The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group D2. This protein is monoubiquinated in response to DNA damage, resulting in its localization to nuclear foci with other proteins (BRCA1 AND BRCA2) involved in homology-directed DNA repair. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a multigenic disease of bone marrow failure and cancer susceptibility stemming from a failure to remove DNA crosslinks and other chromosomal lesions. Within the FA DNA damage response pathway, DNA-dependent monoubiquitinaton of FANCD2 licenses downstream events, while timely FANCD2 deubiquitination serves to extinguish the response. Here, we show with reconstituted biochemical systems, which we developed, that efficient FANCD2 deubiquitination by the USP1-UAF1 complex is dependent on DNA and DNA binding by UAF1. Surprisingly, we find that the DNA binding activity of the UAF1-associated protein RAD51AP1 can substitute for that of UAF1 in FANCD2 deubiquitination in our biochemical system. We also reveal the importance of DNA binding by UAF1 and RAD51AP1 in FANCD2 deubiquitination in the cellular setting. Our results provide insights into a key step in the FA pathway and help define the multifaceted role of the USP1-UAF1-RAD51AP1 complex in DNA damage tolerance and genome repair.
Okamoto Y, Hejna J, Takata M Regulation of R-loops and genome instability in Fanconi anemia. J Biochem. 2019; 165(6):465-470 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a devastating hereditary disorder with impaired genome stability resulting in physical abnormalities, gradual loss of hematopoietic stem cells and development of tumours and leukaemia. It has been suggested that functions of FA genes are required to maintain genome stability by counteracting endogenous metabolites, such as aldehydes, that damage DNA and stall replication forks. Recent studies have implicated co-transcriptional R-loops, consisting of a DNA:RNA hybrid and displaced single-stranded DNA, as one of the potential endogenous sources that induce genome instability and the FA phenotype. This review focuses on recent literature, including our own, regarding the interplay between FA proteins and R-loops, and will provide readers with a concise summary of this rapidly evolving field.
Persistent expression of high-risk HPV oncogenes is necessary for the development of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Here, we show that E6/E7 expressing cells are hypersensitive to DNA crosslinking agent cisplatin and have defects in repairing DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICL). Importantly, we elucidate how E6/E7 attenuate the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA crosslink repair pathway. Though E6/E7 activated the pathway by increasing FancD2 monoubiquitination and foci formation, they inhibited the completion of the repair by multiple mechanisms. E6/E7 impaired FancD2 colocalization with double-strand breaks (DSB), which subsequently hindered the recruitment of the downstream protein Rad51 to DSB in E6 cells. Further, E6 expression caused delayed FancD2 de-ubiquitination, an important process for effective ICL repair. Delayed FancD2 de-ubiquitination was associated with the increased chromatin retention of FancD2 hindering USP1 de-ubiquitinating activity, and persistently activated ATR/CHK-1/pS565 FancI signaling. E6 mediated p53 degradation did not hamper the cell cycle specific process of FancD2 modifications but abrogated repair by disrupting FancD2 de-ubiquitination. Further, E6 reduced the expression and foci formation of Palb2, which is a repair protein downstream of FancD2. These findings uncover unique mechanisms by which HPV oncogenes contribute to genomic instability and the response to cisplatin therapies.
AIM: To demonstrate that Fanconi anemia complementation group D2-deficient (Fancd2 MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to determine whether a single HPV type 16 (HPV16) oncogene induced malignant transformation, Fancd2 RESULTS: Fancd2 CONCLUSION: A single HPV16 oncogene is adequate to produce malignant transformation of Fancd2
Chen FY, Wang H, Li H, et al. Association of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Monoubiquitinated FANCD2-DNA Damage Repair Pathway Genes With Breast Cancer in the Chinese Population. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 17:1533033818819841 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to estimate breast cancer risk conferred by individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms of breast cancer susceptibility genes. METHODS: We analyzed the 48 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 8 breast cancer susceptibility genes involved in the monoubiquitinated FANCD2-DNA damage repair pathway in 734 Chinese women with breast cancer and 672 age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Forty-five tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms were successfully genotyped by SNPscan, and the call rates for each tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms were above 98.9%. We found that 13 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 5 genes ( Parter and localizer of Breast cancer gene2 ( PALB2), Tumour protein 53 ( TP53), Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1, Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 ( PTEN), and Breast cancer gene 1 ( BRCA1-interacting protein 1)) were significantly associated with breast cancer risk. A total of 5 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2299941 of PTEN, rs2735385, rs6999227, rs1805812, and rs1061302 of Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1) were tightly associated with breast cancer risk in sporadic cases, and 5 other tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1042522 of TP53, rs2735343 of PTEN, rs7220719, rs16945628, and rs11871753 of BRCA1-interacting protein 1) were tightly associated with breast cancer risk in familial and early-onset cases. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 5 genes ( PALB2, TP53, Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1, PTEN, and BRCA1-interacting protein 1) involved in the monoubiquitinated FANCD2-DNA damage repair pathway were significantly associated with breast cancer risk.
The Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway is a multi-step DNA repair process at stalled replication forks in response to DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). Pathological mutation of key FA genes leads to the inherited disorder FA, characterized by progressive bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. The study of FA is of great importance not only to children suffering from FA but also as a model to study cancer pathogenesis in light of genome instability among the general population. FANCD2 monoubiquitination by the FA core complex is an essential gateway that connects upstream DNA damage signaling to enzymatic steps of repair. FAAP20 is a key component of the FA core complex, and regulated proteolysis of FAAP20 mediated by the ubiquitin E3 ligase SCFFBW7 is critical for maintaining the integrity of the FA complex and FA pathway signaling. However, upstream regulatory mechanisms that govern this signaling remain unclear. Here, we show that PIN1, a phosphorylation-specific prolyl isomerase, regulates the integrity of the FA core complex, thus FA pathway activation. We demonstrate that PIN1 catalyzes cis-trans isomerization of the FAAP20 pSer48-Pro49 motif and promotes FAAP20 stability. Mechanistically, PIN1-induced conformational change of FAAP20 enhances its interaction with the PP2A phosphatase to counteract SCFFBW7-dependent proteolytic signaling at the phosphorylated degron motif. Accordingly, PIN1 deficiency impairs FANCD2 activation and the DNA ICL repair process. Together, our study establishes PIN1-dependent prolyl isomerization as a new regulator of the FA pathway and genomic integrity.
Ramanagoudr-Bhojappa R, Carrington B, Ramaswami M, et al. Multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of 19 Fanconi anemia pathway genes in zebrafish revealed their roles in growth, sexual development and fertility. PLoS Genet. 2018; 14(12):e1007821 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a genomic instability syndrome resulting in aplastic anemia, developmental abnormalities, and predisposition to hematological and other solid organ malignancies. Mutations in genes that encode proteins of the FA pathway fail to orchestrate the repair of DNA damage caused by DNA interstrand crosslinks. Zebrafish harbor homologs for nearly all known FA genes. We used multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis to generate loss-of-function mutants for 17 FA genes: fanca, fancb, fancc, fancd1/brca2, fancd2, fance, fancf, fancg, fanci, fancj/brip1, fancl, fancm, fancn/palb2, fanco/rad51c, fancp/slx4, fancq/ercc4, fanct/ube2t, and two genes encoding FA-associated proteins: faap100 and faap24. We selected two indel mutations predicted to cause premature truncations for all but two of the genes, and a total of 36 mutant lines were generated for 19 genes. Generating two independent mutant lines for each gene was important to validate their phenotypic consequences. RT-PCR from homozygous mutant fish confirmed the presence of transcripts with indels in all genes. Interestingly, 4 of the indel mutations led to aberrant splicing, which may produce a different protein than predicted from the genomic sequence. Analysis of RNA is thus critical in proper evaluation of the consequences of the mutations introduced in zebrafish genome. We used fluorescent reporter assay, and western blots to confirm loss-of-function for several mutants. Additionally, we developed a DEB treatment assay by evaluating morphological changes in embryos and confirmed that homozygous mutants from all the FA genes that could be tested (11/17), displayed hypersensitivity and thus were indeed null alleles. Our multiplexing strategy helped us to evaluate 11 multiple gene knockout combinations without additional breeding. Homozygous zebrafish for all 19 single and 11 multi-gene knockouts were adult viable, indicating FA genes in zebrafish are generally not essential for early development. None of the mutant fish displayed gross developmental abnormalities except for fancp-/- fish, which were significantly smaller in length than their wildtype clutch mates. Complete female-to-male sex reversal was observed in knockouts for 12/17 FA genes, while partial sex reversal was seen for the other five gene knockouts. All adult females were fertile, and among the adult males, all were fertile except for the fancd1 mutants and one of the fancj mutants. We report here generation and characterization of zebrafish knockout mutants for 17 FA disease-causing genes, providing an integral resource for understanding the pathophysiology associated with the disrupted FA pathway.
Velmurugan KR, Michalak P, Kang L, et al. Dysfunctional DNA repair pathway via defective FANCD2 gene engenders multifarious exomic and transcriptomic effects in Fanconi anemia. Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2018; 6(6):1199-1208 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia (FA) affects only one in 130,000 births, but has severe and diverse clinical consequences. It has been theorized that defects in the FA DNA cross-link repair complex lead to a spectrum of variants that are responsible for those diverse clinical phenotypes. METHODS: Using NextGen sequencing, we show that a clinically derived FA cell line had accumulated numerous genetic variants, including high-impact mutations, such as deletion of start codons, introduction of premature stop codons, missense mutations, and INDELs. RESULTS: About 65% of SNPs and 55% of INDELs were found to be commonly present in both the FA dysfunctional and retrovirally corrected cell lines, showing their common origin. The number of INDELs, but not SNPs, is decreased in FANCD2-corrected samples, suggesting that FANCD2 deficiency preferentially promotes the origin of INDELs. These genetic modifications had a considerable effect on the transcriptome, with statistically significant changes in the expression of 270 genes. These genetic and transcriptomic variants significantly impacted pathways and molecular functions, spanning a diverse spectrum of disease phenotypes/symptoms, consistent with the disease diversity seen in FA patients. CONCLUSION: These results underscore the consequences of defects in the DNA cross-link repair mechanism and indicate that accumulating diverse mutations from individual parent cells may make it difficult to anticipate the longitudinal clinical behavior of emerging disease states in an individual with FA.
Okamoto Y, Abe M, Itaya A, et al. FANCD2 protects genome stability by recruiting RNA processing enzymes to resolve R-loops during mild replication stress. FEBS J. 2019; 286(1):139-150 [PubMed] Related Publications
R-loops, which consist of DNA : RNA hybrids and displaced single-strand DNA, are a major threat to genome stability. We have previously reported that a key Fanconi anemia protein, FANCD2, accumulates on large fragile genes during mild replication stress in a manner depending on R-loops. In this study, we found that FANCD2 suppresses R-loop levels. Furthermore, we identified FANCD2 interactions with RNA processing factors, including hnRNP U and DDX47. Our data suggest that FANCD2, which accumulates with R-loops in chromatin, recruits these factors and thereby promotes efficient processing of long RNA transcripts. This may lead to a reduction in transcription-replication collisions, as detected by PLA between PCNA and RNA Polymerase II, and hence, lowered R-loop levels. We propose that this mechanism might contribute to maintenance of genome stability during mild replication stress.
The Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway is important for repairing interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) between the Watson-Crick strands of the DNA double helix. An initial and essential stage in the repair process is the detection of the ICL. Here, we report the identification of UHRF2, a paralogue of UHRF1, as an ICL sensor protein. UHRF2 is recruited to ICLs in the genome within seconds of their appearance. We show that UHRF2 cooperates with UHRF1, to ensure recruitment of FANCD2 to ICLs. A direct protein-protein interaction is formed between UHRF1 and UHRF2, and between either UHRF1 and UHRF2, and FANCD2. Importantly, we demonstrate that the essential monoubiquitination of FANCD2 is stimulated by UHRF1/UHRF2. The stimulation is mediating by a retention of FANCD2 on chromatin, allowing for its monoubiquitination by the FA core complex. Taken together, we uncover a mechanism of ICL sensing by UHRF2, leading to FANCD2 recruitment and retention at ICLs, in turn facilitating activation of FANCD2 by monoubiquitination.
The complete and accurate replication of the genome is a crucial aspect of cell proliferation that is often perturbed during oncogenesis. Replication stress arising from a variety of obstacles to replication fork progression and processivity is an important contributor to genome destabilization. Accordingly, cells mount a complex response to this stress that allows the stabilization and restart of stalled replication forks and enables the full duplication of the genetic material. This response articulates itself on three important platforms, Replication Protein A/RPA-coated single-stranded DNA, the DNA polymerase processivity clamp PCNA and the FANCD2/I Fanconi Anemia complex. On these platforms, the recruitment, activation and release of a variety of genome maintenance factors is regulated by post-translational modifications including mono- and poly-ubiquitylation. Here, we review recent insights into the control of replication fork stability and restart by the ubiquitin system during replication stress with a particular focus on human cells. We highlight the roles of E3 ubiquitin ligases, ubiquitin readers and deubiquitylases that provide the required flexibility at stalled forks to select the optimal restart pathways and rescue genome stability during stressful conditions.
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a bone marrow failure (BMF) syndrome that arises from mutations in a network of FA genes essential for DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair and replication stress tolerance. While allogeneic stem cell transplantation can replace defective HSCs, interventions to mitigate HSC defects in FA do not exist. Remarkably, we reveal here that Lnk (Sh2b3) deficiency restores HSC function in Fancd2
Richardson CD, Kazane KR, Feng SJ, et al. CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in human cells occurs via the Fanconi anemia pathway. Nat Genet. 2018; 50(8):1132-1139 [PubMed] Related Publications
CRISPR-Cas genome editing creates targeted DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are processed by cellular repair pathways, including the incorporation of exogenous DNA via single-strand template repair (SSTR). To determine the genetic basis of SSTR in human cells, we developed a coupled inhibition-cutting system capable of interrogating multiple editing outcomes in the context of thousands of individual gene knockdowns. We found that human Cas9-induced SSTR requires the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, which is normally implicated in interstrand cross-link repair. The FA pathway does not directly impact error-prone, non-homologous end joining, but instead diverts repair toward SSTR. Furthermore, FANCD2 protein localizes to Cas9-induced DSBs, indicating a direct role in regulating genome editing. Since FA is itself a genetic disease, these data imply that patient genotype and/or transcriptome may impact the effectiveness of gene editing treatments and that treatments biased toward FA repair pathways could have therapeutic value.
Shou J, Li J, Liu Y, Wu Q Precise and Predictable CRISPR Chromosomal Rearrangements Reveal Principles of Cas9-Mediated Nucleotide Insertion. Mol Cell. 2018; 71(4):498-509.e4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal rearrangements including large DNA-fragment inversions, deletions, and duplications by Cas9 with paired sgRNAs are important to investigate genome structural variations and developmental gene regulation, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we report that disrupting CtIP or FANCD2, which have roles in alternative non-homologous end joining, enhances precise DNA-fragment deletion. By analyzing the inserted nucleotides at the junctions of DNA-fragment editing of deletions, inversions, and duplications and characterizing the cleaved products, we find that Cas9 endonucleolytically cleaves the noncomplementary strand with a flexible scissile profile upstream of the -3 position of the PAM site in vivo and in vitro, generating double-strand break ends with 5' overhangs of 1-3 nucleotides. Moreover, we find that engineered Cas9 nucleases have distinct cleavage profiles. Finally, Cas9-mediated nucleotide insertions are nonrandom and are equal to the combined sequences upstream of both PAM sites with predicted frequencies. Thus, precise and predictable DNA-fragment editing could be achieved by perturbing DNA repair genes and using appropriate PAM configurations.
Li N, Ding L, Li B, et al. Functional analysis of Fanconi anemia mutations in China. Exp Hematol. 2018; 66:32-41.e8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare recessive disease characterized by progressive bone marrow failure, congenital abnormalities, and increased incidence of cancers. To date, mutations in 22 genes can cause FA or an FA-like phenotype. In China, in addition to clinical information, FA diagnosis primarily relies on genetic sequencing because the chromosome breakage test is rarely performed. Here, we employed multiple genetic diagnostic tools (DNA sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and chromosome microarray) and a variant-based functional assay platform to investigate the genetic cause in 25 Chinese suspected FA patients. A total of 45 distinct candidate variants were detected in six FA genes (FA-A, FA-B, FA-C, FA-D2, FA-G, and FA-J), of which 36 were novel. Eight missense variants and one indel variant were unable to restore FANCD2 mono-ubiquitination and mitomycin C resistance in a panel of FA indicator cell lines, indicating that these mutations are deleterious. Three missense variants (FANCA-L424V, FANCC-E273K, and FANCG-A153G) were harmless. Finally, 23 patients were molecularly diagnosed with FA, consistent with their clinical phenotype. In the FA-A subgroup, large deletions accounted for 14% of the disease-causing variants. We have established a comprehensive molecular diagnostic workflow for Chinese FA patients that can substitute for standard FA cytogenetic analysis.