GLI3

Gene Summary

Gene:GLI3; GLI family zinc finger 3
Aliases: PHS, ACLS, GCPS, PAPA, PAPB, PAP-A, PAPA1, PPDIV, GLI3FL, GLI3-190
Location:7p13
Summary:This gene encodes a protein which belongs to the C2H2-type zinc finger proteins subclass of the Gli family. They are characterized as DNA-binding transcription factors and are mediators of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. The protein encoded by this gene localizes in the cytoplasm and activates patched Drosophila homolog (PTCH) gene expression. It is also thought to play a role during embryogenesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with several diseases, including Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, preaxial polydactyly type IV, and postaxial polydactyly types A1 and B. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcriptional activator GLI3
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (75)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription Factors
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism
  • Base Sequence
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Hypothalamic Diseases
  • Toes
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Promoter Regions
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Xenopus Proteins
  • Syndactyly
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • Signal Transduction
  • Trans-Activators
  • Cell Surface Receptors
  • Adolescents
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Chromosome 7
  • Gene Expression
  • Multiple Abnormalities
  • Pedigree
  • Infant
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Hamartoma
  • Young Adult
  • RTPCR
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) - Skin
  • Polydactyly
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GLI3 (cancer-related)

Bainbridge MN, Armstrong GN, Gramatges MM, et al.
Germline mutations in shelterin complex genes are associated with familial glioma.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(1):384 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Gliomas are the most common brain tumor, with several histological subtypes of various malignancy grade. The genetic contribution to familial glioma is not well understood. Using whole exome sequencing of 90 individuals from 55 families, we identified two families with mutations in POT1 (p.G95C, p.E450X), a member of the telomere shelterin complex, shared by both affected individuals in each family and predicted to impact DNA binding and TPP1 binding, respectively. Validation in a separate cohort of 264 individuals from 246 families identified an additional mutation in POT1 (p.D617Efs), also predicted to disrupt TPP1 binding. All families with POT1 mutations had affected members with oligodendroglioma, a specific subtype of glioma more sensitive to irradiation. These findings are important for understanding the origin of glioma and could have importance for the future diagnostics and treatment of glioma.

Nowak D, Liem NL, Mossner M, et al.
Variegated clonality and rapid emergence of new molecular lesions in xenografts of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are associated with drug resistance.
Exp Hematol. 2015; 43(1):32-43.e1-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
The use of genome-wide copy-number analysis and massive parallel sequencing has revolutionized the understanding of the clonal architecture of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by demonstrating that this disease is composed of highly variable clonal ancestries following the rules of Darwinian selection. The current study aimed to analyze the molecular composition of childhood ALL biopsies and patient-derived xenografts with particular emphasis on mechanisms associated with acquired chemoresistance. Genomic DNA from seven primary pediatric ALL patient samples, 29 serially passaged xenografts, and six in vivo selected chemoresistant xenografts were analyzed with 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Copy-number analysis of non-drug-selected xenografts confirmed a highly variable molecular pattern of variegated subclones. Whereas primary patient samples from initial diagnosis displayed a mean of 5.7 copy-number alterations per sample, serially passaged xenografts contained a mean of 8.2 and chemoresistant xenografts a mean of 10.5 copy-number alterations per sample, respectively. Resistance to cytarabine was explained by a new homozygous deletion of the DCK gene, whereas methotrexate resistance was associated with monoallelic deletion of FPGS and mutation of the remaining allele. This study demonstrates that selecting for chemoresistance in xenografted human ALL cells can reveal novel mechanisms associated with drug resistance.

Jaiswal S, Fontanillas P, Flannick J, et al.
Age-related clonal hematopoiesis associated with adverse outcomes.
N Engl J Med. 2014; 371(26):2488-98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The incidence of hematologic cancers increases with age. These cancers are associated with recurrent somatic mutations in specific genes. We hypothesized that such mutations would be detectable in the blood of some persons who are not known to have hematologic disorders.
METHODS: We analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from DNA in the peripheral-blood cells of 17,182 persons who were unselected for hematologic phenotypes. We looked for somatic mutations by identifying previously characterized single-nucleotide variants and small insertions or deletions in 160 genes that are recurrently mutated in hematologic cancers. The presence of mutations was analyzed for an association with hematologic phenotypes, survival, and cardiovascular events.
RESULTS: Detectable somatic mutations were rare in persons younger than 40 years of age but rose appreciably in frequency with age. Among persons 70 to 79 years of age, 80 to 89 years of age, and 90 to 108 years of age, these clonal mutations were observed in 9.5% (219 of 2300 persons), 11.7% (37 of 317), and 18.4% (19 of 103), respectively. The majority of the variants occurred in three genes: DNMT3A, TET2, and ASXL1. The presence of a somatic mutation was associated with an increase in the risk of hematologic cancer (hazard ratio, 11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9 to 32.6), an increase in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.8), and increases in the risks of incident coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4) and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.8).
CONCLUSIONS: Age-related clonal hematopoiesis is a common condition that is associated with increases in the risk of hematologic cancer and in all-cause mortality, with the latter possibly due to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

Kinney AY, Butler KM, Schwartz MD, et al.
Expanding access to BRCA1/2 genetic counseling with telephone delivery: a cluster randomized trial.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(12) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The growing demand for cancer genetic services underscores the need to consider approaches that enhance access and efficiency of genetic counseling. Telephone delivery of cancer genetic services may improve access to these services for individuals experiencing geographic (rural areas) and structural (travel time, transportation, childcare) barriers to access.
METHODS: This cluster-randomized clinical trial used population-based sampling of women at risk for BRCA1/2 mutations to compare telephone and in-person counseling for: 1) equivalency of testing uptake and 2) noninferiority of changes in psychosocial measures. Women 25 to 74 years of age with personal or family histories of breast or ovarian cancer and who were able to travel to one of 14 outreach clinics were invited to participate. Randomization was by family. Assessments were conducted at baseline one week after pretest and post-test counseling and at six months. Of the 988 women randomly assigned, 901 completed a follow-up assessment. Cluster bootstrap methods were used to estimate the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference between test uptake proportions, using a 10% equivalency margin. Differences in psychosocial outcomes for determining noninferiority were estimated using linear models together with one-sided 97.5% bootstrap CIs.
RESULTS: Uptake of BRCA1/2 testing was lower following telephone (21.8%) than in-person counseling (31.8%, difference = 10.2%, 95% CI = 3.9% to 16.3%; after imputation of missing data: difference = 9.2%, 95% CI = -0.1% to 24.6%). Telephone counseling fulfilled the criteria for noninferiority to in-person counseling for all measures.
CONCLUSIONS: BRCA1/2 telephone counseling, although leading to lower testing uptake, appears to be safe and as effective as in-person counseling with regard to minimizing adverse psychological reactions, promoting informed decision making, and delivering patient-centered communication for both rural and urban women.

Totoki Y, Tatsuno K, Covington KR, et al.
Trans-ancestry mutational landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma genomes.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(12):1267-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diverse epidemiological factors are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prevalence in different populations. However, the global landscape of the genetic changes in HCC genomes underpinning different epidemiological and ancestral backgrounds still remains uncharted. Here a collection of data from 503 liver cancer genomes from different populations uncovered 30 candidate driver genes and 11 core pathway modules. Furthermore, a collaboration of two large-scale cancer genome projects comparatively analyzed the trans-ancestry substitution signatures in 608 liver cancer cases and identified unique mutational signatures that predominantly contribute to Asian cases. This work elucidates previously unexplored ancestry-associated mutational processes in HCC development. A combination of hotspot TERT promoter mutation, TERT focal amplification and viral genome integration occurs in more than 68% of cases, implicating TERT as a central and ancestry-independent node of hepatocarcinogenesis. Newly identified alterations in genes encoding metabolic enzymes, chromatin remodelers and a high proportion of mTOR pathway activations offer potential therapeutic and diagnostic opportunities.

Yang J, Hawkins OE, Barham W, et al.
Myeloid IKKβ promotes antitumor immunity by modulating CCL11 and the innate immune response.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(24):7274-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloid cells are capable of promoting or eradicating tumor cells and the nodal functions that contribute to their different roles are still obscure. Here, we show that mice with myeloid-specific genetic loss of the NF-κB pathway regulatory kinase IKKβ exhibit more rapid growth of cutaneous and lung melanoma tumors. In a BRAF(V600E/PTEN(-/-)) allograft model, IKKβ loss in macrophages reduced recruitment of myeloid cells into the tumor, lowered expression of MHC class II molecules, and enhanced production of the chemokine CCL11, thereby negatively regulating dendritic-cell maturation. Elevated serum and tissue levels of CCL11 mediated suppression of dendritic-cell differentiation/maturation within the tumor microenvironment, skewing it toward a Th2 immune response and impairing CD8(+) T cell-mediated tumor cell lysis. Depleting macrophages or CD8(+) T cells in mice with wild-type IKKβ myeloid cells enhanced tumor growth, where the myeloid cell response was used to mediate antitumor immunity against melanoma tumors (with less dependency on a CD8(+) T-cell response). In contrast, myeloid cells deficient in IKKβ were compromised in tumor cell lysis, based on their reduced ability to phagocytize and digest tumor cells. Thus, mice with continuous IKKβ signaling in myeloid-lineage cells (IKKβ(CA)) exhibited enhanced antitumor immunity and reduced melanoma outgrowth. Collectively, our results illuminate new mechanisms through which NF-κB signaling in myeloid cells promotes innate tumor surveillance.

Petersdorf EW, Gooley TA, Malkki M, et al.
HLA-C expression levels define permissible mismatches in hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood. 2014; 124(26):3996-4003 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
Life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) limits the use of HLA-C-mismatched unrelated donors in transplantation. Clinicians lack criteria for donor selection when HLA-C-mismatched donors are a patient's only option for cure. We examined the role for HLA-C expression levels to identify permissible HLA-C mismatches. The median fluorescence intensity, a proxy of HLA-C expression, was assigned to each HLA-C allotype in 1975 patients and their HLA-C-mismatched unrelated transplant donors. The association of outcome with the level of expression of patients' and donors' HLA-C allotypes was evaluated in multivariable models. Increasing expression level of the patient's mismatched HLA-C allotype was associated with increased risks of grades III to IV acute GVHD, nonrelapse mortality, and mortality. Increasing expression level among HLA-C mismatches with residue 116 or residue 77/80 mismatching was associated with increased nonrelapse mortality. The immunogenicity of HLA-C mismatches in unrelated donor transplantation is influenced by the expression level of the patient's mismatched HLA-C allotype. HLA-C expression levels provide new information on mismatches that should be avoided and extend understanding of HLA-C-mediated immune responses in human disease.

Fu YP, Kohaar I, Moore LE, et al.
The 19q12 bladder cancer GWAS signal: association with cyclin E function and aggressive disease.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(20):5808-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer identified a genetic marker rs8102137 within the 19q12 region as a novel susceptibility variant. This marker is located upstream of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes cyclin E, a cell-cycle protein. We performed genetic fine-mapping analysis of the CCNE1 region using data from two bladder cancer GWAS (5,942 cases and 10,857 controls). We found that the original GWAS marker rs8102137 represents a group of 47 linked SNPs (with r(2) ≥ 0.7) associated with increased bladder cancer risk. From this group, we selected a functional promoter variant rs7257330, which showed strong allele-specific binding of nuclear proteins in several cell lines. In both GWASs, rs7257330 was associated only with aggressive bladder cancer, with a combined per-allele OR = 1.18 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.27, P = 4.67 × 10(-5)] versus OR = 1.01 (95% CI, 0.93-1.10, P = 0.79) for nonaggressive disease, with P = 0.0015 for case-only analysis. Cyclin E protein expression analyzed in 265 bladder tumors was increased in aggressive tumors (P = 0.013) and, independently, with each rs7257330-A risk allele (P(trend) = 0.024). Overexpression of recombinant cyclin E in cell lines caused significant acceleration of cell cycle. In conclusion, we defined the 19q12 signal as the first GWAS signal specific for aggressive bladder cancer. Molecular mechanisms of this genetic association may be related to cyclin E overexpression and alteration of cell cycle in carriers of CCNE1 risk variants. In combination with established bladder cancer risk factors and other somatic and germline genetic markers, the CCNE1 variants could be useful for inclusion into bladder cancer risk prediction models.

Rashid NU, Sperling AS, Bolli N, et al.
Differential and limited expression of mutant alleles in multiple myeloma.
Blood. 2014; 124(20):3110-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/11/2015 Related Publications
Recent work has delineated mutational profiles in multiple myeloma and reported a median of 52 mutations per patient, as well as a set of commonly mutated genes across multiple patients. In this study, we have used deep sequencing of RNA from a subset of these patients to evaluate the proportion of expressed mutations. We find that the majority of previously identified mutations occur within genes with very low or no detectable expression. On average, 27% (range, 11% to 47%) of mutated alleles are found to be expressed, and among mutated genes that are expressed, there often is allele-specific expression where either the mutant or wild-type allele is suppressed. Even in the absence of an overall change in gene expression, the presence of differential allelic expression within malignant cells highlights the important contribution of RNA-sequencing in identifying clinically significant mutational changes relevant to our understanding of myeloma biology and also for therapeutic applications.

Hoskins JW, Jia J, Flandez M, et al.
Transcriptome analysis of pancreatic cancer reveals a tumor suppressor function for HNF1A.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(12):2670-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is driven by the accumulation of somatic mutations, epigenetic modifications and changes in the micro-environment. New approaches to investigating disruptions of gene expression networks promise to uncover key regulators and pathways in carcinogenesis. We performed messenger RNA-sequencing in pancreatic normal (n = 10) and tumor (n = 8) derived tissue samples, as well as in pancreatic cancer cell lines (n = 9), to determine differential gene expression (DE) patterns. Sub-network enrichment analyses identified HNF1A as the regulator of the most significantly and consistently dysregulated expression sub-network in pancreatic tumor tissues and cells (median P = 7.56×10(-7), median rank = 1, range = 1-25). To explore the effects of HNF1A expression in pancreatic tumor-derived cells, we generated stable HNF1A-inducible clones in two pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2) and observed growth inhibition (5.3-fold, P = 4.5×10(-5) for MIA PaCa-2 clones; 7.2-fold, P = 2.2×10(-5) for PANC-1 clones), and a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis upon induction. These effects correlated with HNF1A-induced down-regulation of 51 of 84 cell cycle genes (e.g. E2F1, CDK2, CDK4, MCM2/3/4/5, SKP2 and CCND1), decreased expression of anti-apoptotic genes (e.g. BIRC2/5/6 and AKT) and increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes (e.g. CASP4/9/10 and APAF1). In light of the established role of HNF1A in the regulation of pancreatic development and homeostasis, our data suggest that it also functions as an important tumor suppressor in the pancreas.

Roberts KG, Li Y, Payne-Turner D, et al.
Targetable kinase-activating lesions in Ph-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
N Engl J Med. 2014; 371(11):1005-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is characterized by a gene-expression profile similar to that of BCR-ABL1-positive ALL, alterations of lymphoid transcription factor genes, and a poor outcome. The frequency and spectrum of genetic alterations in Ph-like ALL and its responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibition are undefined, especially in adolescents and adults.
METHODS: We performed genomic profiling of 1725 patients with precursor B-cell ALL and detailed genomic analysis of 154 patients with Ph-like ALL. We examined the functional effects of fusion proteins and the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in mouse pre-B cells and xenografts of human Ph-like ALL.
RESULTS: Ph-like ALL increased in frequency from 10% among children with standard-risk ALL to 27% among young adults with ALL and was associated with a poor outcome. Kinase-activating alterations were identified in 91% of patients with Ph-like ALL; rearrangements involving ABL1, ABL2, CRLF2, CSF1R, EPOR, JAK2, NTRK3, PDGFRB, PTK2B, TSLP, or TYK2 and sequence mutations involving FLT3, IL7R, or SH2B3 were most common. Expression of ABL1, ABL2, CSF1R, JAK2, and PDGFRB fusions resulted in cytokine-independent proliferation and activation of phosphorylated STAT5. Cell lines and human leukemic cells expressing ABL1, ABL2, CSF1R, and PDGFRB fusions were sensitive in vitro to dasatinib, EPOR and JAK2 rearrangements were sensitive to ruxolitinib, and the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was sensitive to crizotinib.
CONCLUSIONS: Ph-like ALL was found to be characterized by a range of genomic alterations that activate a limited number of signaling pathways, all of which may be amenable to inhibition with approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Trials identifying Ph-like ALL are needed to assess whether adding tyrosine kinase inhibitors to current therapy will improve the survival of patients with this type of leukemia. (Funded by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities and others.).

Valgardsdottir R, Capitanio C, Texido G, et al.
Direct involvement of CD56 in cytokine-induced killer-mediated lysis of CD56+ hematopoietic target cells.
Exp Hematol. 2014; 42(12):1013-21.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are in-vitro-expanded T lymphocytes that represent a heterogeneous population. A large majority of CIK cells are CD3(+)CD56(+), and this population has been shown to confer a cytotoxic effect against tumor targets. The scope of this work was to study whether CD56 has a direct role in CIK-mediated cytotoxicity. Blocking of CD56 with the anti-CD56 monoclonal antibody GPR165 significantly reduced CIK-mediated lysis of three CD56(+) hematopoietic tumor cell lines (AML-NS8, NB4, and KCL22), whereas no effect was observed on three CD56(-) hematopoietic tumor cell lines (K562, REH, and MOLT-4). Knockdown of CD56 in CIK cells by short interfering RNA made the cells less cytotoxic against a CD56(+) target, and knockdown of CD56 in target cells with lentiviral short hairpin RNA significantly altered their susceptibility to CIK-mediated lysis. Our data suggest that homophilic interaction between CD56 molecules may occur in tumor-cell recognition, leading to CIK-mediated cell death.

Davis CF, Ricketts CJ, Wang M, et al.
The somatic genomic landscape of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(3):319-30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/09/2015 Related Publications
We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) on the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mtDNA and whole-genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared with other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT upregulation in cancer distinct from previously observed amplifications and point mutations.

Sheng Y, Li W, Zhu F, et al.
3,6,2',4',5'-Pentahydroxyflavone, an orally bioavailable multiple protein kinase inhibitor, overcomes gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(41):28192-201 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most lethal cancer, causing more than 150,000 deaths in the United States in 2013. The receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib are not perfect clinical therapeutic agents for NSCLC treatment due to primary or acquired tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Herein, 3,6,2',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavone (36245-PHF) was identified as a multiple kinase inhibitor for NSCLC treatment based on the computational screening of a natural products database. 36245-PHF was shown to inhibit PI3K and Aurora A and B kinases and overcome gefitinib-resistant NSCLC growth. Our data clearly showed that 36245-PHF markedly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines and exerted a substantial chemotherapeutic effect following oral administration in a gefitinib-resistant NSCLC xenograft model. The evidence from three different subsequent methodological approaches, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, all confirmed that 36245-PHF as a multiple protein kinase inhibitor. Overall, we identified 36245-PHF as a multiple protein kinase inhibitor and as a novel therapeutic agent to overcome gefitinib-resistant NSCLC growth, which could provide a new option for clinical NSCLC oral treatment.

Nguyen KQ, Tsou WI, Calarese DA, et al.
Overexpression of MERTK receptor tyrosine kinase in epithelial cancer cells drives efferocytosis in a gain-of-function capacity.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(37):25737-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
MERTK, a member of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK) receptor tyrosine kinases, has complex and diverse roles in cell biology. On the one hand, knock-out of MERTK results in age-dependent autoimmunity characterized by failure of apoptotic cell clearance, while on the other, MERTK overexpression in cancer drives classical oncogene pathways leading to cell transformation. To better understand the interplay between cell transformation and efferocytosis, we stably expressed MERTK in human MCF10A cells, a non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cell line devoid of endogenous MERTK. While stable expression of MERTK in MCF10A resulted in enhanced motility and AKT-mediated chemoprotection, MERTK-10A cells did not form stable colonies in soft agar, or enhance proliferation compared with parental MCF10A cells. Concomitant to chemoresistance, MERTK also stimulated efferocytosis in a gain-of-function capacity. However, unlike AXL, MERTK activation was highly dependent on apoptotic cells, suggesting MERTK may preferentially interface with phosphatidylserine. Consistent with this idea, knockdown of MERTK in breast cancer cells MDA-MB 231 reduced efferocytosis, while transient or stable expression of MERTK stimulated apoptotic cell clearance in all cell lines tested. Moreover, human breast cancer cells with higher endogenous MERTK showed higher levels of efferocytosis that could be blocked by soluble TAM receptors. Finally, through MERTK, apoptotic cells induced PD-L1 expression, an immune checkpoint blockade, suggesting that cancer cells may adopt MERTK-driven efferocytosis as an immune suppression mechanism for their advantage. These data collectively identify MERTK as a significant link between cancer progression and efferocytosis, and a potentially unrealized tumor-promoting event when MERTK is overexpressed in epithelial cells.

Braun NA, Celada LJ, Herazo-Maya JD, et al.
Blockade of the programmed death-1 pathway restores sarcoidosis CD4(+) T-cell proliferative capacity.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014; 190(5):560-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
RATIONALE: Effective therapeutic interventions for chronic, idiopathic lung diseases remain elusive. Normalized T-cell function is an important contributor to spontaneous resolution of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Up-regulation of inhibitor receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, are important inhibitors of T-cell function.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of PD-1 pathway blockade on sarcoidosis CD4(+) T-cell proliferative capacity.
METHODS: Gene expression profiles of sarcoidosis and healthy control peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed at baseline and follow-up. Flow cytometry was used to measure ex vivo expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on systemic and bronchoalveolar lavage-derived cells of subjects with sarcoidosis and control subjects, as well as the effects of PD-1 pathway blockade on cellular proliferation after T-cell receptor stimulation. Immunohistochemistry analysis for PD-1/PD-L1 expression was conducted on sarcoidosis, malignant, and healthy control lung specimens.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Microarray analysis demonstrates longitudinal increase in PDCD1 gene expression in sarcoidosis peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed increased PD-L1 expression within sarcoidosis granulomas and lung malignancy, but this was absent in healthy lungs. Increased numbers of sarcoidosis PD-1(+) CD4(+) T cells are present systemically, compared with healthy control subjects (P < 0.0001). Lymphocytes with reduced proliferative capacity exhibited increased proliferation with PD-1 pathway blockade. Longitudinal analysis of subjects with sarcoidosis revealed reduced PD-1(+) CD4(+) T cells with spontaneous clinical resolution but not with disease progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Analogous to the effects in other chronic lung diseases, these findings demonstrate that the PD-1 pathway is an important contributor to sarcoidosis CD4(+) T-cell proliferative capacity and clinical outcome. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway may be a viable therapeutic target to optimize clinical outcomes.

Zoratto F, Rossi L, Giordani E, et al.
From conventional chemotherapy to targeted therapy: use of monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) in gastrointestinal (GI) tumors.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):8471-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, significant progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. Researches and clinicians however are still faced with challenges, not the least is the detection and management of tumors with varied gene mutation status. Clarification of the molecular pathology of gastrointestinal cancers may improve treatment options as well as quality of life and the long-term survival of this patient class. Therefore, molecular-targeted therapies have emerged as clinically useful drugs for gastrointestinal cancers cure, and predictive biomarkers have been heralded as the way to develop the right drug for the right patient. Moving from such appealing molecular background, we wrote an overview of the main targeted therapies, with particular interest to monoclonal antibodies that have already been approved in clinical practice or are being tested in gastrointestinal cancers treatment.

Yang CH, Yue J, Pfeffer SR, et al.
MicroRNA-21 promotes glioblastoma tumorigenesis by down-regulating insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3).
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(36):25079-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/09/2015 Related Publications
Despite advances in surgery, imaging, chemotherapy, and radiation, patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common histological subtype of glioma, have an especially dismal prognosis; >70% of GBM patients die within 2 years of diagnosis. In many human cancers, the microRNA miR-21 is overexpressed, and accumulating evidence indicates that it functions as an oncogene. Here, we report that miR-21 is overexpressed in human GBM cell lines and tumor tissue. Moreover, miR-21 expression in GBM patient samples is inversely correlated with patient survival. Knockdown of miR-21 in GBM cells inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and markedly inhibited tumor formation in vivo. A number of known miR-21 targets have been identified previously. By microarray analysis, we identified and validated insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) as a novel miR-21 target gene. Overexpression of IGFBP3 in glioma cells inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and inhibited tumor formation of glioma xenografts in vivo. The critical role that IGFBP3 plays in miR-21-mediated actions was demonstrated by a rescue experiment, in which IGFBP3 knockdown in miR-21KD glioblastoma cells restored tumorigenesis. Examination of tumors from GBM patients showed that there was an inverse relationship between IGFBP3 and miR-21 expression and that increased IGFBP3 expression correlated with better patient survival. Our results identify IGFBP3 as a novel miR-21 target gene in glioblastoma and suggest that the oncogenic miRNA miR-21 down-regulates the expression of IGFBP3, which acts as a tumor suppressor in human glioblastoma.

Zoratto F, Rossi L, Verrico M, et al.
Focus on genetic and epigenetic events of colorectal cancer pathogenesis: implications for molecular diagnosis.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6195-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
Originally, colorectal cancer (CRC) tumorigenesis was understood as a multistep process that involved accumulation of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes mutations, such as APC, TP53 and KRAS. However, this assumption proposed a relatively limited repertoire of genetic alterations. In the last decade, there have been major advances in knowledge of multiple molecular pathways involved in CRC pathogenesis, particularly regarding cytogenetic and epigenetic events. Microsatellite instability, chromosomal instability and CpG island methylator phenotype are the most analyzed cytogenetic changes, while DNA methylation, modifications in histone proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) were analyzed in the field of epigenetic alterations. Therefore, CRC development results from interactions at many levels between genetic and epigenetic amendments. Furthermore, hereditary cancer syndrome and individual or environmental risk factors should not be ignored. The difficulties in this setting are addressed to understand the molecular basis of individual susceptibility to CRC and to determine the roles of genetic and epigenetic alterations, in order to yield more effective prevention strategies in CRC patients and directing their treatment. This review summarizes the most investigated biomolecular pathways involved in CRC pathogenesis, their role as biomarkers for early CRC diagnosis and their possible use to stratify susceptible patients into appropriate screening or surveillance programs.

Liu Z, Xu J, He J, et al.
A critical role of autocrine sonic hedgehog signaling in human CD138+ myeloma cell survival and drug resistance.
Blood. 2014; 124(13):2061-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/09/2015 Related Publications
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays an important role in the oncogenesis of B-cell malignancies such as multiple myeloma (MM). However, the source of Hh ligand sonic hedgehog (SHH) and its target cells remains controversial. Previous studies showed that stromally induced Hh signaling is essential for the tumor cells and that CD19(+)CD138(-) MM stem cells are the target cells of Hh signaling. Here we demonstrate that SHH was mainly secreted by human myeloma cells but not by stromal cells in MM bone marrow. Autocrine SHH enhanced CD138(+) myeloma cell proliferation and protected myeloma cells from spontaneous and stress-induced apoptosis. More importantly, autocrine SHH protected myeloma cells against chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Combinational treatment with chemotherapy and SHH-neutralizing antibody displayed synergistic antimyeloma effects. Mechanistic studies showed that SHH signaling activated the SHH/GLI1/BCL-2 axis, leading to the inhibition of myeloma cell apoptosis. Thus, this study identifies the myeloma autocrine Hh signaling pathway as a potential target for the treatment of MM. Targeting this pathway may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in MM patients.

Wang J, Yu R, Shete S
X-chromosome genetic association test accounting for X-inactivation, skewed X-inactivation, and escape from X-inactivation.
Genet Epidemiol. 2014; 38(6):483-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the process in which one of the two copies of the X-chromosome in females is randomly inactivated to achieve the dosage compensation of X-linked genes between males and females. That is, 50% of the cells have one allele inactive and the other 50% of the cells have the other allele inactive. However, studies have shown that skewed or nonrandom XCI is a biological plausibility wherein more than 75% of cells have the same allele inactive. Also, some of the X-chromosome genes escape XCI, i.e., both alleles are active in all cells. Current statistical tests for X-chromosome association studies can either account for random XCI (e.g., Clayton's approach) or escape from XCI (e.g., PLINK software). Because the true XCI process is unknown and differs across different regions on the X-chromosome, we proposed a unified approach of maximizing likelihood ratio over all biological possibilities: random XCI, skewed XCI, and escape from XCI. A permutation-based procedure was developed to assess the significance of the approach. We conducted simulation studies to compare the performance of the proposed approach with Clayton's approach and PLINK regression. The results showed that the proposed approach has higher powers in the scenarios where XCI is skewed while losing some power in scenarios where XCI is random or XCI is escaped, with well-controlled type I errors. We also applied the approach to the X-chromosomal genetic association study of head and neck cancer.

Abraham J, Nuñez-Álvarez Y, Hettmer S, et al.
Lineage of origin in rhabdomyosarcoma informs pharmacological response.
Genes Dev. 2014; 28(14):1578-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Lineage or cell of origin of cancers is often unknown and thus is not a consideration in therapeutic approaches. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) is an aggressive childhood cancer for which the cell of origin remains debated. We used conditional genetic mouse models of aRMS to activate the pathognomonic Pax3:Foxo1 fusion oncogene and inactivate p53 in several stages of prenatal and postnatal muscle development. We reveal that lineage of origin significantly influences tumor histomorphology and sensitivity to targeted therapeutics. Furthermore, we uncovered differential transcriptional regulation of the Pax3:Foxo1 locus by tumor lineage of origin, which led us to identify the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat as a pharmacological agent for the potential conversion of Pax3:Foxo1-positive aRMS to a state akin to fusion-negative RMS through direct transcriptional suppression of Pax3:Foxo1.

Mehrotra A, Saladi SV, Trivedi AR, et al.
Modulation of Brahma expression by the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway is associated with changes in melanoma proliferation.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014; 563:125-35 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related gene 1(BRG1) are catalytic subunits of SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes. BRM is epigenetically silenced in a wide-range of tumors. Mutations in the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) gene occur frequently in melanoma and lead to constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. We tested the hypothesis that BRM expression is modulated by oncogenic BRAF and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Expression of oncogenic BRAF in melanocytes and melanoma cells that are wild-type for BRAF decreased BRM expression and increased BRG1 expression. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) or selective inhibition of BRAF in melanoma cells that harbor oncogenic BRAF increased BRM expression and decreased BRG1 expression. Increased BRM expression was associated with increased histone acetylation on the BRM promoter. Over-expression of BRM in melanoma cells that harbor oncogenic BRAF promoted changes in cell cycle progression and apoptosis consistent with a tumor suppressive role. Upon inhibition of BRAF(V600E) with PLX4032, BRM promoted survival. PLX4032 induced changes in BRM function were correlated with increased acetylation of the BRM protein. This study provides insights into the epigenetic consequences of inhibiting oncogenic BRAF in melanoma through modulation of SWI/SNF subunit expression and function.

Shi M, Roemer MG, Chapuy B, et al.
Expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) is a distinguishing feature of primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma and associated with PDCD1LG2 copy gain.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(12):1715-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are tumors with distinct clinical and molecular characteristics that are difficult to distinguish by histopathologic and phenotypic analyses alone. Programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) is a cell surface protein expressed by activated macrophages and dendritic cells that binds PD-1 on T cells to inhibit immune responses. Amplification and/or translocations involving chromosome 9p24.1, a region that includes PDCD1LG2-encoding PD-L2, is a common event in PMBL but not DLBCL and suggests that PD-L2 expression might be a distinguishing feature of PMBL. We developed an assay for the immunohistochemical detection of PD-L2 protein in fixed biopsy specimens (PD-L2 IHC), which we applied to a cohort of PMBLs and DLBCLs. For a subset of cases, we correlated the results of PD-L2 IHC with PDCD1LG2 copy number (CN) as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-three of 32 (72%) PMBLs but only 1 of 37 (3%) DLBCLs were positive by PD-L2 IHC. Among PMBLs with PDCD1LG2 CN gain, all were positive by PD-L2 IHC. One PMBL without CN gain was positive by PD-L2 IHC. When expressed in PMBL, PD-L2 was restricted to tumor cells and not detected on intratumoral macrophages. We conclude that PD-L2 protein is robustly expressed by the majority of PMBLs but only rare DLBCLs and often associated with PDCD1LG2 copy gain. PD-L2 IHC may serve as a useful ancillary test for distinguishing PMBL from DLBCL and for the rational selection of patients for therapeutic antibodies that inhibit PD-1 signaling.

Thomas P, Pang Y, Dong J, Berg AH
Identification and characterization of membrane androgen receptors in the ZIP9 zinc transporter subfamily: II. Role of human ZIP9 in testosterone-induced prostate and breast cancer cell apoptosis.
Endocrinology. 2014; 155(11):4250-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Recently, we discovered a cDNA in teleost ovarian follicle cells belonging to the zinc transporter ZIP9 subfamily (SLC39A9) encoding a protein with characteristics of a membrane androgen receptor (mAR). Here, we demonstrate that human ZIP9 expressed in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells and stably overexpressed in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells (PC-3-ZIP9) also displays the ligand binding and signaling characteristics of a specific, high-affinity mAR. Testosterone treatment of MDA-MB-468 and PC-3-ZIP9 cells caused activation of G proteins and second messenger pathways as well as increases in intracellular free zinc concentrations that were accompanied by induction of apoptosis. [1,2,6,7-(3)H]-testosterone binding and these responses were abrogated in MDA-MB-468 cells after ZIP9 small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment and absent in PC-3 cells transfected with empty vector, confirming that ZIP9 functions as an mAR. Testosterone treatment caused up-regulation of proapoptotic genes Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein), p53 (tumor protein p53), and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases) in both cell lines and increased expression of Bax, Caspase 3, and cytochrome C proteins. Treatment with a zinc chelator or a MAPK inhibitor blocked testosterone-induced increases in Bax, p53, and JNK mRNA expression. The results suggest that both androgen signaling and zinc transporter functions of ZIP9 mediate testosterone promotion of apoptosis. ZIP9 is widely expressed in human tissues and up-regulated in malignant breast and prostate tissues, suggesting that it is a potential therapeutic target for treating breast and prostate cancers. These results provide the first evidence for a mechanism mediated by a single protein through which steroid and zinc signaling pathways interact to regulate physiological functions in mammalian cells.

Zhu B, Ferry CH, Markell LK, et al.
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) promotes oncogene-induced cellular senescence through repression of endoplasmic reticulum stress.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(29):20102-19 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/07/2015 Related Publications
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and ER stress-associated unfolded protein response (UPR) can promote cancer cell survival, but it remains unclear whether they can influence oncogene-induced senescence. The present study examined the role of ER stress in senescence using oncogene-dependent models. Increased ER stress attenuated senescence in part by up-regulating phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) and decreasing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK). A positive feed forward loop between p-AKT, ER stress, and UPR was discovered whereby a transient increase of ER stress caused reduced senescence and promotion of tumorigenesis. Decreased ER stress was further correlated with increased senescence in both mouse and human tumors. Interestingly, H-RAS-expressing Pparβ/δ null cells and tumors having increased cell proliferation exhibited enhanced ER stress, decreased cellular senescence, and/or enhanced tumorigenicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate a new role for ER stress and UPR that attenuates H-RAS-induced senescence and suggest that PPARβ/δ can repress this oncogene-induced ER stress to promote senescence in accordance with its role as a tumor modifier that suppresses carcinogenesis.

Dominguez-Sola D, Gautier J
MYC and the control of DNA replication.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014; 4(6) [PubMed] Related Publications
The MYC oncogene is a multifunctional protein that is aberrantly expressed in a significant fraction of tumors from diverse tissue origins. Because of its multifunctional nature, it has been difficult to delineate the exact contributions of MYC's diverse roles to tumorigenesis. Here, we review the normal role of MYC in regulating DNA replication as well as its ability to generate DNA replication stress when overexpressed. Finally, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which replication stress induced by aberrant MYC expression could contribute to genomic instability and cancer.

Colen RR, Vangel M, Wang J, et al.
Imaging genomic mapping of an invasive MRI phenotype predicts patient outcome and metabolic dysfunction: a TCGA glioma phenotype research group project.
BMC Med Genomics. 2014; 7:30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Invasion of tumor cells into adjacent brain parenchyma is a major cause of treatment failure in glioblastoma. Furthermore, invasive tumors are shown to have a different genomic composition and metabolic abnormalities that allow for a more aggressive GBM phenotype and resistance to therapy. We thus seek to identify those genomic abnormalities associated with a highly aggressive and invasive GBM imaging-phenotype.
METHODS: We retrospectively identified 104 treatment-naïve glioblastoma patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) whom had gene expression profiles and corresponding MR imaging available in The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). The standardized VASARI feature-set criteria were used for the qualitative visual assessments of invasion. Patients were assigned to classes based on the presence (Class A) or absence (Class B) of statistically significant invasion parameters to create an invasive imaging signature; imaging genomic analysis was subsequently performed using GenePattern Comparative Marker Selection module (Broad Institute).
RESULTS: Our results show that patients with a combination of deep white matter tracts and ependymal invasion (Class A) on imaging had a significant decrease in overall survival as compared to patients with absence of such invasive imaging features (Class B) (8.7 versus 18.6 months, p < 0.001). Mitochondrial dysfunction was the top canonical pathway associated with Class A gene expression signature. The MYC oncogene was predicted to be the top activation regulator in Class A.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that MRI biomarker signatures can identify distinct GBM phenotypes associated with highly significant survival differences and specific molecular pathways. This study identifies mitochondrial dysfunction as the top canonical pathway in a very aggressive GBM phenotype. Thus, imaging-genomic analyses may prove invaluable in detecting novel targetable genomic pathways.

Wen J, Li H, Tao W, et al.
High throughput quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays revealing over-expression of cancer testis antigen genes in multiple myeloma stem cell-like side population cells.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 166(5):711-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) stem cells, proposed to be responsible for the tumourigenesis, drug resistance and recurrence of this disease, are enriched in the cancer stem cell-like side population (SP). Cancer testis antigens (CTA) are attractive targets for immunotherapy because they are widely expressed in cancers but only in limited types of normal tissues. We designed a high throughput assay, which allowed simultaneous relative quantifying expression of 90 CTA genes associated with MM. In the three MM cell lines tested, six CTA genes were over-expressed in two and LUZP4 and ODF1 were universally up-regulated in all three cell lines. Subsequent study of primary bone marrow (BM) from eight MM patients and four healthy donors revealed that 19 CTA genes were up-regulated in SP of MM compared with mature plasma cells. In contrast, only two CTA genes showed a moderate increase in SP cells of healthy BM. Furthermore, knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) revealed that LUZP4 expression is required for colony-forming ability and drug resistance in MM cells. Our findings indicate that multiple CTA have unique expression profiles in MM SP, suggesting that CTA may serve as targets for immunotherapy that it specific for MM stem cells and which may lead to the long-term cure of MM.

Hollingshead MG, Stockwin LH, Alcoser SY, et al.
Gene expression profiling of 49 human tumor xenografts from in vitro culture through multiple in vivo passages--strategies for data mining in support of therapeutic studies.
BMC Genomics. 2014; 15:393 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Development of cancer therapeutics partially depends upon selection of appropriate animal models. Therefore, improvements to model selection are beneficial.
RESULTS: Forty-nine human tumor xenografts at in vivo passages 1, 4 and 10 were subjected to cDNA microarray analysis yielding a dataset of 823 Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. To illustrate mining strategies supporting therapeutic studies, transcript expression was determined: 1) relative to other models, 2) with successive in vivo passage, and 3) during the in vitro to in vivo transition. Ranking models according to relative transcript expression in vivo has the potential to improve initial model selection. For example, combining p53 tumor expression data with mutational status could guide selection of tumors for therapeutic studies of agents where p53 status purportedly affects efficacy (e.g., MK-1775). The utility of monitoring changes in gene expression with extended in vivo tumor passages was illustrated by focused studies of drug resistance mediators and receptor tyrosine kinases. Noteworthy observations included a significant decline in HCT-15 colon xenograft ABCB1 transporter expression and increased expression of the kinase KIT in A549 with serial passage. These trends predict sensitivity to agents such as paclitaxel (ABCB1 substrate) and imatinib (c-KIT inhibitor) would be altered with extended passage. Given that gene expression results indicated some models undergo profound changes with in vivo passage, a general metric of stability was generated so models could be ranked accordingly. Lastly, changes occurring during transition from in vitro to in vivo growth may have important consequences for therapeutic studies since targets identified in vitro could be over- or under-represented when tumor cells adapt to in vivo growth. A comprehensive list of mouse transcripts capable of cross-hybridizing with human probe sets on the HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array was generated. Removal of the murine artifacts followed by pairwise analysis of in vitro cells with respective passage 1 xenografts and GO analysis illustrates the complex interplay that each model has with the host microenvironment.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides strategies to aid selection of xenograft models for therapeutic studies. These data highlight the dynamic nature of xenograft models and emphasize the importance of maintaining passage consistency throughout experiments.

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