CREB3L1

Gene Summary

Gene:CREB3L1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 1
Aliases: OASIS
Location:11p11.2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is normally found in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, upon stress to the ER, the encoded protein is cleaved and the released cytoplasmic transcription factor domain translocates to the nucleus. There it activates the transcription of target genes by binding to box-B elements. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • CREB3L1
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Chromosome 11
  • RTPCR
  • Sclerosis
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Fibrosarcoma
  • Calmodulin-Binding Proteins
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Adolescents
  • Tumor Markers
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Kidney Cancer
  • DNA Methylation
  • Soft Tissue Cancers
  • Epigenetics
  • Translocation
  • MUC4
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Movement
  • FISH
  • Young Adult
  • RNA-Binding Protein FUS
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Gene Fusion
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Fibroma
  • Transcription
  • Phenotype
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Epithelioid Cells
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
Tag cloud generated 27 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CREB3L1 (cancer-related)

Rose M, Schubert C, Dierichs L, et al.
OASIS/CREB3L1 is epigenetically silenced in human bladder cancer facilitating tumor cell spreading and migration in vitro.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(12):1626-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
CREB3L1 has been recently proposed as a novel metastasis suppressor gene in breast cancer. Our current study highlights CREB3L1 expression, regulation, and function in bladder cancer. We demonstrate a significant downregulation of CREB3L1 mRNA expression (n = 64) in primary bladder cancer tissues caused by tumor-specific CREB3L1 promoter hypermethylation (n = 51). Based on pyrosequencing CREB3L1 methylation was shown to be potentially associated with a more aggressive phenotype of bladder cancer. These findings were verified by an independent public data set containing data from 184 bladder tumors. In addition, immunohistochemical evaluation showed that CREB3L1 protein expression is decreased in bladder cancer tissues as well. Interestingly, protein loss is predominately observed in the nuclei of aggressive tumor cells. Based on in vitro models we clearly show that CREB3L1 re-expression mediates suppression of tumor cell migration and colony growth of high grade and invasive bladder cancer cells. The candidate tumor suppressor and TGF-β signaling inhibitor HTRA3 was furthermore identified as putative target gene of CREB3L1 in both invasive J82 bladder cells and primary bladder tumors. Hence, our data provide for the first time evidence that the transcription factor CREB3L1 may have an important role as a putative tumor suppressor in bladder cancer.

Argani P, Lewin JR, Edmonds P, et al.
Primary renal sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: report of 2 cases with EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(3):365-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
We report the first 2 genetically confirmed cases of primary renal sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF), occurring in a 17-year-old boy and a 61-year-old woman. In both cases, the tumors demonstrated the typical epithelioid clear cell morphology associated with extensive hyalinizing fibrosis, raising the differential diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor, metanephric stromal tumor, and the sclerosing variant of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Both neoplasms demonstrated diffuse immunoreactivity for MUC4, a highly specific marker for SEF, and both demonstrated evidence of rearrangement of both the EWSR1 and CREB3L1 genes, which have recently been shown to be fused in this entity. Both neoplasms presented with metastatic disease. Primary renal SEF represents yet another translocation-associated sarcoma now shown to arise primarily in the kidney.

Prieto-Granada C, Zhang L, Chen HW, et al.
A genetic dichotomy between pure sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) and hybrid SEF/low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a pathologic and molecular study of 18 cases.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(1):28-38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare soft tissue tumor exhibiting considerable morphologic overlap with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). Moreover, both SEF and LGFMS show MUC4 expression by immunohistochemistry. While the majority of LGFMS cases are characterized by a FUS-CREB3L1 fusion, both FUS-CREB3L2 and EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusions were recently demonstrated in a small number of LGFMS and SEF/LGFMS hybrid tumors. In contrast, recent studies pointed out that SEF harbor frequent EWSR1 rearrangements, with only a minority of cases showing FUS-CREB3L2 fusions. In an effort to further characterize the molecular characteristics of pure SEF and hybrid SEF/LGFMS lesions, we undertook a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and genetic analysis of a series of 10 SEF and 8 hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors. The mortality rate was similar between the two groups, 44% within the pure SEF group and 37% in the hybrid SEF/LGFMS with a mean overall follow-up of 66 months. All but one pure SEF and all hybrid SEF/LGFMS-tested cases showed MUC4 immunoreactivity. The majority (90%) of pure SEF cases showed EWSR1 gene rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization with only one case exhibiting FUS rearrangement. Of the nine EWSR1 positive cases, six cases harbored CREB3L1 break-apart, two had CREB3L2 rearrangement (a previously unreported finding) and one lacked evidence of CREB3L1/2 abnormalities. In contrast, all hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors exhibited FUS and CREB3L2 rearrangements. These results further demarcate a relative cytogenetic dichotomy between pure SEF, often characterized by EWSR1 rearrangements, and hybrid SEF/LGFMS, harboring FUS-CREB3L2 fusion; the latter group recapitulating the genotype of LGFMS.

Stockman DL, Ali SM, He J, et al.
Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma presenting as intraabdominal sarcomatosis with a novel EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(10):2173-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a case of intraabdominal sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) with a t (11;22)(p11.2;q12.2) Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 1 translocation. A 43-year old man presented with massive ascites and shortness of breath. Imaging studies revealed a large mesenteric-based mass with extensive omental/peritoneal disease. After resection and cytoreductive surgery, the tumor recurred with metastasis to the lungs; the patient is still alive with disease. Histologically, there was a uniform population of epithelioid cells arranged in cords and nests, embedded in a dense collagenous matrix; no areas of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma were identified. All immunohistochemical markers were nonreactive. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies showed rearrangement of Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1. Genomic profiling by clinical grade next-generation sequencing revealed a fusion gene between intron 11 of Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (22q12.2) and intron 5 of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 1 (11p11.2). This is the first report of "pure" or true SEF presenting as intraabdominal sarcomatosis with confirmation of the recently described unique Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 1 gene fusion in SEF without areas of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.

Rubinstein JC, Visa A, Zhang L, et al.
Primary low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the kidney in a child with the alternative EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion.
Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2014 Jul-Aug; 17(4):321-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present the case of a 6-year-old boy with a deceptively bland spindle cell renal neoplasm found to harbor the EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion. This fusion has recently been described as a variant translocation in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS), a tumor more typically characterized by a recurrent t(7;16) chromosomal translocation, resulting in the fusion of FUS and CREB3L2 genes. LGFMS is an indolent tumor with late metastatic potential and a propensity for long-term disease recurrence. The tumor is rare in children, with only 33 published cases. In the pediatric population, it has not previously been reported arising in the kidney.

Pawlikowska I, Wu G, Edmonson M, et al.
The most informative spacing test effectively discovers biologically relevant outliers or multiple modes in expression.
Bioinformatics. 2014; 30(10):1400-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
SUMMARY: Several outlier and subgroup identification statistics (OASIS) have been proposed to discover transcriptomic features with outliers or multiple modes in expression that are indicative of distinct biological processes or subgroups. Here, we borrow ideas from the OASIS methods in the bioinformatics and statistics literature to develop the 'most informative spacing test' (MIST) for unsupervised detection of such transcriptomic features. In an example application involving 14 cases of pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, MIST more robustly identified features that perfectly discriminate subjects according to gender or the presence of a prognostically relevant fusion-gene than did seven other OASIS methods in the analysis of RNA-seq exon expression, RNA-seq exon junction expression and micorarray exon expression data. MIST was also effective at identifying features related to gender or molecular subtype in an example application involving 157 adult cases of acute myeloid leukemia.
AVAILABILITY: MIST will be freely available in the OASIS R package at http://www.stjuderesearch.org/site/depts/biostats
CONTACT: stanley.pounds@stjude.org
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Arbajian E, Puls F, Magnusson L, et al.
Recurrent EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusions in sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(6):801-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) are 2 distinct types of sarcoma, with a subset of cases showing overlapping morphologic and immunohistochemical features. LGFMS is characterized by expression of the MUC4 protein, and about 90% of cases display a distinctive FUS-CREB3L2 gene fusion. In addition, SEF is often MUC4 positive, but is genetically less well studied. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies have shown involvement of the FUS gene in the majority of so-called hybrid LGFMS/SEF and in 10% to 25% of sarcomas with pure SEF morphology. In this study, we investigated a series of 10 primary tumors showing pure SEF morphology, 4 cases of LGFMS that at local or distant relapse showed predominant SEF morphology, and 1 primary hybrid LGFMS/SEF. All but 1 case showed diffuse expression for MUC4. Using FISH, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and/or mRNA sequencing in selected cases, we found recurrent EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusion transcripts by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in 3/10 pure SEF cases and splits and deletions of the EWSR1 and/or CREB3L1 genes by FISH in 6 additional cases. All 5 cases of LGFMS with progression to SEF morphology or hybrid features had FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts. Our results indicate that EWSR1 and CREB3L1 rearrangements are predominant over FUS and CREB3L2 rearrangements in pure SEF, highlighting that SEF and LGFMS are different tumor types, with different impacts on patient outcome.

Mellor P, Deibert L, Calvert B, et al.
CREB3L1 is a metastasis suppressor that represses expression of genes regulating metastasis, invasion, and angiogenesis.
Mol Cell Biol. 2013; 33(24):4985-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in response to hypoxia-induced stress such as in the tumor microenvironment. This study examined the role of CREB3L1 (cyclic AMP [cAMP]-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1), a member of the UPR, in breast cancer development and metastasis. Initial experiments identified the loss of CREB3L1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cell lines compared to low-metastasis or nonmetastatic cell lines. When metastatic cells were transfected with CREB3L1, they demonstrated reduced invasion and migration in vitro, as well as a significantly decreased ability to survive under nonadherent or hypoxic conditions. Interestingly, in an in vivo rat mammary tumor model, not only did CREB3L1-expressing cells fail to form metastases compared to CREB3L1 null cells but regression of the primary tumors was seen in 70% of the animals as a result of impaired angiogenesis. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation with microarray technology (ChIP on Chip) analyses identified changes in the expression of many genes involved in cancer development and metastasis, including a decrease in those involved in angiogenesis. These data suggest that CREB3L1 plays an important role in suppressing tumorigenesis and that loss of expression is required for the development of a metastatic phenotype.

Supiot S, Gouraud W, Campion L, et al.
Early dynamic transcriptomic changes during preoperative radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer: a feasibility study.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(21):3249-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
AIM: To develop novel biomarkers of rectal radiotherapy, we measured gene expression profiles on biopsies taken before and during preoperative radiotherapy.
METHODS: Six patients presenting with a locally advanced rectal cancer (T>T2, N0/Nx, M0) eligible for preoperative radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions) were selected in a pilot study. Six tumor and 3 normal tissues biopsies were taken before and during radiotherapy, after a dose of 7.2 Gy at a median time of 1 h following irradiation (0:27-2:12). Tumor or normal tissue purity was assessed by a pathologist prior to RNA extraction. Mean RNA content was 23 μg/biopsy (14-37) before radiotherapy and 22.7 μg/biopsy (12-35) during radiotherapy. After RNA amplification, biopsies were analysed with 54K HG-U133A Plus 2.0 Affymetrix expression micro-arrays. Data were normalized according to MAS5 algorithm. A gene expression ratio was calculated as: (gene expression during radiotherapy - gene expression before radiotherapy)/gene expression before radiotherapy. Were selected genes that showed a ratio higher than ± 0.5 in all 6 patients.
RESULTS: Microarray analysis showed that preoperative radiotherapy significantly up-regulated 31 genes and down-regulated 6 genes. According to the Gene Ontology project classification, these genes are involved in protein metabolism (ADAMDEC1; AKAP7; CAPN5; CLIC5; CPE; CREB3L1; NEDD4L; RAB27A), ion transport (AKAP7; ATP2A3; CCL28; CLIC5; F2RL2; NEDD4L; SLC6A8), transcription (AKAP7; CREB3L1; ISX; PABPC1L; TXNIP), signal transduction (CAPN5; F2RL2; RAB27A; TNFRSF11A), cell adhesion (ADAMDEC1; PXDN; SPON1; S100A2), immune response (CCL28; PXDN; TNFRSF11A) and apoptosis (ITM2C; PDCD4; PVT1). Up-regulation of 3 genes (CCL28; CLIC5; PDCD4) was detected by 2 different probes and up-regulation of 2 genes (RAB27A; TXNIP) by 3 probes.
CONCLUSION: Micro-arrays can efficiently assess early transcriptomic changes during preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer, and may help better understand tumor radioresistance.

Steenbergen RD, Ongenaert M, Snellenberg S, et al.
Methylation-specific digital karyotyping of HPV16E6E7-expressing human keratinocytes identifies novel methylation events in cervical carcinogenesis.
J Pathol. 2013; 231(1):53-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transformation of epithelial cells by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types can lead to anogenital carcinomas, particularly cervical cancer, and oropharyngeal cancers. This process is associated with DNA methylation alterations, often affecting tumour suppressor gene expression. This study aimed to comprehensively unravel genome-wide DNA methylation events linked to a transforming hrHPV-infection, which is driven by deregulated expression of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 in dividing cells. Primary human keratinocytes transduced with HPV16E6E7 and their untransduced counterparts were subjected to methylation-specific digital karyotyping (MSDK) to screen for genome-wide DNA-methylation changes at different stages of HPV-induced transformation. Integration of the obtained methylation profiles with genome-wide gene expression patterns of cervical carcinomas identified 34 genes with increased methylation in HPV-transformed cells and reduced expression in cervical carcinomas. For 12 genes (CLIC3, CREB3L1, FAM19A4, LFNG, LHX1, MRC2, NKX2-8, NPTX-1, PHACTR3, PRDM14, SOST and TNFSF13) specific methylation in HPV-containing cell lines was confirmed by semi-quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Subsequent analysis of FAM19A4, LHX1, NKX2-8, NPTX-1, PHACTR3 and PRDM14 in cervical tissue specimens showed increasing methylation levels for all genes with disease progression. All six genes were frequently methylated in cervical carcinomas, with highest frequencies (up to 100%) seen for FAM19A4, PHACTR3 and PRDM14. Analysis of hrHPV-positive cervical scrapes revealed significantly increased methylation levels of the latter three genes in women with high-grade cervical disease compared to controls. In conclusion, MSDK analysis of HPV16-transduced keratinocytes at different stages of HPV-induced transformation resulted in the identification of novel DNA methylation events, involving FAM19A4, LHX1, NKX2-8, PHACTR3 and PRDM14 genes in cervical carcinogenesis. These genes may provide promising triage markers to assess the presence of (pre)cancerous cervical lesions in hrHPV-positive women.

Lau PP, Lui PC, Lau GT, et al.
EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion: a novel alternative molecular aberration of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(5):734-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is an uncommon sarcoma with a deceptively bland-looking morphology that disguises its malignant clinical behavior. It shows distinctive chromosomal translocations resulting in fusion of FUS with the CREB3L2 gene in most cases and CREB3L1 in rare cases. Thus molecular studies are particularly helpful in the diagnosis of this bland-looking sarcoma. We report 2 cases of LGFMS serendipitously found to harbor a novel alternative EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion, as confirmed by DNA sequencing of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction products and fluorescence in situ hybridization. One patient was a child who presented with a subcutaneous nodule on the lower leg, and the other was a middle-aged woman who had a mass lesion over the proximal thigh. Morphologically, one case showed a spindle cell tumor with hyalinization and giant rosettes, whereas the other showed classical histology of LGFMS with focal metaplastic bone formation. Immunostaining for MUC4 showed extensive positive staining. Our findings therefore expand the spectrum of gene fusions that characterize LGFMS and suggest that the EWSR1 gene may substitute for the function of FUS in gene fusions of sarcoma.

Vellanki RN, Zhang L, Volchuk A
OASIS/CREB3L1 is induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress in human glioma cell lines and contributes to the unfolded protein response, extracellular matrix production and cell migration.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54060 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
OASIS is a transcription factor similar to ATF6 that is activated by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this study we investigated the expression of OASIS in human glioma cell lines and the effect of OASIS knock-down on the ER stress response and cell migration. OASIS mRNA was detected in three distinct glioma cell lines (U373, A172 and U87) and expression levels were increased upon treatment with ER stress-inducing compounds in the U373 and U87 lines. OASIS protein, which is glycosylated on Asn-513, was detected in the U373 and U87 glioma lines at low levels in control cells and protein expression was induced by ER stress. Knock-down of OASIS in human glioma cell lines resulted in an attenuated unfolded protein response to ER stress (reduced GRP78/BiP and GRP94 induction) and decreased expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan extracellular matrix proteins, but induction of the collagen gene Col1a1 was unaffected. Cells in which OASIS was knocked-down exhibited altered cell morphology and reduced cell migration. These results suggest that OASIS is important for the ER stress response and maintenance of some extracellular matrix proteins in human glioma cells.

Odem JL, Oroszi G, Bernreuter K, et al.
Deceptively benign low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: array-comparative genomic hybridization decodes the diagnosis.
Hum Pathol. 2013; 44(1):145-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (previously known as Evans tumor) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm characterized by a deceptively bland appearance despite the potential for late metastasis or recurrence. We describe a 13-year-old patient with a popliteal fossa mass initially thought to be benign that, because of array-comparative genomic hybridization findings and subsequent immunohistochemistry, was diagnosed as low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. The array-comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated a loss of 11p11.2p15.5 and a gain of 16p11.2p13.3 with breakpoints involving the CREB3L1 (cAMP responsive element-binding protein 3-like 1) and FUS (fused in sarcoma) genes, respectively. Subsequent fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of a dual-labeled break-apart FUS probe on interphase cells was positive. Our case highlights the importance of using genetic information obtained via array-comparative genomic hybridization to classify accurately pediatric soft tissue tumors.

Doyle LA, Wang WL, Dal Cin P, et al.
MUC4 is a sensitive and extremely useful marker for sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: association with FUS gene rearrangement.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2012; 36(10):1444-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare aggressive fibroblastic neoplasm composed of cords of epithelioid cells embedded in a dense collagenous stroma. The reported immunophenotype of SEF is nonspecific. Some SEF cases show morphologic and molecular overlap with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS), suggesting a relationship between these tumor types. MUC4 has recently been identified as a sensitive and specific marker for LGFMS; MUC4 expression was also observed in 2 tumors with hybrid features of SEF and LGFMS. We investigated MUC4 expression in SEF and other epithelioid soft tissue tumors to determine (1) the potential diagnostic utility of MUC4 for SEF and (2) the association between MUC4 expression and FUS rearrangement in SEF. Whole sections of 180 tumors were evaluated: 41 cases of SEF (including 29 "pure" SEF and 12 hybrid LGFMS-SEF), 20 epithelioid sarcomas, 11 clear cell sarcomas, 11 metastatic melanomas, 10 perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, 10 alveolar soft part sarcomas, 10 epithelioid angiosarcomas, 10 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, 10 epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 10 myoepithelial carcinomas, 17 ossifying fibromyxoid tumors, 10 leiomyosarcomas, and 10 biphasic synovial sarcomas. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed after antigen retrieval using a mouse anti-MUC4 monoclonal antibody. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on 33 SEF cases using FUS break-apart probes. A subset of cases was also evaluated for EWSR1 and CREB3L2/L1 rearrangements by FISH. Strong diffuse cytoplasmic staining for MUC4 was observed in 32 of 41 (78%) cases of SEF, including all 12 hybrid tumors. FUS rearrangement was detected in 8 of 21 (38%) MUC4-positive cases of SEF with successful FISH studies. The prevalence of FUS rearrangement was similar in hybrid LGFMS-SEF (2 of 6; 33%) and SEF without an LGFMS component (6 of 15; 40%). FUS rearrangement was not detected in any cases of MUC4-negative SEF. Two hybrid tumors had both EWSR1 and CREB3L1 rearrangements. MUC4 expression was also seen in 9 of 10 (90%) biphasic synovial sarcomas, predominantly in the glandular component. All other tumor types were negative for MUC4, apart from focal reactivity in 5 ossifying fibromyxoid tumors, 2 epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and 1 myoepithelial carcinoma. MUC4 is a sensitive and relatively specific marker for SEF among epithelioid soft tissue tumors. MUC4 expression occurs more frequently than FUS rearrangement in SEF. The finding of EWSR1 and CREB3L1 rearrangements in 2 cases of hybrid LGFMS-SEF suggests that SEFs are genetically heterogenous. MUC4-positive SEFs with FUS rearrangement are likely closely related to LGFMS. MUC4-positive SEFs that lack FUS rearrangement may be related to LGFMS but could have alternate fusion partners, including EWSR1. SEF without MUC4 expression may represent a distinct group of tumors. MUC4 expression correlates with glandular epithelial differentiation in biphasic synovial sarcoma and is very limited in other epithelioid soft tissue tumors.

Hisaoka M, Matsuyama A, Aoki T, et al.
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma with prominent giant rosettes and heterotopic ossification.
Pathol Res Pract. 2012; 208(9):557-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of fibroblastic differentiation characterized by a deceptively benign morphologic appearance with almost consistent MUC4 expression and recurrent chromosomal translocations, t(7;16)(q34;p11) and t(11;16)(p11;p11), resulting in the FUS-CREB3L2 and FUS-CREB3L1 fusion genes, respectively. A subset of the tumors show peculiar histologic features, designated as giant rosettes, and were formerly referred to as hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes. We herein report a case of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma showing the presence of numerous giant rosettes, with and without collagenous centers, distributed throughout the lesion and unusual rim-like heterotopic ossification. Such a case might present a diagnostic challenge. The diagnosis of the tumor was confirmed by positive immunoreactivity to MUC4 and the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion detected by molecular testing using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. This case, which has such unusual clinicopathologic features, would help to further expand our knowledge regarding the morphologic diversities of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.

Debelenko LV, McGregor LM, Shivakumar BR, et al.
A novel EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusion transcript in a case of small cell osteosarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011; 50(12):1054-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cellular morphology of small cell osteosarcoma, an aggressive variant of osteosarcoma, is similar to Ewing sarcoma, but its molecular pathogenesis is largely unknown. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with multifocal small cell osteosarcoma positive for the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) gene rearrangement by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization and negative for EWSR1-FLI1, EWSR1-ERG, and EWSR1-WT1 fusion transcripts by reverse transcriptase PCR. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed exon 6 of the cAMP-responsive element binding protein 3-like 1 gene (CREB3L1, also known as "OASIS," NM_52854.2) fused in-frame to the EWSR1 exon 11, consistent with the EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusion transcript expressed in tumor tissue. The corresponding chimeric gene was confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the genomic breakpoint between introns 11 and 5 of EWSR1 and CREB3L1, respectively. An ∼70 kDa product in the tumor tissue lysate reacted with the CREB3L1 carboxyterminal antibody, consistent with a 656-amino acid predicted chimeric protein. Immunohistochemistry with the same antibody showed signal translocation from the physiologic perinuclear compartment observed in glia and unrelated osteoblasts to nuclei of tumor cells, consistent with the likely function of EWSR1-CREB3L1 as a transcriptional regulator predicted by its structure. This is the first report of a fusion transcript in osteogenic sarcoma; it demonstrates a relation between molecular mechanisms of small cell osteogenic and Ewing sarcomas. The 3'-end partner and the inferred structure of EWSR1-CREB3L1, however, are different from those of Ewing sarcoma, suggesting different targets of the new oncogene.

Möller E, Hornick JL, Magnusson L, et al.
FUS-CREB3L2/L1-positive sarcomas show a specific gene expression profile with upregulation of CD24 and FOXL1.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(9):2646-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is typically characterized by the specific translocation t(7;16)(q33;p11) and the corresponding fusion gene FUS-CREB3L2. The present study aimed to extract LGFMS-specific, and putatively FUS-CREB3L2-dependent, gene expression patterns to learn more about the pathogenesis of this tumor.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We carried out single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and global gene expression array analyses, and/or immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses on 24 LGFMS tumor biopsies. Tumor types that are important differential diagnoses to LGFMS were included as comparison in the gene and protein expression analyses. In addition, cells that stably expressed FUS-CREB3L2 were analyzed with gene expression array and the influence of FUS-CREB3L2 on gene expression was investigated in vitro.
RESULTS: The SNP array analysis detected recurrent microdeletions in association with the t(7;16) chromosomal breakpoints and gain of 7q in cases with ring chromosomes. Gene expression analysis clearly distinguished LGFMS from morphologically similar tumors and MUC4 was identified as a potential diagnostic marker for LGFMS by gene expression and IHC analysis. FOXL1 was identified as the top upregulated gene in LGFMS and CD24 was upregulated in both LGFMS tumors and FUS-CREB3L2 expressing cells. FUS-CREB3L2 was capable of activating transcription from CD24 regulatory sequences in luciferase assays, suggesting an important role for the upregulation of this gene in LGFMS.
CONCLUSIONS: The gene expression profile of LGFMS is distinct from that of soft tissue tumors with similar morphology. The data could be used to identify a potential diagnostic marker for LGFMS and to identify possible FUS-CREB3L2 regulated genes.

Delidaki M, Gu M, Hein A, et al.
Interplay of cAMP and MAPK pathways in hCG secretion and fusogenic gene expression in a trophoblast cell line.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011; 332(1-2):213-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Differentiation of human placental mononuclear trophoblasts into a multinucleate syncytium involves up-regulation of key proteins promoting cell fusion and increased capacity for placental hormonogenesis. It is well established that the activation of adenylyl cyclase leads to increased expression of trophoblast fusogenic gene machinery and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion. We used the forskolin-induced syncytialisation of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells as a model to characterise in detail the signalling pathway downstream of adenylyl cyclase. Forskolin treatment induced a rapid and potent ERK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation; this cascade required PKA-AKAP interactions and led to downstream CREB-1/ATF-1 phosphorylation via ERK1/2-dependent but p38MAPK-independent mechanisms. Interestingly both p38MAPK and ERK1/2 were involved in forskolin-induced hCG-secretion, suggesting the presence of additional p38MAPK-dependent but CREB-1/ATF-1-independent pathways. Forskolin treatment of BeWo cells significantly up-regulated the expression of various fusogenic gene mRNAs, including syncytin-1 and -2 (by 3- and 10-fold, respectively) the transcription factors old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS) and glial cells missing a (GCMa) (by 3- and 6-fold, respectively) and the syncytin-2 receptor, major facilitator superfamily domain containing 2 (MFSD2) (by 2-fold). Up-regulation of AKAP79 and AKAP250 (by 2.5- and 4-fold, respectively) was also identified in forskolin-treated BeWo cells. Forskolin effects on all these genes were suppressed by chemical inhibition of p38MAPK whereas only specific genes were sensitive to ERK1/2 inhibition. This data provide novel insights into the signalling molecules and mechanisms regulating fusogenic gene expression by the adenylyl cyclase pathway.

McCarty MF, Barroso-Aranda J, Contreras F
Practical strategies for suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor activity in cancer therapy.
Med Hypotheses. 2010; 74(5):789-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
The utility of anti-angiogenic strategies for cancer control is strongly compromised by hypoxia-driven phenotypic changes in cancer cells, which make cancer cells more invasive and more prone to give rise to metastases. A key mediator of this phenotypic shift is the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which acts directly and indirectly to promote the epidermal-mesenchymal transition, boost cancer invasiveness, increase production of angiogenic factors, and induce chemoresistance. In some cancers, HIF-1 activity is constitutively elevated even in aerobic environments, making the cancer harder to treat and control. Practical strategies for suppressing HIF-1 activation may include the following: inhibiting NF-kappaB activation with salicylic acid and/or silibinin, which should decrease transcription of the HIF-1alpha gene; suppressing translation of HIF-1alpha mRNA with drugs that inhibit mTOR or topoisomerase I; supporting the effective activity of prolyl hydroxylases - which promote proteasomal degradation of HIF-1alpha under aerobic conditions - with antioxidant measures, alpha-ketoglutarate, and possibly dichloroacetate; promoting the O(2)-independent proteasomal degradation of HIF-1alpha with agents that inhibit the chaperone protein Hsp90; and blocking HIF-1 binding to its DNA response elements with anthracyclines. The utility of various combinations of these strategies should be tested in cancer cell cultures and rodent xenograft models; initial efforts in this regard have yielded encouraging results. Comprehensive strategies for suppressing HIF-1 activity can be expected to complement the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy and of effective anti-angiogenic regimens.

McCarty MF
''Iatrogenic Gilbert syndrome''--a strategy for reducing vascular and cancer risk by increasing plasma unconjugated bilirubin.
Med Hypotheses. 2007; 69(5):974-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
The catabolism of heme, generating biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and free iron, is mediated by heme oxygenase (HO). One form of this of this enzyme, heme oxygenase-1, is inducible by numerous agents which promote oxidative stress, and is now known to provide important antioxidant protection, as demonstrated in many rodent models of free radical-mediated pathogenesis, and suggested by epidemiology observing favorable health outcomes in individuals carrying high-expression alleles of the HO-1 gene. The antioxidant impact of HO-1 appears to be mediated by bilirubin, generated rapidly from biliverdin by ubiquitously expressed biliverdin reductase. Bilirubin efficiently scavenges a wide range of physiological oxidants by electron donation. In the process, it is often reconverted to biliverdin, but biliverdin reductase quickly regenerates bilirubin, thereby greatly boosting its antioxidant potential. There is also suggestive evidence that bilirubin inhibits the activity or activation of NADPH oxidase. Increased serum bilirubin is associated with reduced risk for atherogenic disease in epidemiological studies, and more limited data show an inverse correlation between serum bilirubin and cancer risk. Gilbert syndrome, a genetic variant characterized by moderate hyperbilirubinemia attributable to reduced hepatic expression of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase which conjugates bilirubin, has been associated with a greatly reduced risk for ischemic heart disease and hypertension in a recent study. Feasible strategies for boosting serum bilirubin levels may include administration of HO-1 inducers, supplementation with bilirubin or biliverdin, and administration of drugs which decrease the efficiency of hepatic bilirubin conjugation. The well-tolerated uricosuric drug probenecid achieves non-competitive inhibition of hepatic glucuronidation reactions by inhibiting the transport of UDP-glucuronic acid into endoplasmic reticulum; probenecid therapy is included in the differential diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia, and presumably could be used to induce an ''iatrogenic Gilbert syndrome''. Other drugs, such as rifampin, can raise serum bilirubin through competitive inhibition of hepatocyte bilirubin uptake--although unfortunately rifampin is not as safe as probenecid. Measures which can safely achieve moderate serum elevations of bilirubin may prove to have value in the prevention and/or treatment of a wide range of disorders in which oxidants play a prominent pathogenic role, including many vascular diseases, cancer, and inflammatory syndromes. Phycobilins, algal biliverdin metabolites that are good substrates for biliverdin reductase, may prove to have clinical antioxidant potential comparable to that of bilirubin.

Guillou L, Benhattar J, Gengler C, et al.
Translocation-positive low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of a series expanding the morphologic spectrum and suggesting potential relationship to sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: a study from the French Sarcoma Group.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2007; 31(9):1387-402 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas (LGFMS) bear either the t(7,16) (q32-34;p11) or t(11,16) (p11;p11) translocations, resulting in FUS-CREB3L2 or FUS-CREB3L1 fusions, respectively. Heretofore, fusion transcripts were mainly detected in frozen tissues, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In this study, we aimed to develop a reliable method to detect these in paraffin-embedded tissues, and to examine the clinicopathologic characteristics of a series of translocation-positive LGFMS. Sixty-three neoplasms with typical morphologic features of LGFMS and 66 non-LGFMS tumors selected for their resemblance to LGFMS (LGFMS-like tumors) were examined. RNA of sufficient quality could be extracted from 111/129 (86%) cases (59 LGFMS, 52 non-LGFMS). Of all, 48/59 (sensitivity, 81%) LGFMS contained detectable transcripts (45 FUS-CREB3L2, 3 FUS-CREB3L1). Most relevant clinicopathologic features of fusion-positive LGFMS included predominance in lower extremities (22/48; thigh: 13/48), deep situation (46/48), and occasional presence of unusual histologic features, for example, hypercellular areas (16/48), foci of epithelioid cells (13/48), and giant rosettes (6/48). Most tumors expressed EMA (41/45), at least focally, CD99 (38/41) and bcl-2 (36/41) while being essentially negative for CD34 (2/45), mdm2 (1/41), smooth muscle actin (1/45), S100 protein (0/46), desmin (0/44), h-caldesmon (0/42), keratins (0/44), and CD117 (0/40). Eleven presumed LGFMS were fusion negative. Of all, 7/52 non-LGMFS neoplasms contained FUS-CREB3L2 transcripts, of which 4 had been diagnosed as sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. In conclusion, FUS-CREB3L1/L2 fusion transcripts can be detected in paraffin-embedded LGFMS in a sensitive manner, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Most fusion-positive LGFMS are EMA-positive and CD34/S100/smooth muscle actin negative. The presence of epithelioid cells and fusion transcripts in both LGFMS and a subset of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma suggest that these neoplasms might be related.

McCarty MF, Barroso-Aranda J, Contreras F
A two-phase strategy for treatment of oxidant-dependent cancers.
Med Hypotheses. 2007; 69(3):489-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
In many cancers, a chronic increase in oxidant stress - associated with elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide - contributes to the increased proliferative rate, diminished apoptosis, increased angiogenic and metastatic capacity, and chemoresistance that often characterize advanced malignancies. This oxidant stress often reflects up-regulation of expression and activity of NADPH oxidase, and/or decreased activity of catalase, which functions as suppressor gene in oxidant-dependent cancers. These characteristics of oxidant-dependent cancers suggest a dual strategy for treatment of these cancers. Since ascorbate can react spontaneously with molecular oxygen to generate hydrogen peroxide, high-dose intravenous ascorbate should be selectively toxic to tumors that are low in catalase activity - as suggested by numerous cell culture studies. Measures which concurrently improve the oxygenation of hypoxic tumor regions would be expected to boost the efficacy of such therapy; calcitriol and high-dose selenium might also be useful in this regard. Secondly, during the intervals between sessions of ascorbate therapy, administration of agents which can safely inhibit NADPH oxidase would be expected to slow the proliferation and spread of surviving tumor cells - while providing selection pressure for a further decline in catalase activity. In effect, cancers treated in this way would be whipsawed between lethally excessive and inadequately low oxidant stress. An additional possibility is that ascorbate-induced oxidant stress in tumors might potentiate the cell kill achieved with concurrently administered cytotoxic drugs, inasmuch as oxidant mechanisms appear to play a mediating role in the apoptosis induced by many such drugs, largely via activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase; cell culture studies would be useful for evaluating this possibility.

Kondo S, Saito A, Hino S, et al.
BBF2H7, a novel transmembrane bZIP transcription factor, is a new type of endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer.
Mol Cell Biol. 2007; 27(5):1716-29 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transducers IRE1 (inositol requiring 1), PERK (PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase), and ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) are well known to transduce signals from the ER to the cytoplasm and nucleus when unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER. Recently, we identified OASIS (old astrocyte specifically induced substance) as a novel ER stress transducer expressed in astrocytes. We report here that BBF2H7 (BBF2 human homolog on chromosome 7), an ER-resident transmembrane protein with the bZIP domain in the cytoplasmic portion and structurally homologous to OASIS, is cleaved at the membrane in response to ER stress. The cleaved fragments of BBF2H7 translocate into the nucleus and can bind directly to cyclic AMP-responsive element sites to activate transcription of target genes. Interestingly, although BBF2H7 protein is not expressed under normal conditions, it is markedly induced at the translational level during ER stress, suggesting that BBF2H7 might contribute to only the late phase of unfolded protein response signaling. In a mouse model of focal brain ischemia, BBF2H7 protein is prominently induced in neurons in the peri-infarction region. Furthermore, in a neuroblastoma cell line, BBF2H7 overexpression suppresses ER stress-induced cell death, while small interfering RNA knockdown of BBF2H7 promotes ER stress-induced cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that BBF2H7 is a novel ER stress transducer and could play important roles in preventing accumulation of unfolded proteins in damaged neurons.

Matsuyama A, Hisaoka M, Shimajiri S, et al.
Molecular detection of FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2006; 30(9):1077-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
A diagnosis of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) remains problematic because of its bland-looking histologic features that can be potentially confused with other benign or low-grade fibromyxoid lesions. Recent cytogenetic and molecular analyses have shown that most LGFMSs have a characteristic chromosomal abnormality, t(7;16)(q33;p11), resulting in the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion gene. However, such assays have only rarely been used to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples. In the present study, we conducted a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay to detect the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue specimens from 16 LGFMSs including 3 cases with giant collagen rosettes. The primers were newly designed to specifically amplify most of the junctional regions of the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion gene transcripts previously reported. The FUS-CREB3L2 fusion gene transcripts were detected in 14/16 (88%) cases of LGFMS. A nucleotide sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed that different portions of the FUS exon 6 or 7 were fused with various sites of the CREB3L2 exon 5, resulting in 12 different nucleotide sequences. We also tested a primer set to detect the FUS-CREB3L1 fusion transcript, which is a rare variant of the gene fusion in LGFMS, although no PCR products were identified in any case. The FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts were not detected in any of the 123 other soft-tissue tumors, including desmoid-type fibromatoses, myxofibrosarcomas, soft-tissue perineuriomas, and congenital or adult fibrosarcomas. These data suggest that our reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay is a reliable method to detect FUS-CREB3L2, which can thus help in accurately diagnosing LGFMS.

Murakami T, Kondo S, Ogata M, et al.
Cleavage of the membrane-bound transcription factor OASIS in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.
J Neurochem. 2006; 96(4):1090-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
When unfolded or misfolded proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), unfolded protein response (UPR) signals are transmitted from the ER to the nucleus and cytoplasm to facilitate protein folding. OASIS (old astrocyte specifically induced substance) is an ER stress transducer in astrocytes, a membrane-bound transcription factor that activates genes in the ER stress response. When unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER, OASIS is cleaved at the membrane to release its cytoplasmic domain, which then enters the nucleus and activates target genes. Here, we showed that OASIS is processed by Site-1 and -2 proteases (S1P and S2P), enzymes that reside at the Golgi apparatus and process activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), in response to ER stress. We also showed that the cleavage of OASIS is triggered by its translocation to the Golgi apparatus. All deletion mutants for luminal domain of OASIS showed that proteolytic processing and translocation to the Golgi apparatus remained intact, indicating that OASIS does not have significant sequences for Golgi localization signals, different from the case of ATF6, and that there could be other systems for translocation of OASIS to the Golgi apparatus in response to ER stress.

Kusumi T, Nishikawa S, Tanaka M, et al.
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma arising in the big toe.
Pathol Int. 2005; 55(12):802-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare tumor. Reported herein is a case of LGFMS arising in the big toe. The patient was a 58-year-old man who underwent excision of the tumor. The tumor was well-demarcated. Histologically, there were proliferating spindle-shaped tumor cells arranged in a whorled growth pattern, and the stroma showed hyalinized collagen bundles and a myxoid matrix. Nuclear mitotic figures were conspicuous in part. A large rosette-like structure with hyalinized stroma was found, which is characteristic of LGFMS. The differential diagnosis included tumor occurrence in adults; tending to arise in distal extremities; and having bland fibromyxoid histological features, such as fibroma of tendon sheath, low-grade myxofibrosarcoma and acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma. It was not possible to detect the FUS/CREB3L2 and FUS/CREB3L1 fusion genes from the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue, although the histological features of the present case were typical of LGFMS. LGFMS may become more common with time, and unique cases may accumulate.

Mertens F, Fletcher CD, Antonescu CR, et al.
Clinicopathologic and molecular genetic characterization of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, and cloning of a novel FUS/CREB3L1 fusion gene.
Lab Invest. 2005; 85(3):408-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is an indolent, late-metastasizing malignant soft-tissue tumor that is often mistaken for either more benign or more malignant tumor types. Cytogenetic analyses have identified a recurrent balanced translocation t(7;16) (q32-34;p11), later shown by molecular genetic approaches to result in a FUS/CREB3L2 fusion gene. Whereas preliminary studies suggest that this gene rearrangement is specific for LGFMS, its incidence in this tumor type and the possible existence of variant fusion genes have not yet been addressed. For this purpose, a series of potential LGFMS were obtained from nine different soft-tissue tumor centres and subjected to molecular analysis as well as careful histopathologic review. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis disclosed a FUS/CREB3L2 fusion transcript in 22 of the 23 (96%) cases that remained classified as LGFMS after the histologic re-evaluation and from which RNA of sufficient quality could be extracted, whereas none of the cases that were classified as other tumor types was fusion-positive. In one of the tumors with typical LGFMS appearance, we found that FUS was fused to the CREB3L1 gene instead of CREB3L2. The proteins encoded by these genes both belong to the same basic leucine-zipper family of transcription factors, and display extensive sequence homology in their DNA-binding domains. Thus, it is expected that the novel FUS/CREB3L1 chimera will have a similar impact at the cellular level as the much more common FUS/CREB3L2 fusion protein. Taken together, the results indicate that virtually all LGFMS are characterized by a chimeric FUS/CREB3L2 gene, and that rare cases may display a variant FUS/CREB3L1 fusion.

Storlazzi CT, Mertens F, Nascimento A, et al.
Fusion of the FUS and BBF2H7 genes in low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.
Hum Mol Genet. 2003; 12(18):2349-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
The FUS gene at 16p11 fuses with DDIT3 and ATF1 as the result of translocations with chromosome band 12q13 in myxoid liposarcoma and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma, respectively, and with ERG as the result of a t(16;21)(p11;q22) in acute myeloid leukemia. We here show that a t(7;16)(q33;p11) in two cases of low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma fuses the FUS gene to BBF2H7, a previously uncharacterized gene that is homologous to the Drosophila Bbf-2 gene. BBF2H7 spans more than 120 kbp genomic DNA, is composed of 12 exons and contains a 1560 bp open reading frame. It codes for a 519 amino acid protein that contains a basic DNA binding and leucine zipper dimerization (B-ZIP) motif, highly similar to that in the OASIS, CREB-H, CREB4 and CREB3 transcription factors, followed by a hydrophobic region predicted to be an alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using FUS forward and BBF2H7 reverse primers, amplified FUS/BBF2H7 chimeric transcripts composed of the first five exons and part of exon 6 of FUS and part of exon 5 and exons 6-12 of BBF2H7. The FUS/BBF2H7 chimera codes for a protein containing the N-terminus of FUS and the B-ZIP domain and the C-terminus of BBF2H7.

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