Gene Summary

Gene:HLA-B; major histocompatibility complex, class I, B
Aliases: AS, HLAB, B-4901
Summary:HLA-B belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. Class I molecules play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. They are expressed in nearly all cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exon 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. Polymorphisms within exon 2 and exon 3 are responsible for the peptide binding specificity of each class one molecule. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. Hundreds of HLA-B alleles have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:major histocompatibility complex, class I, B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HLA-B (cancer-related)

Klein S, Mauch C, Wagener-Ryczek S, et al.
Immune-phenotyping of pleomorphic dermal sarcomas suggests this entity as a potential candidate for immunotherapy.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(6):973-982 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic dermal sarcomas (PDS) are sarcomas of the skin with local recurrences in up to 28% of cases, and distant metastases in up to 20%. Although recent evidence provides a strong rational to explore immunotherapeutics in solid tumors, nothing is known about the immune environment of PDS.
METHODS: In the current study, a comprehensive immune-phenotyping of 14 PDS using RNA and protein expression analyses, as well as quantitative assessment of immune cells using an image-analysis tool was performed.
RESULTS: Three out of 14 PDS revealed high levels of CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes (TILs), also showing elevated levels of immune-related cytokines such as IL1A, IL2, as well as markers that were very recently linked to enhanced response of immunotherapy in malignant melanoma, including CD27, and CD40L. Using a multivariate analysis, we found a number of differentially expressed genes in the CD8-high group including: CD74, LYZ and HLA-B, while the remaining cases revealed enhanced levels of immune-suppressive cytokines including CXCL14. The "CD8-high" PDS showed strong MHC-I expression and revealed infiltration by PD-L1-, PD-1- and LAG-3-expressing immune cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) predominantly consisted of CD68 + , CD163 + , and CD204 + M2 macrophages showing an accentuation at the tumor invasion front.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, we provide first explorative evidence about the immune-environment of PDS tumors that may guide future decisions whether individuals presenting with advanced PDS could qualify for immunotherapeutic options.

Poźniak J, Nsengimana J, Laye JP, et al.
Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Immune Response to Cutaneous Melanoma.
Cancer Res. 2019; 79(10):2684-2696 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/11/2019 Related Publications
The immune response to melanoma improves the survival in untreated patients and predicts the response to immune checkpoint blockade. Here, we report genetic and environmental predictors of the immune response in a large primary cutaneous melanoma cohort. Bioinformatic analysis of 703 tumor transcriptomes was used to infer immune cell infiltration and to categorize tumors into immune subgroups, which were then investigated for association with biological pathways, clinicopathologic factors, and copy number alterations. Three subgroups, with "low", "intermediate", and "high" immune signals, were identified in primary tumors and replicated in metastatic tumors. Genes in the low subgroup were enriched for cell-cycle and metabolic pathways, whereas genes in the high subgroup were enriched for IFN and NF-κB signaling. We identified high MYC expression partially driven by amplification, HLA-B downregulation, and deletion of IFNγ and NF-κB pathway genes as the regulators of immune suppression. Furthermore, we showed that cigarette smoking, a globally detrimental environmental factor, modulates immunity, reducing the survival primarily in patients with a strong immune response. Together, these analyses identify a set of factors that can be easily assessed that may serve as predictors of response to immunotherapy in patients with melanoma. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify novel genetic and environmental modulators of the immune response against primary cutaneous melanoma and predict their impact on patient survival.

Johnson JK, Wright PW, Li H, Anderson SK
Identification of trophoblast-specific elements in the HLA-C core promoter.
HLA. 2018; 92(5):288-297 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
There are several aspects of HLA-C gene expression that distinguish it from the HLA-A and HLA-B genes. First, HLA-C is expressed by extravillous trophoblasts, whereas HLA-A and HLA-B are not. Second, its cell-surface expression is much lower, which has been linked to changes in transcription and efficiency of peptide loading and export. Third, HLA-C possesses a NK cell-specific promoter and a complex alternative splicing system that regulates expression during NK cell development. In this study, we investigate the contribution of the HLA-C core promoter to trophoblast-specific expression. Analysis of transcription start sites showed the presence of a trophoblast-associated start site and additional upstream TATA and CCAAT-box elements in the HLA-C promoter, suggesting the presence of an overlapping trophoblast-specific promoter. A comparison of in vitro promoter activity showed that the HLA-C promoter was more active in trophoblast cell lines than either the HLA-A or HLA-B promoters. Enhanced trophoblast activity was mapped to the central enhanceosome region of the promoter, and mutational analysis identified changes in the RFX-binding region that generated a trophoblast-specific enhancer.

Ferreiro-Iglesias A, Lesseur C, McKay J, et al.
Fine mapping of MHC region in lung cancer highlights independent susceptibility loci by ethnicity.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3927 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Lung cancer has several genetic associations identified within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); although the basis for these associations remains elusive. Here, we analyze MHC genetic variation among 26,044 lung cancer patients and 20,836 controls densely genotyped across the MHC, using the Illumina Illumina OncoArray or Illumina 660W SNP microarray. We impute sequence variation in classical HLA genes, fine-map MHC associations for lung cancer risk with major histologies and compare results between ethnicities. Independent and novel associations within HLA genes are identified in Europeans including amino acids in the HLA-B*0801 peptide binding groove and an independent HLA-DQB1*06 loci group. In Asians, associations are driven by two independent HLA allele sets that both increase risk in HLA-DQB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0701; the latter better represented by the amino acid Ala-104. These results implicate several HLA-tumor peptide interactions as the major MHC factor modulating lung cancer susceptibility.

Planelles D, Balas A, Caro JL, et al.
HLA-B*56:55:01:02, -C*03:374 and -DPB1*13:01:03 characterized by next-generation sequencing.
HLA. 2018; 92(6):419-420 [PubMed] Related Publications
The new HLA alleles HLA-B*56:55:01:02, -C*03:374 and -DPB1*13:01:03 were characterized by NGS methodology.

Königova N, Skoumalova I, Onderkova J, et al.
HLA-B gene somatic insertion/deletion mutations in patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia.
Int J Immunogenet. 2018; 45(6):323-328 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of heterozygosity is considered to be the most common type of tumour-specific somatic mutation of the human leucocyte antigens (HLA) genes in patients with haematological malignancies. Nevertheless, subtle DNA sequence changes, namely short insertions/deletions, may also abolish the expression of HLA molecules and interfere with routine HLA typing. Two male patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) were indicated for the search of a suitable donor for allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). The patients and their relatives were initially HLA typed by serological and DNA techniques at a low-resolution level. The HLA high-resolution (HR) type was obtained by means of sequencing-based typing (SBT). In both cases, anomalous frameshifts in the sequence were observed in the HLA-B gene, namely in exon 3 (Case 1, heterozygous deletion of two bases) and exon 4 (Case 2, heterozygous insertion of two bases). In the second case, the insertion variant was associated with a loss of HLA-B8 expression. To reveal whether these sequence patterns may be caused by somatic mutations in the malignant cells, blood sample in remission (Case 1) and buccal swab sample (Case 2) were collected from the patients. In an important manner, the SBT in these germline samples revealed common HLA-B*07:02,*15:01 (Case 1) and HLA-B*08:01,*35:02 (Case 2) types with no evidence for the sequence alteration observed in the initial samples. In conclusion, the insertion/deletion sequence variants of the HLA-B gene in two patients were limited to the initial blood samples with a substantial proportion of AML cells and thus may be attributed to the somatic mutation in the malignant cells. HLA somatic mutations should be taken into account in patients with haematological malignancies to prevent HLA mistyping and inappropriate selection of an aHSCT donor.

Farmanbar A, Firouzi S, Makałowski W, et al.
Mutational Intratumor Heterogeneity is a Complex and Early Event in the Development of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(9):883-893 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The clonal architecture of tumors plays a vital role in their pathogenesis and invasiveness; however, it is not yet clear how this clonality contributes to different malignancies. In this study we sought to address mutational intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). ATL is a malignancy with an incompletely understood molecular pathogenesis caused by infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1). To determine the clonal structure through tumor genetic diversity profiles, we investigated 142 whole-exome sequencing data of tumor and matched normal samples from 71 ATL patients. Based on SciClone analysis, the ATL samples showed a wide spectrum of modes over clonal/subclonal frequencies ranging from one to nine clusters. The average number of clusters was six across samples, but the number of clusters differed among different samples. Of these ATL samples, 94% had more than two clusters. Aggressive ATL cases had slightly more clonal clusters than indolent types, indicating the presence of ITH during earlier stages of disease. The known significantly mutated genes in ATL were frequently clustered together and possibly coexisted in the same clone. IRF4, CCR4, TP53, and PLCG1 mutations were almost clustered in subclones with a moderate variant allele frequency (VAF), whereas HLA-B, CARD11, and NOTCH1 mutations were clustered in subclones with lower VAFs. Taken together, these results show that ATL displays a high degree of ITH and a complex subclonal structure. Our findings suggest that clonal/subclonal architecture might be a useful measure for prognostic purposes and personalized assessment of the therapeutic response.

Mari L, Hoefnagel SJM, Zito D, et al.
microRNA 125a Regulates MHC-I Expression on Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells, Associated With Suppression of Antitumor Immune Response and Poor Outcomes of Patients.
Gastroenterology. 2018; 155(3):784-798 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immune checkpoint inhibition may affect growth or progression of highly aggressive cancers, such as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We investigated the regulation of expression of major histocompatibility complex, class 1 (MHC-I) proteins (encoded by HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) and the immune response to EACs in patient samples.
METHODS: We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction array analyses of OE33 cells and OE19 cells, which express different levels of the ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (TAP1) and TAP2, required for antigen presentation by MHC-I, to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate their expression. We performed luciferase assays to validate interactions between miRNAs and potential targets. We overexpressed candidate miRNAs in OE33, FLO-1, and OACP4 C cell lines and performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, and flow cytometry analyses to identify changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression; we studied the effects of cytotoxic T cells. We performed miRNA in situ hybridization, RNA-sequencing, and immunohistochemical analyses of tumor tissues from 51 untreated patients with EAC in the Netherlands. Clinical and survival data were collected for patients, and EAC subtypes were determined.
RESULTS: We found OE19 cells to have increased levels of 7 miRNAs. Of these, we found binding sites for miRNA 125a (MIR125a)-5p in the 3' untranslated region of the TAP2 mRNA and binding sites for MIR148a-3p in 3' untranslated regions of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C mRNAs. Overexpression of these miRNAs reduced expression of TAP2 in OE33, FLO-1, and OACP4 C cells, and reduced cell-surface levels of MHC-I. OE33 cells that expressed the viral peptide BZLF1 were killed by cytotoxic T cells, whereas OE33 that overexpressed MIR125a-5p or MIR 148a along with BZLF1 were not. In EAC and nontumor tissues, levels of MIR125a-5p correlated inversely with levels of TAP2 protein. High expression of TAP1 by EAC correlated with significantly shorter overall survival times of patients. EACs that expressed high levels of TAP1 and genes involved in antigen presentation also expressed high levels of genes that regulate the adaptive immune response, PD-L1, PD-L2, and IDO1; these EACs had a poor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and associated with shorter overall survival times of patients.
CONCLUSIONS: In studies of EAC cell lines and tumor tissues, we found increased levels of MIR125a-5p and MIR148a-3p to reduce levels of TAP2 and MHC-I, required for antigen presentation. High expression of MHC-I molecules by EAC correlated with markers of an adaptive immune response and significantly shorter overall survival times of patients.

Lacher MD, Bauer G, Fury B, et al.
SV-BR-1-GM, a Clinically Effective GM-CSF-Secreting Breast Cancer Cell Line, Expresses an Immune Signature and Directly Activates CD4
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:776 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Targeted cancer immunotherapy with irradiated, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting, allogeneic cancer cell lines has been an effective approach to reduce tumor burden in several patients. It is generally assumed that to be effective, these cell lines need to express immunogenic antigens coexpressed in patient tumor cells, and antigen-presenting cells need to take up such antigens then present them to patient T cells. We have previously reported that, in a phase I pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00095862), a subject with stage IV breast cancer experienced substantial regression of breast, lung, and brain lesions following inoculation with clinical formulations of SV-BR-1-GM, a GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor cell line. To identify diagnostic features permitting the prospective identification of patients likely to benefit from SV-BR-1-GM, we conducted a molecular analysis of the SV-BR-1-GM cell line and of patient-derived blood, as well as a tumor specimen. Compared to normal human breast cells, SV-BR-1-GM cells overexpress genes encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) such as PRAME, a cancer/testis antigen. Curiously, despite its presumptive breast epithelial origin, the cell line expresses major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes (

Wang SS, Carrington M, Berndt SI, et al.
HLA Class I and II Diversity Contributes to the Etiologic Heterogeneity of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(14):4086-4096 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
A growing number of loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been implicated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Here, we test a complementary hypothesis of "heterozygote advantage" regarding the role of HLA and NHL, whereby HLA diversity is beneficial and homozygous HLA loci are associated with increased disease risk. HLA alleles at class I and II loci were imputed from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP2HLA for 3,617 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 2,686 follicular lymphomas (FL), 2,878 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas (CLL/SLL), 741 marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), and 8,753 controls of European descent. Both DLBCL and MZL risk were elevated with homozygosity at class I HLA-B and -C loci (OR DLBCL = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.06-1.60; OR MZL = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.89) and class II HLA-DRB1 locus (OR DLBCL = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24-3.55; OR MZL = 2.10, 95% CI = 0.99-4.45). Increased FL risk was observed with the overall increase in number of homozygous HLA class II loci (

Ureshino H, Shindo T, Kojima H, et al.
Allelic Polymorphisms of
Cancer Immunol Res. 2018; 6(6):745-754 [PubMed] Related Publications
Response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is variable in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and elevated natural killer (NK) cells during TKI therapy are positively correlated with superior outcomes. NK cell function involves interactions of their killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I on target cells, and the avidity of KIR-HLA interactions depends on the combination of

Azimi A, Kaufman KL, Ali M, et al.
Differential proteomic analysis of actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma by label-free LC-MS/MS.
J Dermatol Sci. 2018; 91(1):69-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The boundaries between actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease (BD), and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) are sometimes not clear. Large-scale proteomic profiling studies of these lesions are also non-existent.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate proteomic changes between normal epidermis, AK, BD and cSCC that could support a molecular classification and improve our understanding of disease progression.
METHODS: Microdissected formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples of normal epidermis (n = 4, pooled), AK (n = 10), BD (n = 10) and cSCC (n = 10) were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Following normalization and multiple testing adjustments, differential abundance analysis was performed using Linear Models for Microarray data. Proteins were filtered for significance (adjusted p-value ≤ 0.05) and fold change of at least ±1.5. Comparative bioinformatics analysis was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Proteomic findings were subsequently substantiated using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: 2073 unique proteins were identified. cSCC had the highest number of differentially abundant proteins (63 proteins) followed by BD (58 proteins) and AK (46 proteins). Six proteins (APOA1, ALB, SERPINA1, HLA-B, HP and TXNDC5) were differentially abundant in cSCC compared to AK. Immunohistochemical analysis corroborated changes in MIF, RPL37A and TXNDC5. IPA analysis predicted that cell proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammatory reactions were significantly activated in cSCC compared to BD and AK. Cell death and DNA damage were predicted to be inhibited in BD.
CONCLUSION: Our study supports the concept that AK and BD are precursors of cSCC. The identification of proteome changes indicates disruption of repair, pro-apoptotic, and tumor promoting pathways. Our findings will help select targets for classification and treatment.

Moyer AM, Hashmi SK, Kroning C, et al.
Does matching for SNPs in the MHC gamma block in 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donor-recipient pairs undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant improve outcomes?
Hum Immunol. 2018; 79(7):532-536 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matching at the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 loci is important in donor selection for patients undergoing unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Additional matching across the MHC gamma region may further improve outcomes.
METHODS: The MHC gamma region was retrospectively genotyped in 66 adult recipients of ASCT and their 10/10 matched unrelated donors. A chart review was performed to determine whether MHC gamma matching impacted survival, relapse, or graft-versus-host disease.
RESULTS: Of 66 donor-recipient pairs, 26(39.4%) were gamma-type matches, 34(51.5%) were mismatches, and 6(9.1%) were "indeterminate." Matching status was not associated with overall survival (p = 0.43), relapse (p = 0.21), acute GVHD (p = 0.43), severe aGVHD (p = 0.31), or chronic GVHD (p = 0.23) in univariate analyses, nor in multivariate analyses (p = 0.28, 0.13, 0.29, 0.16, and 0.67, respectively), with or without adjusting for HLA-DPB1 matching status.
CONCLUSIONS: In our single institution study, gamma-type matching status was not associated with outcomes of adult ASCT recipients.

Deng H, Zeng J, Zhang T, et al.
Histone H3.3K27M Mobilizes Multiple Cancer/Testis (CT) Antigens in Pediatric Glioma.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(4):623-633 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lysine to methionine mutations at position 27 (K27M) in the histone H3 (H3.3 and H3.1) are highly prevalent in pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG) that arise in the midline of the central nervous system. H3K27M perturbs the activity of polycomb repressor complex 2 and correlates with DNA hypomethylation; however, the pathways whereby H3K27M drives the development of pediatric HGG remain poorly understood. To understand the mechanism of pediatric HGG development driven by H3.3K27M and discover potential therapeutic targets or biomarkers, we established pediatric glioma cell model systems harboring H3.3K27M and performed microarray analysis. H3.3K27M caused the upregulation of multiple cancer/testis (CT) antigens, such as ADAMTS1, ADAM23, SPANXA1, SPANXB1/2, IL13RA2, VCY, and VCX3A, in pediatric glioma cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis from H3.3K27M cells revealed decreased H3K27me3 levels and increased H3K4me3 levels on the

Cao J, Brouwer NJ, Jordanova ES, et al.
HLA Class I Antigen Expression in Conjunctival Melanoma Is Not Associated With PD-L1/PD-1 Status.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018; 59(2):1005-1015 [PubMed] Related Publications
Purpose: Antitumor T cells need expression of HLA class I molecules but can be inhibited by ligands such as programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). We determined expression and regulation of these molecules in human conjunctival melanoma (CM) samples, cell lines, and murine xenografts.
Methods: Immunofluorescence staining was performed to examine the expression of HLA-A, HLA-B/C, and β-2-microglobulin (B2M) in 23 primary CM samples. HLA class I expression was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics, the presence of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes, and PD-L1/PD-1 status. The effect of interferon γ (IFN-γ) on HLA class I expression was tested on three CM cell lines using quantitative PCR and flow cytometry. Furthermore, HLA class I expression was determined in CM cell line-derived murine xenografts.
Results: One third of tumors had positive HLA-A, HLA-B/C, and B2M expression. A positive expression was especially seen in thin and epibulbar tumors but was not associated with recurrences. HLA class I expression was correlated with M2 macrophage density and tended to associate with CD8+ T-cell density but was independent of PD-L1 or PD-1 expression. IFN-γ upregulated HLA class I expression and genes involved in HLA transcription and transportation on CM cell lines. Murine xenografts showed a comparable HLA class I expression as their respective cell lines.
Conclusions: Our data indicate that subsets of CM have positive HLA class I expression, and HLA class I and PD-L1/PD-1 are expressed independently. When one considers immunotherapy, one should also analyze HLA class I expression, whose downregulation can limit the efficacy of T cell-mediated therapies.

Bello-López JM, Cisneros CB, Martínez-Albarrán A
HLA analysis of Mexican candidates for bone marrow transplantation and probability of finding compatible related donors.
Transfus Apher Sci. 2018; 57(1):82-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Oncohematological disorders are the main cause of morbidity in the Mexican population from 1 to 19 years old, where megakaryoblastic and promyelocitic leukemias are more frequent. Considering that the success of a transplant is multifactorial, the criterion of compatibility in the HLA system is crucial and even more so when the source of HSC is bone marrow.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of the HLA genotype in Mexican candidates who require a bone marrow transplant from related donors and the probability to find donors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-six candidates for bone marrow transplant and related donors were tested for HLA class I (-A*, -B* alleles) and class II (-DRB1* allele) in intermediate-resolution, as the first phase in the choice of the possible donor. The criteria to identify donors were determined by antigen-matched in each HLA haplotype as follows: 4/6, 5/6 and 6/6 at the HLA-A*, HLA-B*, and HLA-DRB1* alleles.
RESULTS: Of all the candidates analyzed, 57.93%, at least one bone marrow donor was identified; in 53 cases, no donor was found. The average size of the families was 4.79 ± 1.06 members. A higher percentage of compatibility with grade 6/6 (31.6%) was identified with brothers, followed by sisters in 25.3%. The probability to find at least one compatible potential donor was 1.51 ± 0.92 donors.
CONCLUSION: In the first phase to select donors, Mexican patients studied in this work, have a compatible donor, however the grade of resolution test influenced in the probability identified.

Huo MR, Pei XY, Li D, et al.
Impact of HLA allele mismatch at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 on outcomes in haploidentical stem cell transplantation.
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2018; 53(5):600-608 [PubMed] Related Publications
The impact of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele mismatch on transplant outcomes in haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) has not been established. We retrospectively studied 595 patients with hematologic malignancy who received haplo-SCT. The impact of multiple HLA allele mismatches (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1) and each HLA allele mismatch on transplant outcomes was analyzed. Greater number of HLA allele disparity does not appear worsen outcome. As for each HLA locus, HLA-A mismatch correlated with decreased rate of platelet engraftment (HR 0.740, P = .003); HLA-B mismatch independently correlated with decreased relapse rate (HR 0.494, P = .032) and improved disease-free survival and overall survival (HR 0.514, P = .003; HR 0.494, P = .002, respectively); HLA-C mismatch appeared to be protective for transplant-related mortality (TRM) (HR 0.567, P = .039); HLA-DRB1 mismatch was associated with increased cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) (HR 1.942, P = .002). No associations of any HLA mismatch with delayed neutrophil engraftment or increased cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD were observed. Our data indicated that high degree of HLA allele mismatches did not adversely affect transplant outcomes in haplo-SCT and each HLA allele mismatch had different effect.

He J, Dong LN, Wang F, et al.
The novel null allele, HLA-B*40:338N, was identified in a Chinese leukemia patient.
HLA. 2018; 91(4):303-305 [PubMed] Related Publications
HLA-B*40:338N differs from HLA-B*40:01:01 by a single nucleotide substitution at position 843C>A.

Balassa K, Andrikovics H, Remenyi P, et al.
Sex-specific survival difference in association with HLA-DRB1∗04 following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for lymphoid malignancies.
Hum Immunol. 2018; 79(1):13-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of HLA system in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) outcome is unarguable. In this study we investigated association of HLA-A,-B and-DRB1 alleles with overall survival (OS) in 186 patients undergoing allo-HSCT for lymphoid malignancies. Analyses confirmed significantly better OS for HLA-DRB1∗04 carriers compared with non-carriers (p = 0.01). Survival benefit was confined to male patients (in multivariate analyses p = 0.034, hazard ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.92), whereas in females no difference was noted (p = 0.82). Furthermore, donor gender also affected outcome and transplantation from female HLA-DRB1∗04 carrier donors resulted in superior survival compared with female non-carrier donors (p = 0.01). Combined analyses including recipient/donor gender and HLA-DRB1∗04 showed that survival of male patients varied significantly according to donor gender and HLA-DRB1∗04 carriership (p = 0.04) with best survival among HLA-DRB1∗04 carriers transplanted from female donors. Of relevance to our results, HLA-DRB1∗04 has been documented as risk allele group for lymphoid malignancies, and studies described a male-specific risk. We believe that our findings provide further supporting evidence for sex-specific alterations secondary to HLA-DRB1∗04 or related genes. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether in contrast to general favour of male donors HLA-DRB1∗04 carrier patients with lymphoid malignancies could benefit from transplantation from female donors.

Mostafa AA, Petrosenko M, Stamm L, et al.
The novel HLA-B*08:183 allele identified by sequence-based typing in a Caucasian leukemia patient.
HLA. 2017; 90(6):367-368 [PubMed] Related Publications
HLA-B*08:183 differs from HLA-B*08:01:01 by a single substitution in exon 5.

Lorenz FKM, Ellinger C, Kieback E, et al.
Unbiased Identification of T-Cell Receptors Targeting Immunodominant Peptide-MHC Complexes for T-Cell Receptor Immunotherapy.
Hum Gene Ther. 2017; 28(12):1158-1168 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
T-cell receptor (TCR) immunotherapy uses T cells engineered with new TCRs to enable detection and killing of cancer cells. Efficacy of TCR immunotherapy depends on targeting antigenic peptides that are efficiently presented by the best-suited major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of cancer cells. However, efficient strategies are lacking to easily identify TCRs recognizing immunodominant peptide-MHC (pMHC) combinations utilizing any of the six possible MHC class I alleles of a cancer cell. We generated an MHC cell library and developed a platform approach to detect, isolate, and re-express TCRs specific for immunodominant pMHCs. The platform approach was applied to identify a human papillomavirus (HPV16) oncogene E5-specific TCR, recognizing a novel, naturally processed pMHC (HLA-B*15:01) and a cytomegalovirus-specific TCR targeting an immunodominant pMHC (HLA-B*07:02). The platform provides a useful tool to isolate in an unbiased manner TCRs specific for novel and immunodominant pMHC targets for use in TCR immunotherapy.

Reiter O, Ben Amitai D, Amitay-Laish I, et al.
Pediatric mycosis fungoides: a study of the human leukocyte antigen system among Israeli Jewish patients.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2017; 309(10):851-856 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pediatric mycosis fungoides (MF) is a rare disease characterized by over-representation of atypical clinical variants, with a different prognosis from adult MF. Several human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles have been associated with MF in certain adult populations, including Israeli Jews. However, HLA data on pediatric MF as a group are lacking. To evaluate the possible association of the HLA system with pediatric MF, 59 Israeli Jewish patients diagnosed with MF at age ≤ 18 years underwent high- and intermediate-resolution genotyping for HLA class I (HLA-A*, HLA-B*) and class II (HLA-DRB1*, DQB1*) loci. The results were compared with data on 4169 umbilical cord blood units retrieved from a public cord blood bank in Jerusalem and samples from 252 healthy, unrelated Israeli Jewish volunteers. No statistically significant associations were found between pediatric MF and any of the alleles examined except HLA-B*73. However, given the extremely low frequency of B*73 in both the control group (0.1%) and the study group (2%), the biological significance of this finding is questionable. Further subgroup analyses by ethnicity (Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi) and clinicopathologic variant (follicular and non-follicular) yielded no significant between-group differences. These results suggest that the associations with the HLA system, reported previously in adult MF, do not hold true for pediatric MF. Thus, pediatric MF differs from its adult counterpart not only in clinical manifestations and course, but apparently also in the underlying immuno-pathogenetic mechanism.

Richardson TE, Shen ZJ, Kanchwala M, et al.
Aggressive Behavior in Silent Subtype III Pituitary Adenomas May Depend on Suppression of Local Immune Response: A Whole Transcriptome Analysis.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2017; 76(10):874-882 [PubMed] Related Publications
Silent subtype III pituitary adenomas (SS-3) are clinically nonfunctional adenomas that are more aggressive in terms of invasion and risk of recurrence than their conventional null cell counterparts. We previously showed that these tumors can be distinguished by immunohistochemistry based on the identification of a markedly enlarged and fragmented Golgi apparatus. To understand the molecular correlates of differential aggressiveness, we performed whole transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) on 4 SS-3 and 4 conventional null cell adenomas. The genes that were highly upregulated in all the SS-3 adenomas included 2 secreted proteins involved in the suppression of T-lymphocyte activity, i.e., ARG2 (multiple testing adjusted padj = 1.5 × 10-3) and SEMA3A (padj = 3.3 × 10-3). Highly downregulated genes in all the SS-3 adenomas included HLA-B (padj = 3.3 × 10-6), suggesting reduced antigen presentation by the adenoma to cytotoxic T-cells. Quantitative RT-PCR of these genes performed on the adenoma samples supported the RNAseq results. We also found a relative decrease in the overall concentration of T-lymphocytes in the SS-3 tumors. These results suggest that SS-3 adenomas actively suppress the immune system and raise the possibility that they may be treatable with immune checkpoint inhibitors or nonspecific cancer immunotherapies.

Piltti J, Bygdell J, Qu C, Lammi MJ
Effects of long-term low oxygen tension in human chondrosarcoma cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(2):2320-2332 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cell-based therapies could be potential methods to treat damaged cartilage tissues. Instead of native hyaline cartilage, the current therapies generate mainly weaker fibrocartilage-type of repair tissue. A correct microenvironment influences the cellular phenotype, and together with external factors it can be used, for example, to aid the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to defined types of differentiated adult cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term exposure to 5% low oxygen atmosphere on human chondrosarcoma HCS-2/8 cells. This atmosphere is close to normal oxygen tension of cartilage tissue. The proteome was analyzed with label-free mass spectrometric method and further bioinformatic analysis. The qRT-PCR method was used to gene expression analysis, and ELISA and dimethylmethylene blue assays for type II collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycan measurements. The 5% oxygen atmosphere did not influence cell proliferation, but enhanced slightly ACAN and COL2A1 gene expression. Proteomic screening revealed a number of low oxygen-induced protein level responses. Increased ones included NDUFA4L2, P4HA1, NDRG1, MIF, LDHA, PYGL, while TXNRD1, BAG2, TXN2, AQSTM1, TNFRSF1B, and EPHX1 decreased during the long-term low oxygen atmosphere. Also a number of proteins previously not related to low oxygen tension changed during the treatment. Of those S100P, RPSS26, NDUFB11, CDV3, and TUBB8 had elevated levels, while ALCAM, HLA-B, EIF1, and ACOT9 were lower in the samples cultured at low oxygen tension. In conclusion, low oxygen condition causes changes in the cellular amounts of several proteins.

Bahls L, Yamakawa R, Zanão K, et al.
Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I and Class II Polymorphisms and Serum Cytokine Profiles in Cervical Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Only a small proportion of women who are exposed to infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) progress to persistent infection and develop cervical cancer (CC). The immune response and genetic background of the host may affect the risk of progression from a HR-HPV infection to lesions and cancer. However, to our knowledge, no studies has been conducted to evaluate the relationship between variability of human leukocyte antigens (

Leo PJ, Madeleine MM, Wang S, et al.
Defining the genetic susceptibility to cervical neoplasia-A genome-wide association study.
PLoS Genet. 2017; 13(8):e1006866 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
A small percentage of women with cervical HPV infection progress to cervical neoplasia, and the risk factors determining progression are incompletely understood. We sought to define the genetic loci involved in cervical neoplasia and to assess its heritability using unbiased unrelated case/control statistical approaches. We demonstrated strong association of cervical neoplasia with risk and protective HLA haplotypes that are determined by the amino-acids carried at positions 13 and 71 in pocket 4 of HLA-DRB1 and position 156 in HLA-B. Furthermore, 36% (standard error 2.4%) of liability of HPV-associated cervical pre-cancer and cancer is determined by common genetic variants. Women in the highest 10% of genetic risk scores have approximately >7.1% risk, and those in the highest 5% have approximately >21.6% risk, of developing cervical neoplasia. Future studies should examine genetic risk prediction in assessing the risk of cervical neoplasia further, in combination with other screening methods.

Litwin TR, Clarke MA, Dean M, Wentzensen N
Somatic Host Cell Alterations in HPV Carcinogenesis.
Viruses. 2017; 9(8) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infections cause cancers in different organ sites, most commonly cervical and head and neck cancers. While carcinogenesis is initiated by two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, increasing evidence shows the importance of specific somatic events in host cells for malignant transformation. HPV-driven cancers share characteristic somatic changes, including apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)-driven mutations and genomic instability leading to copy number variations and large chromosomal rearrangements. HPV-associated cancers have recurrent somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (

Liu B, Lv J, Ma Z
Discovery of a novel HLA-B*07 variant, HLA-B*07:294, in a Chinese individual.
HLA. 2017; 90(4):251-252 [PubMed] Related Publications
The novel HLA-B*07:294 allele differs from the closest matching allele, HLA-B*07:02:01 by 1 nucleotide substitution.

Wichmann G, Herchenhahn C, Boehm A, et al.
HLA traits linked to development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma affect the progression-free survival of patients.
Oral Oncol. 2017; 69:115-127 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Personalized medicine and treatment stratification of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) today mostly ignore genetic heterogeneity in HNSCC but especially the patient's genetic background. We hypothesized that particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (HLA-A, B, Cw) and II proteins (DR, DQ) confer susceptibility for and influence development of HNSCC and may be prognostic factors for progression-free survival (PFS).
METHODS: 90 consecutive HNSCC patients of the prospective observational cohort study LIFE treated between 08/2010 and 05/2011 at the University Leipzig underwent low resolution typing of HLA-A, B, Cw, DR, and DQ. Antigen and haplotype frequencies were compared to those in German blood donors. Effects on PFS were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models.
RESULTS: HNSCC patients had overall altered HLA-B frequencies (P<0.05); frequencies of B∗44 were lower, those of B∗13, B∗52, and B∗57 increased (P<0.05). Almost all other antigen frequencies showed no deviation. Homozygous HLA-Cw and DRB4 were frequent and associated with reduced PFS (P<0.05). Altered haplotype frequencies were common and particular haplotypes accompanied by differing PFS. B∗13/Cw∗06 carriers had poorest outcome (P=0.011). However, multivariate Cox proportional hazard models revealed 3 clinical covariates (localization oropharynx, loco-regional metastasis, and T4 category), HPV16-DNA positivity, and 10 HLA traits as independent predictors for PFS.
CONCLUSIONS: The relevance of the genetic background of HNSCC patients calls for future research to clarify the role of HLA traits in HNSCC and if PFS depends on HLA.

Boudreau JE, Giglio F, Gooley TA, et al.
KIR3DL1/HLA-B Subtypes Govern Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Relapse After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35(20):2268-2278 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Purpose Disease relapse remains a major challenge to successful outcomes in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Donor natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity in HCT can control leukemic relapse, but capturing alloreactivity in HLA-matched HCT has been elusive. HLA expression on leukemia cells-upregulated in the post-HCT environment-signals for NK cell inhibition via inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like (KIR) receptors and interrupts their antitumor activity. We hypothesized that varied strengths of inhibition among subtypes of the ubiquitous KIR3DL1 and its cognate ligand, HLA-B, would titrate NK reactivity against acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods By using an algorithm that was based on polymorphism-driven expression levels and specificities, we predicted and tested inhibitory and cytotoxic NK potential on the basis of KIR3DL1/HLA-B subtype combinations in vitro and evaluated their impact in 1,328 patients with AML who underwent HCT from 9/10 or 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors. Results Segregated by KIR3DL1 subtype, NK cells demonstrated reproducible patterns of strong, weak, or noninhibition by target cells with defined HLA-B subtypes, which translated into discrete cytotoxic hierarchies against AML. In patients, KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtype combinations that were predictive of weak inhibition or noninhibition were associated with significantly lower relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; P = .004) and overall mortality (HR, 0.84; P = .030) compared with strong inhibition combinations. The greatest effects were evident in the high-risk group of patients with all KIR ligands (relapse: HR, 0.54; P < .001; and mortality: HR, 0.74; P < .008). Beneficial effects of weak and noninhibiting KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtype combinations were separate from and additive to the benefit of donor activating KIR2DS1. Conclusion Consideration of KIR3DL1-mediated inhibition in donor selection for HLA-matched HCT may achieve superior graft versus leukemia effects, lower risk for relapse, and an increase in survival among patients with AML.

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