it is clinically important to identify risk-stratifying markers. We used SNP array analysis to investigate a consecutive series of 74 cases of high hyperdiploid ALL. We show that the characteristic chromosomal gains are even more frequent than previously believed, indicating that karyotyping mistakes are common, and that almost 80% of the cases display additional abnormalities detectable by SNP array analysis. Subclonality analysis strongly implied that the numerical aberrations were primary and arose before structural events, suggesting that step-wise evolution of the leukemic clone is common. An association between duplication of 1q and +5 was seen (P = 0.003). Other frequent abnormalities included whole-chromosome uniparental isodisomies (wUPIDs) 9 and 11, gain of 17q not associated with isochromosome formation, extra gain of part of 21q, deletions of ETS variant 6 (ETV6), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CKDN2A) and paired box 5 (PAX5), and PAN3 poly(A) specific ribonuclease subunit homolog (PAN3) microdeletions. Comparison of whole-chromosome and partial UPID9 suggested different pathogenetic outcomes, with the former not involving CDKN2A. Finally, two cases had partial deletions of AT rich interactive domain 5B (ARID5B), indicating that acquired as well as constitutional variants in this locus may be associated with pediatric ALL. Here we provide a comprehensive characterization of the genetic landscape of high hyperdiploid childhood ALL, including the heterogeneous pattern of secondary genetic events.

Mullighan CG
Genetic variation and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2010; 34(10):1269-70 [PubMed] Related Publications

Healy J, Richer C, Bourgey M, et al.
Replication analysis confirms the association of ARID5B with childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2010; 95(9):1608-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Although childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, its etiology remains poorly understood. In an attempt to replicate the findings of 2 recent genome-wide association studies in a French-Canadian cohort, we confirmed the association of 5 SNPs [rs7073837 (P=4.2 x 10(-4)), rs10994982 (P=3.8 x 10(-4)), rs10740055 (P=1.6 x 10(-5)), rs10821936 (P=1.7 x 10(-7)) and rs7089424 (P=3.6 x 10(-7))] in the ARID5B gene with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We also confirmed a selective effect for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with hyperdiploidy and report a putative gender-specific effect of ARID5B SNPs on acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk in males. This study provides a strong rationale for more detailed analysis to identify the causal variants at this locus and to better understand the overall functional contribution of ARID5B to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia susceptibility.

Han S, Lee KM, Park SK, et al.
Genome-wide association study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Korea.
Leuk Res. 2010; 34(10):1271-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
We conducted a genome-wide association study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in a case-control study conducted in Korea. Incident childhood ALL cases (n=50) and non-cancer controls (n=50) frequency-matched to cases by age and sex, recruited from three teaching hospitals in Seoul between 2003 and 2008, were genotyped using Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 platform. ALL risks were estimated as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age and birth weight. The false discovery rate (FDR) was used for adjusting multiple tests. Of these 1 million SNPs, six SNPs in 4 genes (HAO1 rs6140264, EPB41L2 rs9388856, rs9388857, rs1360756, C2orf3 12105972, MAN2A1 rs3776932) were strongly associated with childhood ALL risk (P(dominant)

Yang W, Treviño LR, Yang JJ, et al.
ARID5B SNP rs10821936 is associated with risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in blacks and contributes to racial differences in leukemia incidence.
Leukemia. 2010; 24(4):894-6 [PubMed] Related Publications

Prasad RB, Hosking FJ, Vijayakrishnan J, et al.
Verification of the susceptibility loci on 7p12.2, 10q21.2, and 14q11.2 in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia of childhood.
Blood. 2010; 115(9):1765-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent genome-wide association data have implicated genetic variation at 7p12.2 (IKZF1), 10q21.2 (ARIDB5), and 14q11.2 (CEBPE) in the etiology of B-cell childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To verify and further examine the relationship between these variants and ALL risk, we genotyped 1384 cases of precursor B-cell childhood ALL and 1877 controls from Germany and the United Kingdom. The combined data provided statistically significant support for an association between genotype at each of these loci and ALL risk; odds ratios (OR), 1.69 (P = 7.51 x10(-22)), 1.80 (P = 5.90 x 10(-28)), and 1.27 (P = 4.90 x 10(-6)), respectively. Furthermore, the risk of ALL increases with an increasing numbers of variant alleles for the 3 loci (OR(per-allele) = 1.53, 95% confidence interval, 1.44-1.62; P(trend) = 3.49 x 10(-42)), consistent with a polygenic model of disease susceptibility. These data provide unambiguous evidence for the role of these variants in defining ALL risk underscoring approximately 64% of cases.

Levine RL
Inherited susceptibility to pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Nat Genet. 2009; 41(9):957-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although genome-wide analyses have identified somatic alterations contributing to the pathogenesis of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), few studies have identified germline variants conferring risk of this disease. Two reports now provide the first genome-wide glimpse into the role of inherited alleles in ALL pathogenesis.

Papaemmanuil E, Hosking FJ, Vijayakrishnan J, et al.
Loci on 7p12.2, 10q21.2 and 14q11.2 are associated with risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Nat Genet. 2009; 41(9):1006-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
To identify risk variants for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we conducted a genome-wide association study of two case-control series, analyzing the genotypes with respect to 291,423 tagging SNPs in a total of 907 ALL cases and 2,398 controls. We identified risk loci for ALL at 7p12.2 (IKZF1, rs4132601, odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, P = 1.20 x 10(-19)), 10q21.2 (ARID5B, rs7089424, OR = 1.65, P = 6.69 x 10(-19)) and 14q11.2 (CEBPE, rs2239633, OR = 1.34, P = 2.88 x 10(-7)). The 10q21.2 (ARID5B) risk association appears to be selective for the subset of B-cell precursor ALL with hyperdiploidy. These data show that common low-penetrance susceptibility alleles contribute to the risk of developing childhood ALL and provide new insight into disease causation of this specific hematological cancer. Notably, all three risk variants map to genes involved in transcriptional regulation and differentiation of B-cell progenitors.

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