Gene Summary

Gene:ACSL6; acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 6
Aliases: ACS2, FACL6, LACS2, LACS5, LACS 6
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of acyl-CoA from fatty acids, ATP, and CoA, using magnesium as a cofactor. The encoded protein plays a major role in fatty acid metabolism in the brain. Translocations with the ETV6 gene are causes of myelodysplastic syndrome with basophilia, acute myelogenous leukemia with eosinophilia, and acute eosinophilic leukemia. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 6
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 August, 2015

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 11 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Exons
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets
  • JAK2
  • Oncogene Fusion
  • Polycythemia Vera
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Cancer DNA
  • Alternative Splicing
  • ETV6
  • JAK2
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome 5
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Artificial Gene Fusion
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Translocation
  • Coenzyme A Ligases
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Cancer RNA
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Leukaemia
  • Chromosome 12
  • Transcription Factors
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Northern Blotting
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Disease Progression
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • ACSL6
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • FISH
  • Base Sequence
  • Mutation
Tag cloud generated 11 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ACSL6 (cancer-related)

Marttila E, Bowyer P, Sanglard D, et al.
Fermentative 2-carbon metabolism produces carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde in Candida albicans.
Mol Oral Microbiol. 2013; 28(4):281-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Acetaldehyde is a carcinogenic product of alcohol fermentation and metabolism in microbes associated with cancers of the upper digestive tract. In yeast acetaldehyde is a by-product of the pyruvate bypass that converts pyruvate into acetyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) during fermentation.
THE AIMS OF OUR STUDY WERE: (i) to determine the levels of acetaldehyde produced by Candida albicans in the presence of glucose in low oxygen tension in vitro; (ii) to analyse the expression levels of genes involved in the pyruvate-bypass and acetaldehyde production; and (iii) to analyse whether any correlations exist between acetaldehyde levels, alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity or expression of the genes involved in the pyruvate-bypass. Candida albicans strains were isolated from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 5), autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) patients with chronic oral candidosis (n = 5), and control patients (n = 5). The acetaldehyde and ethanol production by these isolates grown under low oxygen tension in the presence of glucose was determined, and the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1 and ADH2), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC11), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS1 and ACS2) and Adh enzyme activity were analysed. The C. albicans isolates produced high levels of acetaldehyde from glucose under low oxygen tension. The acetaldehyde levels did not correlate with the expression of ADH1, ADH2 or PDC11 but correlated with the expression of down-stream genes ALD6 and ACS1. Significant differences in the gene expressions were measured between strains isolated from different patient groups. Under low oxygen tension ALD6 and ACS1, instead of ADH1 or ADH2, appear the most reliable indicators of candidal acetaldehyde production from glucose.

Krepela E, Dankova P, Moravcikova E, et al.
Increased expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, survivin and XIAP, in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2009; 35(6):1449-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, survivin and X-chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP), contribute to apoptosis resistance of cancer cells, and an increase in their expression may elevate the apoptotic threshold of malignant tumours during their growth and progression. In the present study, we investigated the expression status of survivin and its interactants hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) and XIAP in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines and NSCLC tumours and matched lungs from surgically treated patients in relation to their clinicopathological data. The expression of survivin, HBXIP and XIAP mRNAs was quantitated by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of survivin and XIAP proteins was analysed by Western blotting and ELISA. Survivin mRNA and protein levels were highly upregulated in NSCLC cells and tissues as compared to the lungs. In fact, the levels of survivin mRNA and protein in the tumours were more than 10-fold higher in 96 (64%) and 72 (82%) of the 150 and 88 examined NSCLC patients, respectively. The expression of survivin mRNA was higher in squamous cell lung carcinomas than in lung adenocarcinomas (LACs; P=0.003) and in less-differentiated tumours than in well-differentiated ones (P=0.007). The level of survivin protein was higher in stage IB and stage II+III tumours (P=0.049 and P=0.044), than in stage IA tumours. The BIRC5 promoter polymorphism at nucleotide -31 did not influence the expression of survivin mRNA and protein in NSCLC cells and tumours. HBXIP mRNA was abundantly expressed in NSCLC cell lines and NSCLC tumours and lungs, while its level was comparable in the tumours and lungs. The expression of XIAP mRNA in NSCLC cell lines and NSCLC tumours and lungs was not significantly different. However, the expression of XIAP protein was higher in NSCLC tumours, particularly in LACs, as compared to the lungs (P=0.017 and P=0.004). In conclusion, the overexpression of survivin in the majority of NSCLCs together with the abundant or upregulated expression of HBXIP and XIAP suggest that tumours are endowed with resistance against a variety of apoptosis-inducing conditions.

Johnsen GM, Weedon-Fekjaer MS, Tobin KA, et al.
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulate cellular fatty acid uptake in human placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells.
Placenta. 2009; 30(12):1037-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is advocated during pregnancy in some countries although very little information is available on their effects on placental ability to take up these fatty acids for fetal supply to which the fetal growth and development are critically dependent. To identify the roles of LCPUFAs on placental fatty acid transport function, we examined the effects of LCPUFAs on the uptake of fatty acids and expression of fatty acid transport/metabolic genes using placental trophoblast cells (BeWo). Following 24 h incubation of these cells with 100 microM of LCPUFAs (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6, eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3, or docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3), the cellular uptake of [(14)C] fatty acids was increased by 20-50%, and accumulated fatty acids were preferentially incorporated into phospholipid fractions. Oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9), on the other hand, could not stimulate fatty acid uptake. LCPUFAs and OA increased the gene expression of ADRP whilst decreased the expression of ASCL3, ACSL4, ACSL6, LPIN1, and FABP3 in these cells. However, LCPUFAs but not OA increased expression of ACSL1 and ACSL5. Since acyl-CoA synthetases are involved in cellular uptake of fatty acids via activation for their channelling to lipid metabolism and/or for storage, the increased expression of ACSL1 and ACLS5 by LCPUFAs may be responsible for the increased fatty acid uptake. These findings demonstrate that LCPUFA may function as an important regulator of general fatty acid uptake in trophoblast cells and may thus have impact on fetal growth and development.

Iijima Y, Ito T, Oikawa T, et al.
A new ETV6/TEL partner gene, ARG (ABL-related gene or ABL2), identified in an AML-M3 cell line with a t(1;12)(q25;p13) translocation.
Blood. 2000; 95(6):2126-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ETV6/TEL gene has been reported to fuse to PDGFRbetab MDS1/EVI1, BTL, ACS2, STL, JAK2, ABL, CDX2, TRKC, AML1, and MN1. Among them, PDGFRbeta, ABL, JAK2, and TRKC are tyrosine kinases (TK). We identified a novel ETV6 partner gene, ARG (ABL-related gene or ABL2), another TK gene in a cell line established from a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M3) with a t(15;17)(q22;q11.2) and a t(1;12)(q25;p13), which has the remarkable feature to differentiate to mature eosinophils in culture with all-trans retinoic acid and cytokines. The ETV6/ARG transcripts consisted of exon 1 to 5 of ETV6 and the 3' portion of ARG starting from exon 1B or exon 2, resulting in an open reading frame for a fusion protein consisting of the entire PNT oligomerization domain of ETV6 and all of the functional domains of ARG including the TK domain. This is the same protein structure as identified in the other ETV6 TK fusion proteins. The reciprocal ARG/ETV6 transcript was not expressed, and the normal ETV6 allele was not deleted or rearranged. Although the ABL is known to be involved in various human malignancies, ARG has not been involved in human malignancies despite its high homology to ABL. Thus, this is the first report showing involvement of ARG in human leukemia. The ETV6/ARG protein may be involved in the unique differentiation capacity of this cell line. (Blood. 2000;95:2126-2131)

Yagasaki F, Jinnai I, Yoshida S, et al.
Fusion of TEL/ETV6 to a novel ACS2 in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia with t(5;12)(q31;p13).
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999; 26(3):192-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
We identified a novel human long fatty acyl CoA synthetase 2 gene, ACS2, as a new ETV6 fusion partner gene in a recurrent t(5;12)(q31;p13) translocation in a patient with refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) with basophilia, a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with eosinophilia, and a patient with acute eosinophilic leukemia (AEL). ACS2 is expressed in the brain and bone marrow and is highly conserved in man and rats. The resulting ETV6/ACS2 fusion transcripts showed an out-frame fusion of exon 1 of ETV6 to exon 1 of ACS2 in the AEL case, an out-frame fusion of exon 1 of ETV6 to exon 11 of ACS2 in the AML case, and a short in-frame fusion of ETV6 exon 1 to the 3' untranslated region of ACS2 in the RAEB case. Reciprocal ACS2/ETV6 transcripts were identified in two of the cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with ETV6 cosmids on 12p13, and BACs and P1s on 5q31, demonstrated that the 5q31 breakpoints of the AML and AEL cases involved the 5' portion of the ACS2 gene, and that the 5q31, breakpoint of the RAEB case involved the 3' portion of the ACS2 gene. None of the resulting chimeric transcripts except for the ACS2/ETV6 transcript in the RAEB case led to a fusion protein. Disruption of the second ETV6 allele by t(12;19) was detected in the AML case by FISH analysis. These observations suggest that the disruption of ETV6 and/or ACS2 may lead to the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies with t(5;12)(q31;p13).

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. FACL6, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

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