The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group A. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Mutations in this gene are the most common cause of Fanconi anemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FANCA is implicated in: - cytoplasm
- DNA repair
- Fanconi anaemia nuclear complex
- female gonad development
- male gonad development
- male meiosis
- protein binding
- protein complex assembly
- regulation of cell proliferation
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP [Hide]
What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? Show (2)
The Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway is a multi-step DNA repair process at stalled replication forks in response to DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). Pathological mutation of key FA genes leads to the inherited disorder FA, characterized by progressive bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. The study of FA is of great importance not only to children suffering from FA but also as a model to study cancer pathogenesis in light of genome instability among the general population. FANCD2 monoubiquitination by the FA core complex is an essential gateway that connects upstream DNA damage signaling to enzymatic steps of repair. FAAP20 is a key component of the FA core complex, and regulated proteolysis of FAAP20 mediated by the ubiquitin E3 ligase SCFFBW7 is critical for maintaining the integrity of the FA complex and FA pathway signaling. However, upstream regulatory mechanisms that govern this signaling remain unclear. Here, we show that PIN1, a phosphorylation-specific prolyl isomerase, regulates the integrity of the FA core complex, thus FA pathway activation. We demonstrate that PIN1 catalyzes cis-trans isomerization of the FAAP20 pSer48-Pro49 motif and promotes FAAP20 stability. Mechanistically, PIN1-induced conformational change of FAAP20 enhances its interaction with the PP2A phosphatase to counteract SCFFBW7-dependent proteolytic signaling at the phosphorylated degron motif. Accordingly, PIN1 deficiency impairs FANCD2 activation and the DNA ICL repair process. Together, our study establishes PIN1-dependent prolyl isomerization as a new regulator of the FA pathway and genomic integrity.
Wee CW, Kim JH, Kim HJ, et al. Radiosensitization of Glioblastoma Cells by a Novel DNA Methyltransferase-inhibiting Phthalimido-Alkanamide Derivative. Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(2):759-769 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Strategies to enhance the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy in glioblastoma are warranted. Our aim was to report a novel DNA methyltransferase inhibitor as a potential radiosensitizing agent in glioblastoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four glioblastoma cell lines and one normal astrocyte cell line were incubated with a newly-synthetized phthalimido-alkanamide derivative, MA17, and its radiosensitizing effects were assessed. We performed a tumor growth delay assay in two glioblastoma lines: U87MG and U138MG. We evaluated DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibition, apoptosis, autophagy, DNA damage repair, and FANCA expression. RESULTS: MA17 radiosensitized all glioblastoma cells (all p<0.05), but it did not affect normal astrocytes (p=0.193). MA17 significantly prolonged the mean tumor doubling time in vivo, in cells treated in addition with radiotherapy, compared to radiotherapy alone (p<0.05). DNMT activity was down-regulated, and apoptosis and autophagy were induced by MA17. Double-stranded DNA break foci were observed for prolonged periods in cells treated with MA17. FANCA expression was also inhibited. CONCLUSION: A novel phthalimido-alkanamide derivative demonstrated significant radiosensitization in glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation is needed to translate these results to the clinic.
Ramanagoudr-Bhojappa R, Carrington B, Ramaswami M, et al. Multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of 19 Fanconi anemia pathway genes in zebrafish revealed their roles in growth, sexual development and fertility. PLoS Genet. 2018; 14(12):e1007821 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a genomic instability syndrome resulting in aplastic anemia, developmental abnormalities, and predisposition to hematological and other solid organ malignancies. Mutations in genes that encode proteins of the FA pathway fail to orchestrate the repair of DNA damage caused by DNA interstrand crosslinks. Zebrafish harbor homologs for nearly all known FA genes. We used multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis to generate loss-of-function mutants for 17 FA genes: fanca, fancb, fancc, fancd1/brca2, fancd2, fance, fancf, fancg, fanci, fancj/brip1, fancl, fancm, fancn/palb2, fanco/rad51c, fancp/slx4, fancq/ercc4, fanct/ube2t, and two genes encoding FA-associated proteins: faap100 and faap24. We selected two indel mutations predicted to cause premature truncations for all but two of the genes, and a total of 36 mutant lines were generated for 19 genes. Generating two independent mutant lines for each gene was important to validate their phenotypic consequences. RT-PCR from homozygous mutant fish confirmed the presence of transcripts with indels in all genes. Interestingly, 4 of the indel mutations led to aberrant splicing, which may produce a different protein than predicted from the genomic sequence. Analysis of RNA is thus critical in proper evaluation of the consequences of the mutations introduced in zebrafish genome. We used fluorescent reporter assay, and western blots to confirm loss-of-function for several mutants. Additionally, we developed a DEB treatment assay by evaluating morphological changes in embryos and confirmed that homozygous mutants from all the FA genes that could be tested (11/17), displayed hypersensitivity and thus were indeed null alleles. Our multiplexing strategy helped us to evaluate 11 multiple gene knockout combinations without additional breeding. Homozygous zebrafish for all 19 single and 11 multi-gene knockouts were adult viable, indicating FA genes in zebrafish are generally not essential for early development. None of the mutant fish displayed gross developmental abnormalities except for fancp-/- fish, which were significantly smaller in length than their wildtype clutch mates. Complete female-to-male sex reversal was observed in knockouts for 12/17 FA genes, while partial sex reversal was seen for the other five gene knockouts. All adult females were fertile, and among the adult males, all were fertile except for the fancd1 mutants and one of the fancj mutants. We report here generation and characterization of zebrafish knockout mutants for 17 FA disease-causing genes, providing an integral resource for understanding the pathophysiology associated with the disrupted FA pathway.
Cagnan I, Cosgun E, Konu O, et al. PKNOX2 expression and regulation in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of Fanconi anemia patients and healthy donors. Mol Biol Rep. 2019; 46(1):669-678 [PubMed] Related Publications
HOX and TALE transcription factors are important regulators of development and homeostasis in determining cellular identity. Deregulation of this process may drive cancer progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of these transcription factors in the bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) of Fanconi anemia (FA) patients, which is a cancer-predisposing disease. Expression levels of HOX and TALE genes in BM-MSCs were obtained from FA patients and healthy donors by RT-qPCR and highly conserved expression levels were observed between patient and donor cells, except PKNOX2, which is a member of TALE class. PKNOX2 was significantly downregulated in FA cells compared to donors (P < 0.05). PKNOX2 expression levels did not change with diepoxybutane (DEB), a DNA crosslinking agent, in either donor or FA cells except one patient's with a truncation mutation of FANCA. A difference of PKNOX2 protein level was not obtained between FA patient and donor BM-MSCs by western blot analysis. When human TGF-β1 (rTGF-β1) recombinant protein was provided to the cultures, PKNOX2 as well as TGF-β1 expression increased both in FA and donor BM-MSCs in a dose dependent manner. 5 ng/mL rTGF-β stimulation had more dominant effect on the gene expression of donor BM-MSCs compared to FA cells. Decreased PKNOX2 expression in FA BM-MSCs may provide new insights into the molecular pathophysiology of the disease and TGF-β1 levels of the microenvironment may be the cause of PKNOX2 downregulation.
Yabe M, Koike T, Ohtsubo K, et al. Associations of complementation group, ALDH2 genotype, and clonal abnormalities with hematological outcome in Japanese patients with Fanconi anemia. Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(2):271-280 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder that predisposes patients to bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To study which genetic and phenotypic factors predict clinical outcomes for Japanese FA patients, we examined the FA genes, bone marrow karyotype, and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotype; variants of which are associated with accelerated progression of BMF in FA. In 88 patients, we found morphologic MDS/AML in 33 patients, including refractory cytopenia in 16, refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) in 7, and AML in 10. The major mutated FA genes observed in this study were FANCA (n = 52) and FANCG (n = 23). The distribution of the ALDH2 variant alleles did not differ significantly between patients with mutations in FANCA and FANCG. However, patients with FANCG mutations had inferior BMF-free survival and received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at a younger age than those with FANCA mutations. In FANCA, patients with the c.2546delC mutation (n = 24) related to poorer MDS/AML-free survival and a younger age at HSCT than those without this mutation. All patients with RAEB/AML had an abnormal karyotype and poorer prognosis after HSCT; specifically, the presence of a structurally complex karyotype with a monosomy (n = 6) was associated with dismal prognosis. In conclusion, the best practice for a clinician may be to integrate the morphological, cytogenetic, and genetic data to optimize HSCT timing in Japanese FA patients.
Gastric polyposis is a rare disease. Not all polyps progress to cancer. Monoallelic mutation in Fanconi anemia (FA) genes, unlike biallelic gene mutations that causes typical FA phenotype, can increase risks of cancers in a sporadic manner. Aberrations in the FA pathway were reported in all molecular subtypes of gastric cancer. We studied a patient with synchronous gastric cancer from gastric polyposis by conducting a 13-year long-term follow up.
FANCA is a component of the Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex that activates DNA interstrand crosslink repair by monoubiquitination of FANCD2. Here, we report that purified FANCA protein catalyzes bidirectional single-strand annealing (SA) and strand exchange (SE) at a level comparable to RAD52, while a disease-causing FANCA mutant, F1263Δ, is defective in both activities. FANCG, which directly interacts with FANCA, dramatically stimulates its SA and SE activities. Alternatively, FANCB, which does not directly interact with FANCA, does not stimulate this activity. Importantly, five other patient-derived FANCA mutants also exhibit deficient SA and SE, suggesting that the biochemical activities of FANCA are relevant to the etiology of FA. A cell-based DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair assay demonstrates that FANCA plays a direct role in the single-strand annealing sub-pathway (SSA) of DSB repair by catalyzing SA, and this role is independent of the canonical FA pathway and RAD52.
Li N, Ding L, Li B, et al. Functional analysis of Fanconi anemia mutations in China. Exp Hematol. 2018; 66:32-41.e8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare recessive disease characterized by progressive bone marrow failure, congenital abnormalities, and increased incidence of cancers. To date, mutations in 22 genes can cause FA or an FA-like phenotype. In China, in addition to clinical information, FA diagnosis primarily relies on genetic sequencing because the chromosome breakage test is rarely performed. Here, we employed multiple genetic diagnostic tools (DNA sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and chromosome microarray) and a variant-based functional assay platform to investigate the genetic cause in 25 Chinese suspected FA patients. A total of 45 distinct candidate variants were detected in six FA genes (FA-A, FA-B, FA-C, FA-D2, FA-G, and FA-J), of which 36 were novel. Eight missense variants and one indel variant were unable to restore FANCD2 mono-ubiquitination and mitomycin C resistance in a panel of FA indicator cell lines, indicating that these mutations are deleterious. Three missense variants (FANCA-L424V, FANCC-E273K, and FANCG-A153G) were harmless. Finally, 23 patients were molecularly diagnosed with FA, consistent with their clinical phenotype. In the FA-A subgroup, large deletions accounted for 14% of the disease-causing variants. We have established a comprehensive molecular diagnostic workflow for Chinese FA patients that can substitute for standard FA cytogenetic analysis.
Tumors with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion rearrangements, including non-small-cell lung cancer and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, are highly sensitive to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), underscoring the notion that such cancers are addicted to ALK activity. Although mutations in ALK are heavily implicated in childhood neuroblastoma, response to the ALK TKI crizotinib has been disappointing. Embryonal tumors in patients with DNA repair defects such as Fanconi anemia (FA) often have a poor prognosis, because of lack of therapeutic options. Here we report a child with underlying FA and ALK mutant high-risk neuroblastoma responding strongly to precision therapy with the ALK TKI ceritinib. Conventional chemotherapy treatment caused severe, life-threatening toxicity. Genomic analysis of the initial biopsy identified germline
Krausz C, Riera-Escamilla A, Chianese C, et al. From exome analysis in idiopathic azoospermia to the identification of a high-risk subgroup for occult Fanconi anemia. Genet Med. 2019; 21(1):189-194 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In about 10% of patients affected by Fanconi anemia (FA) the diagnosis is delayed until adulthood, and the presenting symptom in these "occult" FA cases is often a solid cancer and cancer treatment-related toxicity. Highly predictive clinical parameter(s) for diagnosing such an adult-onset cases are missing. METHODS: (1) Exome sequencing (ES), (2) Sanger sequencing of FANCA, (3) diepoxybutane (DEB)-induced chromosome breakage test. RESULTS: ES identified a pathogenic homozygous FANCA variant in a patient affected by Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) and in his azoospermic brother. Although they had no overt anemia, chromosomal breakage test revealed a reverse somatic mosaicism in the former and a typical FA picture in the latter. In 27 selected SCOS cases, 1 additional patient showing compound heterozygous pathogenic FANCA variants was identified with positive chromosomal breakage test. CONCLUSION: We report an extraordinarily high frequency of FA in a specific subgroup of azoospermic patients (7.1%). The screening for FANCA pathogenic variants in such patients has the potential to identify undiagnosed FA before the appearance of other severe clinical manifestations of the disease. The definition of this high-risk group for "occult" FA, based on specific testis phenotype with mild/borderline hematological alterations, is of unforeseen clinical relevance.
Defects in DNA repair can cause various genetic diseases with severe pathological phenotypes. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disease characterized by bone marrow failure, developmental abnormalities, and increased cancer risk that is caused by defective repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Here, we identify the deubiquitylating enzyme USP48 as synthetic viable for FA-gene deficiencies by performing genome-wide loss-of-function screens across a panel of human haploid isogenic FA-defective cells (FANCA, FANCC, FANCG, FANCI, FANCD2). Thus, as compared to FA-defective cells alone, FA-deficient cells additionally lacking USP48 are less sensitive to genotoxic stress induced by ICL agents and display enhanced, BRCA1-dependent, clearance of DNA damage. Consequently, USP48 inactivation reduces chromosomal instability of FA-defective cells. Our results highlight a role for USP48 in controlling DNA repair and suggest it as a potential target that could be therapeutically exploited for FA.
Li N, Song A, Ding L, et al. Novel Variations of FANCA Gene Provokes Fanconi Anemia: Molecular Diagnosis in a Special Chinese Family. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2018; 40(5):e299-e304 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive or X-linked disorder with highly variable clinical manifestations and an incidence of ∼1 to 5 in 1 million births. To date, 15 bona fide FA genes have been reported to be responsible for the known FA complementation groups and the FANCA gene accounts for almost 60%. In the present study, we report a special Chinese family, which has 2 children with classic FA characteristics. Via 2-step analysis of the whole-exome sequencing data and verification using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification test, one child was found to have a novel compound heterozygous mutation of a splicing variant (c.1471-1G>A) and a large intragenic deletion (exons 23-30 del) of the FANCA gene. The other child had the same splicing variant and another novel large deletion (exons 1-18 del) in the FANCA gene. Clone sequencing showed the c.1471-1G>A variant generate an altered transcript with 1 cryptic splice site in intron 15, resulting in a premature termination codon (p.Val490HisfsX6). This study not only shows the complexity of FA molecular diagnosis via comprehensively studying the FA pathogenic genes and the mutational spectrum, but also has significant reference value for the future molecular diagnosis of FA.
Feng Y, Chen R, Da M, et al. Identification of rare heterozygous missense mutations in FANCA in esophageal atresia patients using next-generation sequencing. Gene. 2018; 661:182-188 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) are relatively common malformations in newborns, but the etiology of EA/TEF remains unknown. Fanconi anemia (FA) complementation group A (FANCA) is a key component of the FA core complex and is essential for the activation of the DNA repair pathway. The middle region (amino acids 674-1208) of FANCA is required for its interaction with FAAP20. We performed targeted sequencing of this binding region of FANCA (exons 23-36) in 40 EA/TEF patients. We also investigated the effect of the p.A958V mutation on the protein-protein interaction between FANCA and FAAP20 using an in vitro binding assay and co-immunoprecipitation. Immunolocalization analysis was performed to investigate the subcellular localization of FANCA, and tissue sections and immunohistochemistry were used to explore the expression of FANCA. We identified four rare missense variants in the FANCA binding region. FANCA mutations were significantly overrepresented in EA/TEF patients compared with 4300 control subjects from the NHLBI-ESP project (Fisher's exact p = 2.17 × 10
BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia is a rare autosomal recessive or X-linked disorder characterised by clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Most fanconi anemia patients harbour homozygous or double heterozygous mutations in the CASE REPORT: The novel CONCLUSION: The finding of the
Overactive p53 has been proposed as an important pathophysiological factor for bone marrow failure syndromes, including Fanconi anemia (FA). Here, we report a p53-dependent effect on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation in mice deficient for the FA gene Fanca. Deletion of p53 in Fanca