ETS1

Gene Summary

Gene:ETS1; v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1
Aliases: p54, ETS-1, EWSR2
Location:11q23.3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, which are defined by the presence of a conserved ETS DNA-binding domain that recognizes the core consensus DNA sequence GGAA/T in target genes. These proteins function either as transcriptional activators or repressors of numerous genes, and are involved in stem cell development, cell senescence and death, and tumorigenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein C-ets-1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Restriction Mapping
  • Promoter Regions
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Wound Healing
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Binding Sites
  • Down-Regulation
  • TGFA
  • Cancer DNA
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Gene Expression
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cell Movement
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Chromosome 11
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Serpins
  • p53 Protein
  • Messenger RNA
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Breast Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Base Sequence
  • RTPCR
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Zinc Fingers
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • Cell Line
  • MicroRNAs
  • Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1
  • Mutation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ETS1 (cancer-related)

Skibola CF, Berndt SI, Vijai J, et al.
Genome-wide association study identifies five susceptibility loci for follicular lymphoma outside the HLA region.
Am J Hum Genet. 2014; 95(4):462-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European ancestry. Five non-HLA loci were associated with FL risk: 11q23.3 (rs4938573, p = 5.79 × 10(-20)) near CXCR5; 11q24.3 (rs4937362, p = 6.76 × 10(-11)) near ETS1; 3q28 (rs6444305, p = 1.10 × 10(-10)) in LPP; 18q21.33 (rs17749561, p = 8.28 × 10(-10)) near BCL2; and 8q24.21 (rs13254990, p = 1.06 × 10(-8)) near PVT1. In an analysis of the HLA region, we identified four linked HLA-DRβ1 multiallelic amino acids at positions 11, 13, 28, and 30 that were associated with FL risk (pomnibus = 4.20 × 10(-67) to 2.67 × 10(-70)). Additional independent signals included rs17203612 in HLA class II (odds ratio [OR(per-allele)] = 1.44; p = 4.59 × 10(-16)) and rs3130437 in HLA class I (OR(per-allele) = 1.23; p = 8.23 × 10(-9)). Our findings further expand the number of loci associated with FL and provide evidence that multiple common variants outside the HLA region make a significant contribution to FL risk.

Ramírez-Salazar EG, Salinas-Silva LC, Vázquez-Manríquez ME, et al.
Analysis of microRNA expression signatures in malignant pleural mesothelioma, pleural inflammation, and atypical mesothelial hyperplasia reveals common predictive tumorigenesis-related targets.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 97(3):375-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pleural chronic inflammation (PP) and mesothelial hyperplasia (HP) may be critical to the development of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Nonetheless, studies searching for mechanistic links involving microRNA (miRNA) regulation among these interrelated processes have not been reported. Using PCR-Array, we identified the miRNAs expressed in pleural tissues diagnosed with MPM (n=5), PP (n=4) and HP (n=5), as well as in non-cancerous/non-inflammatory tissue as the normal control (n=5). We performed bioinformatics and network analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs to identify tumorigenesis-related miRNAs and their biological networks. The targets of four down-regulated miRNAs in MPM (mir-181a-5p, miR-101-3p, miR-145-5p and miR-212-3p), one in PP (mir-101-3p) and one in HP (mir-494) were significantly enriched in "pathways in cancer". Interactome networks revealed that >50% of down-regulated miRNAs in MPM targeted the signaling-activation molecule MAPK1, the transcription factor ETS1 and the mesenchymal transition-associated molecule FZDA, which have been associated with oncogenic function. Comparative analysis revealed that FZD4 was an overlapping gene target of down-regulated miRNAs that were associated with "pathways in cancer" in MPM, PP and HP. Moreover, MAPK1, ETS1 and Cox-2, a pro-inflammatory enzyme associated with over-expression in cancers, were among the 25 overlapping target genes in MPM and PP. This network analysis revealed a potential combinatory effect of deregulated miRNAs in MPM pathogenesis and indicated potential molecular links between pleural inflammation and hyperplasia with tumorigenesis mechanisms in pleura.

He DX, Gu XT, Jiang L, et al.
A methylation-based regulatory network for microRNA 320a in chemoresistant breast cancer.
Mol Pharmacol. 2014; 86(5):536-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously demonstrated that the overexpression of transient receptor potential channel C5 (TRPC5) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells isoform c3 (NFATC3) are essential for cancer chemoresistance, but how TRPC5 and NFATC3 are regulated was still unclear. In this study, microRNA 320a (miR-320a) was found to be down-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cells. MiR-320a directly targeted TRPC5 and NFATC3, and down-regulation of miR-320a triggered TRPC5 and NFATC3 overexpression. In chemoresistant cells, down-regulation of miR-320a was associated with regulation by methylation, which implicated promoter methylation of the miR-320a coding sequence. Furthermore, the transcription factor v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS-1), which inhibited miR-320a expression, was activated in chemoresistant cancer cells; such activation was associated with hypomethylation of the ETS-1 promoter. Lastly, the down-regulation of miR-320a and high expression of TRPC5, NFATC3, and ETS-1 were verified in clinically chemoresistant samples. Low expression of MiR-320a was also found to be a significant unfavorable predictor for clinic outcome. In conclusion, miR-320a is a mediator of chemoresistance by targeting TRPC5 and NFATC3. Expression of miR-320a is regulated by methylation of its promoter and that of ETS-1.

Kabbout M, Dakhlallah D, Sharma S, et al.
MicroRNA 17-92 cluster mediates ETS1 and ETS2-dependent RAS-oncogenic transformation.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e100693 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
The ETS-family transcription factors Ets1 and Ets2 are evolutionarily conserved effectors of the RAS/ERK signaling pathway, but their function in Ras cellular transformation and biology remains unclear. Taking advantage of Ets1 and Ets2 mouse models to generate Ets1/Ets2 double knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we demonstrate that deletion of both Ets1 and Ets2 was necessary to inhibit HrasG12V induced transformation both in vitro and in vivo. HrasG12V expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts increased ETS1 and ETS2 expression and binding to cis-regulatory elements on the c-Myc proximal promoter, and consequently induced a robust increase in MYC expression. The expression of the oncogenic microRNA 17-92 cluster was increased in HrasG12V transformed cells, but was significantly reduced when ETS1 and ETS2 were absent. MYC and ETS1 or ETS2 collaborated to increase expression of the oncogenic microRNA 17-92 cluster in HrasG12V transformed cells. Enforced expression of exogenous MYC or microRNA 17-92 rescued HrasG12V transformation in Ets1/Ets2-null cells, revealing a direct function for MYC and microRNA 17-92 in ETS1/ETS2-dependent HrasG12V transformation.

Rajgor D, Mellad JA, Soong D, et al.
Mammalian microtubule P-body dynamics are mediated by nesprin-1.
J Cell Biol. 2014; 205(4):457-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
Nesprins are a multi-isomeric family of spectrin-repeat (SR) proteins, predominantly known as nuclear envelope scaffolds. However, isoforms that function beyond the nuclear envelope remain poorly examined. Here, we characterize p50(Nesp1), a 50-kD isoform that localizes to processing bodies (PBs), where it acts as a microtubule-associated protein capable of linking mRNP complexes to microtubules. Overexpression of dominant-negative p50(Nesp1) caused Rck/p54, but not GW182, displacement from microtubules, resulting in reduced PB movement and cross talk with stress granules (SGs). These cells disassembled canonical SGs induced by sodium arsenite, but not those induced by hydrogen peroxide, leading to cell death and revealing PB-microtubule attachment is required for hydrogen peroxide-induced SG anti-apoptotic functions. Furthermore, p50(Nesp1) was required for miRNA-mediated silencing and interacted with core miRISC silencers Ago2 and Rck/p54 in an RNA-dependent manner and with GW182 in a microtubule-dependent manner. These data identify p50(Nesp1) as a multi-functional PB component and microtubule scaffold necessary for RNA granule dynamics and provides evidence for PB and SG micro-heterogeneity.

Chong Y, Mia-Jan K, Ryu H, et al.
DNA methylation status of a distinctively different subset of genes is associated with each histologic Lauren classification subtype in early gastric carcinogenesis.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(6):2535-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA methylation change is known to play a crucial role in early gastric carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to identify and validate the correlation between differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and the subtypes of early gastric cancers (EGCs). Illumina Infinium methylation assay (IIMA; 450K BeadChip kit) was performed on fresh tumor and non‑tumor tissues of 12 EGCs to screen the methylation status of 450,000 CpG sites. To evaluate the significance of DNA methylation in each histologic subtype, pyrosequencing assay (PA) was performed on 38 EGCs (18 intestinal-, 12 mixed- and 8 diffuse-type) using 12 genes selected from the screening. Between tumors of the intestinal-type (n=6), and diffuse- (n=4) plus mixed-types (n=2), 169 regions showed significant differences (intensity>3,000, Δβ>0.2) in IIMA. Hierarchical clustering using the 169 DMRs revealed distinct separation between the two groups. In PA using 12 selected genes from the IIMA results, the aberrant methylation statuses of DVL2 (p=0.0186) and ETS1 (p=0.0222) were significantly related to diffuse- and mixed-types rather than the intestinal-type, while C19orf35 (p=0.019) and CNRIP1 (p=0.0473) were related to the diffuse‑type rather than intestinal‑type, and GAL3ST2 (p=0.0158) and ITGA3 (p=0.0273) were related to the mixed-type rather than the other two types. The methylation of other genes, CLIP4, XKR6, CCDC57, MAML3 and SDC2, was related with age, tumor location, or Helicobacter infection rather than the histologic subtype. Aberrant DNA methylation of certain genes may be independently involved in each histologic subtype of EGC. Furthermore, mixed-type EGCs may be a distinctive histologic subtype based on the different subset of DMRs compared to those of other subtypes.

Viré E, Curtis C, Davalos V, et al.
The breast cancer oncogene EMSY represses transcription of antimetastatic microRNA miR-31.
Mol Cell. 2014; 53(5):806-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
Amplification of the EMSY gene in sporadic breast and ovarian cancers is a poor prognostic indicator. Although EMSY has been linked to transcriptional silencing, its mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we report that EMSY acts as an oncogene, causing the transformation of cells in vitro and potentiating tumor formation and metastatic features in vivo. We identify an inverse correlation between EMSY amplification and miR-31 expression, an antimetastatic microRNA, in the METABRIC cohort of human breast samples. Re-expression of miR-31 profoundly reduced cell migration, invasion, and colony-formation abilities of cells overexpressing EMSY or haboring EMSY amplification. We show that EMSY is recruited to the miR-31 promoter by the DNA binding factor ETS-1, and it represses miR-31 transcription by delivering the H3K4me3 demethylase JARID1b/PLU-1/KDM5B. Altogether, these results suggest a pathway underlying the role of EMSY in breast cancer and uncover potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets in sporadic breast cancer.

Liu Y, Tennant DA, Zhu Z, et al.
DiME: a scalable disease module identification algorithm with application to glioma progression.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e86693 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
Disease module is a group of molecular components that interact intensively in the disease specific biological network. Since the connectivity and activity of disease modules may shed light on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and disease progression, their identification becomes one of the most important challenges in network medicine, an emerging paradigm to study complex human disease. This paper proposes a novel algorithm, DiME (Disease Module Extraction), to identify putative disease modules from biological networks. We have developed novel heuristics to optimise Community Extraction, a module criterion originally proposed for social network analysis, to extract topological core modules from biological networks as putative disease modules. In addition, we have incorporated a statistical significance measure, B-score, to evaluate the quality of extracted modules. As an application to complex diseases, we have employed DiME to investigate the molecular mechanisms that underpin the progression of glioma, the most common type of brain tumour. We have built low (grade II)--and high (GBM)--grade glioma co-expression networks from three independent datasets and then applied DiME to extract potential disease modules from both networks for comparison. Examination of the interconnectivity of the identified modules have revealed changes in topology and module activity (expression) between low- and high- grade tumours, which are characteristic of the major shifts in the constitution and physiology of tumour cells during glioma progression. Our results suggest that transcription factors E2F4, AR and ETS1 are potential key regulators in tumour progression. Our DiME compiled software, R/C++ source code, sample data and a tutorial are available at http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~szh/DiME.

Vaughan CA, Deb SP, Deb S, Windle B
Preferred binding of gain-of-function mutant p53 to bidirectional promoters with coordinated binding of ETS1 and GABPA to multiple binding sites.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(2):417-27 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
Gain-of-function mutant p53 is thought to induce gene expression in part by binding transcription factors bound to promoters for genes that mediate oncogenesis. We investigated the mechanism of mutant p53 binding by mapping the human genomic binding sites for p53 R273H using ChIP-Seq and showed them to localize to ETS DNA sequence motifs and locations with ETS1 and GABPA binding, both within promoters and distal to promoters. Strikingly, p53 R273H showed statistically significant and substantial binding to bidirectional promoters, which are enriched for inverted repeated ETS DNA sequence motifs. p53 R273H exhibited an exponential increase in probability of binding promoters with a higher number of ETS motifs. Both ETS1 and GABPA also showed an increase in the probability of binding to promoters with a higher number of ETS motifs. However, despite this increase in probability of binding by p53 R273H and ETS1, there was no increase in the binding signal, suggesting that the number of ETS1 and p53 R273H proteins bound per promoter is being limited. In contrast, GABPA did exhibit an increase in binding signal with higher numbers of ETS motifs per promoter. Analysis of the distance between inverted pairs of ETS motifs within promoters and binding by p53 R273H, ETS1 and GABPA, showed a novel coordination of binding for the three proteins. Both ETS1 and p53 R273H exhibited preference for binding promoters with distantly spaced ETS motifs in face-to-face and back-to-back orientations, and low binding preference to promoters with closely spaced ETS motifs. GABPA exhibited the inverse pattern of binding by preferring to bind promoters with closely spaced ETS motifs. Analysis of the helical phase between ETS motifs showed that ETS1 and p53 R273H exhibited a low preference for binding promoters with ETS motifs on the same face of the DNA helix. We propose a model for the binding of ETS1 and p53 R273H in which two inverted ETS motifs on a looped DNA helix are juxtaposed for ETS1 binding as a homodimer, with p53 R273H bound to ETS1. We propose that the formation of this DNA loop and protein-bound complex prevents additional binding of ETS1 and p53 R273H proteins to other proximal binding sites.

Li D, Bi FF, Cao JM, et al.
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 transcriptional regulation: a novel crosstalk between histone modification H3K9ac and ETS1 motif hypomethylation in BRCA1-mutated ovarian cancer.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(1):291-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) plays a critical role in ovarian cancer progression. However, the epigenetic mechanism regulating PARP1 transcription remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the hypomethylated ETS1 motif is a key regulatory element for the PARP1 gene in BRCA1-mutated ovarian cancer. Mechanistically, the ETS1 motif hypomethylation-mediated increase of active histone marker H3K9ac and transcription factor ETS1 enrichment synergistically activates PARP1 transcription. Clinicopathological data indicate that a hypomethylated ETS1 motif was associated with high-grade tumors (P = 0.026) and pN1 (P = 0.002). Univariate survival analysis demonstrated an association between the hypomethylated ETS1 motif and an increased risk of death in BRCA1-mutated ovarian cancer patients. Our findings imply that the genetic (such as BRCA1 mutation) and epigenetic mechanisms (such as hypomethylated ETS1 motif, and histone modification H3K9ac and transcription factor ETS1 binding) are jointly involved in the malignant progression of PARP1-related ovarian cancer.

Salaverria I, Martin-Guerrero I, Wagener R, et al.
A recurrent 11q aberration pattern characterizes a subset of MYC-negative high-grade B-cell lymphomas resembling Burkitt lymphoma.
Blood. 2014; 123(8):1187-98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
The genetic hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the t(8;14)(q24;q32) and its variants leading to activation of the MYC oncogene. It is a matter of debate whether true BL without MYC translocation exists. Here, we identified 59 lymphomas concordantly called BL by 2 gene expression classifiers among 753 B-cell lymphomas. Only 2 (3%) of these 59 molecular BL lacked a MYC translocation, which both shared a peculiar pattern of chromosome 11q aberration characterized by interstitial gains including 11q23.2-q23.3 and telomeric losses of 11q24.1-qter. We extended our analysis to 17 MYC-negative high-grade B-cell lymphomas with a similar 11q aberration and showed this aberration to be recurrently associated with morphologic and clinical features of BL. The minimal region of gain was defined by high-level amplifications in 11q23.3 and associated with overexpression of genes including PAFAH1B2 on a transcriptional and protein level. The recurrent region of loss contained a focal homozygous deletion in 11q24.2-q24.3 including the ETS1 gene, which was shown to be mutated in 4 of 16 investigated cases. These findings indicate the existence of a molecularly distinct subset of B-cell lymphomas reminiscent of BL, which is characterized by deregulation of genes in 11q.

Verschoor ML, Singh G
Ets-1 regulates intracellular glutathione levels: key target for resistant ovarian cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12(1):138 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is characterized by high rates of metastasis and therapeutic resistance. Many chemotherapeutic agents rely on the induction of oxidative stress to cause cancer cell death, thus targeting redox regulation is a promising strategy to overcome drug resistance.
METHODS: We have used a tetracycline-inducible Ets-1 overexpression model derived from 2008 ovarian cancer cells in the present study. To examine the role of Ets-1 in glutathione regulation we have measured intracellular reactive oxygen species and glutathione levels, as well as glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity. Glutathione synthesis was limited using transsulfuration or Sx(c)- pathway blocking agents, and glutamate release was measured to confirm Sx(c)- blockade. Cell viability following drug treatment was assessed via crystal violet assay. Oxidative stress was induced through glucose oxidase treatment, which produces hydrogen peroxide by glucose oxidation. The protein expressions of redox-related factors were measured through western blotting.
RESULTS: Overexpression of Ets-1 was associated with decreased intracellular ROS, concomitantly with increased intracellular GSH, GPX antioxidant activity, and Sx(c)- transporter activity. Under basal conditions, inhibition of the transsulfuration pathway resulted in decreased GSH levels and GPX activity in all cell lines, whereas inhibition of Sx(c)- by sulfasalazine decreased GPX activity in Ets-1-expressing cells only. However, under oxidative stress the intracellular GSH levels decreased significantly in correlation with increased Ets-1 expression following sulfasalazine treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study we have identified a role for proto-oncogene Ets-1 in the regulation of intracellular glutathione levels, and examined the effects of the anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine on glutathione depletion using an ovarian cancer cell model. The findings from this study show that Ets-1 mediates enhanced Sx(c)- activity to increase glutathione levels under oxidative stress, suggesting that Ets-1 could be a promising putative target to enhance conventional therapeutic strategies.

Baik JS, Kim KS, Moon HI, et al.
Cordycepin-mediated transcriptional regulation of human GD3 synthase (hST8Sia I) in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)-C cells.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2014; 46(1):65-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present study, we firstly found that cordycepin elevated the gene expression of the human GD3 synthase (hST8Sia I) in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)-C cells. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the upregulation of hST8Sia I gene expression in cordycepin-treated SK-N-BE(2)-C cells, functional characterization of the promoter region of the hST8Sia I gene was performed. Analysis of promoter activity using varying lengths of 5'-flanking region showed a dramatic increase by cordycepin in the -1146 to -646 region, which contains putative binding sites for transcription factors c-Ets-1, CREB, AP-1, and NF-κB. Site-directed mutagenesis for these binding sites and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that the NF-κB binding site at -731 to -722 is essential for the cordycepin-induced expression of the hST8Sia I in SK-N-BE(2)-C cells. Moreover, the hST8Sia I expression induced by cordycepin was significantly repressed by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-κB. These results suggested that cordycepin induces upregulation of hST8Sia I gene expression through NF-κB activation in SK-N-BE(2)-C cells.

Wan SM, Peng P, Guan T
Ets-1 regulates its target genes mainly by DNA methylation in human ovarian cancer.
J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013; 33(8):877-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynaecological cancer worldwide, and its molecular mechanism has not been completely understood. Ets-1 is a member of the Ets transcription family and can play important roles in the regulation of extracellular matrix remodelling, invasion, angiogenesis and drug resistance in several malignancies, including ovarian cancer. In the current study, we downloaded two datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus database and sought to explore the regulation mechanism of Ets-1 in ovarian cancer by computational analysis of gene expression profiles. Microarray analysis identified a total of 548 genes that were regulated by Ets-1 in ovarian cancer. Functional annotation of these genes revealed that Ets-1 may be involved in several biological processes, both physiological and pathological, such as system development, response to stimulus, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, morphogenesis, cell proliferation, cell adhesion and signal transduction. Further, DNA methylation analysis of the DEGs found that 26.5% (145) of them were differentially methylated genes in ovarian cancer. Our results provide insight into the mechanism of Ets-1 regulating the transcription of its target genes in the complex and multistep process of ovarian cancer progression.

Duan Z, Zheng H, Xu S, et al.
Activation of the Ig Iα1 promoter by the transcription factor Ets-1 triggers Ig Iα1-Cα1 germline transcription in epithelial cancer cells.
Cell Mol Immunol. 2014; 11(2):197-205 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
Immunoglobulins (Igs) are known to be synthesized and secreted only by B lymphocytes. Class switch recombination (CSR) is a key event that enables B cells to express Igs, and one of the crucial steps for CSR initiation is the germline transcription of Ig genes. Surprisingly, recent studies have demonstrated that the Ig genes are also expressed in some epithelial cancer cells; however, the mechanisms underlying how cancer cells initiate CSR and express Igs are still unknown. In this study, we confirmed that the Ig Iα1 promoter in cancer cell lines was activated by the Ets-1 transcription factor, and the activity of the Ig Iα1 promoter and Ig Iα1-Cα1 germline transcription were attenuated after knockdown of Ets-1 by specific small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Furthermore, the expression of Ets-1 and Igα heavy chain in cancer cells was dose dependently upregulated by TGF-β1. These results indicate that activation of the Ig Iα1 promoter by the transcription factor Ets-1 is a critical pathway and provides a novel mechanism for Ig expression in non-B cell cancers.

Yang Q, Feng F, Zhang F, et al.
LINE-1 ORF-1p functions as a novel HGF/ETS-1 signaling pathway co-activator and promotes the growth of MDA-MB-231 cell.
Cell Signal. 2013; 25(12):2652-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long interspersed nucleotide element (LINE)-1 ORF-1p is encoded by the human pro-oncogene LINE-1. It is involved in the development and progression of several human carcinomas, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and lung and breast cancers. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/ETS-1 signaling pathway is involved in regulation of cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and invasion. The biological function of the interaction between LINE-1 ORF-1p and the HGF/ETS-1 signaling pathway in regulation of human breast cancer proliferation remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that LINE-1 ORF-1p enhanced ETS-1 transcriptional activity and increased expression of downstream genes of ETS-1. Interaction between ETS-1 and LINE-1 ORF-1p was identified by immunoprecipitation assays. LINE-1 ORF-1p modulated ETS-1 activity through cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and recruitment to the ETS-1 binding element in the MMP1 gene promoter. We also showed that LINE-1 ORF-1p promoted proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. By investigating a novel role of the LINE-1 ORF-1p in the HGF/ETS-1 signaling pathway and MDA-MB-231 cells, we demonstrated that LINE-1 ORF-1p may be a novel ETS-1 coactivator and molecular target for therapy of human triple negative breast cancer.

Inaba H, Sugita H, Kuboniwa M, et al.
Porphyromonas gingivalis promotes invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma through induction of proMMP9 and its activation.
Cell Microbiol. 2014; 16(1):131-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
Recent epidemiological studies have revealed a significant association between periodontitis and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Furthermore, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is implicated in the invasion and metastasis of tumour cells. We examined the involvement of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, in OSCC invasion through induced expression of proMMP and its activation. proMMP9 was continuously secreted from carcinoma SAS cells, while P. gingivalis infection increased proenzyme expression and subsequently processed it to active MMP9 in culture supernatant, which enhanced cellular invasion. In contrast, Fusobacterium nucleatum, another periodontal organism, failed to demonstrate such activities. The effects of P. gingivalis were observed with highly invasive cells, but not with the low invasivetype. P. gingivalis also stimulated proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and enhanced proMMP9 expression, which promoted cellular invasion. P. gingivalis mutants deficient in gingipain proteases failed to activate MMP9. Infected SAS cells exhibited activation of ERK1/2, p38, and NF-kB, and their inhibitors diminished both proMMP9-overexpression and cellular invasion. Together, our results show that P. gingivalis activates the ERK1/2-Ets1, p38/HSP27, and PAR2/NF-kB pathways to induce proMMP9 expression, after which the proenzyme is activated by gingipains to promote cellular invasion of OSCC cell lines. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of progression and metastasis of OSCC associated with periodontitis.

Park YH, Jung HH, Ahn JS, Im YH
Statin induces inhibition of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells via PI3K pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 439(2):275-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary TNBCs are treated as if they were a single disease entity, yet it is clear they do not behave as a single entity in response to current therapies. Recently, we reported that statins might have a potential benefit for TNBCs associated with ets-1 overexpression. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of PTEN loss in the effects of statin on TNBC cells. In addition, we analyze the relationship between AKT downstream pathways and the effects of statin on TNBC cells. We investigated the effect of a statin on TNBC cells and analyzed the association of PI3K pathways using various TNBC cells in terms of PTEN loss and AKT pathways. Simvastatin treatments resulted in decreased cell viabilities in various TNBC cell lines. Compared with PTEN wild-type TNBC cells, PTEN mutant-type TNBC cells showed a decreased response to simvastatin. Expressions of phosphorylated Akt and total Akt showed an inverse relationship with PTEN expression. The TNBC cell lines, which showed increased expression of p-Akt, appeared to attenuate the expression of p-Akt by PTEN loss in simvastatin-treated TNBC cells. The Akt inhibitor, LY294002, augmented the effect of simvastatin on PTEN wild-type TNBC cells. Simvastatin induces inhibition of TNBC cells via PI3K pathway activation.

Liu R, Li J, Xie K, et al.
FGFR4 promotes stroma-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(19):5926-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor cells evolve by interacting with the local microenvironment; however, the tumor-stroma interactions that govern tumor metastasis are poorly understood. In this study, proteomic analyses reveal that coculture with tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) induces significant overexpression of FGFR4, but not other FGFRs, in colorectal cancer cell lines. Mechanistic study shows that FGFR4 plays crucial roles in TAF-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in colorectal cancer cell lines. Accumulated FGFR4 in cell membrane phosphorylates β-catenin, leading to translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus. Further, TAF-derived CCL2 and its downstream transcription factor, Ets-1, are prerequisites for TAF-induced FGFR4 upregulation. Furthermore, FGFR4-associated pathways are shown to be preferentially activated in colorectal tumor samples, and direct tumor metastasis in a mouse metastasis model. Our study shows a pivotal role of FGFR4 in tumor-stroma interactions during colorectal cancer metastasis, and suggests novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

Stancevic B, Varda-Bloom N, Cheng J, et al.
Adenoviral transduction of human acid sphingomyelinase into neo-angiogenic endothelium radiosensitizes tumor cure.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e69025 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
These studies define a new mechanism-based approach to radiosensitize tumor cure by single dose radiotherapy (SDRT). Published evidence indicates that SDRT induces acute microvascular endothelial apoptosis initiated via acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) translocation to the external plasma membrane. Ensuing microvascular damage regulates radiation lethality of tumor stem cell clonogens to effect tumor cure. Based on this biology, we engineered an ASMase-producing vector consisting of a modified pre-proendothelin-1 promoter, PPE1(3x), and a hypoxia-inducible dual-binding HIF-2α-Ets-1 enhancer element upstream of the asmase gene, inserted into a replication-deficient adenovirus yielding the vector Ad5H2E-PPE1(3x)-ASMase. This vector confers ASMase over-expression in cycling angiogenic endothelium in vitro and within tumors in vivo, with no detectable enhancement in endothelium of normal tissues that exhibit a minute fraction of cycling cells or in non-endothelial tumor or normal tissue cells. Intravenous pretreatment with Ad5H2E-PPE1(3x)-ASMase markedly increases SDRT cure of inherently radiosensitive MCA/129 fibrosarcomas, and converts radiation-incurable B16 melanomas into biopsy-proven tumor cures. In contrast, Ad5H2E-PPE1(3x)-ASMase treatment did not impact radiation damage to small intestinal crypts as non-dividing small intestinal microvessels did not overexpress ASMase and were not radiosensitized. We posit that combination of genetic up-regulation of tumor microvascular ASMase and SDRT provides therapeutic options for currently radiation-incurable human tumors.

Wu YH, Chang TH, Huang YF, et al.
COL11A1 promotes tumor progression and predicts poor clinical outcome in ovarian cancer.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(26):3432-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Biomarkers that predict disease progression might assist the development of better therapeutic strategies for aggressive cancers, such as ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the role of collagen type XI alpha 1 (COL11A1) in cell invasiveness and tumor formation and the prognostic impact of COL11A1 expression in ovarian cancer. Microarray analysis suggested that COL11A1 is a disease progression-associated gene that is linked to ovarian cancer recurrence and poor survival. Small interference RNA-mediated specific reduction in COL11A1 protein levels suppressed the invasive ability and oncogenic potential of ovarian cancer cells and decreased tumor formation and lung colonization in mouse xenografts. A combination of experimental approaches, including real-time RT-PCR, casein zymography and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, showed that COL11A1 knockdown attenuated MMP3 expression and suppressed binding of Ets-1 to its putative MMP3 promoter-binding site, suggesting that the Ets-1-MMP3 axis is upregulated by COL11A1. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta (TGF-β1) treatment triggers the activation of smad2 signaling cascades, leading to activation of COL11A1 and MMP3. Pharmacological inhibition of MMP3 abrogated the TGF-β1-triggered, COL11A1-dependent cell invasiveness. Furthermore, the NF-YA-binding site on the COL11A1 promoter was identified as the major determinant of TGF-β1-dependent COL11A1 activation. Analysis of 88 ovarian cancer patients indicated that high COL11A1 mRNA levels are associated with advanced disease stage. The 5-year recurrence-free and overall survival rates were significantly lower (P=0.006 and P=0.018, respectively) among patients with high expression levels of tissue COL11A1 mRNA compared with those with low expression. We conclude that COL11A1 may promote tumor aggressiveness via the TGF-β1-MMP3 axis and that COL11A1 expression can predict clinical outcome in ovarian cancer patients.

Iio A, Takagi T, Miki K, et al.
DDX6 post-transcriptionally down-regulates miR-143/145 expression through host gene NCR143/145 in cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1829(10):1102-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
In various human malignancies, widespread dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression is reported to occur and affects various cell growth programs. Recent studies suggest that the expression levels of miRNAs that act as tumor suppressors are frequently reduced in cancers because of chromosome deletions, epigenetical changes, aberrant transcription, and disturbances in miRNA processing. MiR-143 and -145 are well-recognized miRNAs that are highly expressed in several tissues, but down-regulated in most types of cancers. However, the mechanism of this down-regulation has not been investigated in detail. Here, we show that DEAD-box RNA helicase 6, DDX6 (p54/RCK), post-transcriptionally down-regulated miR-143/145 expression by prompting the degradation of its host gene product, NCR143/145 RNA. In human gastric cancer cell line MKN45, DDX6 protein was abundantly expressed and accumulated in processing bodies (P-bodies). DDX6 preferentially increased the instability of non-coding RNA, NCR143/145, which encompasses the miR-143/145 cluster, and down-regulated the expression of mature miR-143/145. In human monocytic cell line THP-1, lipopolysaccharide treatment promoted the assembly of P-bodies and down-regulated the expression of NCR143/145 and its miR-143/145 rapidly. In these cells, cycloheximide treatment led to a loss of P-bodies and to an increase in NCR143/145 RNA stability, thus resulting in up-regulation of miR-143/145 expression. These data demonstrate that DDX6 contributed to the control of NCR143/145 RNA stability in P-bodies and post-transcriptionally regulated miR-143/145 expression in cancer cells.

Bonetti P, Testoni M, Scandurra M, et al.
Deregulation of ETS1 and FLI1 contributes to the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2013; 122(13):2233-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of human lymphoma. DLBCL is a heterogeneous disease characterized by different genetic lesions. We herein report the functional characterization of a recurrent gain mapping on chromosome 11q24.3, found in 23% of 166 DLBCL cases analyzed. The transcription factors ETS1 and FLI1, located within the 11q24.3 region, had significantly higher expression in clinical samples carrying the gain. Functional studies on cell lines showed that ETS1 and FLI1 cooperate in sustaining DLBCL proliferation and viability and regulate genes involved in germinal center differentiation. Taken together, these data identify the 11q24.3 gain as a recurrent lesion in DLBCL leading to ETS1 and FLI1 deregulated expression, which can contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease.

Lee KH, Koh SA, Kim JR
Hepatocyte growth factor-mediated gastrin-releasing peptide induces IL-8 expression through Ets-1 in gastric cancer cells.
Oncol Res. 2013; 20(9):393-402 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer cells secrete a variety of proangiogenic molecules, including IL-8 and VEGF. However, factors regulating the expression of proangiogenic genes for gastric cancer remain largely undefined. We investigated the role of HGF-induced activation of GRP and Ets-1 transcription factor in expression of the proangiogenic factor IL-8. The genes associated with angiogenesis induced by HGF were screened using cDNA micro-array technology in two gastric cancer cell lines (NUGC-3 and MKN-28). First, GRP RNA and protein were confirmed to be upregulated. Then, expression of GRP, Ets-1, and IL-8 were further estimated by Western blot analysis. A role for Ets-1 in HGF-induced upregulation of IL-8 was determined by knockdown of Ets-1 with Ets-1 sh-RNA and a chromatin immune precipitation assay. The levels of GRP, Ets-1, and IL-8 were upregulated in cells treated with HGF in a dose-dependent manner. HGF-induced expression of Ets-1 and IL-8 was increased more by GRP treatment and inhibited by pretreatment with an ERK 1/2 inhibitor (PD098059). HGF-induced upregulation of IL-8 was repressed by Ets-1 knockdown. HGF enhanced the binding activity of Ets-1 to the IL-8 promoter in control cells, but not in the Ets-1 shRNA cells. We confirmed the functional role of HGF-induced Ets-1 in activation of the IL-8 promoter by the reporter gene assay. Downregulation of IL-8 also decreased in vitro cell invasion. In conclusion, HGF mediated the GRP induction of IL-8 expression through Ets-1, which thus might serve as a promising target for gastric cancer therapy.

Kalet BT, Anglin SR, Handschy A, et al.
Transcription factor Ets1 cooperates with estrogen receptor α to stimulate estradiol-dependent growth in breast cancer cells and tumors.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68815 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of transcription factor Ets1 in estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast cancer progression. We expressed human Ets1 or empty vector in four human ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines and observed increased colony formation. Further examination of cellular responses in stable Ets1-expressing MCF7 clones displayed increased proliferation, migration, and invasion. Ets1-expressing MCF7 tumors grown in the mammary fat pads of nude mice exhibited increased rates of tumor growth (7.36±2.47 mm(3)/day) compared to control MCF7 tumors (2.52±1.70 mm(3)/day), but maintained their dependence on estradiol for tumor growth. Proliferation marker Ki-67 staining was not different between control and Ets1-expressing tumors, but Ets1-expressing tumors exhibited large necrotic centers and elevated apoptotic staining. Ets1 was shown to cooperate with ERα and the p160 nuclear receptor coactivator (NCOA/SRC) family to increase activation of a consensus estrogen response element luciferase reporter construct. Ets1-expressing MCF7 cells also exhibited elevated expression of the ERα target genes, progesterone receptor and trefoil factor 1. Using GST-pulldown assays, Ets1 formed stable complexes containing both ERα and p160 nuclear receptor coactivators. Taken together, these data suggest that the Ets1-dependent estradiol sensitization of breast cancer cells and tumors may be partially due to the ability of Ets1 to cooperate with ERα and nuclear receptor coactivators to stimulate transcriptional activity of estrogen-dependent genes.

Findlay VJ, LaRue AC, Turner DP, et al.
Understanding the role of ETS-mediated gene regulation in complex biological processes.
Adv Cancer Res. 2013; 119:1-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ets factors are members of one of the largest families of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors, regulating critical functions in normal cell homeostasis, which when perturbed contribute to tumor progression. The well-documented alterations in ETS factor expression and function during cancer progression result in pleiotropic effects manifested by the downstream effect on their target genes. Multiple ETS factors bind to the same regulatory sites present on target genes, suggesting redundant or competitive functions. The anti- and prometastatic signatures obtained by examining specific ETS regulatory networks will significantly improve our ability to accurately predict tumor progression and advance our understanding of gene regulation in cancer. Coordination of multiple ETS gene functions also mediates interactions between tumor and stromal cells and thus contributes to the cancer phenotype. As such, these new insights may provide a novel view of the ETS gene family as well as a focal point for studying the complex biological control involved in tumor progression. One of the goals of molecular biology is to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Such an understanding of the molecular basis of cancer will provide new possibilities for: (1) earlier detection, as well as better diagnosis and staging of disease; (2) detection of minimal residual disease recurrences and evaluation of response to therapy; (3) prevention; and (4) novel treatment strategies. Increased understanding of ETS-regulated biological pathways will directly impact these areas.

Chu CY, Sheen YS, Cha ST, et al.
Induction of chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression by transforming growth factor-β1 in human basal cell carcinoma cells.
J Dermatol Sci. 2013; 72(2):123-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Higher CXCR4 expression enhances basal cell carcinoma (BCC) invasion and angiogenesis. The underlying mechanism of increased CXCR4 expression in invasive BCC is still not well understood.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of CXCR4 expression in invasive BCC.
METHODS: We used qRT-PCR, RT-PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometric analyses to examine different CXCR4 levels among the clinical samples, co-cultured BCC cells and BCC cells treated with recombinant transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Immunohistochemical studies were used to demonstrate the correlation between TGF-β1 and CXCR4 expressions. The signal transduction pathway and transcriptional regulation were confirmed by treatments with chemical inhibitors, neutralizing antibodies, or short interfering RNAs, as well as luciferase reporter activity.
RESULTS: Invasive BCC has higher TGF-β1 and CTGF levels compared to non-invasive BCC. Non-contact dermal fibroblasts co-culture with human BCC cells also increases the expression of CXCR4 in BCC cells. Treatment with recombinant human TGF-β1, but not CTGF, enhanced the CXCR4 levels in time- and dose-dependent manners. The protein level and surface expression of CXCR4 in human BCC cells was increased by TGF-β1 treatment. TGF-β1 was intensely expressed in the surrounding fibroblasts of invasive BCC and was positively correlated with the CXCR4 expression of BCC cells. The transcriptional regulation of CXCR4 by TGF-β1 is mediated by its binding to the TGF-β receptor II and phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)-ETS-1 pathway.
CONCLUSION: TGF-β1 induces upregulation of CXCR4 in human BCC cells by phosphorylation of ERK1/2-ETS-1 pathway.

Bi FF, Li D, Yang Q
Hypomethylation of ETS transcription factor binding sites and upregulation of PARP1 expression in endometrial cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:946268 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
Although PARP1 promoter methylation is involved in the regulation of PARP1 expression in human keratinocyte lines and lymphoblastoid cell lines, its roles in human endometrial cancer are unknown. DNA from forty normal endometrium (NE) and fifty endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC) tissues were analyzed by bisulfite sequencing using primers focusing on the core promoter region of PARP1. Expression levels of PARP1 were assessed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Associations between patient clinicopathological characteristics and PARP1 protein levels were assessed by Fisher's exact test. Here, PARP1 mRNA and protein were overexpressed in EAC tissues (P < 0.05). CpG sites within the ETS motif in the PARP1 promoter exhibited significant hypomethylation in EAC tissues, and there was a significant negative correlation between PARP1 mRNA levels and the number of methylated sites in both NE and EAC tissues (R (2) = 0.262, P < 0.001). Notably, PARP1 protein expression was associated with FIGO stage (P = 0.026), histological grade (P = 0.002) , and body mass index (P = 0.04). Our findings imply that PARP1 overexpression may participate in endometrial cancer progression, and abnormal hypomethylation of CpG sites within the ETS motif in the core promoter region may be responsible for PARP1 overexpression in EAC tissues.

Schmid R, Meyer K, Spang R, et al.
Melanoma inhibitory activity promotes melanoma development through activation of YBX1.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013; 26(5):685-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA), a small soluble secreted protein, is functionally important for progression of malignant melanoma. We recently revealed that p54(nrb) acts as a mediator of MIA action. In this study, we characterize the transcriptional regulation of p54(nrb) by MIA to explain MIA's molecular action. We identified one highly conserved region in the p54(nrb) promoter that is necessary and sufficient for MIA-dependent activation. Functional promoter analysis identified the transcription factor YBX1 as the mediator of MIA activation of p54(nrb) transcription. We screened the genome for further potential MIA-regulated genes carrying the element in their promoter regions. Integrating our sequence data with expression data from human melanomas identified a list of 23 potential MIA-YBX1 targets in melanomas. In summary, we present for the first time effects of MIA on transcriptional regulation. Uncovering new potential downstream effectors working via activation of YBX1 supports the important role of MIA in melanoma.

Matteucci E, Maroni P, Bendinelli P, et al.
Epigenetic control of endothelin-1 axis affects invasiveness of breast carcinoma cells with bone tropism.
Exp Cell Res. 2013; 319(12):1865-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here, we report a complex regulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) axis driven by epigenetic reactions in 1833-bone metastatic cells, emphasizing the importance in skeletal metastasis from breast carcinoma. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases, trichostatin A (TSA), and of DNA methylases, 5'-Azacytidine (Aza), caused, respectively, reduction and increase in 1833 cell invasiveness, without affecting the basal migration of parental MDA-MB231 cells. Of note, in the two cell lines exposed to Aza the blockade of the ET-1 receptor ETAR with BQ-123 oppositely changed invasive properties. Even if in MDA-MB231 cells the ET-1 axis was scarcely influenced by epigenetic reactions, ETAR remarkably decreased after Aza. In contrast, in 1833 cells Aza exposure enhanced ET-1 coupled to ETAR wild type, being also ETAR truncated form increased, and invasiveness was stimulated. Under demethylation, the increase in ET-1 steady state protein level in 1833 clone seemed regulated at transcriptional level principally via Ets1 transcription factor. In fact, actinomycin D almost completely prevented ET-1 mRNA induction due to Aza. Only in 1833 cells, TSA exposure inactivated ET-1 axis, with reduction of the expression of ET-1 and ETAR mutated form, in agreement with Matrigel invasion decrease. This treatment favoured the ET-1 repressional control, taking place at the level of mRNA stability due to the 3'-untranslated region in the ET-1 gene, and also decreased transcription via NF-kB. Environmental conditions that alter the balance between epigenetic reactions might, therefore, affect metastasis migratory mode influencing ET-1 axis.

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