Gene Summary

Gene:GATA5; GATA binding protein 5
Aliases: CHTD5, GATAS, bB379O24.1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that contains two GATA-type zinc fingers. The encoded protein is known to bind to hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha), and this interaction is essential for cooperative activation of the intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase promoter. In other organisms, similar proteins may be involved in the establishment of cardiac smooth muscle cell diversity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor GATA-5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: GATA5 (cancer-related)

Alvarez MC, Fernandes J, Michel V, et al.
Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on GATA-5 and TFF1 Regulation, Comparison Between Pediatric and Adult Patients.
Dig Dis Sci. 2018; 63(11):2889-2897 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: GATA factors, which constitute a family of transcription regulatory proteins, participate in gastrointestinal development. Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) plays a crucial role in mucosal defense and healing, and evidence suggests that GATA-5 mediated its regulation. Gastric cancer is a multiple-step process triggered by Helicobacter pylori and is characterized by accumulation of molecular and epigenetic alteration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of H. pylori infection on the regulation of GATA-5 and TFF1 in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Infected cells exhibited upregulation of GATA-5 and TFF1 after 48 h. An increase in GATA-5 and TFF1 mRNA levels was also found in mice samples after 6 and 12 months of infection, respectively. In human samples, we found an association between H. pylori infection and GATA-5 upregulation. In fact, among H. pylori-infected patients, hypermethylation was observed in 45.5% of pediatric samples, in 62.6% of chronic gastritis samples, and in 63% of gastric cancer samples. Regarding TFF1, the expression levels were similar in pediatrics and adults patients, and were independent of H. pylori infection, and the expression of these factors was downregulated in gastric cancer samples. GATA-5 promoter methylation was associated with a decrease in TFF1 mRNA levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the upregulation of GATA-5 and TFF1 observed in vitro and in vivo may be correlated with a protective effect of the mucosa in response to infection. The epigenetic inactivation of GATA-5 observed in human biopsies from infected patients may suggest that this alteration is an early event occurring in association with H. pylori infection.

Chmelarova M, Laco J, Kovarikova H, et al.
Elevated DNA methylation in malignant tumors of the sinonasal tract and its association with patient survival.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2018; 162(3):232-238 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic modifications have been recognized as an important mechanism underlying carcinoma progression. DNA methylation plays an important role in cancer biology and represents potentially heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve DNA sequence. The aim of this study was to investigate promoter methylation of selected genes in sinonasal carcinoma by comparison with noncancerous sinonasal tissue.
METHODS: To search for epigenetic events (methylation in 25 tumor suppressor genes) we used MS-MLPA (Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) to compare methylation status of 59 formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue samples of sinonasal carcinomas with 18 control samples. The most important changes in methylation were confirmed using MSP (Methylation specific PCR). Detected alterations in methylation were compared with clinicopathological characteristics.
RESULTS: Using a 20% cut-off for methylation (MS-MLPA), we found significantly higher methylation in GATA5 (P=0.0005), THSB1 (P=0.0002) and PAX5 (P=0.03) genes in the sinonasal cancer group compared to the control group. Methylation in five or more genes was associated with impaired overall survival (P=0.017).
CONCLUSION: These findings provide evidence that alterations in methylation profile may be one of the major mechanisms in sinonasal carcinogenesis. In addition, changes in methylation could potentially be used as prognostic factors of sinonasal carcinoma and may have implications for future individualized therapy based on epigenetic changes.

Ribeiro IP, Rodrigues JM, Mascarenhas A, et al.
Cytogenetic, genomic, and epigenetic characterization of the HSC-3 tongue cell line with lymph node metastasis.
J Oral Sci. 2018; 60(1):70-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral carcinoma develops from squamous epithelial cells by the acquisition of multiple (epi) genetic alterations that target different genes and molecular pathways. Herein, we performed a comprehensive genomic and epigenetic characterization of the HSC-3 cell line through karyotyping, multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization, array comparative genomic hybridization, and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. HSC-3 turned out to be a near-triploid cell line with a modal number of 61 chromosomes. Banding and molecular cytogenetic analyses revealed that nonrandom gains of chromosomal segments occurred more frequently than losses. Overall, gains of chromosome 1, 3q, 5p, 7p, 8q, 9q, 10, 11p, 11q13, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18p, 20, Yp, and Xq were observed. The largest region affected by copy number loss was observed at chromosome 18q. Several of the observed genomic imbalances and their mapped genes were already associated with oral carcinoma and/or adverse prognosis, invasion, and metastasis in cancer. The most common rearrangements observed were translocations in the centromeric/near-centromeric regions. RARB, ESR1, and CADM1 genes were methylated and showed copy number losses, whereas TP73 and GATA5 presented with methylation and copy number gains. Thus, the current study presents a comprehensive characterization of the HSC-3 cell line; the use of this cell line may contribute to enriching the resources available for oral cancer research, especially for the testing of therapeutic agents.

Joosten SC, Deckers IA, Aarts MJ, et al.
Prognostic DNA methylation markers for renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review.
Epigenomics. 2017; 9(9):1243-1257 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Despite numerous published prognostic methylation markers for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), none of these have yet changed patient management. Our aim is to systematically review and evaluate the literature on prognostic DNA methylation markers for RCC.
MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted an exhaustive search of PubMed, EMBASE and MEDLINE up to April 2017 and identified 49 publications. Studies were reviewed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, assessed for their reporting quality using the Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK) criteria, and were graded to determine the level of evidence (LOE) for each biomarker.
RESULTS: We identified promoter methylation of BNC1, SCUBE3, GATA5, SFRP1, GREM1, RASSF1A, PCDH8, LAD1 and NEFH as promising prognostic markers. Extensive methodological heterogeneity across the included studies was observed, which hampers comparability and reproducibility of results, providing a possible explanation why these biomarkers do not reach the clinic.
CONCLUSION: Potential prognostic methylation markers for RCC have been identified, but they require further validation in prospective studies to determine their true clinical value.

Mžik M, Chmelařová M, John S, et al.
Aberrant methylation of tumour suppressor genes WT1, GATA5 and PAX5 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Clin Chem Lab Med. 2016; 54(12):1971-1980 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) occurring in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) could provide a mean of molecular characterisation of this cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate promoter methylation and gene expression of selected TSGs in HCC to identify candidate genes for further validation as potential biomarkers.
METHODS: Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method was used to measure the methylation status of 25 TSGs in 49 HCC samples and 36 corresponding non-cancerous liver tissue samples. Relative expression of the differentially methylated genes was assessed at the mRNA level using quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: We observed a significantly higher methylation in genes WT1, PAX5, PAX6, PYCARD and GATA5 in HCC compared with control samples. The expression of PAX5 was significantly decreased by methylation; conversely methylation of WT1 was associated with higher mRNA levels. Methylation of GATA5 was significantly associated with overall survival and methylation of WT1 and PAX5 significantly varied between patients with ALBI score 1 vs. 2+3. Moreover, PAX5 was significantly more methylated in patients with tumour grade 2+3 vs. grade 1, and methylation of the PAX5 correlated with the patient's age at the time of diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: HCC evince aberrant promoter methylation of WT1, PAX5, PAX6, PYCARD and GATA5 genes. Correlation between GATA5, WT1 and PAX5 methylation and clinical/histological parameters is suggestive of applicability of these markers in non-invasive (epi)genetic testing in HCC.

Ribeiro IP, Caramelo F, Marques F, et al.
WT1, MSH6, GATA5 and PAX5 as epigenetic oral squamous cell carcinoma biomarkers - a short report.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(6):573-582 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a frequently occurring aggressive malignancy with a heterogeneous clinical behavior. Based on the paucity of specific early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, which hampers the appropriate treatment and, ultimately the development of novel targeted therapies, we aimed at identifying such biomarkers through a genetic and epigenetic analysis of these tumors.
METHODS: 93 primary OSCCs were subjected to DNA copy number alteration (CNA) and methylation status analyses using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MPLA). The genetic and epigenetic OSCC profiles obtained were associated with the patients' clinic-pathological features.
RESULTS: We found that WT1 gene promoter methylation is a predictor of a better prognosis and that MSH6 and GATA5 gene promoter methylation serve as predictors of a worse prognosis. GATA5 gene promoter methylation was found to be significantly associated with a shorter survival rate. In addition, we found that PAX5 gene promoter methylation was significantly associated with tongue tumors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that highlights this specific set of genes as epigenetic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in OSCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the importance of epigenetically assessing OSCCs to identify key genes that may serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and, potentially, as candidate therapeutic targets.

Sobota RS, Kodaman N, Mera R, et al.
Epigenetic and genetic variation in GATA5 is associated with gastric disease risk.
Hum Genet. 2016; 135(8):895-906 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer incidence varies considerably among populations, even those with comparable rates of Helicobacter pylori infection. To test the hypothesis that genetic variation plays a role in gastric disease, we assessed the relationship between genotypes and gastric histopathology in a Colombian study population, using a genotyping array of immune-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two synonymous SNPs (rs6061243 and rs6587239) were associated with progression of premalignant gastric lesions in a dominant-effects model after correction for multiple comparisons (p = 2.63E-07 and p = 7.97E-07, respectively); effect sizes were β = -0.863 and β = -0.815, respectively, where β is an estimate of effect on histopathology scores, which ranged from 1 (normal) to 5 (dysplasia). In our replication cohort, a second Colombian population, both SNPs were associated with histopathology when additively modeled (β = -0.256, 95 % CI = -0.47, -0.039; and β = -0.239, 95 % CI = -0.45, -0.024), and rs6587239 was significantly associated in a dominant-effects model (β = -0.330, 95 % CI = -0.66, 0.00). Because promoter methylation of GATA5 has previously been associated with gastric cancer, we also tested for the association of methylation status with more advanced histopathology scores in our samples and found a significant relationship (p = 0.001). A multivariate regression model revealed that the effects of both the promoter methylation and the exonic SNPs in GATA5 were independent. A SNP-by-methylation interaction term was also significant. This interaction between GATA5 variants and GATA5 promoter methylation indicates that the association of either factor with gastric disease progression is modified by the other.

Kim JS, Kurie JM, Ahn YH
BMP4 depletion by miR-200 inhibits tumorigenesis and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:173 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-200 (miR-200) suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of various cancer cells, including lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) was decreased in miR-200-overexpressing cells and epithelial-like lung cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanism and role of BMP4 depletion by miR-200 in murine lung adenocarcinoma cells.
METHODS: BMP4 expression levels in murine lung cancer cells were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Promoter and 3'-untranslated region (UTR) luciferase reporter assays were performed to discover the mechanism of regulation of BMP4 by miR-200. Murine lung cancer cells were transfected with Bmp4 shRNAs, which were then injected into syngeneic mice to measure their tumorigenic and metastatic potential and cultured on Matrigel to study the influence of BMP4 on 3-D acinus formation.
RESULTS: miR-200 down-regulated BMP4 via direct targeting of the GATA4 and GATA6 transcription factors that stimulate Bmp4 transcription. BMP4 up-regulated JAG2, an upstream factor of miR-200; therefore, JAG2, miR-200, and BMP4 form a regulatory loop. Bmp4 knockdown suppressed cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion and inhibited tumorigenesis and metastasis of lung cancer cells when injected into syngeneic mice. In addition, BMP4 was required for normal acinus formation in Matrigel 3-D culture of murine lung cancer cells, which may be mediated by MYH10, a downstream target of BMP4.
CONCLUSION: BMP4 functions as a pro-tumorigenic factor in a murine lung cancer model, and its transcription is regulated by miR-200 and GATA4/6. Thus, we propose that BMP4 and its antagonists may be suitable therapeutic targets for the treatment of lung cancer.

Zhang X, Song YF, Lu HN, et al.
Combined detection of plasma GATA5 and SFRP2 methylation is a valid noninvasive biomarker for colorectal cancer and adenomas.
World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21(9):2629-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate GATA5, SFRP2, and ITGA4 methylation in plasma DNA as noninvasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) or adenomas.
METHODS: There were 57 CRC patients, 30 adenomas patients, and 47 control patients enrolled in this study. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the promoter methylation status of GATA5, SFRP2, and ITGA4 genes in plasma DNA, and their association with clinical outcome in CRC. The predictive ability of GATA5, SFRP2, and ITGA4 methylation, individually or in combination, to detect CRC or adenomas was further analyzed.
RESULTS: Hypermethylated GATA5 was detected in plasma in 61.4% (35/57) of CRC cases, 43.33% (13/30) of adenoma cases, and 21.28% (10/47) of control cases. The hypermethylation of SFRP2 was detected in 54.39% (31/57), 40.00% (12/30), and 27.66% (13/47) in plasma samples from CRC, adenomas, and controls, respectively. ITGA4 methylation was detected in 36.84% (21/57) of plasma samples of CRC patients and in 30.00% (9/30) of plasma samples from patients with colorectal adenomas, and the specificity of this individual biomarker was 80.85% (9/47). Moreover, GATA5 methylation in the plasma was significantly correlated with larger tumor size (P = 0.019), differentiation status (P = 0.038), TNM stage (P = 0.008), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.008). SFRP2 and ITGA4 methylation in plasma significantly correlated with differentiation status (SFRP2, P = 0.012; ITGA4, P = 0.007), TNM stage (SFRP2, P = 0.034; ITGA4, P = 0.021), and lymph node metastasis (SFRP2, P = 0.034; ITGA4, P = 0.021). From the perspective of predictive power and cost-performance, using GATA5 and SFRP2 together as methylation markers seemed the most favorable predictor for CRC (OR = 8.06; 95%CI: 2.54-25.5; P < 0.01) and adenomas (OR = 3.35; 95%CI: 1.29-8.71; P = 0.012).
CONCLUSION: A combination of GATA5 and SFRP2 methylation could be promising as a marker for the detection and diagnosis of CRC and adenomas.

Melotte V, Yi JM, Lentjes MH, et al.
Spectrin repeat containing nuclear envelope 1 and forkhead box protein E1 are promising markers for the detection of colorectal cancer in blood.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015; 8(2):157-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Identifying biomarkers in body fluids may improve the noninvasive detection of colorectal cancer. Previously, we identified N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 4 (NDRG4) and GATA binding protein 5 (GATA5) methylation as promising biomarkers for colorectal cancer in stool DNA. Here, we examined the utility of NDRG4, GATA5, and two additional markers [Forkhead box protein E1 (FOXE1) and spectrin repeat containing nuclear envelope 1 (SYNE1)] promoter methylation as biomarkers in plasma DNA. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR was performed on plasma DNA from 220 patients with colorectal cancer and 684 noncancer controls, divided in a training set and a test set. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to measure the area under the curve of GATA5, NDRG4, SYNE1, and FOXE1 methylation. Functional assays were performed in SYNE1 and FOXE1 stably transfected cell lines. The sensitivity of NDRG4, GATA5, FOXE1, and SYNE1 methylation in all stages of colorectal cancer (154 cases, 444 controls) was 27% [95% confidence interval (CI), 20%-34%), 18% (95% CI, 12%-24%), 46% (95% CI, 38%-54%), and 47% (95% CI, 39%-55%), with a specificity of 95% (95% CI, 93%-97%), 99% (95% CI, 98%-100%), 93% (95% CI, 91%-95%), and 96% (95% CI, 94%-98%), respectively. Combining SYNE1 and FOXE1, increased the sensitivity to 56% (95% CI, 48%-64%), while the specificity decreased to 90% (95% CI, 87%-93%) in the training set and to 58% sensitivity (95% CI, 46%-70%) and 91% specificity (95% CI, 80%-100%) in a test set (66 cases, 240 controls). SYNE1 overexpression showed no major differences in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion compared with controls. Overexpression of FOXE1 significantly decreased the number of colonies in SW480 and HCT116 cell lines. Overall, our data suggest that SYNE1 and FOXE1 are promising markers for colorectal cancer detection.

Peters I, Dubrowinskaja N, Tezval H, et al.
Decreased mRNA expression of GATA1 and GATA2 is associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor outcome in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Target Oncol. 2015; 10(2):267-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
GATA-binding proteins 1 (GATA1) and 2 (GATA2) are zinc-finger transcription factors and belong to the GATA family proteins 1-6. GATA1 interacts with the TP53 tumor suppressor gene, and both GATAs have been shown to be involved in cell growth, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis of several solid tumors. GATA1 and GATA2 expression alterations are associated with poor survival and adverse clinicopathology in prostate and colorectal cancer, while the significance and prognostic value in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has not been investigated as yet. We investigated relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of GATA1 and GATA2 in 77 ccRCC and 58 paired adjacent noncancerous renal tissues by quantitative real-time reverse-transcribed PCR. Relative mRNA expression levels were determined using the ΔΔCt method. GATA1 and GATA2 expression levels were significantly decreased in tumor tissues compared with normal tissues (p < 0.001, paired t test). In univariate logistic regression analysis, decreased GATA1 and GATA2 expression levels were associated with advanced tumor disease (p = 0.005 and 0.008), positive distant metastasis (p = 0.03 and 0.001), and lymph node metastasis status (p = 0.011 and 0.038). Reduced expression levels of GATA1 and GATA2 were associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence (p = 0.005 and 0.006; hazard ratio = 0.05 and 0.21). Pairwise bivariate analysis after adjusting for clinicopathological parameters revealed relative mRNA expression of GATA1, but not GATA2, as an independent candidate prognosticator for ccRCC. Our results support that GATA1 and GATA2 are involved in ccRCC tumor biology possibly affecting tumor development and aggressiveness.

Wang D, Yang PN, Chen J, et al.
Promoter hypermethylation may be an important mechanism of the transcriptional inactivation of ARRDC3, GATA5, and ELP3 in invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2014; 396(1-2):67-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands represents an alternative mechanism to inactivate tumor suppressor genes. This study was to detect promoter methylation status and mRNA expression levels of ARRDC3, ELP3, GATA5, and PAX6, and to explore the association between methylation and expression in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) and matched normal tissues (MNTs) from breast cancer patients. Aberrant gene methylation was observed as follows: ARRDC3 in 38.5 %, ELP3 in 73.1 %, GATA5 in 48.1 %, and PAX6 in 50.0 % of IDCs. mRNA expression of ARRDC3, ELP3, and GATA5 in IDCs showed a lower level than that in MNTs (P < 0.001, P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). For ARRDC3, both methylated and unmethylated IDCs showed significantly lower expression values compared to MNTs (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively). For ELP3 and GATA5, methylated tumors only showed significantly lower expression values compared to MNTs (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). For ARRDC3 and GATA5, methylation was associated with their less fold change in IDCs (P = 0.049 and P = 0.020, respectively). Methylation of ARRDC3 was significantly associated with grades and lymph node status of IDCs (P = 0.036 and P = 0.002, respectively). Methylation frequency of ELP3 was higher in lymph node positive versus lymph node negative tumors (P = 0.020); whereas methylation frequency of PAX6 was lower in tumors with the ER negative samples (P = 0.025). Our data suggested that promoter hypermethylation may be an important mechanism of the transcriptional inactivation of ARRDC3, GATA5, and ELP3 in IDCs.

Sacristan R, Gonzalez C, Fernández-Gómez JM, et al.
Molecular classification of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (pTa low-grade, pT1 low-grade, and pT1 high-grade subgroups) using methylation of tumor-suppressor genes.
J Mol Diagn. 2014; 16(5):564-572 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of epigenetics in distinguishing pathological and clinical subgroups in bladder cancer is not fully characterized. We evaluated whether methylation of tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) would classify non-muscle-invasive (NMI) bladder cancer subgroups and predict outcome. A retrospective design included the following paraffin-embedded primary NMI tumor types (n = 251): pTa low grade (LG) (n = 79), pT1LG (n = 81), and pT1 high grade (HG) (n = 91). Methylation of 25 TSGs was measured using methylation-specific, multiplex, ligation-dependent probe amplification. The TSGs most frequently methylated in the overall series were STK11 (96.8%), MGMT2 (64.5%), RARB (63.0%), and GATA5 (63.0%). TSG methylation correlated to clinicopathological variables in each subgroup and in the overall NMI series. Methylation of RARB, CD44, PAX5A, GSTP1, IGSF4 (CADM1), PYCARD, CDH13, TP53, and GATA5 classified pTa versus pT1 tumors whereas RARB, CD44, GSTP1, IGSF4, CHFR, PYCARD, TP53, STK11, and GATA5 distinguished LG versus HG tumors. Multivariate analyses indicated that PAX5A, WT1, and BRCA1 methylation independently predicted recurrence in pTaLG, PAX6, ATM, CHFR, and RB1 in pT1LG disease; PYCARD, in pT1HG disease; and PAX5A and RB1, in the overall series. Methylation of TSGs provided a molecular classification of NMI disease according to clinicopathological factors. Furthermore, TSG methylation predicted recurrence in NMI subgroups.

Nishioka Y, Ueki T, Hokazono K, et al.
Comparative detection of aberrantly methylated DNA in preoperative and postoperative stool from patients with colorectal cancers.
Int J Biol Markers. 2015 Jan-Mar; 30(1):e81-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is crucial to reducing tumor-related mortality. Evaluating aberrantly methylated DNA in stool is promising for CRC screening. However, DNA methylation in the colonic epithelium of background mucosa may compromise stool DNA (sDNA) test results. Thus, we compared aberrant methylation of cancer-related genes in preoperative and postoperative sDNA, with the aim of demonstrating that a cancer-specific methylated allele in sDNA originates from CRCs.
METHODS: Patients who were to undergo CRC resection in Kyushu University Hospital during 2003-2010 were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative (pre) stool samples from 54 patients, postoperative (post) samples from 52 of the patients and tumor samples were collected. Aberrant promoter methylation of CDH4 and GATA5 was assessed in the primary tumors by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and in stool samples by real-time MSP.
REULTS: Aberrant methylation of CDH4 and/or GATA5 was detected in 45 of CRC tissue samples (83.3%) and identified in 23 pre sDNA samples (42.3%) from CRC patients. Aberrant methylation was not found in pre sDNA obtained from CRC patients without aberrant methylation of these genes or in post sDNA in any patient. The detection rate of methylated alleles did not correlate with depth of invasion or tumor stage.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that aberrantly methylated alleles identified in sDNA originate from CRCs. Although tumor-specific aberrant methylation is found in sDNA from patients harboring early and advanced CRC throughout the colon and rectum, the sensitivity of this test needs to be improved for early detection of CRC.

Rankeillor KL, Cairns DA, Loughrey C, et al.
Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification identifies promoter methylation events associated with survival in glioblastoma.
J Neurooncol. 2014; 117(2):243-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA methylation plays an important role in cancer biology and methylation events are important prognostic and predictive markers in many tumor types. We have used methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to survey the methylation status of MGMT and 25 tumor suppressor genes in 73 glioblastoma cases. The data obtained was correlated with overall survival and response to treatment. The study revealed that methylation of promoter regions in TP73 (seven patients), THBS1 (eight patients) and PYCARD (nine patients) was associated with improved outcome, whereas GATA5 (21 patients) and WT1 (24 patients) promoter methylation were associated with poor outcome. In patients treated with temozolomide and radiation MGMT and PYCARD promoter methylation events remained associated with improved survival whereas GATA5 was associated with a poor outcome. The identification of GATA5 promoter methylation in glioblastoma has not previously been reported. Furthermore, a cumulative methylation score separated patients into survival groups better than any single methylation event. In conclusion, we have identified specific methylation events associated with patient outcome and treatment response in glioblastoma, and these may be of functional and predictive/prognostic significance. This study therefore provides novel candidates and approaches for future prospective validation.

Peters I, Dubrowinskaja N, Kogosov M, et al.
Decreased GATA5 mRNA expression associates with CpG island methylation and shortened recurrence-free survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:101 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: GATA-5, a zinc-finger transcription factor and member of the GATA family proteins 1-6, is known to be involved in cellular differentiation. We recently found that tumor-specific hypermethylation of the GATA5 CpG island (CGI) occurs in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and is associated with an adverse clinical outcome. In this study, we investigated whether epigenetic GATA5 alterations may result in changes in GATA5 mRNA expression levels and correlate with the observed prognostic impact of epigenetic changes in GATA5 in RCC.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction was applied to measure relative GATA5 mRNA expression levels in 135 kidney tissue samples, including 77 clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tissues and 58 paired adjacent normal renal tissue samples. Relative GATA5 expression levels were determined using the ΔΔCt method and detection of three endogenous control genes then compared to previously measured values of relative methylation.
RESULTS: The mean relative GATA5 mRNA expression level exhibited an approximately 31-fold reduction in tumor specimens compared with corresponding normal tissues (p < 0.001, paired t-test). Decreased GATA5 mRNA expression was inversely correlated with increased GATA5 CGI methylation (p < 0.001) and was associated with shortened recurrence-free survival in ccRCC patients (p = 0.023, hazard ratio = 0.25).
CONCLUSION: GATA5 mRNA expression is decreased in ccRCC, likely due to gene silencing by methylation of the GATA5 CGI. Moreover, reduced GATA5 mRNA levels were associated with a poor clinical outcome, indicating a possible role of GATA5 for the development of aggressive ccRCC phenotypes.

Feierabend D, Walter J, Grube S, et al.
Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and its impact on clinical findings in medulloblastoma.
J Neurooncol. 2014; 116(2):213-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gain of (proto-)oncogenes and loss or promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) play essential roles in tumorigenesis. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) allows simultaneous detection of both these alterations. MS-MLPA was performed on 20 medulloblastoma samples (n = 12 cryoconserved; n = 8 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded, FFPE) in order to screen for copy number changes in 77 unselected TSGs and (proto-)oncogenes as well as for promoter hypermethylation in a subset of 33 TSGs. In all specimens, determination of promoter methylation status was possible, whereas robust data concerning copy number changes could be obtained on cryopreserved material only. We found a median of 1.5 deletions and 6.5 amplifications in the 12 cryopreserved medulloblastoma and a median of 5 promoter hypermethylation per tumor. Frequent copy number changes included amplification of ASC on 16p12 (5/12) and amplification of several adjacent genes on 17q (3/12) including IGFBP4. Hypermethylation of MSH6 on 2p16 was found in 16 samples. MS-MLPA findings were also correlated with clinical and histological characteristics. The number of promoter hypermethylation was significantly associated with presence of necrosis (p = 0.004). Tumors which recurred within 1 year were more likely to show amplification of the GATA5 gene (p = 0.038), while hypermethylation of CASP8 was associated with a lower tumor recurrence rate (p = 0.036). There was also a trend towards a correlation between total number of aberrations and CSF dissemination (p = 0.055). Our findings confirm frequent presence of certain aberrations and reveal novel candidates for improving prognosis based on genetic and epigenetic tumor features. A medulloblastoma-specific MS-MLPA probe set seems a potentially valuable tool for further investigations on larger sample series.

Dvorakova E, Chmelarova M, Laco J, et al.
Methylation analysis of tumor suppressor genes in endometroid carcinoma of endometrium using MS-MLPA.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2013; 157(4):298-303 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic changes are considered to be a frequent event during tumor development. Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands represents an alternative mechanism for inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators and transcription factors. The aim of this study was to investigate promoter methylation of specific genes in endometrial cancer by comparison with normal endometrial tissue.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used MS-MLPA (Methylation-specific Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) to compare the methylation status of 59 tissue samples of endometroid type of endometrial carcinoma with 20 control samples of non-neoplastic endometrium.
RESULTS: Using 15% cut-off for methylation, we observed significantly higher methylation in the CDH13 gene in endometrial cancer group. We observed significantly higher methylation in both WT1 and GATA5 genes in IB stage of endometroid carcinoma. We also observed significantly higher methylation in GATA5 gene in the group of poorly differentiated endometroid carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest the importance of hypermethylation of CDH13, WT1 and GATA5 genes in endometrial carcinogenesis and could have implications for future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of endometrial cancer based on epigenetic changes.

Chmelařová M, Křepinská E, Spaček J, et al.
Methylation analysis of tumour suppressor genes in ovarian cancer using MS-MLPA.
Folia Biol (Praha). 2012; 58(6):246-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic changes are considered to be a frequent event during tumour development. Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands represents an alternative mechanism for inactivation of tumour suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators and transcription factors. The aim of this study was to investigate promoter methylation of specific genes in ovarian cancer by comparison with normal ovarian tissue. To search for epigenetic events we used methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) to compare the methylation status of 69 tissue samples of ovarian cancer with 40 control samples. Using a 15% cut-off for methylation, we observed significantly higher methylation in genes MGMT, PAX5, CDH13, WT1, THBS1, GATA5 in the ovarian cancer group, while in the ESR1 gene we observed significantly higher methylation in the control group compared with the ovarian cancer group. These findings could potentially be used in screening of ovarian cancer and may have implications for future chemotherapy based on epigenetic changes.

Cosialls AM, Santidrián AF, Coll-Mulet L, et al.
Epigenetic profile in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
Epigenomics. 2012; 4(5):491-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To analyze the methylation status of 35 tumor suppressor genes using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
MATERIALS & METHODS: The DNA of 37 samples from patients with CLL, six healthy donors, and Jurkat and Ramos cell lines was analyzed by MS-MLPA.
RESULTS: Our results confirm that hypermethylation is a common and not randomly distributed event in CLL, and some genes, such as WT1, CDH13, IGSF4/TSLC1, GATA5, DAPK1 and RARB, are hypermethylated in more than 25% of the analyzed samples. Importantly, MS-MLPA also detected hypermethylation of some genes not reported previously in CLL, and their methylation status was confirmed by bisulfite sequencing.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that MS-MLPA is a useful technique for the detection of methylation in CLL samples. Selecting CLL-specific methylation targets in order to generate a CLL-specific MS-MLPA probe set could enhance its usefulness as a tool in studies of risk stratification and guiding the best therapeutic decision.

Kornegoor R, Moelans CB, Verschuur-Maes AH, et al.
Promoter hypermethylation in male breast cancer: analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14(4):R101 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Epigenetic events are, along with genetic alteration, important in the development and progression of cancer. Promoter hypermethylation causes gene silencing and is thought to be an early event in carcinogenesis. The role of promoter hypermethylation in male breast cancer has not yet been studied.
METHODS: In a group of 108 male breast cancers, the methylation status of 25 genes was studied using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Methylation of more than 15% was regarded indicative for promoter hypermethylation. Methylation status was correlated with clinicopathological features, with patients' outcome and with 28 female breast cancer cases.
RESULTS: Promoter hypermethylation of the genes MSH6, WT1, PAX5, CDH13, GATA5 and PAX6 was seen in more than 50% of the cases, but was uncommon or absent in normal male breast tissue. High overall methylation status was correlated with high grade (P = 0.003) and was an independent predictor of poor survival (P = 0.048; hazard ratio 2.5). ESR1 and GSTP1 hypermethylation were associated with high mitotic count (P = 0.037 and P = 0.002, respectively) and high grade (both P = 0.001). No correlation with survival was seen for individual genes. Compared with female breast cancers (logistic regression), promoter hypermethylation was less common in a variety of genes, particularly ESR1 (P = 0.005), BRCA1 (P = 0.010) and BRCA2 (P < 0.001). The most frequently hypermethylated genes (MSH6, CDH13, PAX5, PAX6 and WT1) were similar for male and female breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: Promoter hypermethylation is common in male breast cancer and high methylation status correlates with aggressive phenotype and poor survival. ESR1 and GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation seem to be involved in development and/or progression of high-grade male breast cancer. Although female and male breast cancer share a set of commonly methylated genes, many of the studied genes are less frequently methylated in male breast cancer, pointing towards possible differences between male and female breast carcinogenesis.

Leng S, Do K, Yingling CM, et al.
Defining a gene promoter methylation signature in sputum for lung cancer risk assessment.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(12):3387-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate the methylation state of 31 genes in sputum as biomarkers in an expanded nested, case-control study from the Colorado cohort, and to assess the replication of results from the most promising genes in an independent case-control study of asymptomatic patients with stage I lung cancer from New Mexico.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cases and controls from Colorado and New Mexico were interrogated for methylation of up to 31 genes using nested, methylation-specific PCR. Individual genes and methylation indices were used to assess the association between methylation and lung cancer with logistic regression modeling.
RESULTS: Seventeen genes with ORs of 1.4 to 3.6 were identified and selected for replication in the New Mexico study. Overall, the direction of effects seen in New Mexico was similar to Colorado with the largest increase in case discrimination (ORs, 3.2-4.2) seen for the PAX5α, GATA5, and SULF2 genes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves generated from seven-gene panels from Colorado and New Mexico studies showed prediction accuracy of 71% and 77%, respectively. A 22-fold increase in lung cancer risk was seen for a subset of New Mexico cases with five or more genes methylated. Sequence variants associated with lung cancer did not improve the accuracy of this gene methylation panel.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies have identified and replicated a panel of methylated genes whose integration with other promising biomarkers could initially identify the highest risk smokers for computed tomographic screening for early detection of lung cancer.

Wang H, Liu Z, Li J, et al.
ΔNp63α mediates proliferation and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells by the regulation of GATA-6.
Neoplasma. 2012; 59(4):416-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The oncogenic isoform of the p63 protein, ΔNp63α, has been found to be overexpressed in numerous human squamous cell carcinomas. However, the role of ΔNp63α in human gastric cancer remains unknown. To evaluate this role, we screened a panel of gastric cancer cell lines for ΔNp63α expression and found that they are correlated with the differentiation status of the cell lines. Using the MKN28 gastric cancer cell line for loss-of-function or gain-of-function of ΔNp63α in our experiments, we observed that forced expression of ΔNp63α promoted cell proliferation as assessed by the MTT and colony formation assays, and increased the GATA-6 expression. In contrast, down-regulation of ΔNp63α via small interfering RNA suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and reduced the expression of GATA-6. In conclusion, our data suggest that ΔNp63α plays an important role in cell growth and proliferation of gastric cancer cells, which may be associated with the regulation of GATA-6 expression. This is the first study exploring the biological functions and the underlying mechanism of ΔNp63α during gastric cancer development. It also identifies potential targets for anti-tumor treatment.

Livide G, Epistolato MC, Amenduni M, et al.
Epigenetic and copy number variation analysis in retinoblastoma by MS-MLPA.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2012; 18(3):703-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in children. Two step inactivation of RB1 (M1-M2) represents the key event in the pathogenesis of retinoblastoma but additional genetic and epigenetic events (M3-Mn) are required for tumor development. In the present study, we employed Methylation Specific Multiplex Ligation Probe Assay to investigate methylation status and copy number changes of 25 and 39 oncosuppressor genes, respectively. This technique was applied to analyse 12 retinoblastomas (5 bilateral and 7 unilateral) and results were compared to corresponding normal retina. We identified hypermethylation in seven new genes: MSH6 (50%), CD44 (42%), PAX5 (42%), GATA5 (25%), TP53 (8%), VHL (8%) and GSTP1 (8%) and we confirmed the previously reported hypermethylation of MGMT (58%), RB1 (17%) and CDKN2 (8%). These genes belong to key pathways including DNA repair, pRB and p53 signalling, transcriptional regulation, protein degradation, cell-cell interaction, cellular adhesion and migration. In the same group of retinoblastomas, a total of 29 copy number changes (19 duplications and 10 deletions) have been identified. Interestingly, we found deletions of the following oncosuppressor genes that might contribute to drive retinoblastoma tumorigenesis: TP53, CDH13, GATA5, CHFR, TP73 and IGSF4. The present data highlight the importance of epigenetic changes in retinoblastoma and indicate seven hypermethylated oncosuppressors never associated before to retinoblastoma pathogenesis. This study also confirms the presence of copy number variations in retinoblastoma, expecially in unilateral cases (mean 3 ± 1.3) where these changes were found more frequently respect to bilateral cases (mean 1.4 ± 1.1).

Pesek M, Kopeckova M, Benesova L, et al.
Clinical significance of hypermethylation status in NSCLC: evaluation of a 30-gene panel in patients with advanced disease.
Anticancer Res. 2011; 31(12):4647-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is one of major factors in cancer progression. We observed multiple genes involved in cancer-related signaling and focused on patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and evaluated methylation in relation to various clinical parameters.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty genes were examined in 121 NSCLC patients using the methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) method. Correlations to gender, smoking status, tumor subtype, disease stage and EGFR/KRAS mutation status were performed by chi-square test.
RESULTS: 90% of tumors exhibited methylation of at least one gene. Most frequently methylated were cadherin-13 (CDH13), Ras associated domain-containing protein (RASSF1A), Wilms' tumor protein (WT1), adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC), paired box protein Pax-5 (PAX5), estrogen receptor (ESR1), an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase p15 (CDKN2B), paired box protein Pax-6 (PAX6), transcription factor GATA-5 (GATA5) and cell adhesion molecule 4 (IGSF4). Overall methylation (any gene) was increased in adenocarcinomas (p=0.0329), unrelated to gender or disease stage. Several genes exhibited variable methylation with gender (CDH13, p<0.001; GATA5, p=0.02; PAX6, p=0.01 and ESR1, p=0.03), smoking (CDH13, p=0.002), or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status [Von Hippel-Lindau disease tumor supresor (VHL), p=0.001; CDKN2B, p=0.02; CDH13, p=0.02; APC, p=0.04 and ESR1, p=0.04].
CONCLUSION: Differences in gene methylation associated with gender, smoking and EGFR mutation suggest potential for prediction in relation to management of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.

Montavon C, Gloss BS, Warton K, et al.
Prognostic and diagnostic significance of DNA methylation patterns in high grade serous ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2012; 124(3):582-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Altered DNA methylation patterns hold promise as cancer biomarkers. In this study we selected a panel of genes which are commonly methylated in a variety of cancers to evaluate their potential application as biomarkers for prognosis and diagnosis in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC); the most common and lethal subtype of ovarian cancer.
METHODS: The methylation patterns of 10 genes (BRCA1, EN1, DLEC1, HOXA9, RASSF1A, GATA4, GATA5, HSULF1, CDH1, SFN) were examined and compared in a cohort of 80 primary HGSOC and 12 benign ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) samples using methylation-specific headloop suppression PCR.
RESULTS: The genes were variably methylated in primary HGSOC, with HOXA9 methylation observed in 95% of cases. Most genes were rarely methylated in benign OSE, with the exception of SFN which was methylated in all HGSOC and benign OSE samples examined. Methylation of DLEC1 was associated with disease recurrence, independent of tumor stage and suboptimal surgical debulking (HR 3.5 (95% CI:1.10-11.07), p=0.033). A combination of the methylation status of HOXA9 and EN1 could discriminate HGSOC from benign OSE with a sensitivity of 98.8% and a specificity of 91.7%, which increased to 100% sensitivity with no loss of specificity when pre-operative CA125 levels were also incorporated.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence to support the feasibility of detecting altered DNA methylation patterns as a potential diagnostic and prognostic approach for HGSOC.

Gasche JA, Hoffmann J, Boland CR, Goel A
Interleukin-6 promotes tumorigenesis by altering DNA methylation in oral cancer cells.
Int J Cancer. 2011; 129(5):1053-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Worldwide oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for more than 100,000 deaths each year. Chronic inflammation constitutes one of the key risk factors for OSCC. Accumulating evidence suggests that aberrant DNA methylation may contribute to OSCC tumorigenesis. This study investigated whether chronic inflammation alters DNA methylation and expression of cancer-associated genes in OSCC. We established an in vitro model of interleukin (IL)-6 mediating chronic inflammation in OSCC cell lines. Thereafter, we measured the ability of IL-6 to induce global hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) sequences, as well as CpG methylation changes using multiple methodologies including quantitative pyrosequencing, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and sensitive melting analysis after real-time-methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Gene expression was investigated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. IL-6 induced significant global LINE-1 hypomethylation (p=0.016) in our in vitro model of inflammatory stress in OSCC cell lines. Simultaneously, IL-6 induced CpG promoter methylation changes in several important putative tumor suppressor genes including CHFR, GATA5 and PAX6. Methylation changes correlated inversely with the changes in the expression of corresponding genes. Our results indicate that IL-6-induced inflammation promotes tumorigenesis in the oral cavity by altering global LINE-1 hypomethylation. In addition, concurrent hypermethylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes by IL-6 suggests that epigenetic gene silencing may be an important consequence of chronic inflammation in the oral cavity. These findings have clinical relevance, as both methylation and inflammation are suitable targets for developing novel preventive and therapeutic measures.

Agundez M, Grau L, Palou J, et al.
Evaluation of the methylation status of tumour suppressor genes for predicting bacillus Calmette-Guérin response in patients with T1G3 high-risk bladder tumours.
Eur Urol. 2011; 60(1):131-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a standard treatment for reducing tumour recurrence and delaying progression of high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder tumours. However, it is not clear yet which patients are more likely to respond to BCG.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of the methylation of 25 tumour suppressor genes (TSG) as clinical outcome predictive biomarkers in T1G3 bladder tumours treated with BCG.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective design included 91 paraffin-embedded tumours of patients with T1G3 primary non-muscle-invasive disease undergoing nonmaintenance BCG treatment.
MEASUREMENTS: The methylation status of 25 TSGs was measured using a methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) assay. Recurrence, progression into muscle-invasive tumours, and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were analysed using univariate and multivariate tests.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The genes most frequently methylated included STK11 (94.5%), MSH6 (81.3%), BRCA1 (72.5%), PAX5A (68.1%), MGMT (67.0%), CDH13 (62.6%), and IGSF4 (61.5%). Methylation was newly identified in T1G3 tumours for TP73, MSH6, ESR1, PAX5A, WT1, CD44, ATM, IGSF4, CHFR, BRCA2, THBS1, PYCARD, STK11, and GATA5. Methylation for several TSGs was significantly associated with multifocality and tumour size. Patients with different methylation statuses of TSGs showed differential recurrence rates (PAX6: p = 0.025), progression rates (MSH6: p = 0.040; RB1: p = 0.042; THBS1: p = 0.041; PYCARD: p = 0.048; TP73: p = 0.048; ESR1: p = 0.036; and GATA5: p = 0.019), and DSS rates (GATA5: p = 0.037). Several combinations improved prediction for progression. Multivariate analyses indicated that among the combinations remaining as independent predictors, two genes-MSH6 and THBS1-already provided the most significant predictive assessment for progression (p = 0.004). The major limitation of this study is related to its retrospective design.
CONCLUSIONS: The methylation status of TSGs was associated with the clinical outcome of patients with T1G3 tumours undergoing BCG treatment under three clinical end points: recurrence, progression, and DSS. The methylation status of TSGs distinguished patients responding to BCG from those who may require a more aggressive therapeutic intervention.

Dhir M, Yachida S, Van Neste L, et al.
Sessile serrated adenomas and classical adenomas: an epigenetic perspective on premalignant neoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
Int J Cancer. 2011; 129(8):1889-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The diagnosis of sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) is challenging, and there is a great deal of interobserver variability amongst pathologists in differentiating SSAs from hyperplastic polyps (HPPs). The aim of this study was (i) to assess the utility of epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation in differentiating SSAs from HPPs and (ii) to identify common methylation based molecular markers potentially useful for early detection of premalignant neoplastic lesions of gastrointestinal tract. A total of 97 primary patient adenoma samples were obtained from The Johns Hopkins Hospital pathology archive with IRB approval and HIPAA compliance. We analyzed the promoter associated CpG island methylation status of 17 genes using nested multiplex methylation specific PCR (MSP). Methylation of CDX2, hMLH1 and TLR2 was detected in SSAs and SSAs with dysplasia but not in HPPs. A subset of genes including EVL, GATAs (4 and 5), HIN-1, SFRPs (1, 2, 4 and 5), SOX17 and SYNE1 were methylated frequently in all premalignant gastrointestinal adenomas including tubular adenomas, villous adenomas, SSAs and SSAs with dysplasia but infrequently in non-premalignant polyps such as HPPs. Methylation of CDX2, hMLH1 and TLR2 may be of diagnostic utility in differentiating, histologically challenging cases of SSAs from HPPs. Genes such as EVL, GATAs, HIN-1, SFRPs, SOX17 and SYNE1, which are frequently methylated in all types of tested premalignant adenomas, may be useful as biomarkers in stool-based strategies for early detection of these adenomas and CRCs in future.

Jonckheere N, Velghe A, Ducourouble MP, et al.
The mouse Muc5b mucin gene is transcriptionally regulated by thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and GATA-6 transcription factors.
FEBS J. 2011; 278(2):282-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
MUC5B is one of the major mucin genes expressed in the respiratory tract. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that MUC5B is expressed in human lung adenocarcinomas and during lung morphogenesis. Moreover, in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues, a converse correlation between MUC5B and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) expression, a lung-specific transcription factor, has been established. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the regulation of MUC5B expression in the lung are largely unknown. In order to better understand the biological role of MUC5B in lung pathophysiology, we report the characterization of the promoter region of the mouse Muc5b mucin gene. The promoter is flanked by a TATA box (TACATAA) identical to that in the human gene. Human and murine promoters share 67.5% similarity over the first 170 nucleotides. By RT-PCR, co-transfection studies and gel-shift assays, we show that Muc5b promoter activity is completely inhibited by TTF-1, whereas factors of the GATA family (GATA-4/GATA-5/GATA-6) are activators. Together, these results demonstrate, for the first time, that Muc5b is a target gene of transcription factors (TTF-1, GATA-6) involved in lung differentiation programs during development and carcinogenesis, and identify TTF-1 as a strong repressor of Muc5b. The characterization of the structural and functional features of the Muc5b mucin gene will provide us with a strong base to develop studies in murine models aimed at the identification of its biological role in lung pathophysiology.

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