Research IndicatorsGraph generated 16 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: FTL (cancer-related)
Chekhun VF, Lukyanova NY, Burlaka CA, et al.Iron metabolism disturbances in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cells with acquired resistance to doxorubicin and cisplatin.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(5):1481-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The development of resistance of cancer cells to therapeutic agents is the major obstacle in the successful treatment of breast cancer and the main cause of breast cancer recurrence. The results of several studies have demonstrated an important role of altered cellular iron metabolism in the progression of breast cancer and suggested that iron metabolism may be involved in the acquisition of a cancer cell drug-resistant phenotype. In the present study, we show that human MCF-7 breast cancer cells with an acquired resistance to the chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin (MCF-7/DOX) and cisplatin (MCF-7/CDDP) exhibited substantial alterations in the intracellular iron content and levels of iron-regulatory proteins involved in the cellular uptake, storage and export of iron, especially in profoundly increased levels of ferritin light chain (FTL) protein. The increased levels of FTL in breast cancer indicate that FTL may be used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for breast cancer. Additionally, we demonstrate that targeted downregulation of FTL protein by the microRNA miR-133a increases sensitivity of MCF-7/DOX and MCF-7/CDDP cells to doxorubicin and cisplatin. These results suggest that correction of iron metabolism abnormalities may substantially improve the efficiency of breast cancer treatment.
Dadkhah E, Naseh H, Farshchian M, et al.A cancer-array approach elucidates the immune escape mechanism and defects in the DNA repair system in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch Iran Med. 2013; 16(8):463-70 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the second-most frequently diagnosed cancer in Northeast Iran, often diagnosed in advanced stages. No standard early diagnostic guideline has been proposed to date and current therapeutic modalities are not effective. Detection of tumor-specific biomarkers, which is the goal of this study, could prove useful in the diagnosis of ESCC.
METHODS: To better understand the gene expression profile of ESCC, we analyzed tumor samples and corresponding adjacent normal tissues from ESCC patients by Chemiluminescent Human Cancer GEArrays. Candidate genes were verified by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: Out of 440 cancer-related genes included in the array, 71 were overexpressed compared to normal tissue, with significant differences in 11 genes. There were 108 genes underexpressed, with significant differences in 5 genes. Until now, the AP2M1, FTL, UBE2L6, HLA-C, and HSPA8 overexpressed genes and XRCC5, TP53I3 and RAP1A underexpressed genes were not reported in ESCC. We chose the MMP2, HLA-G, and XRCC5 markers from 58 Iranian ESCC patients to verify the expression validity by real-time PCR. The microarray results were confirmed with two-tailed significance levels of P = 0.003 (MMP2), P = 0.000 (HLA-G) and P = 0.002(XRCC5). Analysis performed for the candidate genes using GNCpro online software highlighted two pathways, an immuno-modulatory response and DNA replication and repair. We successfully performed and validated Chemiluminescent GEArray gene expression profiling in ESCC. Several biomarkers that might be related to tumorigenesis in ESCC were identified.
CONCLUSION: Immuno-modulatory and DNA repair pathways could be used as targets to locate specific diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers for ESCC.
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most common and lethal primary tumors of the central nervous system with high level of recurrence despite aggressive therapy. Tumor-associated proteins/peptides may appear in the plasma of these patients as a result of disruption of the blood-brain barrier in them, raising the scope for development of plasma-based tests for diagnosis and monitoring the disease. With this objective, we analyzed the levels of proteins present in the plasma from GBM patients using an iTRAQ based LC-MS/MS approach. Analysis with pooled plasma specimens from the patient and healthy control samples revealed high confidence identification of 296 proteins, of which 61 exhibited a fold-change ≥1.5 in the patient group. Forty-eight of them contained signal sequence. A majority have been reported in the differentially expressed transcript or protein profile of GBM tissues; 6 have been previously studied as plasma biomarkers for GBM and 16 for other types of cancers. Altered levels of three representative proteins-ferritin light chain (FTL), S100A9, and carnosinase 1 (CNDP1)-were verified by ELISA in a test set of ten individual plasma specimens. FTL is an inflammation marker also implicated in cancer, S100A9 is an important member of the Ca(2+) signaling cascade reported to be altered in GBM tissue, and CNDP1 has been reported for its role in the regulation of the levels of carnosine, implicated as a potential drug for GBM. These and other proteins in the dataset may form useful starting points for further clinical investigations for the development of plasma-based biomarker panels for GBM.
Descotes F, Jézéquel P, Spyratos F, et al.Identification of potential prognostic biomarkers for node-negative breast tumours by proteomic analysis: a multicentric 2004 national PHRC study.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 41(1):92-104 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We used a 2D-electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomic approach to identify novel biomarkers in node-negative breast cancers. This retrospective study focused on a population of patients with ductal pN0M0 tumours. A subset of patients who developed metastases and in whose tumours were found high levels of uPA and PAI-1 (metastatic relapse, MR: n=20) were compared to another subset in whom no metastatic relapse occurred and whose tumours were found to have low levels of uPA and PAI-1 (no relapse, NR: n=21). We used a 2-DE coupled with MS approach to screen cytosol fractions using two pH-gradient scales, a broad scale (3.0-11.0) and a narrower scale focussing in on a protein rich region (5.0-8.0). This study was conducted on 41 cytosol specimens analyzed in duplicate on two platforms. The differential analysis of more than 2,000 spots in 2-DE gels, obtained on the two platforms, allowed the identification of 13 proteins which were confirmed by western blotting. Two proteins, GPDA and FABP4 were down-regulated in the MR subset whereas all the others were up-regulated. An in silico analysis revealed that GMPS (GUAA), GAPDH (G3P), CFL1 (COF1) and FTL (FRIL), the most informative genes, displayed a proliferation profile (high expression in basal-like, HER2+ and luminal B molecular subtypes). Inversely, similar to FABP4, GPD1 [GPDA] displayed a high expression in luminal A subtype, a profile characteristic of tumour suppressor genes. Despite the small size of our cohort, the 2-DE analysis gave interesting results which were confirmed by the in silico analysis showing that some of the corresponding genes had a strong prognostic impact in breast cancer, mostly because of their link with proliferation: GMPS, GAPDH, FTL and GPD1. A validation phase on a larger cohort is now needed before these biomarkers could be considered for use in clinical practice.
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a poorly defined genetic landscape, which poses a major challenge in diagnosis and treatment. By massively parallel mRNA sequencing, we obtained 1.2 billion reads from 17 individual human tissues belonging to TNBC, Non-TNBC, and HER2-positive breast cancers and defined their comprehensive digital transcriptome for the first time. Surprisingly, we identified a high number of novel and unannotated transcripts, revealing the global breast cancer transcriptomic adaptations. Comparative transcriptomic analyses elucidated differentially expressed transcripts between the three breast cancer groups, identifying several new modulators of breast cancer. Our study also identified common transcriptional regulatory elements, such as highly abundant primary transcripts, including osteonectin, RACK1, calnexin, calreticulin, FTL, and B2M, and "genomic hotspots" enriched in primary transcripts between the three groups. Thus, our study opens previously unexplored niches that could enable a better understanding of the disease and the development of potential intervention strategies.
Veitch ZW, Guo B, Hembruff SL, et al.Induction of 1C aldoketoreductases and other drug dose-dependent genes upon acquisition of anthracycline resistance.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009; 19(6):477-88 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest that tumor cells overexpressing aldoketoreductases (AKRs) exhibit increased resistance to DNA damaging agents such as anthracyclines. AKRs may induce resistance to the anthracycline doxorubicin by catalyzing its conversion to the less toxic 13-hydroxy metabolite doxorubicinol. However, it has not been established whether during selection for anthracycline resistance, AKR overexpression in tumor cells can be correlated with the onset or magnitude of drug resistance and with appreciable conversion of anthracyclines to 13-hydroxy metabolites.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Through microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies involving rigid selection criteria and both correlative discriminate statistics and time-course models, we have identified several genes whose expression can be correlated with the onset and/or magnitude of anthracycline resistance, including AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. Also associated with the onset or magnitude of anthracycline resistance were genes involved in drug transport (ABCB1, ABCC1), cell signaling and transcription (RDC1, CXCR4), cell proliferation or apoptosis (BMP7, CAV1), protection from reactive oxygen species (AKR1C2, AKR1C3, FTL, FTH, TXNRD1, MT2A), and structural or immune system proteins (IFI30, STMN1). As expected, doxorubicin-resistant and epirubicin-resistant cells exhibited higher levels of doxorubicinol than wild-type cells, although at insufficient levels to account for significant drug resistance. Nevertheless, an inhibitor of Akr1c2 (5beta-cholanic acid) almost completely restored sensitivity to doxorubicin in ABCB1-deficient doxorubicin-resistant cells, while having no effect on ABCB1-expressing epirubicin-resistant cells.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, we show for the first time that a variety of genes (particularly redox genes such as AKR1C2 and AKR1C3) can be temporally and causally correlated with the acquisition of anthracycline resistance in breast tumor cells.
Wang K, Xu X, Nie Y, et al.Identification of tumor-associated antigens by using SEREX in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2009; 281(2):144-50 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: To identify biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Screening the HCC cDNA library with HCC patients sera. Isolated proteins were used as antigens to detect antibodies from patients with HCC and control sera.
RESULTS: Eighty-one positive clones were identified. The frequencies of autoantibody against five HCC-associated antigens were higher in HCC than that in chronic hepatitis and normal human sera. The sensitivity and specificity of KRT23, AHSG and FTL antigens combination tests up to 98.2% in joint test and 90.0% in series test separately.
CONCLUSIONS: HCC associate antigens identified from this study supply candidate markers of diagnosis, combined detection and immunotherapy of HCC.
Liu Y, Zhu X, Zhu J, et al.Identification of differential expression of genes in hepatocellular carcinoma by suppression subtractive hybridization combined cDNA microarray.
Oncol Rep. 2007; 18(4):943-51 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The genetic background of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has yet to be completely understood. Here, we describe the application of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) coupled with cDNA microarray analysis for the isolation and identification of differential expression of genes in HCC. Twenty-six known genes were validated as up-regulated and 19 known genes as down-regulated in HCC. The known genes identified were found to have diverse functions. In addition to the overexpression of AFP, these genes (increased in the presence of HCC) are involved in many processes, such as transcription and protein biosynthesis (HNRPDL, PABPC1, POLR2K, SRP9, SNRPA, and six ribosomal protein genes including RPL8, RPL14, RPL41, RPS5, RPS17, RPS24), the metabolism of lipids and proteins (FADS1, ApoA-II, ApoM, FTL), cell proliferation (Syndecan-2, and Annexin A2), and signal transduction (LRRC28 and FMR1). Additionally, a glutathione-binding protein involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal known as GLO1 and an enzyme which increases the formation of prostaglandin E(2) known as PLA2G10 were up-regulated in HCC. Among the underexpressed genes discovered in HCC, most were responsible for liver-synthesized proteins (fibrinogen, complement species, amyloid, albumin, haptoglobin, hemopexin and orosomucoid). The enzyme implicated in the biotransformation of CYP family members (LOC644587) was decreased. The genes coding enzymes ADH1C, ALDH6A1, ALDOB, Arginase and CES1 were also found. Additionally, we isolated a zinc transporter (Zip14) and a function-unknown gene named ZBTB11 (Zinc finger and BTB domain containing 11) which were underexpressed, and seven expression sequence tags deregulated in HCC without significant homology reported in the public database. Essentially, by using SSH combined with a cDNA microarray we have identified a number of genes associated with HCC, most of which have not been previously reported. Further characterization of these differentially expressed genes will provide information useful in understanding the genes responsible for the development of HCC.
Fellenberg J, Bernd L, Delling G, et al.Prognostic significance of drug-regulated genes in high-grade osteosarcoma.
Mod Pathol. 2007; 20(10):1085-94 [PubMed
] Related Publications
About 25-45% of patients with high-grade osteosarcoma poorly respond to chemotherapy with an increased risk of relapse and the development of metastasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation of the prognostic value of eight previously identified drug-regulated candidate genes on osteosarcoma therapy outcome. Gene expression of 8 candidate genes was analyzed in 35 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, laser-microdissected osteosarcoma biopsies. The prognostic value of these genes was evaluated by the correlation of gene expression with therapy outcome, overall survival and event-free survival in univariate and multivariate analysis. Upon univariate analysis, the expression of MALAT-1, IMPDH2, FTL and RHOA significantly correlated with response to chemotherapy. Expression of all four genes was increased in the poor responder group. Upon multivariate analysis, IMPDH2 maintained its independent prognostic value (P=0.025). Concerning the overall survival of the patients, we observed a significant association with the expression of FTL, PHB, ATAD2, ACTN1 and RRM2 as well as lactate dehydrogenase serum levels. In the subgroups of patients with high expression of these genes and those with elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels, the mean overall survival was decreased 1.7-, 1.9-, 2.2-, 2.4-, 1.5- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Except RRM2, all genes and lactate dehydrogenase serum levels remained significant in the multivariate analysis. In addition, the event-free survival was significantly decreased in the subgroups of patients with high FTL, ATAD2 and IMPDH2 expression (1.8-, 6.3- and 2.4-fold, respectively). These data demonstrate that among the identified genes are valuable markers for the prediction of osteosarcoma therapy outcome. Especially IMPDH2 and FTL are promising candidates for the stratification of osteosarcoma patients into low- and high-risk groups. Owing to their involvement in drug action these genes may further be potential targets for the modulation of drug sensitivity.
Yoon SY, Kim JM, Oh JH, et al.Gene expression profiling of human HBV- and/or HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma cells using expressed sequence tags.
Int J Oncol. 2006; 29(2):315-27 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. To identify novel target genes that are related to liver carcinogenesis, we examined new genes that are differentially expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and tissues based on the expressed sequence tag (EST) frequency. Eleven libraries were constructed from seven HCC cell lines and three normal liver tissue samples obtained from Korean patients. An analysis of gene expression profiles for HCC was performed using the frequency of ESTs obtained from these cDNA libraries. Genes were identified (n=120) as being either up- or down-regulated in human liver cancer cells. Among these, 14 genes (FTL, K-ALPHA1, LDHA, RPL4, ENO1, ANXA2, RPL9, RPL10, RPL13A, GNB2L1, AMBP, GC, A1BG, and SERPINC1), in addition to previously well-known liver cancer related genes, were confirmed to be differentially expressed in seven liver cancer cell lines and 17 HCC tissues by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, 73 genes, in which there was a significant difference (P>0.99) between HBV- and HCV-associated HCC cells, were selected. Of these, expression patterns of 14 (RPLP0, AKR1C, KRT8, GPX4, RPS15, ID1, RPS21, VIM, EEF1G, EIF4A1, HLA-C, FN1, CD44, and RPS10) were confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in four of HBV- and three of HCV-associated HCC cell lines. Among those genes, an immunohistochemical analysis for ANXA2 showed that it is expressed at high levels in HCC. Using an analysis of EST frequency, the newly identified genes, especially ANXA2, represent potential biomarkers for HCC and useful targets for elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with HCC involving virological etiology.
Tews B, Felsberg J, Hartmann C, et al.Identification of novel oligodendroglioma-associated candidate tumor suppressor genes in 1p36 and 19q13 using microarray-based expression profiling.
Int J Cancer. 2006; 119(4):792-800 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q is the most common genetic alteration in oligodendroglial tumors and associated with response to radio- and chemotherapy as well as favorable prognosis. Using microsatellite analysis, we previously identified the chromosomal regions 1p36.22-p36.31 and 19q13.3, as candidate tumor suppressor gene regions being commonly deleted in these tumors. To identify genes within these regions that are downregulated in oligodendroglial tumors with LOH 1p/19q, we performed cDNA microarray-based RNA expression profiling of 35 gliomas with known allelic status on 1p and 19q, including 7 oligodendrogliomas and 8 diffuse astrocytomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, as well as 14 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and 6 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas of WHO grade III. The microarrays used for expression profiling carried approximately 7,000 gene-specific cDNAs, with complete coverage of the genes located in 1p36.13-p36.31 and 19q13.2-q13.33. Microarray analysis identified 8 genes from these regions (MGC4399, SRM, ICMT, RPL18, FTL, ZIN, FLJ10781 and DBP), which all showed significantly lower expression in 1p/19q-deleted gliomas when compared to gliomas without 1p/19q losses. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses were performed for the MGC4399, ICMT and RPL18 genes and confirmed the microarray findings. In addition, we found that the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4C) gene at 19q13.3 demonstrated significantly lower expression in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade III) when compared to well-differentiated oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II). Taken together, our study provides a set of interesting novel candidate genes that may play important roles in the pathogenesis of oligodendroglial tumors.
Yang XY, Ren CP, Wang L, et al.Identification of differentially expressed genes in metastatic and non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by suppression subtractive hybridization.
Cell Oncol. 2005; 27(4):215-23 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial neoplasm with high occurrence rates in southern China. The disease often metastasizes to regional lymphnodes at a very early stage. Local recurrences and metastasis occur frequently in patients with NPC and are a leading cause of death, despite improvements on treatment modalities. The molecular mechanism underlying the metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains poorly understood, however, and requires additional elucidation. The aim of this study was to explore possible NPC gene candidates that may play key roles in NPC metastasis.
METHODS: Subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH) was performed to isolate differentially expressed clones between the metastatic 5-8F and non-metastatic 6-10B nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines. Differentially expressed clones were screened and confirmed by reverse Northern blotting. The sequences of cDNA fragments were subsequently analyzed and compared to known sequences in Genbank.
RESULTS & DISCUSSION: The SSH library contained thousands of positive clones. Random analysis of 300 clones by PCR demonstrated that 269 clones contained inserted fragments. Reverse Northern blot confirmed that 20 out of 192 clones examined were significantly up-regulated in the 5-8F cell line. Among these 20 clones, 16 were previously identified genes (flotilin-2, ezrin, pim-3, fli-1, mel, neugrin, znf216, ASB1, raly, UBE2A, keratin6A, TMED7, EIF3S9, FTL, two ribosomal proteins RPL21 and RPL16), two were predicted genes (c9orf74 and MDS006), and two sequences shared no homology with known genes listed in GenBank and may represent novel genes. The proposed functions of the genes identified in this study include cell signal transduction, cell survival, transcription regulation, cell mobility, protein synthesis, and DNA damage repair. Flotillin-2, fli-1, pim-3 and ezrin have previously been reported to be associated with tumor metastasis and progression. The remaining up-regulated genes identified in this study have not been reported to be markers of metastasis and may represent new candidates of NPC metastasis-related genes. The results of this study may provide novel points of therapeutic intervention for NPC.
Feng HC, Tsao SW, Ngan HY, et al.Differential expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 and ferritin light polypeptide in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: combined cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray study.
Cancer. 2005; 104(11):2409-16 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hydatidiform mole (HM), the most common type of gestational trophoblastic diseases, can be considered as placenta with abnormal chromosome composition with potential of malignant transformation. Few biologic markers can predict subsequent development of persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) requiring chemotherapy.
METHODS: Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with cDNA microarray was used to compare the differential expression pattern of HM that spontaneously regressed and that subsequently developed metastatic GTN. Tissue-specific chips were constructed from the subtracted cDNA libraries, followed by cDNA microarray analysis. Verification by quantitative RNA analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical analysis was performed in 23 genotyped complete HM.
RESULTS: Sixteen differentially expressed transcripts were identified. Quantitative RNA analysis confirmed down-regulation of ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) (P = 0.037) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) (P = 0.037) in HM that subsequently developed GTN when compared with those HM that regressed. Immunohistochemical analysis further confirmed reduced IGFBP1 protein (P = 0.03) expression in HM that developed GTN.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings showed that reduced expression of genes related to cell invasion and immunosuppression, especially FTL and IGFBP1, were associated with development of GTN, and this finding may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of GTN. The potential application of FTL and IGFBP1 in management of patients with HM should be explored.
Mohr S, Bottin MC, Lannes B, et al.Microdissection, mRNA amplification and microarray: a study of pleural mesothelial and malignant mesothelioma cells.
Biochimie. 2004; 86(1):13-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The studies of molecular alterations in tumor cells with microarrays are often hampered by inherent tissue heterogeneity. The emergence of Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) allowed us to overcome this challenge since it gives selective access to cancer cells that are isolated from their native tissue environment. In this report, we microdissected mesothelial cells and malignant mesothelioma cells of ex vivo resected specimens using LCM. Amplified RNA from mesothelial and mesothelioma microdissected cells allowed us to measure global gene expression with 10 K-microarrays in four independent experiments. We screened 9850 annotated human genes, 1275 of which have satisfied our data analysis requirements. They included 302 overexpressed genes and 160 downregulated genes in mesothelioma microdissected cells as compared to mesothelial microdissected cells. Among them, the expression levels of eight genes, namely BF, FTL, IGFBP7, RARRES1, RARRES2, RBP1, SAT, and TXN according to HUGO nomenclature, were increased, whereas six: ALOX5AP, CLNS1A, EIF4A2, ELK3, REQ and SYPL, were found to be underexpressed in mesothelioma microdissected cells. The ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) gene overexpression was confirmed by real time quantitative PCR. Our approach allowed a comprehensive in situ examination of mesothelioma and provided an accurate way to find new marker genes that may be useful for diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.