Gene Summary

Gene:FANCD2; Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2
Aliases: FA4, FAD, FACD, FAD2, FA-D2, FANCD
Summary:The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group D2. This protein is monoubiquinated in response to DNA damage, resulting in its localization to nuclear foci with other proteins (BRCA1 AND BRCA2) involved in homology-directed DNA repair. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:Fanconi anemia group D2 protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 28 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 28 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

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Fanconi Anemia - Complementation Group D2

Latest Publications

Martínez TF, Phillips JW, Karanja KK, et al.
Replication stress by Py-Im polyamides induces a non-canonical ATR-dependent checkpoint response.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(18):11546-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides targeted to the androgen response element were cytotoxic in multiple cell lines, independent of intact androgen receptor signaling. Polyamide treatment induced accumulation of S-phase cells and of PCNA replication/repair foci. Activation of a cell cycle checkpoint response was evidenced by autophosphorylation of ATR, the S-phase checkpoint kinase, and by recruitment of ATR and the ATR activators RPA, 9-1-1, and Rad17 to chromatin. Surprisingly, ATR activation was accompanied by only a slight increase in single-stranded DNA, and the ATR targets RPA2 and Chk1, a cell cycle checkpoint kinase, were not phosphorylated. However, ATR activation resulted in phosphorylation of the replicative helicase subunit MCM2, an ATR effector. Polyamide treatment also induced accumulation of monoubiquitinated FANCD2, which is recruited to stalled replication forks and interacts transiently with phospho-MCM2. This suggests that polyamides induce replication stress that ATR can counteract independently of Chk1 and that the FA/BRCA pathway may also be involved in the response to polyamides. In biochemical assays, polyamides inhibit DNA helicases, providing a plausible mechanism for S-phase inhibition.

Sugahara R, Mon H, Lee JM, et al.
Differential contribution of the Fanconi anemia-related proteins to repair of several types of DNA damage in cultured silkworm cells.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(21):3959-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The silkworm Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is required for normal cellular resistance to mitomycin C (MMC) in silkworms, but little is known about the requirement for repair of other types of DNA damage. Here we report that silkworm cells deficient for FA proteins FancD2 and FancM exhibit normal sensitivities to hydroxyurea (HU) and camptothecin (CPT), although FancM-dependent FancD2 monoubiquitination is induced upon these treatments. Similar results were observed in cells depleted for Rmi1 and Mhf1, which interact with the FancM protein. We also found that Rad51-knockdown cells exhibited normal sensitivity to HU despite induction of double-strand breaks by HU treatment.

Chaudhury I, Stroik DR, Sobeck A
FANCD2-controlled chromatin access of the Fanconi-associated nuclease FAN1 is crucial for the recovery of stalled replication forks.
Mol Cell Biol. 2014; 34(21):3939-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by cellular hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). Within the FA pathway, an upstream core complex monoubiquitinates and recruits the FANCD2 protein to ICLs on chromatin. Ensuing DNA repair involves the Fanconi-associated nuclease 1 (FAN1), which interacts selectively with monoubiquitinated FANCD2 (FANCD2(Ub)) at ICLs. Importantly, FANCD2 has additional independent functions: it binds chromatin and coordinates the restart of aphidicolin (APH)-stalled replication forks in concert with the BLM helicase, while protecting forks from nucleolytic degradation by MRE11. We identified FAN1 as a new crucial replication fork recovery factor. FAN1 joins the BLM-FANCD2 complex following APH-mediated fork stalling in a manner dependent on MRE11 and FANCD2, followed by FAN1 nuclease-mediated fork restart. Surprisingly, APH-induced activation and chromatin recruitment of FAN1 occur independently of the FA core complex or the FAN1 UBZ domain, indicating that the FANCD2(Ub) isoform is dispensable for functional FANCD2-FAN1 cross talk during stalled fork recovery. In the absence of FANCD2, MRE11 exonuclease-promoted access of FAN1 to stalled forks results in severe FAN1-mediated nucleolytic degradation of nascent DNA strands. Thus, FAN1 nuclease activity at stalled replication forks requires tight regulation: too little inhibits fork restart, whereas too much causes fork degradation.

Chen X, Wilson JB, McChesney P, et al.
The Fanconi anemia proteins FANCD2 and FANCJ interact and regulate each other's chromatin localization.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(37):25774-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia is a genetic disease resulting in bone marrow failure, birth defects, and cancer that is thought to encompass a defect in maintenance of genomic stability. Mutations in 16 genes (FANCA, B, C, D1, D2, E, F, G, I, J, L, M, N, O, P, and Q) have been identified in patients, with the Fanconi anemia subtype J (FA-J) resulting from homozygous mutations in the FANCJ gene. Here, we describe the direct interaction of FANCD2 with FANCJ. We demonstrate the interaction of FANCD2 and FANCJ in vivo and in vitro by immunoprecipitation in crude cell lysates and from fractions after gel filtration and with baculovirally expressed proteins. Mutation of the monoubiquitination site of FANCD2 (K561R) preserves interaction with FANCJ constitutively in a manner that impedes proper chromatin localization of FANCJ. FANCJ is necessary for FANCD2 chromatin loading and focus formation in response to mitomycin C treatment. Our results suggest not only that FANCD2 regulates FANCJ chromatin localization but also that FANCJ is necessary for efficient loading of FANCD2 onto chromatin following DNA damage caused by mitomycin C treatment.

Peng M, Xie J, Ucher A, et al.
Crosstalk between BRCA-Fanconi anemia and mismatch repair pathways prevents MSH2-dependent aberrant DNA damage responses.
EMBO J. 2014; 33(15):1698-712 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
Several proteins in the BRCA-Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, such as FANCJ, BRCA1, and FANCD2, interact with mismatch repair (MMR) pathway factors, but the significance of this link remains unknown. Unlike the BRCA-FA pathway, the MMR pathway is not essential for cells to survive toxic DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), although MMR proteins bind ICLs and other DNA structures that form at stalled replication forks. We hypothesized that MMR proteins corrupt ICL repair in cells that lack crosstalk between BRCA-FA and MMR pathways. Here, we show that ICL sensitivity of cells lacking the interaction between FANCJ and the MMR protein MLH1 is suppressed by depletion of the upstream mismatch recognition factor MSH2. MSH2 depletion suppresses an aberrant DNA damage response, restores cell cycle progression, and promotes ICL resistance through a Rad18-dependent mechanism. MSH2 depletion also suppresses ICL sensitivity in cells deficient for BRCA1 or FANCD2, but not FANCA. Rescue by Msh2 loss was confirmed in Fancd2-null primary mouse cells. Thus, we propose that regulation of MSH2-dependent DNA damage response underlies the importance of interactions between BRCA-FA and MMR pathways.

Rajendra E, Oestergaard VH, Langevin F, et al.
The genetic and biochemical basis of FANCD2 monoubiquitination.
Mol Cell. 2014; 54(5):858-69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by cellular sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinkers. The molecular defect in FA is an impaired DNA repair pathway. The critical event in activating this pathway is monoubiquitination of FANCD2. In vivo, a multisubunit FA core complex catalyzes this step, but its mechanism is unclear. Here, we report purification of a native avian FA core complex and biochemical reconstitution of FANCD2 monoubiquitination. This demonstrates that the catalytic FANCL E3 ligase subunit must be embedded within the complex for maximal activity and site specificity. We genetically and biochemically define a minimal subcomplex comprising just three proteins (FANCB, FANCL, and FAAP100) that functions as the monoubiquitination module. Residual FANCD2 monoubiquitination activity is retained in cells defective for other FA core complex subunits. This work describes the in vitro reconstitution and characterization of this multisubunit monoubiquitin E3 ligase, providing key insight into the conserved FA DNA repair pathway.

Chang L, Yuan W, Zeng H, et al.
Whole exome sequencing reveals concomitant mutations of multiple FA genes in individual Fanconi anemia patients.
BMC Med Genomics. 2014; 7:24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited genetic syndrome with highly variable clinical manifestations. Fifteen genetic subtypes of FA have been identified. Traditional complementation tests for grouping studies have been used generally in FA patients and in stepwise methods to identify the FA type, which can result in incomplete genetic information from FA patients.
METHODS: We diagnosed five pediatric patients with FA based on clinical manifestations, and we performed exome sequencing of peripheral blood specimens from these patients and their family members. The related sequencing data were then analyzed by bioinformatics, and the FANC gene mutations identified by exome sequencing were confirmed by PCR re-sequencing.
RESULTS: Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations of FANC genes were identified in all of the patients. The FA subtypes of the patients included FANCA, FANCM and FANCD2. Interestingly, four FA patients harbored multiple mutations in at least two FA genes, and some of these mutations have not been previously reported. These patients' clinical manifestations were vastly different from each other, as were their treatment responses to androstanazol and prednisone. This finding suggests that heterozygous mutation(s) in FA genes could also have diverse biological and/or pathophysiological effects on FA patients or FA gene carriers. Interestingly, we were not able to identify de novo mutations in the genes implicated in DNA repair pathways when the sequencing data of patients were compared with those of their parents.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Chinese FA patients and carriers might have higher and more complex mutation rates in FANC genes than have been conventionally recognized. Testing of the fifteen FANC genes in FA patients and their family members should be a regular clinical practice to determine the optimal care for the individual patient, to counsel the family and to obtain a better understanding of FA pathophysiology.

Zhang J, Walter JC
Mechanism and regulation of incisions during DNA interstrand cross-link repair.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2014; 19:135-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
A critical step in DNA interstrand cross-link repair is the programmed collapse of replication forks that have stalled at an ICL. This event is regulated by the Fanconi anemia pathway, which suppresses bone marrow failure and cancer. In this perspective, we focus on the structure of forks that have stalled at ICLs, how these structures might be incised by endonucleases, and how incision is regulated by the Fanconi anemia pathway.

Wang Z, Huang Y, Zhang J
Molecularly targeting the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway can sensitize cancer cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2014; 19(2):233-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents that damage DNA are the current major non-surgical means of treating cancer. However, many patients develop resistances to chemotherapy drugs in their later lives. The PI3K and Ras signaling pathways are deregulated in most cancers, so molecularly targeting PI3K-Akt or Ras-MAPK signaling sensitizes many cancer types to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have yet to be determined. During the multi-step processes of tumorigenesis, cancer cells gain the capability to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint and increase the activity of CDK4/6 by disrupting the PI3K, Ras, p53, and Rb signaling circuits. Recent advances have demonstrated that PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling controls FANCD2 and ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). FANCD2 plays an important role in the resistance of cells to DNA damage agents and the activation of DNA damage checkpoints, while RNR is critical for the completion of DNA replication and repair in response to DNA damage and replication stress. Regulation of FANCD2 and RNR suggests that cancer cells depend on PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling for survival in response to DNA damage, indicating that the PI3K-AktmTOR pathway promotes resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy by enhancing DNA damage repair.

Klein Douwel D, Boonen RA, Long DT, et al.
XPF-ERCC1 acts in Unhooking DNA interstrand crosslinks in cooperation with FANCD2 and FANCP/SLX4.
Mol Cell. 2014; 54(3):460-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), highly toxic lesions that covalently link the Watson and Crick strands of the double helix, are repaired by a complex, replication-coupled pathway in higher eukaryotes. The earliest DNA processing event in ICL repair is the incision of parental DNA on either side of the ICL ("unhooking"), which allows lesion bypass. Incisions depend critically on the Fanconi anemia pathway, whose activation involves ubiquitylation of the FANCD2 protein. Using Xenopus egg extracts, which support replication-coupled ICL repair, we show that the 3' flap endonuclease XPF-ERCC1 cooperates with SLX4/FANCP to carry out the unhooking incisions. Efficient recruitment of XPF-ERCC1 and SLX4 to the ICL depends on FANCD2 and its ubiquitylation. These data help define the molecular mechanism by which the Fanconi anemia pathway promotes a key event in replication-coupled ICL repair.

Balacescu O, Balacescu L, Tudoran O, et al.
Gene expression profiling reveals activation of the FA/BRCA pathway in advanced squamous cervical cancer with intrinsic resistance and therapy failure.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:246 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Advanced squamous cervical cancer, one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in women, still remains a major problem in oncology due to treatment failure and distant metastasis. Antitumor therapy failure is due to both intrinsic and acquired resistance; intrinsic resistance is often decisive for treatment response. In this study, we investigated the specific pathways and molecules responsible for baseline therapy failure in locally advanced squamous cervical cancer.
METHODS: Twenty-one patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled in this study. Primary biopsies harvested prior to therapy were analyzed for whole human gene expression (Agilent) based on the patient's 6 months clinical response. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to investigate the altered molecular function and canonical pathways between the responding and non-responding patients. The microarray results were validated by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An additional set of 24 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical cancer samples was used for independent validation of the proteins of interest.
RESULTS: A 2859-gene signature was identified to distinguish between responder and non-responder patients. 'DNA Replication, Recombination and Repair' represented one of the most important mechanisms activated in non-responsive cervical tumors, and the 'Role of BRCA1 in DNA Damage Response' was predicted to be the most significantly altered canonical pathway involved in intrinsic resistance (p = 1.86E-04, ratio = 0.262). Immunohistological staining confirmed increased expression of BRCA1, BRIP1, FANCD2 and RAD51 in non-responsive compared with responsive advanced squamous cervical cancer, both in the initial set of 21 cervical cancer samples and the second set of 24 samples.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that FA/BRCA pathway plays an important role in treatment failure in advanced cervical cancer. The assessment of FANCD2, RAD51, BRCA1 and BRIP1 nuclear proteins could provide important information about the patients at risk for treatment failure.

Panneerselvam J, Pickering A, Han B, et al.
Basal level of FANCD2 monoubiquitination is required for the maintenance of a sufficient number of licensed-replication origins to fire at a normal rate.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(5):1326-37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Normal DNA replication starts following the stepwise recruitment of replication initiators to assemble Mini-chromosome Maintenance (MCM) 2-7 protein complexes at an adequate amount of DNA replication origins. Under normal conditions, the monoubiquitination of Fanconi Anemia (FA) group D2 protein (FANCD2) occurs in each S-phase of cell cycle, which is the basal level of FANCD2 monoubiquitination. However, little is known regarding the roles of this basal level of monoubiquitinated FANCD2. Here we show that monoubiquitinated FANCD2 in each S-phase of normal cell cycle is essential for replication origins to fire at a normal rate. We found that the basal level of the monoubiquitinated FANCD2 can interact with replication origins as well as mini-chromosome maintenance protein 3 (MCM3) in an S-phase specific manner to secure an enough number of the licensed-origins to fire. Non-monoubiquitinated FANCD2 or mutant MCM3 lacking AA 477-480 responsible for interacting with FANCD2 can lead to an insufficient amount of licensed origins to fire and, thereby, enlarged intervals between the fired origins. Our results demonstrate that the monoubiquitinated FANCD2 in each S-phase of normal cell cycle is required to maintain an enough number of licensed origins to initiate the normal DNA replication. This finding is the first to provide insights into how FANCD2 functions under normal condition of cell cycle to maintain genome stability, as well as resulting implications in the strategic improvement for the fight against human cancer.

Longerich S, Kwon Y, Tsai MS, et al.
Regulation of FANCD2 and FANCI monoubiquitination by their interaction and by DNA.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(9):5657-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
FANCD2 and FANCI function together in the Fanconi anemia network of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) crosslink repair. These proteins form the dimeric ID2 complex that binds DNA and becomes monoubiquitinated upon exposure of cells to DNA crosslinking agents. The monoubiquitinated ID2 complex is thought to facilitate DNA repair via recruitment of specific nucleases, translesion DNA polymerases and the homologous recombination machinery. Using the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2) UBE2T and ubiquitin ligase (E3) FANCL, monoubiquitination of human FANCD2 and FANCI was examined. The ID2 complex is a poor substrate for monoubiquitination, consistent with the published crystal structure showing the solvent inaccessibility of the target lysines. Importantly, FANCD2 monoubiquitination within the ID2 complex is strongly stimulated by duplex or branched DNA, but unstructured single-stranded DNA or chromatinized DNA is ineffective. Interaction of FANCL with the ID2 complex is indispensable for its E3 ligase efficacy. Interestingly, mutations in FANCI that impair its DNA binding activity compromise DNA-stimulated FANCD2 monoubiquitination. Moreover, we demonstrate that in the absence of FANCD2, DNA also stimulates FANCI monoubiquitination, but in a FANCL-independent manner. These results implicate the role of a proper DNA ligand in FANCD2 and FANCI monoubiquitination, and reveal regulatory mechanisms that are dependent on protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions.

Yeo JE, Lee EH, Hendrickson EA, Sobeck A
CtIP mediates replication fork recovery in a FANCD2-regulated manner.
Hum Mol Genet. 2014; 23(14):3695-705 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/07/2015 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a chromosome instability syndrome characterized by increased cancer predisposition. Within the FA pathway, an upstream FA core complex mediates monoubiquitination and recruitment of the central FANCD2 protein to sites of stalled replication forks. Once recruited, FANCD2 fulfills a dual role towards replication fork recovery: (i) it cooperates with BRCA2 and RAD51 to protect forks from nucleolytic degradation and (ii) it recruits the BLM helicase to promote replication fork restart while suppressing new origin firing. Intriguingly, FANCD2 and its interaction partners are also involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks, hinting that FANCD2 utilizes HR proteins to mediate replication fork recovery. One such candidate is CtIP (CtBP-interacting protein), a key HR repair factor that functions in complex with BRCA1 and MRE11, but has not been investigated as putative player in the replication stress response. Here, we identify CtIP as a novel interaction partner of FANCD2. CtIP binds and stabilizes FANCD2 in a DNA damage- and FA core complex-independent manner, suggesting that FANCD2 monoubiquitination is dispensable for its interaction with CtIP. Following cellular treatment with a replication inhibitor, aphidicolin, FANCD2 recruits CtIP to transiently stalled, as well as collapsed, replication forks on chromatin. At stalled forks, CtIP cooperates with FANCD2 to promote fork restart and the suppression of new origin firing. Both functions are dependent on BRCA1 that controls the step-wise recruitment of MRE11, FANCD2 and finally CtIP to stalled replication forks, followed by their concerted actions to promote fork recovery.

Liang Q, Dexheimer TS, Zhang P, et al.
A selective USP1-UAF1 inhibitor links deubiquitination to DNA damage responses.
Nat Chem Biol. 2014; 10(4):298-304 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are central to the control of a large number of cellular pathways and signaling networks in eukaryotes. Although the essential roles of ubiquitination have been established in the eukaryotic DNA damage response, the deubiquitination process remains poorly defined. Chemical probes that perturb the activity of deubiquitinases (DUBs) are needed to characterize the cellular function of deubiquitination. Here we report ML323 (2), a highly potent inhibitor of the USP1-UAF1 deubiquitinase complex with excellent selectivity against human DUBs, deSUMOylase, deneddylase and unrelated proteases. Using ML323, we interrogated deubiquitination in the cellular response to UV- and cisplatin-induced DNA damage and revealed new insights into the requirement of deubiquitination in the DNA translesion synthesis and Fanconi anemia pathways. Moreover, ML323 potentiates cisplatin cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer and osteosarcoma cells. Our findings point to USP1-UAF1 as a key regulator of the DNA damage response and a target for overcoming resistance to the platinum-based anticancer drugs.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. FANCD2, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

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