Gene Summary

Gene:EGR2; early growth response 2
Aliases: AT591, CMT1D, CMT4E, KROX20
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor with three tandem C2H2-type zinc fingers. Defects in this gene are associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1D (CMT1D), Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4E (CMT4E), and with Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS). Multiple transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:E3 SUMO-protein ligase EGR2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EGR2 (cancer-related)

Salotti J, Sakchaisri K, Tourtellotte WG, Johnson PF
An Arf-Egr-C/EBPβ pathway linked to ras-induced senescence and cancer.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(5):866-83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) protects normal cells from transformation by Ras, whereas cells lacking p14/p19(Arf) or other tumor suppressors can be transformed. The transcription factor C/EBPβ is required for OIS in primary fibroblasts but is downregulated by H-Ras(V12) in immortalized NIH 3T3 cells through a mechanism involving p19(Arf) loss. Here, we report that members of the serum-induced early growth response (Egr) protein family are also downregulated in 3T3(Ras) cells and directly and redundantly control Cebpb gene transcription. Egr1, Egr2, and Egr3 recognize three sites in the Cebpb promoter and associate transiently with this region after serum stimulation, coincident with Cebpb induction. Codepletion of all three Egrs prevented Cebpb expression, and serum induction of Egrs was significantly blunted in 3T3(Ras) cells. Egr2 and Egr3 levels were also reduced in Ras(V12)-expressing p19(Arf) null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and overall Egr DNA-binding activity was suppressed in Arf-deficient but not wild-type (WT) MEFs, leading to Cebpb downregulation. Analysis of human cancers revealed a strong correlation between EGR levels and CEBPB expression, regardless of whether CEBPB was increased or decreased in tumors. Moreover, overexpression of Egrs in tumor cell lines induced CEBPB and inhibited proliferation. Thus, our findings identify the Arf-Egr-C/EBPβ axis as an important determinant of cellular responses (senescence or transformation) to oncogenic Ras signaling.

Feng D, Ye X, Zhu Z, et al.
Comparative transcriptome analysis between metastatic and non-metastatic gastric cancer reveals potential biomarkers.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(1):386-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcriptome of metastatic gastric cancer (GC) was compared to that of non-metastatic GC to identify metastasis-related biomarkers. The gene expression dataset GSE21328, comprising 2 metastatic GC samples and 2 non-metastatic GC samples, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differential expression analysis was performed with the package limma of Bioconductor to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was performed to identify significantly altered biological functions. In addition, the transcriptional regulatory and protein-protein interaction networks were constructed with information from the UCSC genome browser and STRING database, respectively, followed by functional enrichment analysis of all of the genes in these two networks. A total of 584 DEGs were identified, of which 175 were upregulated and 409 downregulated. Clustering analysis confirmed that these genes can distinguish metastatic from non-metastatic GC. Upregulated genes were enriched for the xenobiotic metabolic process, while downregulated genes were enriched for immune response and related pathways. Among the 584 DEGs, six genes (DAND5, EGR2, FOXD1, LMO2, PRRX2 and STAT1) were shown to encode transcription factors, which were used to establish the transcriptional regulatory network with 169 target genes, forming 175 nodes. The proteins of this network were significantly enriched for the process of negative regulation of cell differentiation. In conclusion, this study identified a range of DEGs in metastatic GC, which may enhance our current knowledge on this disease. Among these genes, STAT1 and EGR2 may constitute potential biomarkers of GC metastasis.

Davidson B, Abeler VM, Førsund M, et al.
Gene expression signatures of primary and metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(4):691-700 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is the most common uterine sarcoma. Although the disease is relatively rare, it is responsible for considerable mortality due to frequent metastasis and chemoresistance. The molecular events related to LMS metastasis are unknown to date. The present study compared the global gene expression patterns of primary uterine LMSs and LMS metastases. Gene expression profiles of 13 primary and 15 metastatic uterine LMSs were analyzed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina. Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To identify differently expressed genes between primary and metastatic tumors, we performed one-way analysis of variance with Benjamini-Hochberg correction. This led to identification of 203 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the 2 tumor groups by greater than 1.58-fold with P < .01, of which 94 and 109 were overexpressed in primary and metastatic LMSs, respectively. Genes overexpressed in primary uterine LMSs included OSTN, NLGN4X, NLGN1, SLITRK4, MASP1, XRN2, ASS1, RORB, HRASLS, and TSPAN7. Genes overexpressed in LMS metastases included TNNT1, FOLR3, TDO2, CRYM, GJA1, TSPAN10, THBS1, SGK1, SHMT1, EGR2, and AGT. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant anatomical site-related differences in FOLR3, OSTN, and NLGN4X levels; and immunohistochemistry showed significant differences in TDO2 expression. Gene expression profiling differentiates primary uterine LMSs from LMS metastases. The molecular signatures unique to primary and metastatic LMSs may aid in understanding tumor progression in this cancer and in providing a molecular basis for prognostic studies and therapeutic target discovery.

Rondahl V, Holmlund C, Karlsson T, et al.
Lrig2-deficient mice are protected against PDGFB-induced glioma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e73635 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins constitute an integral membrane protein family that has three members: LRIG1, LRIG2, and LRIG3. LRIG1 negatively regulates growth factor signaling, but little is known regarding the functions of LRIG2 and LRIG3. In oligodendroglial brain tumors, high expression of LRIG2 correlates with poor patient survival. Lrig1 and Lrig3 knockout mice are viable, but there have been no reports on Lrig2-deficient mice to date.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lrig2-deficient mice were generated by the ablation of Lrig2 exon 12 (Lrig2E12). The Lrig2E12-/- mice showed a transiently reduced growth rate and an increased spontaneous mortality rate; 20-25% of these mice died before 130 days of age, with the majority of the deaths occurring before 50 days. Ntv-a transgenic mice with different Lrig2 genotypes were transduced by intracranial injection with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-encoding replication-competent avian retrovirus (RCAS)-producing DF-1 cells. All injected Lrig2E12+/+ mice developed Lrig2 expressing oligodendroglial brain tumors of lower grade (82%) or glioblastoma-like tumors of higher grade (18%). Lrig2E12-/- mice, in contrast, only developed lower grade tumors (77%) or had no detectable tumors (23%). Lrig2E12-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) showed altered induction-kinetics of immediate-early genes Fos and Egr2 in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. However, Lrig2E12-/- MEFs showed no changes in Pdgfrα or Pdgfrβ levels or in levels of PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Pdgfrα, Pdgfrβ, Akt, or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Overexpression of LRIG1, but not of LRIG2, downregulated PDGFRα levels in HEK-293T cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype of Lrig2E12-/- mice showed that Lrig2 was a promoter of PDGFB-induced glioma, and Lrig2 appeared to have important molecular and developmental functions that were distinct from those of Lrig1 and Lrig3.

Li X, Zhang Z, Yu M, et al.
Involvement of miR-20a in promoting gastric cancer progression by targeting early growth response 2 (EGR2).
Int J Mol Sci. 2013; 14(8):16226-39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers, with high incidences in East Asia. microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in the carcinogenesis of GC. miR-20a was elevated in GC, while the potential function of miR-20a was poorly understood. miR-20a expression was examined in GC tissues and cell lines. The effects of miR-20a on the growth, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance of GC cells were examined. Luciferase reporter assay and Western blot were used to screen the target of miR-20a. miR-20a was increased in GC tissues and cell lines. miR-20a promoted the growth, migration and invasion of GC cells, enhanced the chemoresistance of GC cells to cisplatin and docetaxel. Luciferase activity and Western blot confirmed that miR-20a negatively regulated EGR2 expression. Overexpression of EGR2 significantly attenuated the oncogenic effect of miR-20a. miR-20a was involved in the carcinogenesis of GC through modulation of the EGR2 signaling pathway.

Gomez-Sanchez JA, Gomis-Coloma C, Morenilla-Palao C, et al.
Epigenetic induction of the Ink4a/Arf locus prevents Schwann cell overproliferation during nerve regeneration and after tumorigenic challenge.
Brain. 2013; 136(Pt 7):2262-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
The number of Schwann cells is fitted to axonal length in peripheral nerves. This relationship is lost when tumorigenic stimuli induce uncontrolled Schwann cell proliferation, generating tumours such us neurofibromas and schwannomas. Schwann cells also re-enter the cell cycle following nerve injury during the process of Wallerian degeneration. In both cases proliferation is finally arrested. We show that in neurofibroma, the induction of Jmjd3 (jumonji domain containing 3, histone lysine demethylase) removes trimethyl groups on lysine-27 of histone-H3 and epigenetically activates the Ink4a/Arf-locus, forcing Schwann cells towards replicative senescence. Remarkably, blocking this mechanism allows unrestricted proliferation, inducing malignant transformation of neurofibromas. Interestingly, our data suggest that in injured nerves, Schwann cells epigenetically activate the same locus to switch off proliferation and enter the senescence programme. Indeed, when this pathway is genetically blocked, Schwann cells fail to drop out of the cell cycle and continue to proliferate. We postulate that the Ink4a/Arf-locus is expressed as part of a physiological response that prevents uncontrolled proliferation of the de-differentiated Schwann cell generated during nerve regeneration, a response that is also activated to avoid overproliferation after tumorigenic stimuli in the peripheral nervous system.

Zhang N, Wei X, Xu L
miR-150 promotes the proliferation of lung cancer cells by targeting P53.
FEBS Lett. 2013; 587(15):2346-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the most common causes for cancer-related death. Previous studies suggested that uncontrolled cell proliferation induced by activation of pro-cancer genes or inhibition of cancer suppressor genes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. Here, we demonstrate that miR-150 is aberrantly upregulated in lung cancer tissue and negatively correlates with the expression of the proapoptotic gene p53 but not EGR2. We show that miR-150 specifically targets the 3'-UTR of p53 and regulates its expression. Inhibition of miR-150 effectively delays cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis, accompanied by increased p53 protein expression. Our data reveals the mechanisms underlying miR-150 regulated lung cancer pathogenesis, which might be beneficial for lung cancer therapy.

Bousquet M, Zhuang G, Meng C, et al.
miR-150 blocks MLL-AF9-associated leukemia through oncogene repression.
Mol Cancer Res. 2013; 11(8):912-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The microRNA miR-150, a critical regulator of hematopoiesis, is downregulated in mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL). In this study, miR-150 acts as a potent leukemic tumor suppressor by blocking the oncogenic properties of leukemic cells. By using MLL-AF9-transformed cells, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of miR-150 inhibits blast colony formation, cell growth, and increases apoptosis in vitro. More importantly, ectopic expression of miR-150 in MLL-AF9-transformed cells completely blocked the development of myeloid leukemia in transplanted mice. Furthermore, gene expression profiling revealed that miR-150 altered the expression levels of more than 30 "stem cell signature" genes and many others that are involved in critical cancer pathways. In addition to the known miR-150 target Myb, we also identified Cbl and Egr2 as bona fide targets and shRNA-mediated suppression of these genes recapitulated the pro-apoptotic effects observed in leukemic cells with miR-150 ectopic expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that miR-150 is a potent leukemic tumor suppressor that regulates multiple oncogenes.
IMPLICATIONS: These data establish new, key players for the development of therapeutic strategies to treat MLL-AF9-related leukemia.

Lagrange B, Martin RZ, Droin N, et al.
A role for miR-142-3p in colony-stimulating factor 1-induced monocyte differentiation into macrophages.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1833(8):1936-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
The differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into macrophages can be reproduced ex vivo by culturing the cells in the presence of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1). Using microarray profiling to explore the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), we identified a dramatic decrease in the expression of the hematopoietic specific miR-142-3p. Up- and down-regulation of this miRNA in primary human monocytes altered CSF1-induced differentiation of monocytes, as demonstrated by changes in the expression of the cell surface markers CD16 and CD163. One of the genes whose expression is repressed by miR-142-3p encodes the transcription factor Early Growth Response 2 (Egr2). In turn, Egr2 associated with its co-repressor NGFI-A (Nerve Growth Factor-Induced gene-A) binding protein 2 (NAB2) binds to the pre-miR-142-3p promoter to negatively regulate its expression. Interestingly, the expression of miR-142-3p is abnormally low in monocytes from patients with the most proliferative forms of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), and miR-142-3p re-expression in CMML dysplastic monocytes can improve their differentiation potential. Altogether, miR-142-3p which functions in a molecular circuitry with Egr2 is an actor of CSF1-induced differentiation of human monocytes whose expression could be altered in CMML.

Doddrell RD, Dun XP, Shivane A, et al.
Loss of SOX10 function contributes to the phenotype of human Merlin-null schwannoma cells.
Brain. 2013; 136(Pt 2):549-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Loss of the Merlin tumour suppressor causes abnormal de-differentiation and proliferation of Schwann cells and formation of schwannoma tumours in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2. Within the mature peripheral nerve the normal development, differentiation and maintenance of myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells is regulated by a network of transcription factors that include SOX10, OCT6 (now known as POU3F1), NFATC4 and KROX20 (also known as Egr2). We have examined for the first time how their regulation of Schwann cell development is disrupted in primary human schwannoma cells. We find that induction of both KROX20 and OCT6 is impaired, whereas enforced expression of KROX20 drives both myelin gene expression and cell cycle arrest in Merlin-null cells. Importantly, we show that human schwannoma cells have reduced expression of SOX10 protein and messenger RNA. Analysis of mouse SOX10-null Schwann cells shows they display many of the characteristics of human schwannoma cells, including increased expression of platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) messenger RNA and protein, enhanced proliferation, increased focal adhesions and schwannoma-like morphology. Correspondingly, reintroduction of SOX10 into human Merlin-null cells restores the ability of these cells to induce KROX20 and myelin protein zero (MPZ), localizes NFATC4 to the nucleus, reduces cell proliferation and suppresses PDGFRB expression. Thus, we propose that loss of the SOX10 protein, which is vital for normal Schwann cell development, is also key to the pathology of Merlin-null schwannoma tumours.

Postel-Vinay S, Véron AS, Tirode F, et al.
Common variants near TARDBP and EGR2 are associated with susceptibility to Ewing sarcoma.
Nat Genet. 2012; 44(3):323-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma, a pediatric tumor characterized by EWSR1-ETS fusions, is predominantly observed in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 401 French individuals with Ewing sarcoma, 684 unaffected French individuals and 3,668 unaffected individuals of European descent and living in the United States. We identified candidate risk loci at 1p36.22, 10q21 and 15q15. We replicated these loci in two independent sets of cases and controls. Joint analysis identified associations with rs9430161 (P = 1.4 × 10(-20); odds ratio (OR) = 2.2) located 25 kb upstream of TARDBP, rs224278 (P = 4.0 × 10(-17); OR = 1.7) located 5 kb upstream of EGR2 and, to a lesser extent, rs4924410 at 15q15 (P = 6.6 × 10(-9); OR = 1.5). The major risk haplotypes were less prevalent in Africans, suggesting that these loci could contribute to geographical differences in Ewing sarcoma incidence. TARDBP shares structural similarities with EWSR1 and FUS, which encode RNA binding proteins, and EGR2 is a target gene of EWSR1-ETS. Variants at these loci were associated with expression levels of TARDBP, ADO (encoding cysteamine dioxygenase) and EGR2.

Yin P, Navarro A, Fang F, et al.
Early growth response-2 expression in uterine leiomyoma cells: regulation and function.
Fertil Steril. 2011; 96(2):439-44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulation of early growth response-2 (Egr-2) by transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3) and its functions in cultured human uterine leiomyoma smooth muscle cells.
DESIGN: Laboratory research.
SETTING: Academic medical center.
PATIENT(S): Primary leiomyoma cells from patients with symptomatic leiomyomata.
INTERVENTION(S): Tissue culture followed by RNA and protein analysis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Cell proliferation, alteration in extracellular matrix component expression.
RESULT(S): In vivo mRNA levels of Egr-2 were statistically significantly higher in leiomyoma tissues compared with matched myometrial tissues, and showed a statistically significant correlation with TGF-β3 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in leiomyoma tissues. In primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells, TGF-β3 statistically significantly induced Egr-2 gene expression in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of Egr-2 markedly increased the level of the proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the expression of proto-oncogene c-myc. On the other hand, ablation of Egr-2 stimulated collagen-1A1 and collagen-3A1 transcription and inhibited dermatopontin gene expression. However, the mRNA levels of α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin were not affected by Egr-2 knockdown.
CONCLUSION(S): We demonstrated that TGF-β3 regulated Egr-2 gene expression and presented evidence that Egr-2 decreases collagen production and stimulates dermatopontin gene expression.

Waldmann J, Fendrich V, Holler J, et al.
Microarray analysis reveals differential expression of benign and malignant pheochromocytoma.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010; 17(3):743-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
The diagnosis of a malignant pheochromocytoma (PC) can only be established by the presence of distant metastases, but a subset of apparently benign PCs develop metastases. We have employed a microarray analysis to identify a typical gene expression profile which distinguishes malignant from benign PC. Total RNA was isolated from fresh-frozen tissue of five benign and five malignant PCs. The reference consisted of laser microdissected tissue from normal adrenal medulla. After generating Cy3- and Cy5-fluorescently labeled cDNAs, F-chips containing 11 540 spots were hybridized. Data were analyzed with the IMAGENE 3.0 software. Gene expression levels were validated by real-time (RT)-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The analysis revealed a more than twofold difference in expression between benign and malignant PCs in 132 genes: 19 were up-regulated and 113 were down-regulated. Expression differences of six genes (calsequestrin, NNAT, neurogranin, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), EGR2, and MAOB) were confirmed by RT-PCR in 25 PCs. IHC for calsequestrin revealed an overexpression in malignant PCs (7/10 vs 1/10, P=0.03). Comparative analysis by microarray of all ten PCs (benign/malignant) versus normal adrenal medulla revealed a more than twofold expression difference in 455/539 and 491/671 genes respectively. Several of these genes are known to participate on adrenal tumorigenesis, potential tumor suppressor genes, and oncogenes. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of malignant and benign PCs revealed different gene profiles, which could be used to discriminate between malignant and benign PCs. Based on these findings, the strategy for further follow-up and treatment could be modified accordingly.

Gandhi AK, Kang J, Capone L, et al.
Dexamethasone synergizes with lenalidomide to inhibit multiple myeloma tumor growth, but reduces lenalidomide-induced immunomodulation of T and NK cell function.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2010; 10(2):155-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
To determine the effect of dexamethasone on the antimyeloma effects of lenalidomide, we tested in vitro proliferation, tumor suppressor gene expression, caspase activity, cell cycling, and apoptosis levels in a series of multiple myeloma (MM) and plasma cell leukemia cell lines treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, alone or in combination. The effect of dexamethasone on the immunomodulatory activities of lenalidomide such as T cell and natural killer (NK) cell activation was measured via interleukin [IL]-2 production, and interferon-gamma and granzyme B production respectively. Lenalidomide inhibited proliferation in most cell lines tested, and this effect was enhanced by dexamethasone. This effect was observed in MM cells containing the high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities t(4;14), t(14;16), del17p, del13, and hypodiploidy. Mechanistically, lenalidomide plus dexamethasone synergistically induced expression of the tumor suppressor genes Egr1, Egr2, Egr3, p15, p21, and p27 in MM cell lines and MM patient cells. The combination activated caspases 3, 8, and 9; and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Lenalidomide alone increased T cell production of IL-2, and NK cell production of interferon-gamma and granzyme B. Notably, dexamethasone antagonized these immunostimulatory effects of lenalidomide in a dose-dependent manner. These data further elucidate the mechanism of action of lenalidomide and dexamethasone in MM, and suggest that use of low-dose dexamethasone with lenalidomide may retain the antiproliferative effect of lenalidomide while permitting greater immunomodulatory effects of this combination regimen.

Wu Q, Jin H, Yang Z, et al.
MiR-150 promotes gastric cancer proliferation by negatively regulating the pro-apoptotic gene EGR2.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010; 392(3):340-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence suggests small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) play important roles in human cancer progression. In the present study, we found miR-150 was overexpressed in gastric cancer cell lines and tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-150 promoted tumorigenesis and proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that EGR2 was a direct target of miR-150. Collectively, our study demonstrated that overexpression of miR-150 in gastric cancer could promote proliferation and growth of cancer cells at least partially through directly targeting the tumor-suppressor EGR2, suggesting a potential strategy for the development of miRNA-based treatment of gastric cancer.

Yeh HY, Cheng SW, Lin YC, et al.
Identifying significant genetic regulatory networks in the prostate cancer from microarray data based on transcription factor analysis and conditional independency.
BMC Med Genomics. 2009; 2:70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a world wide leading cancer and it is characterized by its aggressive metastasis. According to the clinical heterogeneity, prostate cancer displays different stages and grades related to the aggressive metastasis disease. Although numerous studies used microarray analysis and traditional clustering method to identify the individual genes during the disease processes, the important gene regulations remain unclear. We present a computational method for inferring genetic regulatory networks from micorarray data automatically with transcription factor analysis and conditional independence testing to explore the potential significant gene regulatory networks that are correlated with cancer, tumor grade and stage in the prostate cancer.
RESULTS: To deal with missing values in microarray data, we used a K-nearest-neighbors (KNN) algorithm to determine the precise expression values. We applied web services technology to wrap the bioinformatics toolkits and databases to automatically extract the promoter regions of DNA sequences and predicted the transcription factors that regulate the gene expressions. We adopt the microarray datasets consists of 62 primary tumors, 41 normal prostate tissues from Stanford Microarray Database (SMD) as a target dataset to evaluate our method. The predicted results showed that the possible biomarker genes related to cancer and denoted the androgen functions and processes may be in the development of the prostate cancer and promote the cell death in cell cycle. Our predicted results showed that sub-networks of genes SREBF1, STAT6 and PBX1 are strongly related to a high extent while ETS transcription factors ELK1, JUN and EGR2 are related to a low extent. Gene SLC22A3 may explain clinically the differentiation associated with the high grade cancer compared with low grade cancer. Enhancer of Zeste Homolg 2 (EZH2) regulated by RUNX1 and STAT3 is correlated to the pathological stage.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide a computational framework to reconstruct the genetic regulatory network from the microarray data using biological knowledge and constraint-based inferences. Our method is helpful in verifying possible interaction relations in gene regulatory networks and filtering out incorrect relations inferred by imperfect methods. We predicted not only individual gene related to cancer but also discovered significant gene regulation networks. Our method is also validated in several enriched published papers and databases and the significant gene regulatory networks perform critical biological functions and processes including cell adhesion molecules, androgen and estrogen metabolism, smooth muscle contraction, and GO-annotated processes. Those significant gene regulations and the critical concept of tumor progression are useful to understand cancer biology and disease treatment.

Eisenmann KM, Dykema KJ, Matheson SF, et al.
5q- myelodysplastic syndromes: chromosome 5q genes direct a tumor-suppression network sensing actin dynamics.
Oncogene. 2009; 28(39):3429-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Complete loss or interstitial deletions of chromosome 5 are the most common karyotypic abnormality in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). Isolated del(5q)/5q- MDS patients have a more favorable prognosis than those with additional karyotypic defects, who tend to develop myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and acute myeloid leukemia. The frequency of unbalanced chromosome 5 deletions has led to the idea that 5q harbors one or more tumor-suppressor genes that have fundamental roles in the growth control of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs). Cytogenetic mapping of commonly deleted regions (CDRs) centered on 5q31 and 5q32 identified candidate tumor-suppressor genes, including the ribosomal subunit RPS14, the transcription factor Egr1/Krox20 and the cytoskeletal remodeling protein, alpha-catenin. Although each acts as a tumor suppressor, alone or in combination, no molecular mechanism accounts for how defects in individual 5q candidates may act as a lesion driving MDS or contributing to malignant progression in MPN. One candidate gene that resides between the conventional del(5q)/5q- MDS-associated CDRs is DIAPH1 (5q31.3). DIAPH1 encodes the mammalian Diaphanous-related formin, mDia1. mDia1 has critical roles in actin remodeling in cell division and in response to adhesive and migratory stimuli. This review examines evidence, with a focus on mouse gene-targeting experiments, that mDia1 acts as a node in a tumor-suppressor network that involves multiple 5q gene products. The network has the potential to sense dynamic changes in actin assembly. At the root of the network is a transcriptional response mechanism mediated by the MADS-box transcription factor, serum response factor (SRF), its actin-binding myocardin family coactivator, MAL, and the SRF-target 5q gene, EGR1, which regulate the expression of PTEN and p53-family tumor-suppressor proteins. We hypothesize that the network provides a homeostatic mechanism balancing HPC/HSC growth control and differentiation decisions in response to microenvironment and other external stimuli.

Thompson CA, Burcham PC
Genome-wide transcriptional responses to acrolein.
Chem Res Toxicol. 2008; 21(12):2245-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
The lipid peroxidation product and environmental pollutant acrolein participates in many diseases. Because of its formation during tobacco combustion, its role in various smoking-related respiratory conditions including lung cancer has received increasing attention. As a reactive electrophile, acrolein seems likely to disrupt many biochemical pathways, but these are poorly characterized on a genome-wide basis. This study used microarrays to study short-term transcriptional responses of A549 human lung cells to acrolein, with cells exposed to 100 microM acrolein for 1, 2, or 4 h prior to RNA extraction and transcription profiling. Major pathways dysregulated by acrolein included those involved in apoptosis, cell cycle control, transcription, cell signaling, and protein biosynthesis. Although HMOX1 is a widely used marker of transcriptional responses to acrolein, this gene was the sole upregulated member of the Nrf2-driven family of antioxidant response genes. Transcript levels of several members of the metallothionein class of cytoprotective metal-chelating proteins decreased strongly in response to acrolein. Other novel findings included strong and persistent upregulation of several members of the early growth response (EGR) class of zinc finger transcription factors. Real-time PCR and Western blotting confirmed strong upregulation of a key member of this family (EGR-2), the DNA damage response gene GADD45beta, the heat shock response participant Hsp70, and also HMOX1. Consistent with changes in Nur77 mRNA levels during the microarray study, Western blotting confirmed strong Nur77 induction at the protein level, raising the possibility that this death-inducing protein contributes to the loss of cell viability during acrolein exposure. Collectively, the transcriptional response to acrolein is complex and dynamic, with future work needed to determine whether acrolein-responsive genes identified in this study contribute to cell and tissue injury in the smoke-exposed lung.

Khalid S, Khan M, Gorle CB, et al.
MaXlab: a novel application for the cross comparison and integration of biological signatures from microarray studies.
In Silico Biol. 2008; 8(3-4):363-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microarray gene expression datasets are continually being placed in public repositories. As a result, one of the most important emerging challenges is that which enables researchers to take full advantage of such previously accumulated data to discover or validate common genes in similar biological systems. In light of this we have designed the MaXlab software to not only cross-compare available array data from different laboratories but also extract further knowledge from gene expression patterns embedded within published data. More importantly MaXlab offers a flexible and automated solution applicable for microarray technologies including cDNA and Affymetrix gene chips generating expression profiles for common genes with biological significance. We have identified several sets of genes previously unknown to be commonly expressed across studies investigating related biological questions. Among them is the identification of 17 genes involved in the dysregulation of immune tolerance including the crucial transcription factor Egr2. In addition, we have identified 175 genes commonly expressed in basal and luminal breast tumours in response to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. The universal expression and characterisation of these encouraging genes identified through MaXlab suggests that they may play a common role in the mechanism of disease and hence act as an incentive for further investigation for identifying potential therapeutic targets. Overall, MaXlab is an attractive application for molecular biologists extracting the intersection between microarray datasets together with the gene expression profiles, from which biologists are able to infer further biological insights. The software together with file formats and additional material is freely available at

Liu CJ, Liu TY, Kuo LT, et al.
Differential gene expression signature between primary and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
J Pathol. 2008; 214(4):489-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a world-wide malignancy. This study aimed to identify differential gene expression associated with the progression of disease from primary to metastatic HNSCC. Microdissection retrieved pure epithelial cells from paired primary tumours and cervical lymph node metastasis. cDNA microarray analysis and algorithm grouping identified differential mRNA expression of 301 genes. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis clarified the up-regulation of CCL19, CR2, EGR2, FUCA1, RGS1, and SELL, as well as the down-regulation of IGFBP6 and KLK8 in nodal metastasis compared to primary tumours. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the up-regulation of SELL and down-regulation of IGFBP6 in nodal metastasis relative to primary tumours. Interestingly, primary tumours exhibiting higher FUCA1 and SELL expression were associated with significantly worse patient survival. In OECM-1 HNSCC cells, inhibition of proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth was noted following knockdown of SELL expression. In SAS HNSCC cells, expression of exogenous SELL resulted in increased invasion, anchorage-independent growth, and xenographic tumourigenesis in nude mice. Knockdown of FUCA1 and treatment with IGFBP6 inhibited the migration of OECM-1 cells. Knockdown of RGS1 inhibited the anchorage-independent growth of SAS cells. Our results provide a useful gene signature profile describing the factors underlying the metastasis of HNSCC to cervical lymph nodes, which may be beneficial for the treatment of HNSCC metastasis.

Dillon RL, Brown ST, Ling C, et al.
An EGR2/CITED1 transcription factor complex and the 14-3-3sigma tumor suppressor are involved in regulating ErbB2 expression in a transgenic-mouse model of human breast cancer.
Mol Cell Biol. 2007; 27(24):8648-57 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Amplification and elevated expression of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase occurs in 20% of human breast cancers and is associated with a poor prognosis. We have previously demonstrated that mammary tissue-specific expression of activated ErbB2 under the control of its endogenous promoter results in mammary tumor formation. Tumor development was associated with amplification and overexpression of ErbB2 at both the transcript and protein levels. Here we demonstrate that the EGR2/Krox20 transcription factor and its coactivator CITED1 are coordinately upregulated during ErbB2 tumor induction. We have identified an EGR2 binding site in the erbB2 promoter and demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays that EGR2 and CITED1 associate specifically with this region of the promoter. EGR2 and CITED1 were shown to associate, and expression from an erbB2 promoter-reporter construct was stimulated by EGR2 and was further enhanced by CITED1 coexpression. Furthermore, expression of the 14-3-3sigma tumor suppressor led to downregulation of ErbB2 protein levels and relocalization of EGR2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Taken together, these observations suggest that, in addition to an increased gene copy number and upregulation of EGR2 and CITED1, an elevated erbB2 transcript level involves the loss of 14-3-3sigma, which sequesters a key transcriptional regulator of the erbB2 promoter.

Koltsova EK, Wiest DL, Vavilova TP
Transcription factors NFAT2 and Egr1 cooperatively regulate the maturation of T-lymphoma in vitro.
Biochemistry (Mosc). 2007; 72(9):954-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have demonstrated that transcription factors Egr1 and NFAT2 cooperate in regulation of the early stages of T-lymphocyte development, whereas the related factors Egr2 and Egr3 do not cooperate with NFAT2. Egr1 and NFAT2 are shown to cooperatively control gene expression of the regulatory factor Id3 and recombinase Rag2, whose functions are critical for T-lymphocyte differentiation. Thus, the concerted action of the transcription factors Egr1 and NFAT2 can play a crucial role in regulation of the T cell differentiation in vitro due to the cooperative regulation of Id3 and Rag2 gene expression.

Szöke D, Györffy A, Surowiak P, et al.
Identification of consensus genes and key regulatory elements in 5-fluorouracil resistance in gastric and colon cancer.
Onkologie. 2007; 30(8-9):421-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in the treatment of gastric and colorectal cancer. Recent microrarray studies associated different gene lists with 5-FU resistance. A major challenge in the genomic era is to find the most validated genes, and to decipher the regulatory networks responsible for the expression changes in a set of co-regulated transcripts. Our aim was to find genes repeatedly associated with 5-FU resistance, and to identify transcription factors (TFs) having overrepresented binding sites (TFBSs) in the promoter regions of genes associated with 5-FU resistance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analyzed data originated from 5 different publications describing genome-wide gene expression patterns associated with 5- FU resistance in gastric and colorectal cancer. First, a data warehouse containing all genes associated with resistance was set up. 39 genes were identified which were repeatedly associated with resistance. Of these, using the EZ-Retrieve web service, proximal promoter sequences were available for 33 genes. The MotifScanner software was used to detect TFBSs in this set of sequences.
RESULTS: A total of 200 different TFBSs were identified. Using the statistics tool of the Java program TOUCAN, 4 binding sites were found to be significantly overrepresented: NFKappaB50 (p = 0.01), EGR2 (p = 0.027), EGR3 (p = 0.007), and NGFIC (or EGR4) (p = 0.001). These genes intercept apoptotic pathways at multiple locations in the tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: We identified a consensus gene list associated with 5-FU resistance, performed an in silico comparative promoter analysis, and highlighted the potential implication of some TFs in the development of chemoresistance.

Foukakis T, Gusnanto A, Au AY, et al.
A PCR-based expression signature of malignancy in follicular thyroid tumors.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007; 14(2):381-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in the absence of metastasis can only be established postoperatively. Moreover, high-risk FTCs are often not identifiable at the time of diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to identify transcriptional markers of malignancy and high-risk disease in follicular thyroid tumors. The expression levels of 26 potential markers of malignancy were determined in a panel of 75 follicular thyroid tumors by a TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR approach. Logistic regression analysis (LRA) was used for gene selection and generation of diagnostic and prognostic algorithms. An algorithm based on the expression levels of five genes (TERT, TFF3, PPARgamma, CITED1, and EGR2) could effectively predict high-risk disease with a specificity of 98.5%. The metastatic potential could be predicted in all four cases with apparently benign or minimally invasive (MI) disease at the time of diagnosis, but poor long-term outcome. In addition, a second model was produced by implementing two genes (TERT and TFF3), which was able to distinguish adenomas from de facto carcinomas. When this model was tested in an independent series of atypical adenomas (AFTA) and MI-FTCs, 16 out of 17 AFTAs were classified as 'benign', while MI-FTCs with vascular invasion (sometimes referred to as 'moderately invasive') and/or large tumor size tended to classify in the 'malignant' group. The reported models can be the foundation for the development of reliable preoperative diagnostic and prognostic tests that can guide the therapeutic approach of follicular thyroid neoplasms with indeterminate cytology.

Natrajan R, Little SE, Reis-Filho JS, et al.
Amplification and overexpression of CACNA1E correlates with relapse in favorable histology Wilms' tumors.
Clin Cancer Res. 2006; 12(24):7284-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The most well established molecular markers of poor outcome in Wilms' tumor are loss of heterozygosity at chromosomes 1p and/or 16q, although to date no specific genes at these loci have been identified. We have previously shown a link between genomic gain of chromosome 1q and tumor relapse and sought to further elucidate the role of genes on 1q in treatment failure.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization identified a microamplification harboring a single gene (CACNA1E) at 1q25.3 in 6 of 76 (7.9%) Wilms' tumors, correlating with a shorter relapse-free survival (P = 0.0044, log-rank test). Further characterization of this gene was carried out by measuring mRNA and protein expression as well as stable transfection of HEK293 cells.
RESULTS: Overexpression of the CACNA1E transcript was associated with DNA copy number (P = 0.0204, ANOVA) and tumor relapse (P = 0.0851, log-rank test). Immunohistochemistry against the protein product Ca(V)2.3 revealed expression localized to the apical membrane in the distal tubules of normal kidney but not to the metanephric blastemal cells of fetal kidney from which Wilms' tumors arise. Nuclear localization in 99 of 160 (61.9%) Wilms' tumor cases correlated with a reduced relapse-free survival, particularly in cases treated with preoperative chemotherapy (P = 0.009, log-rank test). Expression profiling of stably transfected HEK293 cells revealed specific up-regulation of the immediate early response genes EGR1/EGR2/EGR3 and FOS/FOSB, mediated by activation of the MEK/ERK5/Nur77 pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: These data identify a unique genetic aberration with direct clinical relevance in Wilms' tumor relapse and provide evidence for a potential novel mechanism of treatment resistance in these tumors.

Kim DH, Muto M, Kuwahara Y, et al.
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization of circulating esophageal tumor cells.
Oncol Rep. 2006; 16(5):1053-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) shows a high frequency of lymphatic and/or systemic metastasis, even when the tumor invades only the submucosa. To investigate the genetic alterations in circulating esophageal tumor cells, we performed array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of 8 DNA samples of xenografts, which were previously established from the thoracic duct lymph of 13 ESCC patients. A total of 5 loci (or genes), 10q21.3 (EGR2), 11q13.3 (CCND1/CyclinD1, FGF4, and EMS1), 11q14 (PAK1), and 22qtel (ARSA) were found to be candidate amplified loci in the xenograft. In contrast, a total of 24 loci including 9p21 (p16 and MTAP) were found to be homozygously deleted candidates in the xenograft. Both p16 homozygous deletion and CCND1 amplification were detected in 6 (75%) and 5 (62.5%) of the 8 xenografts. Furthermore, by quantitative Southern blot analysis, we found p16 homozygous deletion in 30.8% (8/26) of the primary tumors and in 50% (4/8) of the metastasized lymph nodes. The frequency of CCND1 amplification and p16 homozygous deletion is suggested to be associated with ESCC progression. Matrigel invasion assays of p16-deleted ESCC cells showed that restoring wild-type p16 activity into the cells significantly inhibits tumor-cell invasion, suggesting that p16 inactivation could be involved in ESCC invasion. This is the first report showing the genetic alteration of concealed tumor cells in the thoracic duct lymph. The present gene list should be helpful for identifying new amplified and deleted genes in primary ESCCs as well as in metastasized lymph nodes.

Liu CJ, Lin SC, Chen YJ, et al.
Array-comparative genomic hybridization to detect genomewide changes in microdissected primary and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinomas.
Mol Carcinog. 2006; 45(10):721-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common worldwide malignancy. However, it is unclear what, if any, genomic alterations occur as the disease progresses to invasive and metastatic OSCC. This study used genomewide array-CGH in microdissected specimens to map genetic alterations found in primary OSCC and neck lymph node metastases. We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to screen genomewide alterations in eight pairs of microdissected tissue samples from primary and metastatic OSCC. In addition, 25 primary and metastatic OSCC tissue pairs were examined with immunohistochemistry for protein expression of the most frequently altered genes. The highest frequencies of gains were detected in LMYC, REL, TERC, PIK3CA, MYB, MDR1, HRAS, GARP, CCND2, FES, HER2, SIS, and SRY. The highest frequencies of losses were detected in p44S10, TIF1, LPL, MTAP, BMI1, EGR2, and MAP2K5. Genomic alterations in TGFbeta2, cellular retinoid-binding protein 1 gene (CRBP1), PIK3CA, HTR1B, HRAS, ERBB3, and STK6 differed significantly between primary OSCC and their metastatic counterparts. Genomic alterations in PRKCZ, ABL1, and FGF4 were significantly different in patients who died compared with those who survived. Immunohistochemistry confirmed high PIK3CA immunoreactivity in primary and metastatic OSCC. Higher FGF4 immunoreactivity in primary OSCC is associated with a worse prognosis. Loss of CRBP1 immunoreactivity is evident in primary and metastatic OSCC. Our study suggests that precise genomic profiling can be useful in determining gene number changes in OSCC. As our understanding of these changes grow, this profiling may become a practical tool for clinical evaluation.

Beder LB, Gunduz M, Ouchida M, et al.
Identification of a candidate tumor suppressor gene RHOBTB1 located at a novel allelic loss region 10q21 in head and neck cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2006; 132(1):19-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Aims of the study are to narrow-down the hotspot region on 10q21 defined by previous genome-wide loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and to define candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSG) concerned with 10q21.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: LOH analysis was carried out with ten polymorphic microsatellite markers. Expression analysis was performed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and mutation analysis by PCR and direct sequencing.
RESULTS: LOH analysis on 10q21 in 52 HNSCC indicated distinctive and frequent allelic loss at D10S589 (42%). Among flanking genes, we found the RHOBTB1 gene as a candidate TSG, since an intragenic marker demonstrated the highest LOH (44%). Expression analysis revealed down-regulation of RHOBTB1 mRNA in 37% of tumors. Interestingly, all the five tumors that showed decreased expression of RHOBTB1 were accompanied with LOH, supporting the haploinsufficiency and class 2 TSG characteristics of RHOBTB1. No pathogenic mutation of RHOBTB1 was found. Furthermore, another gene within the region, EGR2, was also taken under scope. LOH frequencies around the EGR2 gene were relatively low (23 and 33%). Albeit semi-quantitative expression analysis of EGR2 demonstrated downregulation in 45% of tumor samples, no relation was found between the expression levels and LOH status.
CONCLUSION: Frequent allelic loss and decreased expression of RHOBTB1 suggested that this gene has a role in tumorigenesis of a subset of HNSCC.

Suzuki T, Maruno M, Wada K, et al.
Genetic analysis of human glioblastomas using a genomic microarray system.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2004; 21(1):27-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic microarray systems can simultaneously provide substantial genetic and chromosomal information in a relatively short time. We have analyzed genomic DNA from frozen sections of 30 cases of primary glioblastomas by GenoSensor Array 300 in order to characterize gene amplifications, gene deletions, and chromosomal information in the whole genome. Genes that were frequently amplified included RFC2/CYLN2 (63.3%), EGFR (53.3%), IL6 (53.3%), ABCB1 (MDR1) (36.7%), and PDGFRA (26.7%). Genes that were frequently deleted included (56.7%), FGFR2 (66.7%), MTAP (60.0%), DMBT1 CDKN2A (p16)/MTAP (50.0%), PIK3CA (43.3%), and EGR2 (43.3%), but deletion of RB1 or TP53 was rarely detected. Chromosomal gains were observed frequently for 7q (33.3%), 7p (20.0%), and 17q (13.3%). Loss of the 10q was frequently detected in 13 of 30 cases (46.7%). Loss of the entire chromosome 10 was seen in 9 of 30 cases (30.0%), and was often accompanied by EGFR amplification (7 cases, 77.8%). The GenoSensor Array 300 proved to be useful for identification of genome-wide molecular changes in glioblastomas. The obtained microarray profile can also yield valuable insight into the molecular events underlying carcinogenesis of brain tumors and may provide clues about clinical correlations, including response to treatment.

Nakahara Y, Shiraishi T, Okamoto H, et al.
Detrended fluctuation analysis of genome-wide copy number profiles of glioblastomas using array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
Neuro Oncol. 2004; 6(4):281-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
We examined whole genomic aberrations of biopsied samples from 19 independent glioblastomas by array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis. The highest frequencies of copy number gains were observed on RFC2 (73.3%), EGFR (63.2%), and FGR, ELN, CDKN1C , FES, TOP2A, and ARSA (57.9% each). The highest frequencies of copy number losses were detected on TBR1 (52.6%), BMI1 (52.6%), EGR2 (47.4%), DMBT1 (47.4%), MTAP (42.1%), and FGFR2 (42.1%). The copy number gains of CDKN1C and INS and the copy number losses of TBR1 were significantly correlated with longer survival of patients. High-level amplifications were identified on EGFR, SAS/CDK4, PDGFRA, MDM2, and ARSA. These genes are assumed to be involved in tumorigenesis or progression of glioblastomas. The first attempts to apply detrended fluctuation analysis to copy number profiles by considering the reading direction as the time axis demonstrated that higher long-term fractal scaling exponents (alpha2) correlated well with longer survival of glioblastoma patients. The present study indicates that array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis has great potential for assessment of copy number changes and altered chromosomal regions of brain tumors. Furthermore, we show that nonlinear analysis methods of whole genome copy number profiles may provide prognostic information about glioblastoma patients.

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