Gene Summary

Gene:ACSL6; acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 6
Aliases: ACS2, FACL6, LACS2, LACS5, LACS 6
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of acyl-CoA from fatty acids, ATP, and CoA, using magnesium as a cofactor. The encoded protein plays a major role in fatty acid metabolism in the brain. Translocations with the ETV6 gene are causes of myelodysplastic syndrome with basophilia, acute myelogenous leukemia with eosinophilia, and acute eosinophilic leukemia. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 6
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Artificial Gene Fusion
  • Chromosome 12
  • Protein Isoforms
  • ACSL5 protein, human
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Coenzyme A Ligases
  • Translocation
  • ACSL6
  • Breast Cancer
  • siRNA
  • HEPACAM protein, human
  • Chromosome 5
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Phosphoproteins
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Cancer DNA
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta
  • Arachidonic Acid
  • Gene Ontology
  • Transcriptome
  • Cell Movement
  • Base Sequence
  • PPARGC1A protein, human
  • Signal Transduction
  • Exons
  • Estradiol
  • Alternative Splicing
  • Half-Life
  • Leukaemia
  • Gene Expression
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ACSL6 (cancer-related)

Huang Z, Yang Q, Huang Z
Identification of Critical Genes and Five Prognostic Biomarkers Associated with Colorectal Cancer.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:4625-4633 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant tumor with high incidence and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which may function as biomarkers for CRC prognosis and therapies, and the clinical outcome in patients with CRC. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 116 normal mucous tissue and 930 CRC tissue datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). After screening DEGs based on limma package in R. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG enrichment analysis as well as the protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were performed to predict the function of these DEGs. Meanwhile, Cox proportional hazards regression was used to build a prognostic model of these DEGs. Then, Kaplan-Meier risk analysis was used to test the model in TCGA datasets and validation datasets. RESULTS In the present study, 300 DEGs with 100 upregulated genes and 200 downregulated genes were identified. The PPI networks including 162 DEGs and 256 nodes were constructed and 2 modules with high degree were selected. Moreover, 5 genes (MMP1, ACSL6, SMPD1, PPARGC1A, and HEPACAM2) were identified using the Cox proportional hazards stepwise regression. Kaplan-Meier risk curve in the TCGA and validation cohorts showed that high-risk group had significantly poor overall survival than the low-risk group. CONCLUSIONS Our study provided insights into the mechanisms of CRC formation and found 5 prognostic genes, which could potentially inform further studies and clinical therapies.

Cassidy RJ, Zhang X, Patel PR, et al.
Next-generation sequencing and clinical outcomes of patients with lung adenocarcinoma treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy.
Cancer. 2017; 123(19):3681-3690 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic aberrations are well characterized in lung adenocarcinomas (LACs) and clinical outcomes have been influenced by targeted therapies in the advanced setting. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is the standard-of-care therapy for patients with nonoperable, early-stage LAC, but to the authors' knowledge, no information is available regarding the impact of genomic changes in these patients. The current study sought to determine the frequency and clinical impact of genetic aberrations in this population.
METHODS: Under an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol, the records of 242 consecutive patients with early-stage lung cancers were reviewed; inclusion criteria included LAC histology with an adequate tumor sample for the successful use of next-generation sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization testing. Univariate analysis was performed to identify factors associated with clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: LAC samples from 98 of the 242 patients were reviewed (40.5%), of whom 45 patients (46.0%) had genetic testing. The following mutations were noted: KRAS in 20.0% of samples, BRAF in 2.2% of samples, SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4) in 4.4% of samples, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in 15.6% of samples, STK1 in 2.2% of samples, tumor protein 53 (TP53) in 15.6% of samples, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in 2.2% of samples. The following gene rearrangements were observed: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in 8.9% of samples, RET in 2.2% of samples, and MET amplification in 17.8% of samples. The median total delivered SBRT dose was 50 grays (range, 48-60 grays) over a median of 5 fractions (range, 3-8 fractions). The KRAS mutation was associated with worse local control (odds ratio [OR], 3.64; P<.05). MET amplification was associated with worse regional (OR, 4.64; P<.05) and distant (OR, 3.73; P<.05) disease control.
CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, the current series is the first to quantify genetic mutations and their association with clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage LAC treated with SBRT. KRAS mutations were associated with worse local control and MET amplification was associated with worse regional and distant disease control, findings that need to be validated in a prospective setting. Cancer 2017;123:3681-3690. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

Daugaard I, Knudsen A, Kjeldsen TE, et al.
The association between miR-34 dysregulation and distant metastases formation in lung adenocarcinoma.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2017; 102(3):484-491 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate amongst human cancers and the majority of deaths can be attributed to metastatic spread. The miR-34 family includes three tumor suppressive miRs: miR-34a, miR-34b and miR-34c. miR-34 downregulation is a frequent observation in human malignancies and is often attributed to hypermethylation of the miR-34a and miR-34b/c promoters. Here, the potential association between aberrant miR-34 expression and promoter methylation and distant metastases formation in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is investigated. The expression levels of miR-34a, miR-34b and miR-34c, as well as the methylation status of the miR-34a and miR-34b/c promoters were determined in a LAC patient cohort comprising 26 non-metastasizing and 26 metastasizing primary LACs, as well as 24 paired distant metastases and 25 tumor-adjacent normal lung samples using RT-qPCR and Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM) analysis. No difference in expression was observed for miR-34a when comparing metastasizing and non-metastasizing LACs (p=0.793). For both miR-34b and miR-34c, a significantly lower expression level was determined in metastasizing LACs compared to non-metastasizing LACs (p=0.0005 and p=0.002) with similarly decreased expression levels observed in the paired distant metastases. Hypermethylation was detected in 35/51 LACs compared to 0/25 tumor-adjacent normal lungs for the miR-34a promoter (p<0.0001). Similarly, 18/51 LACs compared to 1/25 tumor-adjacent normal lungs showed hypermethylation of the miR-34b/c promoter (p=0.003). No difference in methylation was observed between metastasizing and non-metastasizing LACs for neither the miR-34a (p=0.832) nor the miR-34b/c (p=0.900) promoter. In conclusion, miR-34a and miR-34b/c promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in LAC occurring in 68.7% and 35.3% of tested cases (n=51), respectively. Low miR-34b and miR-34c expression was associated with distant metastases formation in LAC. These changes can be targeted as novel biomarkers in LAC.

Yen MC, Kan JY, Hsieh CJ, et al.
Association of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase 5 expression in human breast cancer by estrogen receptor status and its clinical significance.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(6):3253-3260 [PubMed] Related Publications
The lipid metabolic enzymes are considered candidate therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (ACSL) is one of lipid metabolic enzymes and converts free-fatty acid to fatty acid-CoA. Five ACSL isoforms including ACSL1, ACSL3, ACSL4, ACSL5 and ACSL6 are identified in human. High ACSL4 expression has been observed in aggressive breast cancer phenotype. However, the role of other isoforms is still little-known. We therefore, analyzed the expression of ACSL isoforms in each subtype of breast cancer within METABRIC dataset and cancer cell line encyclopedia dataset. The expression levels of ACSL1, ACSL4 and ACSL5 in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative group were higher than that in ER-positive group. Similar expression pattern was detected among breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (ER-positive) and MDA-MB-231 (ER-negative). Treatment of ACSL inhibitor triacsin C which inhibited enzyme activity of ACSL 1, 3, 4 and 5 suppressed cell growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our results further showed that high ACSL5 expression was associated with good prognosis in patients with both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer through KM plotter analysis. These results suggest that ACSL1, ACSL4 and ACSL5 expression is regulated by ER signaling pathways and ACSL5 is a potential novel biomarker for predicting prognosis of breast cancer patients.

Chen WC, Wang CY, Hung YH, et al.
Systematic Analysis of Gene Expression Alterations and Clinical Outcomes for Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Family in Cancer.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155660 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulated lipid metabolism contributes to cancer progression. Our previous study indicates that long-chain fatty acyl-Co A synthetase (ACSL) 3 is essential for lipid upregulation induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this report, we aimed to identify the role of ACSL family in cancer with systematic analysis and in vitro experiment. We explored the ACSL expression using Oncomine database to determine the gene alteration during carcinogenesis and identified the association between ACSL expression and the survival of cancer patient using PrognoScan database. ACSL1 may play a potential oncogenic role in colorectal and breast cancer and play a potential tumor suppressor role in lung cancer. Co-expression analysis revealed that ACSL1 was coexpressed with MYBPH, PTPRE, PFKFB3, SOCS3 in colon cancer and with LRRFIP1, TSC22D1 in lung cancer. In accordance with PrognoScan analysis, downregulation of ACSL1 in colon and breast cancer cell line inhibited proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, increase of oncogenic property was observed in lung cancer cell line by attenuating ACSL1. High ACSL3 expression predicted a better prognosis in ovarian cancer; in contrast, high ACSL3 predicted a worse prognosis in melanoma. ACSL3 was coexpressed with SNUPN, TRIP13, and SEMA5A in melanoma. High expression of ACSL4 predicted a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer, but predicted better prognosis in breast, brain and lung cancer. ACSL4 was coexpressed with SERPIN2, HNRNPCL1, ITIH2, PROCR, LRRFIP1. High expression of ACSL5 predicted good prognosis in breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. ACSL5 was coexpressed with TMEM140, TAPBPL, BIRC3, PTPRE, and SERPINB1. Low ACSL6 predicted a worse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. ACSL6 was coexpressed with SOX6 and DARC. Altogether, different members of ACSLs are implicated in diverse types of cancer development. ACSL-coexpressed molecules may be used to further investigate the role of ACSL family in individual type of cancers.

Cai YR, Dong YJ, Wu HB, et al.
Micropapillary: A component more likely to harbour heterogeneous EGFR mutations in lung adenocarcinomas.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:23755 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The micropapillary (MP) subtype has recently been established to be a distinct marker of poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinomas (LACs). According to the 2015 WHO classification system, LAC constituents are required to be precisely reported. T790M mutation and an insertion in exon 20 (E20ins) are associated with EGFR-TKI resistance. A total of 211 LAC patients were involved in this study, and EGFR mutations were determined using an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). Sex, smoking history, lymph node status, and clinical stage differed significantly between the EGFR wild type and mutant groups (p < 0.05). The EGFR mutation occurred more frequently in female, non-smokers, ACs with papillary (85.7%) or MP components (91.4%) (p < 0.001). Twenty ACs with naïve T790M or E20ins were microdissected. The AC constituents metastasizing to lymph nodes exhibited a phenotype and EGFR status that was consistent with the primary loci constituents. Glomerulus-like solid components exhibited the same EGFR status as the surrounding T790M-mutated MP components. The MP and glomerulus-like portions in AC tumours exhibited a congenial EGFR status, but the acinar cells with papillary cells were heterogeneous. The naïve T790M mutants, although minor in the MP component, dramatically increased after EGFR-TKI therapy and indicate that the MP components feature intrinsic heterogeneity.

Mäki-Nevala S, Sarhadi VK, Knuuttila A, et al.
Driver Gene and Novel Mutations in Asbestos-Exposed Lung Adenocarcinoma and Malignant Mesothelioma Detected by Exome Sequencing.
Lung. 2016; 194(1):125-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Asbestos is a carcinogen linked to malignant mesothelioma (MM) and lung cancer. Some gene aberrations related to asbestos exposure are recognized, but many associated mutations remain obscure. We performed exome sequencing to determine the association of previously known mutations (driver gene mutations) with asbestos and to identify novel mutations related to asbestos exposure in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) and MM.
METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed on DNA from 47 tumor tissues of MM (21) and LAC (26) patients, 27 of whom had been asbestos-exposed (18 MM, 9 LAC). In addition, 9 normal lung/blood samples of LAC were sequenced. Novel mutations identified from exome data were validated by amplicon-based deep sequencing. Driver gene mutations in BRAF, EGFR, ERBB2, HRAS, KRAS, MET, NRAS, PIK3CA, STK11, and ephrin receptor genes (EPHA1-8, 10 and EPHB1-4, 6) were studied for both LAC and MM, and in BAP1, CUL1, CDKN2A, and NF2 for MM.
RESULTS: In asbestos-exposed MM patients, previously non-described NF2 frameshift mutation (one) and BAP1 mutations (four) were detected. Exome data mining revealed some genes potentially associated with asbestos exposure, such as MRPL1 and SDK1. BAP1 and COPG1 mutations were seen exclusively in MM. Pathogenic KRAS mutations were common in LAC patients (42 %), both in non-exposed (n = 5) and exposed patients (n = 6). Pathogenic BRAF mutations were found in two LACs.
CONCLUSION: BAP1 mutations occurred in asbestos-exposed MM. MRPL1, SDK1, SEMA5B, and INPP4A could possibly serve as candidate genes for alterations associated with asbestos exposure. KRAS mutations in LAC were not associated with asbestos exposure.

Marttila E, Bowyer P, Sanglard D, et al.
Fermentative 2-carbon metabolism produces carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde in Candida albicans.
Mol Oral Microbiol. 2013; 28(4):281-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Acetaldehyde is a carcinogenic product of alcohol fermentation and metabolism in microbes associated with cancers of the upper digestive tract. In yeast acetaldehyde is a by-product of the pyruvate bypass that converts pyruvate into acetyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) during fermentation.
THE AIMS OF OUR STUDY WERE: (i) to determine the levels of acetaldehyde produced by Candida albicans in the presence of glucose in low oxygen tension in vitro; (ii) to analyse the expression levels of genes involved in the pyruvate-bypass and acetaldehyde production; and (iii) to analyse whether any correlations exist between acetaldehyde levels, alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity or expression of the genes involved in the pyruvate-bypass. Candida albicans strains were isolated from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 5), autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) patients with chronic oral candidosis (n = 5), and control patients (n = 5). The acetaldehyde and ethanol production by these isolates grown under low oxygen tension in the presence of glucose was determined, and the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1 and ADH2), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC11), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS1 and ACS2) and Adh enzyme activity were analysed. The C. albicans isolates produced high levels of acetaldehyde from glucose under low oxygen tension. The acetaldehyde levels did not correlate with the expression of ADH1, ADH2 or PDC11 but correlated with the expression of down-stream genes ALD6 and ACS1. Significant differences in the gene expressions were measured between strains isolated from different patient groups. Under low oxygen tension ALD6 and ACS1, instead of ADH1 or ADH2, appear the most reliable indicators of candidal acetaldehyde production from glucose.

Krepela E, Dankova P, Moravcikova E, et al.
Increased expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, survivin and XIAP, in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2009; 35(6):1449-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, survivin and X-chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP), contribute to apoptosis resistance of cancer cells, and an increase in their expression may elevate the apoptotic threshold of malignant tumours during their growth and progression. In the present study, we investigated the expression status of survivin and its interactants hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) and XIAP in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines and NSCLC tumours and matched lungs from surgically treated patients in relation to their clinicopathological data. The expression of survivin, HBXIP and XIAP mRNAs was quantitated by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of survivin and XIAP proteins was analysed by Western blotting and ELISA. Survivin mRNA and protein levels were highly upregulated in NSCLC cells and tissues as compared to the lungs. In fact, the levels of survivin mRNA and protein in the tumours were more than 10-fold higher in 96 (64%) and 72 (82%) of the 150 and 88 examined NSCLC patients, respectively. The expression of survivin mRNA was higher in squamous cell lung carcinomas than in lung adenocarcinomas (LACs; P=0.003) and in less-differentiated tumours than in well-differentiated ones (P=0.007). The level of survivin protein was higher in stage IB and stage II+III tumours (P=0.049 and P=0.044), than in stage IA tumours. The BIRC5 promoter polymorphism at nucleotide -31 did not influence the expression of survivin mRNA and protein in NSCLC cells and tumours. HBXIP mRNA was abundantly expressed in NSCLC cell lines and NSCLC tumours and lungs, while its level was comparable in the tumours and lungs. The expression of XIAP mRNA in NSCLC cell lines and NSCLC tumours and lungs was not significantly different. However, the expression of XIAP protein was higher in NSCLC tumours, particularly in LACs, as compared to the lungs (P=0.017 and P=0.004). In conclusion, the overexpression of survivin in the majority of NSCLCs together with the abundant or upregulated expression of HBXIP and XIAP suggest that tumours are endowed with resistance against a variety of apoptosis-inducing conditions.

Johnsen GM, Weedon-Fekjaer MS, Tobin KA, et al.
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulate cellular fatty acid uptake in human placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells.
Placenta. 2009; 30(12):1037-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is advocated during pregnancy in some countries although very little information is available on their effects on placental ability to take up these fatty acids for fetal supply to which the fetal growth and development are critically dependent. To identify the roles of LCPUFAs on placental fatty acid transport function, we examined the effects of LCPUFAs on the uptake of fatty acids and expression of fatty acid transport/metabolic genes using placental trophoblast cells (BeWo). Following 24 h incubation of these cells with 100 microM of LCPUFAs (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6, eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3, or docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3), the cellular uptake of [(14)C] fatty acids was increased by 20-50%, and accumulated fatty acids were preferentially incorporated into phospholipid fractions. Oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9), on the other hand, could not stimulate fatty acid uptake. LCPUFAs and OA increased the gene expression of ADRP whilst decreased the expression of ACSL3, ACSL4, ACSL6, LPIN1, and FABP3 in these cells. However, LCPUFAs but not OA increased expression of ACSL1 and ACSL5. Since acyl-CoA synthetases are involved in cellular uptake of fatty acids via activation for their channelling to lipid metabolism and/or for storage, the increased expression of ACSL1 and ACLS5 by LCPUFAs may be responsible for the increased fatty acid uptake. These findings demonstrate that LCPUFA may function as an important regulator of general fatty acid uptake in trophoblast cells and may thus have impact on fetal growth and development.

Iijima Y, Ito T, Oikawa T, et al.
A new ETV6/TEL partner gene, ARG (ABL-related gene or ABL2), identified in an AML-M3 cell line with a t(1;12)(q25;p13) translocation.
Blood. 2000; 95(6):2126-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ETV6/TEL gene has been reported to fuse to PDGFRbetab MDS1/EVI1, BTL, ACS2, STL, JAK2, ABL, CDX2, TRKC, AML1, and MN1. Among them, PDGFRbeta, ABL, JAK2, and TRKC are tyrosine kinases (TK). We identified a novel ETV6 partner gene, ARG (ABL-related gene or ABL2), another TK gene in a cell line established from a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M3) with a t(15;17)(q22;q11.2) and a t(1;12)(q25;p13), which has the remarkable feature to differentiate to mature eosinophils in culture with all-trans retinoic acid and cytokines. The ETV6/ARG transcripts consisted of exon 1 to 5 of ETV6 and the 3' portion of ARG starting from exon 1B or exon 2, resulting in an open reading frame for a fusion protein consisting of the entire PNT oligomerization domain of ETV6 and all of the functional domains of ARG including the TK domain. This is the same protein structure as identified in the other ETV6 TK fusion proteins. The reciprocal ARG/ETV6 transcript was not expressed, and the normal ETV6 allele was not deleted or rearranged. Although the ABL is known to be involved in various human malignancies, ARG has not been involved in human malignancies despite its high homology to ABL. Thus, this is the first report showing involvement of ARG in human leukemia. The ETV6/ARG protein may be involved in the unique differentiation capacity of this cell line. (Blood. 2000;95:2126-2131)

Yagasaki F, Jinnai I, Yoshida S, et al.
Fusion of TEL/ETV6 to a novel ACS2 in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia with t(5;12)(q31;p13).
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999; 26(3):192-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
We identified a novel human long fatty acyl CoA synthetase 2 gene, ACS2, as a new ETV6 fusion partner gene in a recurrent t(5;12)(q31;p13) translocation in a patient with refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) with basophilia, a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with eosinophilia, and a patient with acute eosinophilic leukemia (AEL). ACS2 is expressed in the brain and bone marrow and is highly conserved in man and rats. The resulting ETV6/ACS2 fusion transcripts showed an out-frame fusion of exon 1 of ETV6 to exon 1 of ACS2 in the AEL case, an out-frame fusion of exon 1 of ETV6 to exon 11 of ACS2 in the AML case, and a short in-frame fusion of ETV6 exon 1 to the 3' untranslated region of ACS2 in the RAEB case. Reciprocal ACS2/ETV6 transcripts were identified in two of the cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with ETV6 cosmids on 12p13, and BACs and P1s on 5q31, demonstrated that the 5q31 breakpoints of the AML and AEL cases involved the 5' portion of the ACS2 gene, and that the 5q31, breakpoint of the RAEB case involved the 3' portion of the ACS2 gene. None of the resulting chimeric transcripts except for the ACS2/ETV6 transcript in the RAEB case led to a fusion protein. Disruption of the second ETV6 allele by t(12;19) was detected in the AML case by FISH analysis. These observations suggest that the disruption of ETV6 and/or ACS2 may lead to the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies with t(5;12)(q31;p13).

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