FUS

Gene Summary

Gene:FUS; FUS RNA binding protein
Aliases: TLS, ALS6, ETM4, FUS1, POMP75, HNRNPP2
Location:16p11.2
Summary:This gene encodes a multifunctional protein component of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) complex. The hnRNP complex is involved in pre-mRNA splicing and the export of fully processed mRNA to the cytoplasm. This protein belongs to the FET family of RNA-binding proteins which have been implicated in cellular processes that include regulation of gene expression, maintenance of genomic integrity and mRNA/microRNA processing. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Defects in this gene result in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 6. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:RNA-binding protein FUS
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 21 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (15)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 21 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 21 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Soft Tissue Sarcomat(12;16)(q13;p11) FUS-DDIT3 in Mixoid Liposarcoma View Publications39
Skin CancerFUS and Skin Cancer View Publications7
-FUS and Tongue Neoplasms View Publications1
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)t(16;21)(p11;q22) in Leukemia (ANLL)
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)t(16;21)(p11;q22) FUS-ERG in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Soft Tissue Sarcomat(7;16)(q33;p11) FUS-CREB3L2 in Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FUS (cancer-related)

Campos-Melo D, Droppelmann CA, Volkening K, Strong MJ
RNA-binding proteins as molecular links between cancer and neurodegeneration.
Biogerontology. 2014; 15(6):587-610 [PubMed] Related Publications
For many years, epidemiological studies have suggested an association between cancer and neurodegenerative disorders-two disease processes that seemingly have little in common. Although these two disease processes share disruptions in a wide range of cellular pathways, including cell survival, cell death and the cell cycle, the end result is very divergent: uncontrolled cell survival and proliferation in cancer and progressive neuronal cell death in neurodegeneration. Despite the clinical data connecting these two disease processes, little is known about the molecular links between them. Among the mechanisms affected in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, alterations in RNA metabolism are obtaining significant attention given the critical role for RNA transcription, maturation, transport, stability, degradation and translation in normal cellular function. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are integral to each stage of RNA metabolism through their participation in the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). RBPs have a broad range of functions including posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA stability, splicing, editing and translation, mRNA export and localization, mRNA polyadenylation and miRNA biogenesis, ultimately impacting the expression of every single gene in the cell. In this review, we examine the evidence for RBPs as being key a molecular linkages between cancer and neurodegeneration.

Zhou H, Mangelsdorf M, Liu J, et al.
RNA-binding proteins in neurological diseases.
Sci China Life Sci. 2014; 57(4):432-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging studies support that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play critical roles in human biology and pathogenesis. RBPs are essential players in RNA processing and metabolism, including pre-mRNA splicing, polyadenylation, transport, surveillance, mRNA localization, mRNA stability control, translational control and editing of various types of RNAs. Aberrant expression of and mutations in RBP genes affect various steps of RNA processing, altering target gene function. RBPs have been associated with various diseases, including neurological diseases. Here, we mainly focus on selected RNA-binding proteins including Nova-1/Nova-2, HuR/HuB/HuC/HuD, TDP-43, Fus, Rbfox1/Rbfox2, QKI and FMRP, discussing their function and roles in human diseases.

Arbajian E, Puls F, Magnusson L, et al.
Recurrent EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusions in sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(6):801-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) are 2 distinct types of sarcoma, with a subset of cases showing overlapping morphologic and immunohistochemical features. LGFMS is characterized by expression of the MUC4 protein, and about 90% of cases display a distinctive FUS-CREB3L2 gene fusion. In addition, SEF is often MUC4 positive, but is genetically less well studied. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies have shown involvement of the FUS gene in the majority of so-called hybrid LGFMS/SEF and in 10% to 25% of sarcomas with pure SEF morphology. In this study, we investigated a series of 10 primary tumors showing pure SEF morphology, 4 cases of LGFMS that at local or distant relapse showed predominant SEF morphology, and 1 primary hybrid LGFMS/SEF. All but 1 case showed diffuse expression for MUC4. Using FISH, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and/or mRNA sequencing in selected cases, we found recurrent EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusion transcripts by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in 3/10 pure SEF cases and splits and deletions of the EWSR1 and/or CREB3L1 genes by FISH in 6 additional cases. All 5 cases of LGFMS with progression to SEF morphology or hybrid features had FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts. Our results indicate that EWSR1 and CREB3L1 rearrangements are predominant over FUS and CREB3L2 rearrangements in pure SEF, highlighting that SEF and LGFMS are different tumor types, with different impacts on patient outcome.

Meng J, Majidi M, Fang B, et al.
The tumor suppressor gene TUSC2 (FUS1) sensitizes NSCLC to the AKT inhibitor MK2206 in LKB1-dependent manner.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77067 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TUSC2-defective gene expression is detected in the majority of lung cancers and is associated with worse overall survival. We analyzed the effects of TUSC2 re-expression on tumor cell sensitivity to the AKT inhibitor, MK2206, and explored their mutual signaling connections, in vitro and in vivo. TUSC2 transient expression in three LKB1-defective non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines combined with MK2206 treatment resulted in increased repression of cell viability and colony formation, and increased apoptotic activity. In contrast, TUSC2 did not affect the response to MK2206 treatment for two LKB1-wild type NSCLC cell lines. In vivo, TUSC2 systemic delivery, by nanoparticle gene transfer, combined with MK2206 treatment markedly inhibited growth of tumors in a human LKB1-defective H322 lung cancer xenograft mouse model. Biochemical analysis showed that TUSC2 transient expression in LKB1-defective NSCLC cells significantly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and enzymatic activity. More importantly, AMPK gene knockdown abrogated TUSC2-MK2206 cooperation, as evidenced by reduced sensitivity to the combined treatment. Together, TUSC2 re-expression and MK2206 treatment was more effective in inhibiting the phosphorylation and kinase activities of AKT and mTOR proteins than either single agent alone. In conclusion, these findings support the hypothesis that TUSC2 expression status is a biological variable that potentiates MK2206 sensitivity in LKB1-defective NSCLC cells, and identifies the AMPK/AKT/mTOR signaling axis as an important regulator of this activity.

Rodriguez R, Tornin J, Suarez C, et al.
Expression of FUS-CHOP fusion protein in immortalized/transformed human mesenchymal stem cells drives mixoid liposarcoma formation.
Stem Cells. 2013; 31(10):2061-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence supports that mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) may represent the target cell for sarcoma development. Although different sarcomas have been modeled in mice upon expression of fusion oncogenes in MSCs, sarcomagenesis has not been successfully modeled in human MSCs (hMSCs). We report that FUS-CHOP, a hallmark fusion gene in mixoid liposarcoma (MLS), has an instructive role in lineage commitment, and its expression in hMSC sequentially immortalized/transformed with up to five oncogenic hits (p53 and Rb deficiency, hTERT over-expression, c-myc stabilization, and H-RAS(v12) mutation) drives the formation of serially transplantable MLS. This is the first model of sarcoma based on the expression of a sarcoma-associated fusion protein in hMSC, and allowed us to unravel the differentiation processes and signaling pathways altered in the MLS-initiating cells. This study will contribute to test novel therapeutic approaches and constitutes a proof-of-concept to use hMSCs as target cell for modeling other fusion gene-associated human sarcomas.

Ferlosio A, Doldo E, Polisca P, Orlandi A
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: an unusual cardiac location.
Cardiovasc Pathol. 2013 May-Jun; 22(3):e15-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report the unusual cardiac localization of a primary low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the right ventricle in a 57-year-old woman. Histological examination revealed a prevalent myxoid appearance with whorling growth pattern of small or spindle cells with bland features alternating with rare more collagenous hypocellular areas with rare atypical cells. Genomic polymerase chain reaction of genomic DNA revealed the typical FUS/Creb3L2 fusion gene products typical of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. The tumor was surgically removed and recurred after 7 years as high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma. The patient died 6 months after the clinical manifestation of recurrence. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of soft tissues is a rare, distinctive variant of fibrosarcoma-typically arising in deep soft tissue of lower extremities and trunk-that rarely metastasizes. Clinically, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma is characterized by a longer survival rate compared to other sarcomas, suggesting its consideration in the differential diagnosis of cardiac tumors with a myxoid appearance.

Dobin SM, Malone VS, Lopez L, Donner LR
Unusual histologic variant of a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma in a 3-year-old boy with complex chromosomal translocations involving 7q34, 10q11.2, and 16p11.2 and rearrangement of the FUS gene.
Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2013 Mar-Apr; 16(2):86-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas are rare, histologically deceptive, cytologically bland tumors that are infrequently encountered in pediatric patients. Our knowledge of histologic spectrum of these tumors is limited. A histologically unusual variant of a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma arising in a 3-year-old boy and containing islands of cohesive epithelioid cells is described. The diagnosis was, given the patient's age and the presence of epithelioid islands, very difficult and was verified by the presence of 3-way chromosomal translocations involving 7q34, 10q11.2, and 16p11.2 by rearrangement of the FUS gene and by immunoreactivity for mucin 4.

Borjigin N, Ohno S, Wu W, et al.
TLS-CHOP represses miR-486 expression, inducing upregulation of a metastasis regulator PAI-1 in human myxoid liposarcoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 427(2):355-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myxoid liposarcomas (MLSs) are characterized by t(12;16)(q13;p11) translocation and expression of TLS-CHOP chimeric oncoprotein. However, the molecular functions of TLS-CHOP have not been fully understood. On the other hand, microRNAs (miRNAs) comprise an abundant class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of their target genes, and are involved in many biological processes. It is now evident that dysregulation of miRNAs is an important step in the development of many cancers. To our knowledge, however, there have been no reports of the miRNAs involved in MLS tumorigenesis and development. In this study, we have found that miR-486 expression was repressed in TLS-CHOP-expressed NIH3T3 fibroblasts and MLS tissues, and exogenous overexpression of miR-486 repressed growth of MLS cells. Thus, downregulation of miR-486 may be an important process for MLS. In addition, we have identified plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as a novel target gene of miR-486. PAI-1 is a unique type of serine protease inhibitor and is known to be one of the key regulators of tumor invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, knockdown of PAI-1 by a specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited growth of MLS cells, suggesting that increased expression of PAI-1 by miR-486 repression is critical for survival of MLS cells. Collectively, these results suggest a novel essential molecular mechanism that TLS-CHOP activates PAI-1 expression by repression of miR-486 expression in MLS tumorigenesis and development.

Doyle LA, Wang WL, Dal Cin P, et al.
MUC4 is a sensitive and extremely useful marker for sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: association with FUS gene rearrangement.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2012; 36(10):1444-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare aggressive fibroblastic neoplasm composed of cords of epithelioid cells embedded in a dense collagenous stroma. The reported immunophenotype of SEF is nonspecific. Some SEF cases show morphologic and molecular overlap with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS), suggesting a relationship between these tumor types. MUC4 has recently been identified as a sensitive and specific marker for LGFMS; MUC4 expression was also observed in 2 tumors with hybrid features of SEF and LGFMS. We investigated MUC4 expression in SEF and other epithelioid soft tissue tumors to determine (1) the potential diagnostic utility of MUC4 for SEF and (2) the association between MUC4 expression and FUS rearrangement in SEF. Whole sections of 180 tumors were evaluated: 41 cases of SEF (including 29 "pure" SEF and 12 hybrid LGFMS-SEF), 20 epithelioid sarcomas, 11 clear cell sarcomas, 11 metastatic melanomas, 10 perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, 10 alveolar soft part sarcomas, 10 epithelioid angiosarcomas, 10 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, 10 epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 10 myoepithelial carcinomas, 17 ossifying fibromyxoid tumors, 10 leiomyosarcomas, and 10 biphasic synovial sarcomas. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed after antigen retrieval using a mouse anti-MUC4 monoclonal antibody. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on 33 SEF cases using FUS break-apart probes. A subset of cases was also evaluated for EWSR1 and CREB3L2/L1 rearrangements by FISH. Strong diffuse cytoplasmic staining for MUC4 was observed in 32 of 41 (78%) cases of SEF, including all 12 hybrid tumors. FUS rearrangement was detected in 8 of 21 (38%) MUC4-positive cases of SEF with successful FISH studies. The prevalence of FUS rearrangement was similar in hybrid LGFMS-SEF (2 of 6; 33%) and SEF without an LGFMS component (6 of 15; 40%). FUS rearrangement was not detected in any cases of MUC4-negative SEF. Two hybrid tumors had both EWSR1 and CREB3L1 rearrangements. MUC4 expression was also seen in 9 of 10 (90%) biphasic synovial sarcomas, predominantly in the glandular component. All other tumor types were negative for MUC4, apart from focal reactivity in 5 ossifying fibromyxoid tumors, 2 epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and 1 myoepithelial carcinoma. MUC4 is a sensitive and relatively specific marker for SEF among epithelioid soft tissue tumors. MUC4 expression occurs more frequently than FUS rearrangement in SEF. The finding of EWSR1 and CREB3L1 rearrangements in 2 cases of hybrid LGFMS-SEF suggests that SEFs are genetically heterogenous. MUC4-positive SEFs with FUS rearrangement are likely closely related to LGFMS. MUC4-positive SEFs that lack FUS rearrangement may be related to LGFMS but could have alternate fusion partners, including EWSR1. SEF without MUC4 expression may represent a distinct group of tumors. MUC4 expression correlates with glandular epithelial differentiation in biphasic synovial sarcoma and is very limited in other epithelioid soft tissue tumors.

Wang WL, Evans HL, Meis JM, et al.
FUS rearrangements are rare in 'pure' sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma.
Mod Pathol. 2012; 25(6):846-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several recent reports have described low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma with sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma-like areas. We evaluated cases of pure sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma lacking areas of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma for FUS rearrangement to determine whether this entity could be related to low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of 27 sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma from 25 patients was retrieved and tabulated with clinical information. Unstained slides from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks were prepared and fluorescence in-situ hybridization was performed using a commercial FUS break-apart probe. The median patient age at presentation was 50 (range, 14-78) years, with 14 males and 10 females. Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma most commonly involved the extremities (n=8) or chest (n=6). Sixteen patients had a median follow-up of 17 (range, 1-99) months; seven were alive and well at 12 (range, 5-30) months; three alive with disease at 28 (range, 9-99) months; five dead of disease at a median of 22 (range, 1-36) months and one was dead of unknown causes. Twelve patients were known to have metastases; the most common site was lung (n=7), followed by bone (n=3), lymph nodes (n=2) and peritoneum (n=1). Only 2 of 22 (9%) analyzable cases of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma showed rearrangement in the FUS locus by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Although cytogenetically confirmed low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma can have sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma-like areas, FUS rearrangement, which is characteristic of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, appears to be relatively rare in pure sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma.

Uboldi S, Bernasconi S, Romano M, et al.
Characterization of a new trabectedin-resistant myxoid liposarcoma cell line that shows collateral sensitivity to methylating agents.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 131(1):59-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myxoid Liposarcomas (MLS), characterized by the expression of FUS-CHOP fusion gene are clinically very sensitive to the DNA binding antitumor agent, trabectedin. However, resistance eventually occurs, preventing disease eradication. To investigate the mechanisms of resistance, a trabectedin resistant cell line, 402-91/ET, was developed. The resistance to trabectedin was not related to the expression of MDR related proteins, uptake/efflux of trabectedin or GSH levels that were similar in parental and resistant cells. The 402-91/ET cells were hypersensitive to UV light because of a nucleotide excision repair defect: XPG complementation decreased sensitivity to UV rays, but only partially to trabectedin. 402-91/ET cells showed collateral sensitivity to temozolomide due to the lack of O(6) -methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) activity, related to the hypermethylation of MGMT promoter. In 402-91 cells chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that FUS-CHOP was bound to the PTX3 and FN1 gene promoters, as previously described, and trabectedin caused FUS-CHOP detachment from DNA. Here we report that, in contrast, in 402-91/ET cells, FUS-CHOP was not bound to these promoters. Differences in the modulation of transcription of genes involved in different pathways including signal transduction, apoptosis and stress response between the two cell lines were found. Trabectedin activates the transcription of genes involved in the adipogenic-program such as c/EBPα and β, in 402-91 but not in 402-91/ET cell lines. The collateral sensitivity of 402-91/ET to temozolomide provides the rationale to investigate the potential use of methylating agents in MLS patients resistant to trabectedin.

Flucke U, Palmedo G, Blankenhorn N, et al.
EWSR1 gene rearrangement occurs in a subset of cutaneous myoepithelial tumors: a study of 18 cases.
Mod Pathol. 2011; 24(11):1444-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous myoepithelial tumors form a clinicopathological spectrum ranging from mixed tumor to myoepithelioma and myoepithelial carcinoma. Recently, EWSR1 rearrangement has been described in a subset of soft tissue myoepithelial tumors, whereas the cutaneous counterparts showed this aberration in a minority of cases. This raises the question whether cutaneous myoepithelial tumors have comparable genetic alterations. We examined 18 cases of cutaneous myoepithelial tumors arising in 7 female and 11 male patients (age range, 34-86 years; mean, 58 years). Eight mixed tumors occurred at the head, and one at the scrotum. Six myoepitheliomas arose at the extremities, and one case each at the back and head. One myoepithelial carcinoma occurred at the cheek. The tumor size ranged from 0.3 to 1.7 cm (mean, 1.0 cm). All mixed tumors and three myoepitheliomas were limited to the dermis. Four myoepitheliomas and the myoepithelial carcinoma involved the subcutis. Mixed tumors and myoepitheliomas were composed of myoepithelial cells with a variable cytomorphology, architecture and stromal background. Ductal structures were seen by definition in mixed tumors. The myoepithelial carcinoma represented an infiltrative dermal neoplasm consisting of atypical spindle cells. Immunohistochemically, all cases tested were positive for EMA and calponin, whereas S100, CK, ASMA and GFAP were expressed in 90%, 80%, 78% and 50% of the cases tested, respectively. By fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, 7 out of 16 cases (44%) exhibited EWSR1 rearrangement. Four of them were mixed tumors, two were myoepitheliomas and one was a myoepithelial carcinoma, confirming that these lesions represent a spectrum of dermal myoepithelial tumors. Follow-up information, available for five patients (including the patient with a myoepithelial carcinoma), revealed no evidence of disease in all cases (range, 6-72 months). Our study provides a genetic relationship of myoepithelial tumors of the skin with their counterparts in soft tissue, bone and visceral localization by sharing EWSR1 rearrangement.

Rose B, Tamvakopoulos GS, Dulay K, et al.
The clinical significance of the FUS-CREB3L2 translocation in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.
J Orthop Surg Res. 2011; 6:15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue neoplasm with a deceptively benign histological appearance. Local recurrences and metastases can manifest many years following excision. The FUS-CREB3L2 gene translocation, which occurs commonly in LGFMS, may be detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). We assessed the relationship between clinical outcome and translocation test result by both methods.
METHODS: We report genetic analysis of 23 LGFMS cases and clinical outcomes of 18 patients with mean age of 40.6 years. During follow-up (mean 24.8 months), there were no cases of local recurrence or metastasis. One case was referred with a third recurrence of a para-spinal tumour previously incorrectly diagnosed as a neurofibroma.
RESULTS: Results showed 50% of cases tested positive for the FUS-CREB3L2 translocation by RT-PCR and 81.8% by FISH, suggesting FISH is more sensitive than RT-PCR for confirming LGFMS diagnosis. Patients testing positive by both methods tended to be younger and had larger tumours. Despite this, there was no difference in clinical outcome seen during short and medium-term follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR and FISH for the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcript are useful tools for confirming LGFMS diagnosis, but have no role in predicting medium-term clinical outcome. Due to the propensity for late recurrence or metastasis, wide excision is essential, and longer-term follow-up is required. This may identify a difference in long-term clinical outcome between translocation-positive and negative patients.

Patel RM, Downs-Kelly E, Dandekar MN, et al.
FUS (16p11) gene rearrangement as detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization in cutaneous low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a potential diagnostic tool.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2011; 33(2):140-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare, typically deep-seated soft tissue neoplasm with deceptively bland cytology and metastatic potential. A t(7;16)(q34;p11) translocation, yielding a FUS/CREB3L2 fusion gene, has been identified in approximately 80%-90% of deep soft tissue LGFMS. Cutaneous fibromyxoid neoplasms occur not infrequently; dermatopathologists rarely consider LGFMS in the differential diagnosis, as this lesion is uncommon in the skin. We identified a group of superficial LGFMS and a spectrum of other cutaneous fibromyxoid neoplasms and performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to assess the frequency of FUS rearrangement. FISH for the chromosomal rearrangement of FUS (16p11), using a dual-color, break-apart probe (Abbott Molecular/Vysis, Des Plaines, IL), was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from superficial LGFMS (n = 6), myxomas (n = 10), and myxofibrosarcoma/myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytomas (myxoid MFH) (n = 5). One hundred nonoverlapping tumor nuclei per case were evaluated for either fused (normal) or split (translocated) signals. Of the LGFMS, 4 of 6 (67%) showed a rearrangement of FUS (range: 72%-80% positive nuclei per 100 nuclei). The other neoplasms within the differential diagnosis were devoid of any rearrangement involving FUS (range: 0%-2% positive nuclei per 100 nuclei). Our observed frequency of FUS rearrangement in superficial LGFMS is consistent with those published in the literature for more deeply seated lesions. When applied to suspicious superficial myxoid or fibromyxoid neoplasms, the FUS FISH probe in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue can be a useful ancillary technique for diagnosis of this uncommon and deceptively bland tumor.

Higuchi M, Suzuki H, Shio Y, et al.
Successfully resected intrathoracic low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010; 58(7):348-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
A low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS), an Evans tumor, is highly unusual. It is rarely described as a primary neoplasm in the thoracic cavity. We experienced a case of a 20-year-old woman with a right intrathoracic tumor that was surgically treated. Postoperative pathology of the resected specimen revealed the tumor to be LGFMS based on its histological appearance, immunohistological staining, and evidence of fused in sarcoma (FUS) translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Tumor resection was performed with a free surgical margin, and the resultant chest wall defect was repaired using prosthetic mesh. The patient has been well without any recurrence for 18 months since surgery.

Andersson MK, Göransson M, Olofsson A, et al.
Nuclear expression of FLT1 and its ligand PGF in FUS-DDIT3 carrying myxoid liposarcomas suggests the existence of an intracrine signaling loop.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:249 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The FUS-DDIT3 fusion oncogene encodes an abnormal transcription factor that has a causative role in the development of myxoid/round-cell liposarcomas (MLS/RCLS). We have previously identified FLT1 (VEGFR1) as a candidate downstream target gene of FUS-DDIT3. The aim of this study was to investigate expression of FLT1 and its ligands in MLS cells.
METHODS: HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells were transiently transfected with FUS-DDIT3-GFP variant constructs and FLT1 expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, FLT1, PGF, VEGFA and VEGFB expression was measured in MLS/RCLS cell lines, MLS/RCLS tumors and in normal adiopocytes. We analyzed nine cases of MLS/RCLS and one cell line xenografted in mice for FLT1 protein expression using immunohistochemistry. MLS/RCLS cell lines were also analyzed for FLT1 by immunofluorescence and western blot. MLS/RCLS cell lines were additionally treated with FLT1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors and assayed for alterations in proliferation rate.
RESULTS: FLT1 expression was dramatically increased in transfected cells stably expressing FUS-DDIT3 and present at high levels in cell lines derived from MLS. The FLT1 protein showed a strong nuclear expression in cells of MLS tissue as well as in cultured MLS cells, which was confirmed by cellular fractionation. Tissue array analysis showed a nuclear expression of the FLT1 protein also in several other tumor and normal cell types including normal adipocytes. The FLT1 ligand coding gene PGF was highly expressed in cultured MLS cells compared to normal adipocytes while the other ligand genes VEGFA and VEGFB were expressed to lower levels. A more heterogeneous expression pattern of these genes were observed in tumor samples. No changes in proliferation rate of MLS cells were detected at concentrations for which the kinase inhibitors have shown specific inhibition of FLT1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that FLT1 is induced as an indirect downstream effect of FUS-DDIT3 expression in MLS. This could be a consequence of the ability of FUS-DDIT3 to hijack parts of normal adipose tissue development and reprogram primary cells to a liposarcoma-like phenotype. The findings of nuclear FLT1 protein and expression of corresponding ligands in MLS and normal tissues may have implications for tissue homeostasis and tumor development through auto- or intracrine signaling.

Matsumura T, Yamaguchi T, Tochigi N, et al.
Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma including cases with pleomorphic features analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation.
J Clin Pathol. 2010; 63(2):124-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) is a rare soft-tissue tumour of uncertain differentiation and low metastatic potential. Cytogenetics and/or molecular genetics have revealed that most have a rearrangement of the EWSR1 gene, whereas a FUS gene rearrangement is present in a minority of cases. Although some cases of AFH display striking pleomorphism and mitotic activity, there are no known clinical, morphological or genetic factors that predict metastasis. The authors present clinicopathological features of AFH, including cases showing a pleomorphic histological appearance, and results of fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis of EWSR1 and FUS rearrangements.
METHODS: Tumour samples from 10 patients were subjected to clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis and dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation for EWSR1 and FUS with split-signal probes.
RESULTS: All cases showed clinical features (sites: extremities followed by trunk; age: adolescent to young adult), morphology (multinodular proliferation of spindle cells, lymphoid cuffs and pseudovascular spaces) and immunohistochemical results (more than half were positive for CD68, CD99, desmin and epithelial membrane antigen) typical of AFH. There were two local recurrences in each of two patients. Two patients developed distant metastases and died from the disease; tumours of these two patients showed focal proliferation of large pleomorphic cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and high proliferative activity (>10/10 high-power field and Ki-67 labelling index >10%). There were no clinical, histological or immunohistochemical differences between the nine cases with EWSR1 rearrangement and one case with FUS rearrangement.
CONCLUSIONS: Wide surgical excision and careful follow-up are necessary for patients with AFH in view of its risk of local recurrence and metastasis leading to a fatal outcome.

Kekeeva TV, Riazantseva AA, Anreeva IuIu, et al.
[Molecular diagnosis of liposarcomas: identification of the chimeric genes FUS/CHOP and EWS/CHOP].
Arkh Patol. 2009 Sep-Oct; 71(5):32-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
This paper presents the results of an analysis the chimeric genes FUS/CHOP and EWS/CHOP in patients diagnosed as having liposarcoma in order to make a differential diagnosis in both soft tissue tumors and various variants of liposarcoma. Liposarcomas were found in 5 of 7 cases of primary tumors: 4 chimeric transcripts of the FUS/CHOP type (5-2), a variant of alternative splicing of the FUS/CHOP type (5-2) with depletion in 14 p.n. anda rare variant of the EWS/CHOP type (7-2). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed translocations in the tumor samples with the chimeric genes being detected. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and FISH revealed no chimeric genes specific to myxoid sarcoma in a group of patients with other variants of liposarcoma. Thus, the findings support the strict specificity of the chimeric genes FUS/CHOP and EWS/CHOP for myxoid liposarcoma and the expression of these genes in most tumors of this type.

Tanas MR, Rubin BP, Montgomery EA, et al.
Utility of FISH in the diagnosis of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: a series of 18 cases.
Mod Pathol. 2010; 23(1):93-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is a mesenchymal neoplasm of intermediate malignancy and uncertain histogenesis/line of differentiation, which occurs most commonly in the extremities of children to young adults. It has a characteristic appearance characterized by a proliferation of histiocytoid cells with a lymphoid cuff and fibrous pseudocapsule, simulating the appearance of a neoplasm occurring within a lymph node. However, these classic histological features are not always present. Given the variable appearance of the neoplastic cells and the lack of consistently positive immunohistochemical markers, diagnosis can be problematic. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma has been found to harbor three related translocations, a t(12;16)(q13;p11) resulting in a FUS/ATF1 fusion gene, t(12;22)(q13;q12) resulting in a EWSR1/ATF1 fusion, and t(2;22)(q33;q12) resulting in a EWSR1/CREB1 fusion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes to EWSR1 and FUS, in theory, should detect all three translocations/gene fusions. We evaluated 18 cases of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma for rearrangements of EWSR1 and FUS by FISH, the largest series to date. We found that 13 of 17 (76%) cases of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma harbored rearrangements of EWSR1; rearrangements of FUS were not detected in any of the cases. This study affirms that the rearrangement of EWSR1 is a common genetic event in angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma, and is thus useful diagnostically. This study supports the fact that the rearrangement of FUS is present in only a small minority of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas. Interestingly, 24% of the cases were translocation negative, and did not contain rearrangements of EWSR1 or FUS by FISH. Although it is possible that these cases contained cryptic rearrangements of EWSR1 or FUS that were not detectable by our FISH probes, it also raises the possibility that another translocation/gene fusion may be present in angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma. Finally, we discuss some of the potential pitfalls of this technique, including confusion with other mesenchymal neoplasms containing rearrangement of EWSR1, in particular Ewing's sarcoma/PNET.

Alaggio R, Coffin CM, Weiss SW, et al.
Liposarcomas in young patients: a study of 82 cases occurring in patients younger than 22 years of age.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2009; 33(5):645-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liposarcomas typically occur in middle aged to older adults. Altogether, approximately 50 bona fide liposarcomas have been reported in children and adolescents, most of which have represented myxoid liposarcomas, with a good prognosis. We undertook a retrospective study of 82 liposarcomas occurring in patients below 22 years of age. Clinicopathologic and follow-up information was obtained. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for FUS, EWSR1, CHOP (DDIT3), and MDM2 was performed in 30 cases. The tumors occurred in 28 males and 54 females (5 to 22 y of age) and involved many locations. Fifty-six cases were typical myxoid liposarcomas, including 2 with round cell areas. The tumors were grade 1 (56 cases) and grade 3 (2 cases). Thirty-seven of 38 patients with follow-up are alive without disease and 1 is alive with disease (median 59 mo follow-up duration, range: 8 to 108 mo). Six cases showed myxoid liposarcoma with spindled growth ("spindle cell myxoid liposarcoma"); these arose in 5 females and 1 male (median age 14 y) and involved the thigh in 40% of cases. All were grade 1. Follow-up (4 of 6 patients) showed local recurrences in 2 cases and metastases in 1 case. Twelve tumors consisted of conventional myxoid liposarcoma and pleomorphic liposarcoma ("pleomorphic myxoid liposarcoma"); these arose in 4 males and 8 females (10 to 22 y of age) and often involved the mediastinum. Tumor grades were 2 (4 cases) and 3 (8 cases). Follow-up (10 patients) showed 7 dead of disease, 1 alive with disease, and 2 disease free. Four atypical lipomatous tumors were seen including 2 with low-grade dedifferentiation. Two local recurrences were seen; all patients are disease free. Two conventional pleomorphic liposarcomas were seen; 1 patient with follow-up is disease free. FUS-CHOP and EWSR1-CHOP rearrangements were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 15/23 and 2/23 conventional myxoid liposarcomas, respectively, and in no other tumors. Amplification for MDM2 was absent in all cases. We conclude that conventional myxoid liposarcoma is by far the most common subtype of liposarcoma in young patients, with an excellent prognosis. Two apparently novel subtypes of liposarcoma, termed pleomorphic myxoid liposarcoma and spindle cell myxoid liposarcoma comprise considerable percentages of liposarcomas in this age group and should be distinguished from conventional myxoid liposarcoma and conventional pleomorphic liposarcoma. Pleomorphic myxoid liposarcoma and spindle cell myxoid liposarcoma most likely represent high-grade and low-grade variants of myxoid liposarcoma, respectively. Additional study of such cases will be necessary for definitive classification.

Ivanov SV, Miller J, Lucito R, et al.
Genomic events associated with progression of pleural malignant mesothelioma.
Int J Cancer. 2009; 124(3):589-99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pleural malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer with a very long latency and a very short median survival. Little is known about the genetic events that trigger MM and their relation to poor outcome. The goal of our study was to characterize major genomic gains and losses associated with MM origin and progression and assess their clinical significance. We performed Representative Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis (ROMA) on DNA isolated from tumors of 22 patients who recurred at variable interval with the disease after surgery. The total number of copy number alterations (CNA) and frequent imbalances for patients with short time (<12 months from surgery) and long time to recurrence were recorded and mapped using the Analysis of Copy Errors algorithm. We report a profound increase in CNA in the short-time recurrence group with most chromosomes affected, which can be explained by chromosomal instability associated with MM. Deletions in chromosomes 22q12.2, 19q13.32 and 17p13.1 appeared to be the most frequent events (55-74%) shared between MM patients followed by deletions in 1p, 9p, 9q, 4p, 3p and gains in 5p, 18q, 8q and 17q (23-55%). Deletions in 9p21.3 encompassing CDKN2A/ARF and CDKN2B were characterized as specific for the short-term recurrence group. Analysis of the minimal common areas of frequent gains and losses identified candidate genes that may be involved in different stages of MM: OSM (22q12.2), FUS1 and PL6 (3p21.3), DNAJA1 (9p21.1) and CDH2 (18q11.2-q12.3). Imbalances seen by ROMA were confirmed by Affymetrix genome analysis in a subset of samples.

Göransson M, Andersson MK, Forni C, et al.
The myxoid liposarcoma FUS-DDIT3 fusion oncoprotein deregulates NF-kappaB target genes by interaction with NFKBIZ.
Oncogene. 2009; 28(2):270-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
FUS (also called TLS), EWSR1 and TAF15 (also called TAF2N) are related genes involved in tumor type-specific fusion oncogenes in human malignancies. The FUS-DDIT3 fusion oncogene results from a t(12;16)(q13;p11) chromosome translocation and has a causative role in the initiation of myxoid/round cell liposarcomas (MLS/RCLS). The FUS-DDIT3 protein induces increased expression of the CAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-controlled gene IL8, and the N-terminal FUS part is required for this activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that FUS-DDIT3 binds the IL8 promoter. Expression studies of the IL8 promoter harboring a C/EBP-NF-kappaB composite site pinpointed the importance of NF-kappaB for IL8 expression in FUS-DDIT3-expressing cells. We therefore probed for possible interaction of FUS-DDIT3 with members of the NF-kappaB family. The nuclear factor NFKBIZ colocalizes with FUS-DDIT3 in nuclear structures, and immunoprecipitation experiments showed that FUS-DDIT3 binds the C-terminal of NFKBIZ. We also report that additional NF-kappaB-controlled genes are upregulated at the mRNA level in FUS-DDIT3-expressing cell lines and they can be induced by NFKBIZ. Taken together, the results indicate that FUS-DDIT3 deregulates some NF-kappaB-controlled genes through interactions with NFKBIZ. Similar mechanisms may be a part of the transformation process in other tumor types carrying FUS, EWSR1 and TAF15 containing fusion oncogenes.

Mentzel T, Palmedo G, Hantschke M, et al.
Mixed-type liposarcoma: clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of a case arising in deep soft tissues of the lower extremity.
Virchows Arch. 2008; 453(2):197-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
A rare case of mixed-type liposarcoma arising in deep soft tissue of the right thigh of a 45-year-old female patient is reported. The neoplasm was completely excised and was composed of an irregular admixture of areas of atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma of the lipoma-like subtype with areas of myxoid/round cell liposarcoma. An amplification of the MDM2 and CDK4 genes respectively in the atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma areas was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and translocations of the CHOP and FUS genes were detected by FISH analysis in the myxoid/round cell liposarcoma areas.

Weinreb I, Rubin BP, Goldblum JR
Pleomorphic angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: a case confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for EWSR1 rearrangement.
J Cutan Pathol. 2008; 35(9):855-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) is a neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis with intermediate malignant potential. It occurs in superficial soft tissues in any age group and at any body site, although the typical example occurs on extremities in children/young adults. The neoplasm is usually composed of a bland histiocytoid proliferation of cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm forming a syncytium, often surrounded by a dense fibrous pseudocapsule and lymphoid infiltrate, with abundant intralesional hemorrhage forming blood-filled spaces. AFH may show striking pleomorphism and mitotic activity, and such cases can lead to confusion with other atypical mesenchymal lesions, including pleomorphic sarcomas. Recent findings have shown that a majority of cases of AFH have translocations involving the EWSR1 or FUS genes. We present a diagnostically challenging case of AFH with pleomorphic features and minimal lymphoid and angiomatoid changes involving the superficial subcutis and deep dermis on the scalp of an 8-year-old boy. "Areas with typical AFH morphology were identified and the diagnosis confirmed with identification of an EWSR1..." rearrangement detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Pleomorphic AFH should be included in the differential diagnosis of atypical mesenchymal tumors of skin and superficial subcutis and molecular testing may prove helpful in this regard.

Suster S, Morrison C
Sclerosing poorly differentiated liposarcoma: clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of a distinct morphological subtype of lipomatous tumour of soft tissue.
Histopathology. 2008; 52(3):283-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To present eight cases of a distinctive morphological subtype of lipomatous tumour of soft tissue.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular pathological features of these tumours were analysed. The tumours were characterized by dense stromal sclerosis containing singly scattered pleomorphic atypical cells with lipoblastic features. The tumours occurred in four women and four men, aged 39-90 years (mean = 63). They were located in the retroperitoneum, thigh, retropubic space, arm and spermatic cord. Four cases arose de novo and four cases presented as local recurrences of previously resected liposarcomas. MDM2 amplification and cyclophosphamide doxorubicin hydrochloride (adriamycin), vincristine and prednisolone (CHOP) translocation was studied in seven cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization. High-level amplification of MDM2 at 12q13-15 was observed in 4/7 cases. All cases were negative for the CHOP translocation; in one MDM2+ case, the CHOP gene showed amplification but no translocation. Three patients died from their tumours from 1 to 6 years after their last surgery with lung metastases.
CONCLUSIONS: The tumours described appear to represent an unusual morphological variant of poorly differentiated liposarcoma associated with aggressive behaviour, and may represent a common end-stage pathway for various types of liposarcoma.

Walsby EJ, Gilkes AF, Tonks A, et al.
FUS expression alters the differentiation response to all-trans retinoic acid in NB4 and NB4R2 cells.
Br J Haematol. 2007; 139(1):94-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The FUS gene is overexpressed in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients and has roles in transcription and mRNA processing. We used ectopic expression of FUS and FUS antisense sequences to assess the effect of modulation of FUS expression in all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-sensitive (NB4) and insensitive (NB4R2) human acute promyelocytic (APL) cell lines which express the t(15:17) translocation. Growth, viability and differentiation patterns were maintained, but the expression of the FUS antisense construct in both the cell lines altered the response to ATRA: the previously ATRA-sensitive NB4 cells exhibited resistance; whilst the previously resistant NB4R2 cells showed a differentiation response to treatment.

Guillou L, Benhattar J, Gengler C, et al.
Translocation-positive low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of a series expanding the morphologic spectrum and suggesting potential relationship to sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: a study from the French Sarcoma Group.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2007; 31(9):1387-402 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas (LGFMS) bear either the t(7,16) (q32-34;p11) or t(11,16) (p11;p11) translocations, resulting in FUS-CREB3L2 or FUS-CREB3L1 fusions, respectively. Heretofore, fusion transcripts were mainly detected in frozen tissues, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In this study, we aimed to develop a reliable method to detect these in paraffin-embedded tissues, and to examine the clinicopathologic characteristics of a series of translocation-positive LGFMS. Sixty-three neoplasms with typical morphologic features of LGFMS and 66 non-LGFMS tumors selected for their resemblance to LGFMS (LGFMS-like tumors) were examined. RNA of sufficient quality could be extracted from 111/129 (86%) cases (59 LGFMS, 52 non-LGFMS). Of all, 48/59 (sensitivity, 81%) LGFMS contained detectable transcripts (45 FUS-CREB3L2, 3 FUS-CREB3L1). Most relevant clinicopathologic features of fusion-positive LGFMS included predominance in lower extremities (22/48; thigh: 13/48), deep situation (46/48), and occasional presence of unusual histologic features, for example, hypercellular areas (16/48), foci of epithelioid cells (13/48), and giant rosettes (6/48). Most tumors expressed EMA (41/45), at least focally, CD99 (38/41) and bcl-2 (36/41) while being essentially negative for CD34 (2/45), mdm2 (1/41), smooth muscle actin (1/45), S100 protein (0/46), desmin (0/44), h-caldesmon (0/42), keratins (0/44), and CD117 (0/40). Eleven presumed LGFMS were fusion negative. Of all, 7/52 non-LGMFS neoplasms contained FUS-CREB3L2 transcripts, of which 4 had been diagnosed as sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. In conclusion, FUS-CREB3L1/L2 fusion transcripts can be detected in paraffin-embedded LGFMS in a sensitive manner, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Most fusion-positive LGFMS are EMA-positive and CD34/S100/smooth muscle actin negative. The presence of epithelioid cells and fusion transcripts in both LGFMS and a subset of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma suggest that these neoplasms might be related.

Ivanova AV, Ivanov SV, Pascal V, et al.
Autoimmunity, spontaneous tumourigenesis, and IL-15 insufficiency in mice with a targeted disruption of the tumour suppressor gene Fus1.
J Pathol. 2007; 211(5):591-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Fus1 gene resides in the critical 3p21.3 human chromosomal region deleted in lung and breast cancers. Recently, the tumour suppressor properties of Fus1 were confirmed experimentally by intra-tumoural administration of Fus1 that suppressed experimental lung metastasis in mice. We generated Fus1-deficient mice that were viable, fertile, and demonstrated a complex immunological phenotype. Animals with a disrupted Fus1 gene developed signs of autoimmune disease, such as vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, anaemia, circulating autoantibodies, and showed an increased frequency of spontaneous vascular tumours. Preliminary analysis of immune cell populations revealed a consistent defect in NK cell maturation in Fus1 null mice that correlated with changes in the expression of IL-15. Injection of IL-15 into Fus1 knockout mice completely rescued the NK cell maturation defect. Based on these results, we propose the hypothesis that Fus1 deficiency affects NK cell maturation through the reduction of IL-15 production but does not directly alter their developmental capacity. Since acquired immunity was not affected in Fus1-deficient animals, we suggest a relationship between the Fus1 protein and the regulation of innate immunity via IL-15 production. The increased frequency of spontaneous cancers and the development of an autoimmune syndrome in Fus1 null mice imply that these mice could serve as a model for studying molecular mechanisms of anti-tumour immunity and autoimmunity.

Willeke F, Assad A, Findeisen P, et al.
Overexpression of a member of the pentraxin family (PTX3) in human soft tissue liposarcoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2006; 42(15):2639-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
A unique feature of human soft tissue liposarcoma is a stable (12;16)(q13;p11) translocation observed mainly in myxoid and roundcell liposarcomas. This translocation results in FUS/CHOP fusion transcripts with a corresponding oncogenic protein. We hypothesised that genes downstream of FUS/CHOP might serve as attractive candidates for novel tumour associated antigens. Among a panel of analysed genes, only pentraxin related gene (PTX3) demonstrated high expression in liposarcomas as compared to normal tissues. The analysis of RNA and protein expression demonstrated concordant results. However, the level of RNA and protein overexpression did not correlate in all cases. Finally, PTX3 expression was not related to presence of a FUS/CHOP fusion transcript within the liposarcoma tissues. PTX3 has been associated with adipocyte differentiation and now, additionally, is characterised by a markedly increased expression in human soft tissue liposarcoma. This finding mandates further research efforts to clarify the exact role of PTX3 in liposarcoma oncogenesis.

Rivero ER, Mesquita RA, de Sousa SC, Nunes FD
Detection of TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts in a case of oral liposarcoma.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2006; 10(1):36-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to detect the chromosomal translocation t(12;16)(q13;p11) that leads to a gene fusion encoding a FUS-CHOP chimeric protein and has been shown to be highly characteristic of myxoid and round cell subtypes of liposarcoma, in a case of oral myxoid liposarcoma.
METHOD AND MATERIALS: Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect the TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion gene transcript was performed. A case of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia and a case of oral lipoma were included as negative controls.
RESULTS: Only the myxoid oral liposarcoma showed a 103-base pair product, specific of TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion type II transcript.
CONCLUSION: The identification of FUS-CHOP transcript is potentially useful in the diagnosis and research of oral liposarcomas.

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