Gene Summary

Gene:GATA4; GATA binding protein 4
Aliases: TOF, ASD2, VSD1, TACHD
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger transcription factors. Members of this family recognize the GATA motif which is present in the promoters of many genes. This protein is thought to regulate genes involved in embryogenesis and in myocardial differentiation and function, and is necessary for normal testicular development. Mutations in this gene have been associated with cardiac septal defects. Additionally, alterations in gene expression have been associated with several cancer types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor GATA-4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (57)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • DNA Methylation
  • Cell Differentiation
  • GATA6 Transcription Factor
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Epigenetics
  • siRNA
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • CpG Islands
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Transfection
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Adolescents
  • Gene Silencing
  • Rectal Cancer
  • Chromosome 8
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer DNA
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • GATA4 Transcription Factor
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Down-Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • GATA5 Transcription Factor
  • Young Adult
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GATA4 (cancer-related)

Gao L, Hu Y, Tian Y, et al.
Lung cancer deficient in the tumor suppressor GATA4 is sensitive to TGFBR1 inhibition.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1665 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Tumor suppressor genes remain to be systemically identified for lung cancer. Through the genome-wide screening of tumor-suppressive transcription factors, we demonstrate here that GATA4 functions as an essential tumor suppressor in lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic GATA4 expression results in lung cancer cell senescence. Mechanistically, GATA4 upregulates multiple miRNAs targeting TGFB2 mRNA and causes ensuing WNT7B downregulation and eventually triggers cell senescence. Decreased GATA4 level in clinical specimens negatively correlates with WNT7B or TGF-β2 level and is significantly associated with poor prognosis. TGFBR1 inhibitors show synergy with existing therapeutics in treating GATA4-deficient lung cancers in genetically engineered mouse model as well as patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models. Collectively, our work demonstrates that GATA4 functions as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer and targeting the TGF-β signaling provides a potential way for the treatment of GATA4-deficient lung cancer.

Zografos E, Anagnostopoulos AK, Papadopoulou A, et al.
Serum Proteomic Signatures of Male Breast Cancer.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2019 Mar-Apr; 16(2):129-137 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To date, the elucidation of serum protein alterations in male breast cancer (MBC) has not been extensively studied, due to the rarity of the disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present work, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) were employed to detect differences in serum protein expression between patients with MBC and healthy controls.
RESULTS: A panel of differentially expressed serum proteins was identified, including proteins involved in the regulation of the cell cycle [e.g. cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase (CDC7)], in mitochondrial function [e.g. mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and dimethyladenosine transferase 1 (TFB1M)], in lipid metabolism and transport [e.g. apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) and E (APOE)], in apoptosis and immune response [e.g. CD5 antigen-like (CD5L), clusterin (CLUS) and C-C motif chemokine 14 (CCL14)], in transcription (e.g. protein SSX3 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)], in invasion and metastasis (e.g. alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (FETUA)], in estrogen synthesis [aromatase (CYP19A1)] and other diverse biological roles [e.g. actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 (ARPC4), dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MP2K4), ectoderm-neural cortex protein 1 (ENC1), and matrix metalloproteinase-27 (MMP27)].
CONCLUSION: These findings provide valuable insight into the distinct clinicopathological features of MBC and indicate that select serum proteomic markers may help improve MBC management.

Chen W, Shen B, Sun X
Analysis of Progress and Challenges of EGFR-Targeted Molecular Imaging in Cancer With a Focus on Affibody Molecules.
Mol Imaging. 2019 Jan-Dec; 18:1536012118823473 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted cancer therapy requires an accurate estimation of EGFR expression in tumors to identify responsive patients, monitor therapeutic effect, and estimate prognosis. The EGFR molecular imaging is an optimal method for evaluating EGFR expression in vivo accurately and noninvasively. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in EGFR-targeted molecular imaging in cancer, with a special focus on the development of imaging agents, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand, monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments, Affibody, and small molecules. Each substrate or probe, whether it is an endogenous ligand, antibody, peptide, or small molecule labeled with fluorochrome or radionuclide, has unique advantages and limitations. Antibody-based probes have high affinity but a long metabolic cycle and therefore offer poor imaging quality. Affibody molecules promise to surpass antibody-based probes due to their small size, stable chemical properties, and high affinity to the target. Small-molecule probes are safe, have favorable pharmacokinetics, and show high affinity and specificity, in addition to having an ideal size, but are inadequate for delayed imaging after injection due to their fast clearance.

Frankell AM, Jammula S, Li X, et al.
The landscape of selection in 551 esophageal adenocarcinomas defines genomic biomarkers for the clinic.
Nat Genet. 2019; 51(3):506-516 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a poor-prognosis cancer type with rapidly rising incidence. Understanding of the genetic events driving EAC development is limited, and there are few molecular biomarkers for prognostication or therapeutics. Using a cohort of 551 genomically characterized EACs with matched RNA sequencing data, we discovered 77 EAC driver genes and 21 noncoding driver elements. We identified a mean of 4.4 driver events per tumor, which were derived more commonly from mutations than copy number alterations, and compared the prevelence of these mutations to the exome-wide mutational excess calculated using non-synonymous to synonymous mutation ratios (dN/dS). We observed mutual exclusivity or co-occurrence of events within and between several dysregulated EAC pathways, a result suggestive of strong functional relationships. Indicators of poor prognosis (SMAD4 and GATA4) were verified in independent cohorts with significant predictive value. Over 50% of EACs contained sensitizing events for CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors, which were highly correlated with clinically relevant sensitivity in a panel of EAC cell lines and organoids.

Muniswamy VJ, Raval N, Gondaliya P, et al.
'Dendrimer-Cationized-Albumin' encrusted polymeric nanoparticle improves BBB penetration and anticancer activity of doxorubicin.
Int J Pharm. 2019; 555:77-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is one of the most rapaciously growing cancer within the brain with an average lifespan of 12-15 months (5-year survival <3-4%). Doxorubicin (DOX) is clinically utilized as a first line drug in the treatment of Glioblastoma, however, its restricted entry into the brain via the blood-brain barrier (BBB), limited blood-tumor barrier (BTB) permeability, hemotoxicity, short mean half-life of 1-3 hr as well as rapid body clearance results in tremendously diminished bioactivity in glioblastoma. Dendrimer-Cationized-Albumin (dCatAlb) was synthesized following the carboxyl activation technique and the synthesized biopolymer was characterized by FTIR, MALDI-TOF and zeta potential. The prepared dCatAlb was encrusted on DOX-loaded PLGA nanoparticle core to develop a novel hybrid DOX nanoformulation (dCatAlb-pDNP; particle size: 156 ± 10.85 nm; ƺ: -10.0 ± 2.1 mV surface charge). The formulated dCatAlb-pDNP showed a unique pH-dependent DOX release profile, diminished hemolytic toxicity, higher drug uptake (<0.001) and cytotoxicity in U87MG glioblastoma cells, increase levels of caspase-3 gene in U87MG cells (approximately 5.35-fold higher) inferred that anticancer activity is primarily taking place through caspase-mediated apoptosis mechanism. The developed novel DOX nanoformulation also showed superior trans-epithelial permeation transport across monolayer bEnd.3 cells as well as notable biocompatibility and stability. The dCatAlb-pDNP showed enhanced BBB permeation efficacy as confirmed permeation assay in bEnd.3 cell-based model. The long-term formulation stability of developed nanoformulations was studied by storing them at 5 ± 2 °C and 30 ± 2 °C/60 ± 5% Relative Humidity (% RH) in the stability chamber for a period of 60 days (ICHQ1A (R2)). The outcomes of this investigation evidently indicate that dCatAlb-pDNP offers superior anticancer activity of DOX in glioblastoma cells while significantly improving its BBB permeation. The developed formulation is a biocompatible, safer and commercially viable approach to delivering DOX selectively in sustained manner glioblastoma while countering its hemolytic toxic effect, which is a major ongoing issue with conventional DOX injectable available in the market today.

Murata M
Inflammation and cancer.
Environ Health Prev Med. 2018; 23(1):50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Infection and inflammation account for approximately 25% of cancer-causing factors. Inflammation-related cancers are characterized by mutagenic DNA lesions, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-nitroguanine. Our previous studies demonstrated the formation of 8-oxodG and 8-nitroguanine in the tissues of cancer and precancerous lesions due to infection (e.g., Opisthorchis viverrini-related cholangiocarcinoma, Schistosoma haematobium-associated bladder cancer, Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer, human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer, Epstein-Barr virus-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma) and pro-inflammatory factors (e.g., asbestos, nanomaterials, and inflammatory diseases such as Barrett's esophagus and oral leukoplakia). Interestingly, several of our studies suggested that inflammation-associated DNA damage in cancer stem-like cells leads to cancer development with aggressive clinical features. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species from inflammation damage not only DNA but also other biomacromolecules, such as proteins and lipids, resulting in their dysfunction. We identified oxidatively damaged proteins in cancer tissues by 2D Oxyblot followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. As an example, oxidatively damaged transferrin released iron ion, which may mediate Fenton reactions and generate additional reactive oxygen species. Dysfunction of anti-oxidative proteins due to this damage might increase oxidative stress. Such damage in biomacromolecules may form a vicious cycle of oxidative stress, leading to cancer development. Epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation and microRNA dysregulation play vital roles in carcinogenesis, especially in inflammation-related cancers. We examined epigenetic alterations, DNA methylation and microRNA dysregulation, in Epstein-Barr virus-related nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the endemic area of Southern China and found several differentially methylated tumor suppressor gene candidates by using a next-generation sequencer. Among these candidates, we revealed higher methylation rates of RAS-like estrogen-regulated growth inhibitor (RERG) in biopsy specimens of nasopharyngeal carcinoma more conveniently by using restriction enzyme-based real-time PCR. This result may help to improve cancer screening strategies. We profiled microRNAs of nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues using microarrays. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed the concordant downregulation of miR-497 in cancer tissues and plasma, suggesting that plasma miR-497 could be used as a diagnostic biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Chronic inflammation promotes genetic and epigenetic aberrations, with various pathogeneses. These changes may be useful biomarkers in liquid biopsy for early detection and prevention of cancer.

Velcheti V, Schrump D, Saunthararajah Y
Ultimate Precision: Targeting Cancer but Not Normal Self-replication.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2018; 38:950-963 [PubMed] Related Publications
Self-replication is the engine that drives all biologic evolution, including neoplastic evolution. A key oncotherapy challenge is to target this, the heart of malignancy, while sparing the normal self-replication mandatory for health and life. Self-replication can be demystified: it is activation of replication, the most ancient of cell programs, uncoupled from activation of lineage-differentiation, metazoan programs more recent in origin. The uncoupling can be physiologic, as in normal tissue stem cells, or pathologic, as in cancer. Neoplastic evolution selects to disengage replication from forward-differentiation where intrinsic replication rates are the highest, in committed progenitors that have division times measured in hours versus weeks for tissue stem cells, via partial loss of function in master transcription factors that activate terminal-differentiation programs (e.g., GATA4) or in the coactivators they use for this purpose (e.g., ARID1A). These loss-of-function mutations bias master transcription factor circuits, which normally regulate corepressor versus coactivator recruitment, toward corepressors (e.g., DNMT1) that repress rather than activate terminal-differentiation genes. Pharmacologic inhibition of the corepressors rebalances to coactivator function, activating lineage-differentiation genes that dominantly antagonize MYC (the master transcription factor coordinator of replication) to terminate malignant self-replication. Physiologic self-replication continues, because the master transcription factors in tissue stem cells activate stem cell, not terminal-differentiation, programs. Druggable corepressor proteins are thus the barriers between self-replicating cancer cells and the terminal-differentiation fates intended by their master transcription factor content. This final common pathway to oncogenic self-replication, being separate and distinct from the normal, offers the favorable therapeutic indices needed for clinical progress.

López-Trigo N, Aguín N, Castuera IP, et al.
Association of CASP3 genetic polymorphisms rs1049216, rs2705897 and rs4647603 with the risk of prostate cancer in Galicia (NW Spain).
Gene. 2018; 679:126-132 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malfunction of apoptosis plays a key role in carcinogenesis. Previous studies have reported that polymorphisms in caspase genes could lead to poor apoptotic signaling, thus facilitating the onset of several human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between three polymorphisms (rs1049216, rs2705897 and rs4647603) of the CASP3 gene and the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) in Galicia (NW Spain).The relationship between these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PCa in European populations has yet to be studied. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a case-control study on a total of 243 patients with PCa and 191 healthy individuals, genotyping all polymorphisms using the matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) method. Overall, none of the polymorphisms were clearly associated with the risk of PCa. Nevertheless, the results drawn from this study suggest that genetic variability in the CASP3 gene, in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors may influence the predisposition to develop PCa in the Galician population. Specifically, the results of study seem to hint at a higher risk of PCa in smokers of up to 20 pack-years (PY) and carriers of both the CASP3-rs1049216 GG genotype and the G allele (OR = 3.61, p = 0.044; OR = 1.71; p = 0.018). In addition, the GG and AG genotypes showed increased predisposition to PCa in overweight individuals (OR = 4.43, p = 0.040; OR = 2.00; p = 0.022). Finally, the CASP3-rs4647603 CT genotype and T allele were associated with a higher susceptibility to PCa in obese individuals (OR

Gong Y, Zhang L, Zhang A, et al.
GATA4 inhibits cell differentiation and proliferation in pancreatic cancer.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(8):e0202449 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC) is a common malignant tumor of the digestive system. GATA4 is one of the transcriptional regulatory factors, which regulates the development of endoderm-derived organs, including heart and gut. GATA4 may act as a putative tumor suppressor gene. However, the role of GATA4 in pancreatic carcinogenesis is not yet clarified. This study showed that GATA4 was highly expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues, and its expression level was positively related to the grade of pathological differentiation, suggesting that it may contribute to the progression of pancreatic neoplasia. Ectopic expression of GATA4 gene reduced cell viability and interference of GATA4 expression significantly increased the colony formation ability of pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, GATA4 inhibited tumor growth in xenograft mice. Agilent expression microarray profiling analysis indicated that the genes with significant levels of differential expression in GATA4 over-expressing cells were enriched in the cell differentiation process. Analysis of KEGG signaling pathway demonstrated that the regulated genes were partially enriched in MAPK and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. Re-expression of GATA4 up-regulated P53 gene expression. Our data indicate that GATA4 gene might play a role in cell proliferation and differentiation during the progression of pancreatic cancer.

Soini T, Eloranta K, Pihlajoki M, et al.
Transcription factor GATA4 associates with mesenchymal-like gene expression in human hepatoblastoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2018; 40(7):1010428318785498 [PubMed] Related Publications
GATA4, a transcription factor crucial for early liver development, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatoblastoma, an embryonal tumor of childhood. However, the molecular and phenotypic consequences of GATA4 expression in hepatoblastoma are not fully understood. We surveyed GATA4 expression in 24 hepatoblastomas using RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. RNA interference was used to inhibit GATA4 in human HUH6 hepatoblastoma cells, and changes in cell migration were measured with wound healing and transwell assays. RNA microarray hybridization was performed on control and GATA4 knockdown HUH6 cells, and differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction or immunostaining. Plasmid transfection was used to overexpress GATA4 in primary human hepatocytes and ensuring changes in gene expression were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that GATA4 expression was high in most hepatoblastomas but weak or negligible in normal hepatocytes. GATA4 gene silencing impaired HUH6 cell migration. We identified 106 differentially expressed genes (72 downregulated, 34 upregulated) in knockdown versus control HUH6 cells. GATA4 silencing altered the expression of genes associated with cytoskeleton organization, cell-to-cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix dynamics (e.g. ADD3, AHNAK, DOCK8, RHOU, MSF, IGFBP1, COL4A2). These changes in gene expression reflected a more epithelial (less malignant) phenotype. Consistent with this notion, there was reduced F-actin stress fiber formation in knockdown HUH6 cells. Forced expression of GATA4 in primary human hepatocytes triggered opposite changes in the expression of genes identified by GATA4 silencing in HUH6 cells. In conclusion, GATA4 is highly expressed in most hepatoblastomas and correlates with a mesenchymal, migratory phenotype of hepatoblastoma cells.

Cheng L, Li L, Wang L, et al.
A random forest classifier predicts recurrence risk in patients with ovarian cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(3):3289-3297 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with a poor prognosis due to difficulties in early detection. The aims of the present study were to construct a recurrence risk prediction model and to reveal important OC genes or pathways. RNA sequencing data was obtained for 307 OC samples, and the corresponding clinical data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Additionally, two validation datasets, GSE44104 (20 recurrent and 40 non‑recurrent OC samples) and GSE49997 (204 OC samples), were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes were screened using the differential expression via distance synthesis algorithm, followed by gene ontology enrichment analysis and weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). Furthermore, subnetwork analysis was conducted for the protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network using the BioNet package. Finally, a random forest classifier was constructed based on the subnetwork nodes, and its reliability was validated using the GSE44104 and GSE49997 validation datasets. A total of 44 upregulated and 117 downregulated genes were identified in the recurrent samples. Enrichment analysis indicated that cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1 (CYP17A1) was associated with 'positive regulation of steroid hormone biosynthetic processes'. WGCNA identified turquoise and grey modules that were significantly correlated with status and prognosis. A significant PPI subnetwork containing 16 nodes was also identified, including: Transcription factor GATA‑4; fibroblast growth factor 9; aromatase; 3β‑hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/δ5‑4‑isomerase type 2; corticosteroid 11β‑dehydrogenase isozyme 1; CYP17A1; pituitary homeobox 2; left‑right determination factor 1; homeobox protein ARX; estrogen receptor β; steroidogenic factor 1; forkhead box protein L2; myocardin; steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mitochondrial; vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter; and twist‑related protein 1. A random forest classifier was constructed using the subnetwork nodes as feature genes, which exhibited a 92% true positive rate when classifying recurrent and non‑recurrent OC samples. The classifying efficiency of the random forest classifier was validated using the two other independent datasets. Overall, 44 upregulated and 117 downregulated genes associated with OC recurrence were identified. Furthermore, the 16 subnetwork node genes that were identified may be important molecules in OC recurrence.

Gebhard C, Glatz D, Schwarzfischer L, et al.
Profiling of aberrant DNA methylation in acute myeloid leukemia reveals subclasses of CG-rich regions with epigenetic or genetic association.
Leukemia. 2019; 33(1):26-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant transformation is frequently associated with disease-specific epigenetic alterations, but the underlying mechanisms and pathophysiological consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we used global comparative DNA methylation profiling at CG-rich regions of 27 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples to select a subset of aberrantly methylated CG-rich regions (~400 regions, ~15,000 CpGs) for quantitative DNA methylation profiling in a large cohort of AML patients (n = 196) using MALDI-TOF analysis of bisulfite-treated DNA. Meta-analysis separated a subgroup of CG-rich regions showing highly correlated DNA methylation changes that were marked by histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation in normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. While the group of non-polycomb group (PcG) target regions displayed methylation patterns that correlated well with molecular and cytogenetic markers, PcG target regions displayed a much weaker association with genetic features. However, the degree of methylation gain across the latter panel showed significant correlation with active DNMT3A levels and with overall survival. Our study suggests that both epigenetic as well as genetic aberrations underlay AML-related changes in DNA methylation at CG-rich regions and that the former may provide a marker to improve classification and prognostication of adult AML patients.

Phoomak C, Silsirivanit A, Park D, et al.
O-GlcNAcylation mediates metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma through FOXO3 and MAN1A1.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(42):5648-5665 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The leading cause of death in cancer patients is metastasis, for which an effective treatment is still necessary. During metastasis, cancer cells aberrantly express several glycans that are correlated with poor patient outcome. This study was aimed toward exploring the effects of O-GlcNAcylation on membranous N-glycans that are associated with the progression of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Global O-GlcNAcylation in CCA cells was depleted using specific siRNA against O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which transfers GlcNAc to the acceptor proteins. Using an HPLC-Chip/Time-of-Flight (Chip/TOF) MS system, the N-glycans associated with O-GlcNAcylation were identified by comparing the membranous N-glycans of siOGT-treated cells with those of scramble siRNA-treated cells. In parallel, the membranous N-glycans of the parental cells (KKU-213 and KKU-214) were compared with those of the highly metastatic cells (KKU-213L5 and KKU-214L5). Together, these data revealed that high mannose (Hex

Chou HC, Lu CH, Su YC, et al.
Proteomic analysis of honokiol-induced cytotoxicity in thyroid cancer cells.
Life Sci. 2018; 207:184-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Honokiol is a natural product extracted from herbal plants such as the Magnolia species which have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor and anti-metastatic properties. However, the effects of honokiol on thyroid cancers are largely unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine whether honokiol might be useful for the treatment of thyroid cancer and to elucidate the mechanism of toxicity of honokiol, we analyzed the impact of honokiol treatment on differential protein expression in human thyroid cancer cell line ARO using lysine-labeling two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with mass spectrometry (MS).
KEY FINDINGS: This study revealed 178 proteins that showed a significant change in expression levels and also revealed that honokiol-induced cytotoxicity in thyroid cancer cells involves dysregulation of cytoskeleton, protein folding, transcription control and glycolysis.
SIGNIFICANCE: Our work shows that combined proteomic strategy provides a rapid method to study the molecular mechanisms of honokiol-induced cytotoxicity in thyroid cancer cells. The identified targets may be useful for further evaluation as potential targets in thyroid cancer therapy.

Karaosmanoğlu O, Banerjee S, Sivas H
Identification of biomarkers associated with partial epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the secretome of slug over-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2018; 41(4):439-453 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Complete epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has long been considered as a crucial step for metastasis initiation. It has, however, become apparent that many carcinoma cells can metastasize without complete loss of epithelial traits or with incomplete gain of mesenchymal traits, i.e., partial EMT. Here, we aimed to determine the similarities and differences between complete and partial EMT through over-expression of the EMT-associated transcription factor Slug in different HCC-derived cell lines.
METHODS: Slug over-expressing HCC-derived HepG2 and Huh7 cells were assessed for their EMT, chemo-resistance and stemness features using Western blotting, qRT-PCR, neutral red uptake, doxorubicin accumulation and scratch wound healing assays. We also collected conditioned media from Slug over-expressing HCC cells and analyzed its exosomal protein content for the presence of chemo-resistance and partial EMT markers using MALDI-TOF/TOF and ELISA assays, respectively.
RESULTS: We found that Slug over-expression resulted in the induction of both complete and partial EMT in the different HCC-derived cell lines tested. Complete EMT was characterized by downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of ZEB2. Partial EMT was characterized by upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of vimentin and ZEB2. Interestingly, we found that Slug induced chemo-resistance through downregulation of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 and upregulation of the ABC transporter ABCG2, as well as through expression of CD133, a stemness marker that exhibited a similar expression pattern in cells with either a complete or a partial EMT phenotype. In addition, we found that Slug-mediated partial EMT was associated with enhanced exosomal secretion of post-translationally modified fibronectin 1 (FN1), collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1) and native fibrinogen gamma chain (FGG).
CONCLUSIONS: From our data we conclude that the exosomal proteins identified may be considered as potential non-invasive biomarkers for chemo-resistance and partial EMT in HCC.

Hutchison T, Malu A, Yapindi L, et al.
The TP53-Induced Glycolysis and Apoptosis Regulator mediates cooperation between HTLV-1 p30
Virology. 2018; 520:39-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is an oncoretrovirus that infects and transforms CD4+ T-cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) -an aggressive lymphoproliferative disease that is highly refractive to most anticancer therapies. The HTLV-1 proviral genome encodes several regulatory products within a conserved 3' nucleotide sequence, known as pX; however, it remains unclear how these factors might cooperate or dynamically interact in virus-infected cells. Here we demonstrate that the HTLV-1 latency-maintenance factor p30

Vanaja GR, Ramulu HG, Kalle AM
Overexpressed HDAC8 in cervical cancer cells shows functional redundancy of tubulin deacetylation with HDAC6.
Cell Commun Signal. 2018; 16(1):20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in epigenetic gene regulation via deacetylation of acetylated lysine residues of both histone and non-histone proteins. Among the 18 HDACs identified in humans, HDAC8, a class I HDAC, is best understood structurally and enzymatically. However, its precise subcellular location, function in normal cellular physiology, its protein partners and substrates still remain elusive.
METHODS: The subcellular localization of HDAC8 was studied using immunofluorescence and confocal imaging. The binding parterns were identified employing immunoprecipitation (IP) followed by MALDI-TOF analysis and confirmed using in-silico protein-protein interaction studies, HPLC-based in vitro deacetylation assay, intrinsic fluorescence spectrophotometric analysis, Circular dichroism (CD) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Functional characterization of the binding was carried out using immunoblot and knockdown by siRNA. Using one way ANOVA statistical significance (n = 3) was determined.
RESULTS: Here, we show that HDAC8 and its phosphorylated form (pHDAC8) localized predominantly in the cytoplasm in cancerous, HeLa, and non-cancerous (normal), HEK293T, cells, although nucleolar localization was observed in HeLa cells. The study identified Alpha tubulin as a novel interacting partner of HDAC8. Further, the results indicated binding and deacetylation of tubulin at ac-lys40 by HDAC8. Knockdown of HDAC8 by siRNA, inhibition of HDAC8 and/or HDAC6 by PCI-34051 and tubastatin respectively, cell-migration, cell morphology and cell cycle analysis clearly explained HDAC8 as tubulin deacetylase in HeLa cells and HDAC6 in HEK 293 T cells.
CONCLUSIONS: HDAC8 shows functional redundancy with HDAC6 when overexpressed in cervical cancer cells, HeLa, and deacetylaes ac-lys40 of alpha tubulin leading to cervical cancer proliferation and progression.

Liu D, Zhang XX, Li MC, et al.
C/EBPβ enhances platinum resistance of ovarian cancer cells by reprogramming H3K79 methylation.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):1739 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chemoresistance is a major unmet clinical obstacle in ovarian cancer treatment. Epigenetics plays a pivotal role in regulating the malignant phenotype, and has the potential in developing therapeutically valuable targets that improve the dismal outcome of this disease. Here we show that a series of transcription factors, including C/EBPβ, GCM1, and GATA1, could act as potential modulators of histone methylation in tumor cells. Of note, C/EBPβ, an independent prognostic factor for patients with ovarian cancer, mediates an important mechanism through which epigenetic enzyme modifies groups of functionally related genes in a context-dependent manner. By recruiting the methyltransferase DOT1L, C/EBPβ can maintain an open chromatin state by H3K79 methylation of multiple drug-resistance genes, thereby augmenting the chemoresistance of tumor cells. Therefore, we propose a new path against cancer epigenetics in which identifying and targeting the key regulators of epigenetics such as C/EBPβ may provide more precise therapeutic options in ovarian cancer.

Liao Y, Liao Y, Li J, et al.
Genetic variants in miRNA machinery genes associated with clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of gastric cancer patients.
Int J Biol Markers. 2018; 33(3):301-307 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in miRNA machinery genes have been proved to be related to risk or survival of several kinds of cancers, but the results are controversial and the role of these polymorphisms in gastric cancer remains uncertain. In our study, we investigated the association between five genetic variants in miRNA machinery genes ( DICER, RAN, XPO5 [name of the gene]) and clinical outcomes in Chinese gastric cancer patients.
METHODS: A total of 96 patients with stage IB-III gastric cancer treated with radical gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy of oxaliplatin and fluorouracils were analyzed. The MassARRAY MALDI-TOF system was used to determine the genotypes.
RESULTS: DICER rs3742330 AG+GG genotype was associated with more advanced T stage compared to AA genotype ( P=0.009). More patients with XPO5 rs2257082 CC genotype had poorly differentiated tumors compared with CT+TT genotype carriers. After adjustment by age, sex, differentiation, T stage, and lymph node status, XPO5 rs2257082 CC genotype carriers were found to have worse disease-free survival than CT+TT genotype carriers (adjusted HR 3.099; 95% CI 1.270, 7.564; P=0.013), carriers of RAN rs14035 CC genotype had higher three-year OS rate than carriers of CT+TT genotype (adjusted HR 3.174; 95% CI 1.010, 9.973; P=0.048).
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that genetic variants in miRNA machinery genes might be associated with the clinicopathological features and prognosis of completely resected gastric cancer patients.

Kwiecińska A, Porwit A, Souchelnytskyi N, et al.
Proteomic Profiling of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas.
Pathobiology. 2018; 85(4):211-219 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify differences in proteome profiles of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of nongerminal center (non-GC) versus GC type in the search for new markers and drug targets.
METHODS: Six DLBCL, with 3 repeats for each, were used for the initial study by proteomics: 3 non-GC and 3 GC DLBCL cases. For immunohistochemistry, tissue microarrays were made from 31 DLBCL samples: 16 non-GC de novo lymphomas and 15 GC cases (11 transformed from follicular lymphomas and 4 de novo GC lymphomas). Proteome profiling was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: Ninety-one proteins were found differentially expressed in non-GC compared to GC type. The Cytoscape tool was used for systemic analysis of proteomics data, revealing 19 subnetworks representing functions affected in non-GC versus GC types of DLBCL.
CONCLUSION: A validation study of 3 selected proteins (BiP/Grp78, Hsp90, and cyclin B2) showed the enhanced expression in non-GC DLBCL, supporting the proteomics data.

Kanli A, Kasap M, Yoneten KK, et al.
Identification of differentially regulated deceitful proteins in SH-SY5Y cells engineered with Tet-regulated protein expression system.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(7):6065-6071 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tetracycline regulated protein expression in mammalian cells is a powerful tool to predict the physiological function, cellular localization, and stability of a protein. In addition, to predict metabolic networks affected by the expression of wild-type or mutant forms of proteins, researchers generally produce a single mammalian cell clone that can express the protein of interest under tetracycline control and study the changes occurring in overall proteome before and after expression of a protein of interest. One limitation of tetracycline regulated clonal cell creation, however, is that it sometimes creates clones with changed protein levels even without the expression of the protein of interest due to the nonspecific insertion of the gene encoding the protein of interest into the genome or disruption of a metabolic pathway due to insertional silencing or activation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the limitation of tetracycline regulated gene expression by creating clonal cell lines expressing the wild-type or the mutant forms of Fat mass and obesity-associated protein. Comparative proteome analysis of the protein extracts by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to MALDI-TOF/TOF revealed the presence of eight proteins subjected to differential regulation even in the absence of induction. The identified proteins were 14-3-3 protein Epsilon, Vimentin, Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, Tubulin beta-2C chain, Heat shock protein HSP 90-alpha, Heat shock protein HSP 90-beta, Alpha-enolase, TATA-binding protein-associated factor 2N. An ultimate care should be taken to prevent reporting of deceitful proteins generated from studies utilizing tetracycline regulated gene expression systems.

Li Y, Wei Y, Yuan W, et al.
DNA damage induced by human CD40 ligand mutant promotes senescence and induces demethylation of GATA4 in lung cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(5):2071-2080 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The ligand of CD40, known as CD154 or CD40L, is the key to immunostimulatory and anticancer activity, but how CD40L affects cellular senescence is unclear. Thus, we studied a membrane‑stable mutant form CD40L (CD40L‑M) to explore tumor growth and cellular senescence in CD40‑positive NSCLC cells. We found that CD40L‑M‑expressing cells had senescent characteristics, including reduced cell proliferation and enlargement, increased SA‑β‑gal staining activity, and overexpression of several cell cycle regulators p53 and p21. In addition, expression of GATA4 was restored, and the NF‑κB signaling pathway was activated in the CD40L‑M‑induced senescent cells. Mechanistic analyses revealed that CD40L‑M expression triggered the ATM/Chk2 DNA damage response, which mediated cell senescence and GATA4 activation. Knockdown of GATA4 reversed CD40L‑M‑induced senescence and decreased NF‑κB activity. Thus, CD40L‑M contributes to induction of cell senescence in CD40‑positive NSCLC cells, and GATA4 is a switch to activate the NF‑κB pathway, which is positively regulated by DNA damage response (DDR) signaling kinases. Collectively, CD40L‑M‑induced senescence may be a barrier to the growth of lung cancer cells.

Yang M, Sun Y, Sun J, et al.
Differentially expressed and survival-related proteins of lung adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis.
Cancer Med. 2018; 7(4):1081-1092 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite recent advances in targeted and immune-based therapies, the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) with bone metastasis (BM) remains a challenge. First, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in LUAD with BM, and then matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to identify these proteins. Second, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to identify mutations in these differentially expressed proteins and Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM Plotter) was used to generate survival curves for the analyzed cases. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to check the expression of proteins in 28 patients with BM and nine patients with LUAD. Lastly, the results were analyzed with respect to clinical features and patient's follow-up. We identified a number of matched proteins from 2-DE. High expression of enolase 1 (ENO1) (HR = 1.67, logrank P = 1.9E-05), ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit P2 (RPLP2) (HR = 1.77, logrank P = 2.9e-06), and NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NME1-NME2) (HR = 2.65, logrank P = 3.9E-15) was all significantly associated with poor survival (P < 0.05). Further, ENO1 was upregulated (P = 0.0004) and calcyphosine (CAPS1) was downregulated (P = 5.34E-07) in TCGA LUAD RNA-seq expression data. IHC revealed that prominent ENO1 staining (OR = 7.5, P = 0.034) and low levels of CAPS1 (OR = 0.01, P < 0.0001) staining were associated with BM incidence. Finally, we found that LUAD patients with high expression of ENO1 and RPLP2 had worse overall survival. This is the first instance where the genes ENO1, RPLP2, NME1-NME2 and CAPS1 were associated with disease severity and progression in LUAD patients with BM. Thus, with this study, we have identified potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for this disease.

El-Deeb NM, Yassin AM, Al-Madboly LA, El-Hawiet A
A novel purified Lactobacillus acidophilus 20079 exopolysaccharide, LA-EPS-20079, molecularly regulates both apoptotic and NF-κB inflammatory pathways in human colon cancer.
Microb Cell Fact. 2018; 17(1):29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The direct link between inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer is well documented. Previous studies have reported that some lactic acid bacterial strains could inhibit colon cancer progression however; the exact molecules involved have not yet been identified. So, in the current study, we illustrated the tumor suppressive effects of the newly identified Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079 cell-free pentasaccharide against colon cancer cells. The chemical structure of the purified pentasaccharide was investigated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrum, 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The anticancer potentiality of the purified pentasaccharide against both Human colon cancer (CaCo-2) and Human breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines with its safety usage pattern were evaluated using cytotoxicity, annexin V quantification and BrdU incorporation assays. Also, the immunomodulatory effects of the identified compound were quantified on both LPS-induced PBMC cell model and cancer cells with monitoring the immunophenotyping of T and dendritic cell surface marker. At molecular level, the alteration in gene expression of both inflammatory and apoptotic pathways were quantified upon pentasaccharide-cellular treatment by RTqPCR.
RESULTS: The obtained data of the spectroscopic analysis, confirmed the structure of the newly extracted pentasaccharide; (LA-EPS-20079) to be: α-D-Glc (1→2)][α-L-Fuc(1→4)] α-D-GlcA(1→2) α-D-GlcA(1→2) α-D-GlcA. This pentasaccharide, recorded safe dose on normal mammalian cells ranged from 2 to 5 mg/ml with cancer cells selectivity index, ranged of 1.96-51.3. Upon CaCo-2 cell treatment with the non-toxic dose of LA-EPS-20079, the inhibition percentage in CaCo-2 cellular viability, reached 80.65 with an increase in the ratio of the apoptotic cells in sub-G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Also, this pentasaccharide showed potentialities to up-regulate the expression of IKbα, P53 and TGF genes.
CONCLUSION: The anticancer potentialities of LA-EPS-20079 oligosaccharides against human colon cancer represented through its regulatory effects on both apoptotic and NF-κB inflammatory pathways.

Romeo M, Hutchison T, Malu A, et al.
The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 p30
Virology. 2018; 518:103-115 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In normal cells, aberrant oncogene expression leads to the accumulation of cytotoxic metabolites, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative DNA-damage and apoptosis as an intrinsic barrier against neoplastic disease. The c-Myc oncoprotein is overexpressed in many lymphoid cancers due to c-myc gene amplification and/or 8q24 chromosomal translocations. Intriguingly, p53 is a downstream target of c-Myc and hematological malignancies, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), frequently contain wildtype p53 and c-Myc overexpression. We therefore hypothesized that p53-regulated pro-survival signals may thwart the cell's metabolic anticancer defenses to support oncogene-activation in lymphoid cancers. Here we show that the Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) promotes c-myc oncogene-activation by the human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) latency-maintenance factor p30

Liu Y, Tan YR, Sun WW, et al.
Identification of SCARA5 as a Potential Biomarker for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma using MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis.
Proteomics Clin Appl. 2018; 12(5):e1700180 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To find the potential biomarkers in the diagnostic model of oral and squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to further validate the biomarker.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: With the MALDI-TOF-MS analysis between tissues from oral cancer patients and normal oral mucosa from healthy controls, scavenger receptor class A member 5 (scara5) is found to be potentially significant after searching the protein database. In addition, Immunohistochemical staining, PCR, ELISA, and Western blot technique are used to detect scara5 expression in clinical samples and cell lines.
RESULTS: In this study, the results indicate that scara5 expression is decreased in tumor group in the MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of scara5 expression is related with cell proliferation and invasion. Serum scara5 detection can discriminate OSCC samples from normal samples with high sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Scara5 has the potential to be considered as a serum biomarker in the early diagnosis of OSCC. The clinical relevance of the study lies in finding the biomarker by proteomics and subsequently validating it with clinical samples and cell lines.

Park J, Na HK, Shon HK, et al.
TOF-SIMS analysis of an isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation-associated oncometabolite in cancer cells.
Biointerphases. 2018; 13(3):03B404 [PubMed] Related Publications
The development of analytical tools for accurate and sensitive detection of intracellular metabolites associated with mutated metabolic enzymes is important in cancer diagnosis and staging. The gene encoding the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is mutated in various cancers, and mutant IDH1 could represent a good biomarker and potent target for cancer therapy. Owing to a mutation in an important arginine residue in the catalytic pocket, mutant IDH1 catalyzes the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) instead of its wild type product α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), which is involved in multiple cellular pathways involving the hydroxylation of proteins, ribonucleic acid, and deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). Since 2-HG is an α-KG antagonist, inhibiting normal α-KG-dependent metabolism, high intracellular levels of 2-HG result in abnormal histone and DNA methylation. Therefore, accurate and sensitive analytical tools for the direct detection of 2-HG in cancer cells expressing mutant IDH1 would benefit this field, as it would minimize the need both for complicated experimental procedures and for large amounts of biological samples. Here, the authors describe a useful analytical method for the direct detection of 2-HG in lysates from a mutant IDH1-expressing cell line by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis, a powerful surface analysis tool. In addition, the authors verified the efficacy of the specific mutant IDH1 inhibitor AGI-5198 by tracking the intracellular 2-HG concentration, which decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate the large potential of TOF-SIMS as an analytical tool for the simple, direct detection of oncometabolites during cancer diagnosis, and for verifying the efficiency of the targeted cancer drugs.

Bonaparte E, Pesenti C, Fontana L, et al.
Molecular profiling of lung cancer specimens and liquid biopsies using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
Diagn Pathol. 2018; 13(1):4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Identification of predictive molecular alterations in lung adenocarcinoma is essential for accurate therapeutic decisions. Although several molecular approaches are available, a number of issues, including tumor heterogeneity, frequent material scarcity, and the large number of loci to be investigated, must be taken into account in selecting the most appropriate technique. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS), which allows multiplexed genotyping, has been adopted in routine diagnostics as a sensitive, reliable, fast, and cost-effective method. Our aim was to test the reliability of this approach in detecting targetable mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, we also analyzed low-quality samples, such as cytologic specimens, that often, are the unique source of starting material in lung cancer cases, to test the sensitivity of the system.
METHODS: We designed a MS-based assay for testing 158 mutations in the EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ALK, PIK3CA, ERBB2, DDR2, AKT, and MEK1 genes and applied it to 92 NSCLC specimens and 13 liquid biopsies from another subset of NSCLC patients. We also tested the sensitivity of the method to distinguish low represented mutations using serial dilutions of mutated DNA.
RESULTS: Our panel is able to detect the most common NSCLC mutations and the frequency of the mutations observed in our cohort was comparable to literature data. The assay identifies mutated alleles at frequencies of 2.5-10%. In addition, we found that the amount of DNA template was irrelevant to efficiently uncover mutated alleles present at high frequency. However, when using less than 10 ng of DNA, the assay can detect mutations present in at least 10% of the alleles. Finally, using MS and a commercial kit for RT-PCR we tested liquid biopsy from 13 patients with identified mutations in cancers and detected the mutations in 4 (MS) and in 5 samples (RT-PCR).
CONCLUSIONS: MS is a powerful method for the routine predictive tests of lung cancer also using low quality and scant tissues. Finally, after appropriate validation and improvement, MS could represent a promising and cost-effective strategy for monitoring the presence and percentage of the mutations also in non-invasive sampling.

Gong Y, Fang F, Zhang X, et al.
B Type and Complex A/B Type Epicatechin Trimers Isolated from Litchi pericarp Aqueous Extract Show High Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Litchi (

Wang W, Cai Q, Zhou F, et al.
Impaired pentose phosphate pathway in the development of 3D MCF-7 cells mediated intracellular redox disturbance and multi-cellular resistance without drug induction.
Redox Biol. 2018; 15:253-265 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although metabolic reprogramming and redox imbalance are widely reported to be involved in chemo-resistance in cancer treatment, much more attention was paid to anti-cancer drug induced effect. Our previous studies showed that cancer cells can develop P-gp overexpression-mediated intrinsic drug resistance in the formation of 3D MCF-7 multi-cellular layers (MCLs) without any drug induction. However, whether metabolic reprogramming and redox imbalance functioned during this progress remained unrevealed. In our present study, LC-Q/TOF-MS and GC-MS were used in combination for analysing intracellular metabolites. The contribution of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and its related redox status were checked by chemical interfering and silencing/over-expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). The downstream products of G6PD were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and flow cytometry. Results showed that not only G6PD expression but also G6PD activity was significantly lowered along with 3D MCF-7 cells culture time. Impaired PPP disturbed redox-cycling, generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), which triggered cell cycle arrest and caused the switch to Chk2/p53/NF-κB pathway-mediated P-gp induction. Our results provided a new attempt to associate intrinsic small molecule metabolites (impaired PPP) communicating with cell signalling pathways through disturbed intracellular redox status to elucidate multi-cellular resistance (MCR) in 3D MCF-7 cells, which improved the understanding of the mechanisms of P-gp up-regulation in MCR with metabolomic and related redox status support.

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