CTSB

Gene Summary

Gene:CTSB; cathepsin B
Aliases: APPS, CPSB
Location:8p22
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase composed of a dimer of disulfide-linked heavy and light chains, both produced from a single protein precursor. It is also known as amyloid precursor protein secretase and is involved in the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Incomplete proteolytic processing of APP has been suggested to be a causative factor in Alzheimer disease, the most common cause of dementia. Overexpression of the encoded protein, which is a member of the peptidase C1 family, has been associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma and other tumors. At least five transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cathepsin B
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 08 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 08 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 08 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CTSB (cancer-related)

Petersdorf EW, Gooley TA, Malkki M, et al.
HLA-C expression levels define permissible mismatches in hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood. 2014; 124(26):3996-4003 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
Life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) limits the use of HLA-C-mismatched unrelated donors in transplantation. Clinicians lack criteria for donor selection when HLA-C-mismatched donors are a patient's only option for cure. We examined the role for HLA-C expression levels to identify permissible HLA-C mismatches. The median fluorescence intensity, a proxy of HLA-C expression, was assigned to each HLA-C allotype in 1975 patients and their HLA-C-mismatched unrelated transplant donors. The association of outcome with the level of expression of patients' and donors' HLA-C allotypes was evaluated in multivariable models. Increasing expression level of the patient's mismatched HLA-C allotype was associated with increased risks of grades III to IV acute GVHD, nonrelapse mortality, and mortality. Increasing expression level among HLA-C mismatches with residue 116 or residue 77/80 mismatching was associated with increased nonrelapse mortality. The immunogenicity of HLA-C mismatches in unrelated donor transplantation is influenced by the expression level of the patient's mismatched HLA-C allotype. HLA-C expression levels provide new information on mismatches that should be avoided and extend understanding of HLA-C-mediated immune responses in human disease.

Chen TP, Yang SF, Lin CW, et al.
A4383C and C76G SNP in Cathepsin B is respectively associated with the high risk and tumor size of hepatocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(11):11193-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in some genes is a candidate for having or developing a cancer. Cathepsin B (CTSB) is considered to be the biomarker of cancers. The study aimed to evaluate the impacts of three SNPs in CTSB gene on the risk and progress of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The SNPs of CTSB C76G (rs12338), CTSB A4383C (rs13332), and CTSB A8422G (rs8898) from 135 patients with HCC and 520 control participants in Taiwan were determined by real-time PCR. Through analyzing by statistics, we found that the polymorphism of rs13332 was significantly associated to the risk of HCC cancer; a significantly high frequent tumor size development was observed in HCC patients carrying rs12338 polymorphic genotype than those carrying ancestral genotype. The SNPs of rs12338, rs13332, and rs8898 were irrelevant to the frequencies of HCC clinical status and the levels of HCC clinicopathological markers. In conclusions, CTSB A4383C SNP is observed modestly more often in patients who developed HCC than in healthy controls and might be associated with the risk of HCC. The association between CTSB C76G SNP and greater tumor size may warrant further study in regards to the biology of HCC.

Qian Z, Zhu G, Tang L, et al.
Whole genome gene copy number profiling of gastric cancer identifies PAK1 and KRAS gene amplification as therapy targets.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(11):883-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer worldwide, with an approximately 20% 5-year survival rate. To identify molecular subtypes associated with the clinical prognosis, in addition to genetic aberrations for potential targeted therapeutics, we conducted a comprehensive whole-genome analysis of 131 Chinese gastric cancer tissue specimens using whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization. The analyses revealed gene focal amplifications, including CTSB, PRKCI, PAK1, STARD13, KRAS, and ABCC4, in addition to ERBB2, FGFR2, and MET. The growth of PAK1-amplified gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo was inhibited when the corresponding mRNA was knocked down. Furthermore, both KRAS amplification and KRAS mutation were identified in the gastric cancer specimens. KRAS amplification was associated with worse clinical outcomes, and the KRAS gene mutation predicted sensitivity to the MEK1/2 inhibitor AZD6244 in gastric cancer cell lines. In summary, amplified PAK1, as well as KRAS amplification/mutation, may represent unique opportunities for developing targeted therapeutics for the treatment of gastric cancer.

Fischer S, Ronellenfitsch MW, Thiepold AL, et al.
Hypoxia enhances the antiglioma cytotoxicity of B10, a glycosylated derivative of betulinic acid.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e94921 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
B10 is a glycosylated derivative of betulinic acid with promising activity against glioma cells. Lysosomal cell death pathways appear to be essential for its cytotoxicity. We investigated the influence of hypoxia, nutrient deprivation and current standard therapies on B10 cytotoxicity. The human glioma cell lines LN-308 and LNT-229 were exposed to B10 alone or together with irradiation, temozolomide, nutrient deprivation or hypoxia. Cell growth and viability were evaluated by crystal violet staining, clonogenicity assays, propidium iodide uptake and LDH release assays. Cell death was examined using an inhibitor of lysosomal acidification (bafilomycin A1), a cathepsin inhibitor (CA074-Me) and a short-hairpin RNA targeting cathepsin B. Hypoxia substantially enhanced B10-induced cell death. This effect was sensitive to bafilomycin A1 and thus dependent on hypoxia-induced lysosomal acidification. Cathepsin B appeared to mediate cell death because either the inhibitor CA074-Me or cathepsin B gene silencing rescued glioma cells from B10 toxicity under hypoxia. B10 is a novel antitumor agent with substantially enhanced cytotoxicity under hypoxia conferred by increased lysosomal cell death pathway activation. Given the importance of hypoxia for therapy resistance, malignant progression, and as a result of antiangiogenic therapies, B10 might be a promising strategy for hypoxic tumors like malignant glioma.

Dautzenberg IJ, van den Wollenberg DJ, van den Hengel SK, et al.
Mammalian orthoreovirus T3D infects U-118 MG cell spheroids independent of junction adhesion molecule-A.
Gene Ther. 2014; 21(6):609-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the canonical pathway, infection of cells by the wild-type mammalian orthoreovirus Type 3 Dearing (T3D) is dependent on the interaction of the viral spike protein σ1 with the high-affinity cellular receptor junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A). We previously demonstrated that the human glioblastoma cell line U-118 MG does not express JAM-A and resists reovirus T3D infection in standard cell culture conditions (SCCC). Heterologous JAM-A expression sensitises U-118 MG cells to reovirus T3D. Here we studied reovirus infection in U-118 MG cells grown in spheroid cultures with the premise that cells in such cultures resemble cells in tumours more than those grown under standard adherent cell culture conditions on a plastic surface. Although the U-118 MG cells in spheroids do not express JAM-A, they are susceptible to reovirus T3D infection. We show that this can be attributed to factors secreted by cells in the spheroids. The concentration of active extracellular proteases cathepsin B and L in the medium of spheroid cultures was increased 19- and 24-fold, respectively, as compared with SCCC. These enzymes can convert the reovirus particles into a form that can infect the U-118 MG cells independent of JAM-A. Taken together, these data demonstrate that infection of tumour cells by wild-type reovirus T3D is not strictly dependent on the expression of JAM-A on the cell surface.

Gong F, Peng X, Luo C, et al.
Cathepsin B as a potential prognostic and therapeutic marker for human lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12(1):125 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The lung squamous cell carcinoma survival rate is very poor despite multimodal treatment. It is urgent to discover novel candidate biomarkers for prognostic assessment and therapeutic targets to lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
RESULTS: Herein a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS-based proteomic approach was used to identify differentially expressed proteins between lung SCC and adjacent normal tissues. 31 proteins with significant alteration were identified. These proteins were mainly involved in metabolism, calcium ion binding, signal transduction and so on. Cathepsin B (CTSB) was one of the most significantly altered proteins and was confirmed by western blotting. Immunohistochemistry showed the correlation between higher CTSB expression and lower survival rate. No statistically significant difference between CTSB-shRNA treated group and the controls was observed in tumor volume, tumor weight, proliferation and apoptosis. However, the CTSB-shRNA significantly inhibited tumor metastases and prolonged survival in LL/2 metastatic model. Moreover, CTSB, Shh and Ptch were up-regulated in patients with metastatic lung SCC, suggesting that hedgehog signaling might be activated in metastatic lung SCC which could affect the expression of CTSB that influence the invasive activity of lung SCC.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested that CTSB might serve as a prognostic and therapeutic marker for lung SCC.

Crabtree D, Dodson M, Ouyang X, et al.
Over-expression of an inactive mutant cathepsin D increases endogenous alpha-synuclein and cathepsin B activity in SH-SY5Y cells.
J Neurochem. 2014; 128(6):950-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder. The histopathology of Parkinson's disease comprises proteinaceous inclusions known as Lewy bodies, which contains aggregated α-synuclein. Cathepsin D (CD) is a lysosomal protease previously demonstrated to cleave α-synuclein and decrease its toxicity in both cell lines and mouse brains in vivo. Here, we show that pharmacological inhibition of CD, or introduction of catalytically inactive mutant CD, resulted in decreased CD activity and increased cathepsin B activity, suggesting a possible compensatory response to inhibition of CD activity. However, this increased cathepsin B activity was not sufficient to maintain α-synuclein degradation, as evidenced by the accumulation of endogenous α-synuclein. Interestingly, the levels of LC3, LAMP1, and LAMP2, proteins involved in autophagy-lysosomal activities, as well as total lysosomal mass as assessed by LysoTracker flow cytometry, were unchanged. Neither autophagic flux nor proteasomal activities differs between cells over-expressing wild-type versus mutant CD. These observations point to a critical regulatory role for that endogenous CD activity in dopaminergic cells in α-synuclein homeostasis which cannot be compensated for by increased Cathepsin B. These data support the potential need to enhance CD function in order to attenuate α-synuclein accumulation as a therapeutic strategy against development of synucleinopathy.

Qiao S, Tao S, Rojo de la Vega M, et al.
The antimalarial amodiaquine causes autophagic-lysosomal and proliferative blockade sensitizing human melanoma cells to starvation- and chemotherapy-induced cell death.
Autophagy. 2013; 9(12):2087-102 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
Pharmacological inhibition of autophagic-lysosomal function has recently emerged as a promising strategy for chemotherapeutic intervention targeting cancer cells. Repurposing approved and abandoned non-oncological drugs is an alternative approach to the identification and development of anticancer therapeutics, and antimalarials that target autophagic-lysosomal functions have recently attracted considerable attention as candidates for oncological repurposing. Since cumulative research suggests that dependence on autophagy represents a specific vulnerability of malignant melanoma cells, we screened a focused compound library of antimalarials for antimelanoma activity. Here we report for the first time that amodiaquine (AQ), a clinical 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial with unexplored cancer-directed chemotherapeutic potential, causes autophagic-lysosomal and proliferative blockade in melanoma cells that surpasses that of its parent compound chloroquine. Monitoring an established set of protein markers (LAMP1, LC3-II, SQSTM1) and cell ultrastructural changes detected by electron microscopy, we observed that AQ treatment caused autophagic-lysosomal blockade in malignant A375 melanoma cells, a finding substantiated by detection of rapid inactivation of lysosomal cathepsins (CTSB, CTSL, CTSD). AQ-treatment was associated with early induction of energy crisis (ATP depletion) and sensitized melanoma cells to either starvation- or chemotherapeutic agent-induced cell death. AQ displayed potent antiproliferative effects, and gene expression array analysis revealed changes at the mRNA (CDKN1A, E2F1) and protein level (TP53, CDKN1A, CCND1, phospho-RB1 [Ser 780]/[Ser 807/811], E2F1) consistent with the observed proliferative blockade in S-phase. Taken together, our data suggest that the clinical antimalarial AQ is a promising candidate for repurposing efforts that aim at targeting autophagic-lysosomal function and proliferative control in malignant melanoma cells.

Bengsch F, Buck A, Günther SC, et al.
Cell type-dependent pathogenic functions of overexpressed human cathepsin B in murine breast cancer progression.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(36):4474-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
The cysteine protease cathepsin B (CTSB) is frequently overexpressed in human breast cancer and correlated with a poor prognosis. Genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of CTSB attenuates tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in mouse models of human cancers. CTSB is expressed in both cancer cells and cells of the tumor stroma, in particular in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). In order to evaluate the impact of tumor- or stromal cell-derived CTSB on Polyoma Middle T (PyMT)-induced breast cancer progression, we used in vivo and in vitro approaches to induce human CTSB overexpression in PyMT cancer cells or stromal cells alone or in combination. Orthotopic transplantation experiments revealed that CTSB overexpression in cancer cells rather than in the stroma affects PyMT tumor progression. In 3D cultures, primary PyMT tumor cells showed higher extracellular matrix proteolysis and enhanced collective cell invasion when CTSB was overexpressed and proteolytically active. Coculture of PyMT cells with bone marrow-derived macrophages induced a TAM-like macrophage phenotype in vitro, and the presence of such M2-polarized macrophages in 3D cultures enhanced sprouting of tumor spheroids. We employed a doxycycline (DOX)-inducible CTSB expression system to selectively overexpress human CTSB either in cancer cells or in macrophages in 3D cocultures. Tumor spheroid invasiveness was only enhanced when CTSB was overexpressed in cancer cells, whereas CTSB expression in macrophages alone did not further promote invasiveness of tumor spheroids. We conclude that CTSB overexpression in the PyMT mouse model promotes tumor progression not by a stromal effect, but by a direct, cancer cell-inherent mode of action: CTSB overexpression renders the PyMT cancers more invasive by increasing proteolytic extracellular matrix protein degradation fostering collective cell invasion into adjacent tissue.

Ruffell B, Affara NI, Cottone L, et al.
Cathepsin C is a tissue-specific regulator of squamous carcinogenesis.
Genes Dev. 2013; 27(19):2086-98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
Serine and cysteine cathepsin (Cts) proteases are an important class of intracellular and pericellular enzymes mediating multiple aspects of tumor development. Emblematic of these is CtsB, reported to play functionally significant roles during pancreatic islet and mammary carcinogenesis. CtsC, on the other hand, while up-regulated during pancreatic islet carcinogenesis, lacks functional significance in mediating neoplastic progression in that organ. Given that protein expression and enzymatic activity of both CtsB and CtsC are increased in numerous tumors, we sought to understand how tissue specificity might factor into their functional significance. Thus, whereas others have reported that CtsB regulates metastasis of mammary carcinomas, we found that development of squamous carcinomas occurs independently of CtsB. In contrast to these findings, our studies found no significant role for CtsC during mammary carcinogenesis but revealed squamous carcinogenesis to be functionally dependent on CtsC. In this context, dermal/stromal fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived cells expressed increased levels of enzymatically active CtsC that regulated the complexity of infiltrating immune cells in neoplastic skin, development of angiogenic vasculature, and overt squamous cell carcinoma growth. These studies highlight the important contribution of tissue/microenvironment context to solid tumor development and indicate that tissue specificity defines functional significance for these two members of the cysteine protease family.

Yang J, Du X
Genomic and molecular aberrations in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and their roles in personalized target therapy.
Surg Oncol. 2013; 22(3):e53-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are malignant tumors with a high rate of local recurrence and a significant tendency to metastasize. Its dismal outcome points to the urgent need to establish better therapeutic strategies for patients harboring MPNSTs. The investigations of genomic and molecular aberrations in MPNSTs which detect many chromosomal aberrations, pathway abnormalities, and specific molecular aberrant events would supply multiple potential therapy targets and contribute to achievement of personalized medicine. The involved genes in the significant gains aberrations include BIRC5, CCNE2, DAB2, DDX15, EGFR, DAB2, MSH2, CDK6, HGF, ITGB4, KCNK12, LAMA3, LOXL2, MET, and PDGFRA. The involved genes in the significant deletion aberrations include CDH1, GLTSCR2, EGR1, CTSB, GATA3, SULT2A1, GLTSCR2, HMMR/RHAMM, LICAM2, MMP13, p16/INK4a, RASSF2, NM-23H1, and TP53. These genetic aberrations involve in several important signaling pathways such as TFF, EGFR, ARF, IGF1R signaling pathways. The genomic and molecular aberrations of EGFR, IGF1R, SOX9, EYA4, TOP2A, ETV4, and BIRC5 exhibit great promise as personalized therapeutic targets for MPNST patients.

Liu C, Ma J, Chang CJ, Zhou X
FusionQ: a novel approach for gene fusion detection and quantification from paired-end RNA-Seq.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2013; 14:193 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene fusions, which result from abnormal chromosome rearrangements, are a pathogenic factor in cancer development. The emerging RNA-Seq technology enables us to detect gene fusions and profile their features.
RESULTS: In this paper, we proposed a novel fusion detection tool, FusionQ, based on paired-end RNA-Seq data. This tool can detect gene fusions, construct the structures of chimerical transcripts, and estimate their abundances. To confirm the read alignment on both sides of a fusion point, we employed a new approach, "residual sequence extension", which extended the short segments of the reads by aggregating their overlapping reads. We also proposed a list of filters to control the false-positive rate. In addition, we estimated fusion abundance using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm with sparse optimization, and further adopted it to improve the detection accuracy of the fusion transcripts. Simulation was performed by FusionQ and another two stated-of-art fusion detection tools. FusionQ exceeded the other two in both sensitivity and specificity, especially in low coverage fusion detection. Using paired-end RNA-Seq data from breast cancer cell lines, FusionQ detected both the previously reported and new fusions. FusionQ reported the structures of these fusions and provided their expressions. Some highly expressed fusion genes detected by FusionQ are important biomarkers in breast cancer. The performances of FusionQ on cancel line data still showed better specificity and sensitivity in the comparison with another two tools.
CONCLUSIONS: FusionQ is a novel tool for fusion detection and quantification based on RNA-Seq data. It has both good specificity and sensitivity performance. FusionQ is free and available at http://www.wakehealth.edu/CTSB/Software/Software.htm.

Yang Y, Li H, Hou S, et al.
The noncoding RNA expression profile and the effect of lncRNA AK126698 on cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer cell.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e65309 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer is limited by the acquired drug resistance. Identification the RNAs related to the cisplatin resistance may help to improve clinical response rates.
METHODS: Microarray expression profiling of mRNAs, lncRNA and miRNA was undertaken in A549 cells and cisplatin resistant A549/CDDP cells. Differentially expressed mRNAs, lncRNAs and miRNAs, verified by realtime RT-PCR, were subjected to pathway analysis. Expression of NKD2 and β-catenin was assessed by realtime RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The effect of lncRNA AK126698 on cisplatin induced apoptosis was investigated by annexin-V/PI flow cytometry.
RESULTS: In total, 1471 mRNAs, 1380 lncRNAs and 25 miRNAs differentially expressed in A549/CDDP and A549 cells. Among them, 8 mRNAs, 8 lncRNAs and 5 miRNAs differentially expressed in gene chip analysis were validated. High-enrichment pathway analysis identified that some classical pathways participated in proliferation, differentiation, avoidance of apoptosis, and drug metabolism were differently expressed in these cells lines. Gene co-expression network identified many genes like FN1, CTSB, EGFR, and NKD2; lncRNAs including BX648420, ENST00000366408, and AK126698; and miRNAs such as miR-26a and let-7i potentially played a key role in cisplatin resistance. Among which, the canonical Wnt pathway was investigated because it was demonstrated to be targeted by both lncRNAs and miRNAs including lncRNA AK126698. Knockdown lncRNA AK126698 not only greatly decreased NKD2 which can negatively regulate Wnt/β-catenin signaling but also increased the accumulation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, and significantly depressed apoptosis rate induced by cisplatin in A549 cells.
CONCLUSION: Cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer cells may relate to the changes in noncoding RNAs. Among these, AK126698 appears to confer cisplatin resistance by targeting the Wnt pathway.

Hadj Khodabakhshi A, Fejes AP, Birol I, Jones SJ
Identifying cancer mutation targets across thousands of samples: MuteProc, a high throughput mutation analysis pipeline.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2013; 14:167 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, bioinformatics tools have matured enough to reliably perform sophisticated primary data analysis on Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) data, such as mapping, assemblies and variant calling, however, there is still a dire need for improvements in the higher level analysis such as NGS data organization, analysis of mutation patterns and Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS).
RESULTS: We present a high throughput pipeline for identifying cancer mutation targets, capable of processing billions of variations across thousands of samples. This pipeline is coupled with our Human Variation Database to provide more complex down stream analysis on the variations hosted in the database. Most notably, these analysis include finding significantly mutated regions across multiple genomes and regions with mutational preferences within certain types of cancers. The results of the analysis is presented in HTML summary reports that incorporate gene annotations from various resources for the reported regions.
CONCLUSION: MuteProc is available for download through the Vancouver Short Read Analysis Package on Sourceforge: http://vancouvershortr.sourceforge.net. Instructions for use and a tutorial are provided on the accompanying wiki pages at https://sourceforge.net/apps/mediawiki/vancouvershortr/index.php?title=Pipeline_introduction.

Bao W, Fan Q, Luo X, et al.
Silencing of Cathepsin B suppresses the proliferation and invasion of endometrial cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(2):723-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular mechanism involved in the metastasis of endometrial cancer (EC) remains unclear. The lysosomal cysteine protease Cathepsin B has been implicated in the progression of various human tumors. In the present study, we assessed the expression of Cathepsin B and its functions in EC. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine Cathepsin B expression in 76 paraffin-embedded endometrial tumor tissues. Lentiviral packing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was transfected into HEC-1A cells to build a stable Cathepsin B knockdown cell line. The cellular levels of Cathepsin B mRNA and protein were detected by real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. The functions of Cathepsin B in EC cells were measured by MTT, migration and invasion assays. In additon, tumorigenicity assays were established in nude mice to study tumor growth in vivo. The results of our study showed that Cathepsin B was overexpressed in EC tissues compared with normal endometrium and endometrial atypical hyperplasia. Depletion of Cathepsin B in vitro inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Tumor formation assays confirmed that suppression of Cathepsin B inhibited the proliferation potential of HEC-1A cells in vivo, demonstrated by lower proliferation rates. These results suggest that Cathepsin B may act as an oncogene in EC, with the potential to provide a new therapeutic target for treating endometrial malignancy.

Gopinath S, Malla R, Alapati K, et al.
Cathepsin B and uPAR regulate self-renewal of glioma-initiating cells through GLI-regulated Sox2 and Bmi1 expression.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(3):550-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
Cancer-initiating cells comprise a heterogeneous population of undifferentiated cells with the capacity for self-renewal and high proliferative potential. We investigated the role of uPAR and cathepsin B in the maintenance of stem cell nature in glioma-initiating cells (GICs). Simultaneous knockdown of uPAR and cathepsin B significantly reduced the expression of CD133, Nestin, Sox2 and Bmi1 at the protein level and GLI1 and GLI2 at the messenger RNA level. Also, knockdown of uPAR and cathepsin B resulted in a reduction in the number of GICs as well as sphere size. These changes are mediated by Sox2 and Bmi1, downstream of hedgehog signaling. Addition of cyclopamine reduced the expression of Sox2 and Bmi1 along with GLI1 and GLI2 expression, induced differentiation and reduced subsphere formation of GICs thereby indicating that hedgehog signaling acts upstream of Sox2 and Bmi1. Further confirmation was obtained from increased luciferase expression under the control of a GLI-bound Sox2 and Bmi1 luciferase promoter. Simultaneous knockdown of uPAR and cathepsin B also reduced the expression of Nestin Sox2 and Bmi1 in vivo. Thus, our study highlights the importance of uPAR and cathepsin B in the regulation of malignant stem cell self-renewal through hedgehog components, Bmi1 and Sox2.

Venkataraman S, Birks DK, Balakrishnan I, et al.
MicroRNA 218 acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting multiple cancer phenotype-associated genes in medulloblastoma.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(3):1918-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
Aberrant expression of microRNAs has been implicated in many cancers. We recently demonstrated differential expression of several microRNAs in medulloblastoma. In this study, the regulation and function of microRNA 218 (miR-218), which is significantly underexpressed in medulloblastoma, was evaluated. Re-expression of miR-218 resulted in a significant decrease in medulloblastoma cell growth, cell colony formation, cell migration, invasion, and tumor sphere size. We used C17.2 neural stem cells as a model to show that increased miR-218 expression results in increased cell differentiation and also decreased malignant transformation when transfected with the oncogene REST. These results suggest that miR-218 acts as a tumor suppressor in medulloblastoma. MicroRNAs function by down-regulating translation of target mRNAs. Targets are determined by imperfect base pairing of the microRNA to the 3'-UTR of the mRNA. To comprehensively identify actual miR-218 targets, medulloblastoma cells overexpressing miR-218 and control cells were subjected to high throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation, a technique that identifies the mRNAs bound to the RNA-induced silencing complex component protein Argonaute 2. High throughput sequencing of mRNAs identified 618 genes as targets of miR-218 and included both previously validated targets and many targets not predicted computationally. Additional work further confirmed CDK6, RICTOR, and CTSB (cathepsin B) as targets of miR-218 and examined the functional role of one of these targets, CDK6, in medulloblastoma.

Yin M, Soikkeli J, Jahkola T, et al.
TGF-β signaling, activated stromal fibroblasts, and cysteine cathepsins B and L drive the invasive growth of human melanoma cells.
Am J Pathol. 2012; 181(6):2202-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence indicates that interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells are important for the development/progression of many cancers. Herein, we found that the invasive growth of melanoma cells in three-dimensional-Matrigel/collagen-I matrices is dramatically increased on their co-culture with embryonic or adult skin fibroblasts. Studies with fluorescent-labeled cells revealed that the melanoma cells first activate the fibroblasts, which then take the lead in invasion. To identify the physiologically relevant invasion-related proteases involved, we performed genome-wide microarray analyses of invasive human melanomas and benign nevi; we found up-regulation of cysteine cathepsins B and L, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and -9, and urokinase- and tissue-type plasminogen activators. The mRNA levels of cathepsins B/L and plasminogen activators, but not MMPs, correlated with metastasis. The invasiveness/growth of the melanoma cells with fibroblasts was inhibited by cell membrane-permeable inhibitors of cathepsins B/L, but not by wide-spectrum inhibitors of MMPs. The IHC analysis of primary melanomas and benign nevi revealed cathepsin B to be predominantly expressed by melanoma cells and cathepsin L to be predominantly expressed by the tumor-associated fibroblasts surrounding the invading melanoma cells. Finally, cathepsin B regulated TGF-β production/signaling, which was required for the activation of fibroblasts and their promotion of the invasive growth of melanoma cells. These data provide a basis for testing inhibitors of TGF-β signaling and cathepsins B/L in the therapy of invasive/metastatic melanomas.

Goussetis DJ, Gounaris E, Wu EJ, et al.
Autophagic degradation of the BCR-ABL oncoprotein and generation of antileukemic responses by arsenic trioxide.
Blood. 2012; 120(17):3555-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
We provide evidence that arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) targets the BCR-ABL oncoprotein via a novel mechanism involving p62/SQSTM1-mediated localization of the oncoprotein to the autolysosomes and subsequent degradation mediated by the protease cathepsin B. Our studies demonstrate that inhibitors of autophagy or cathepsin B activity and/or molecular targeting of p62/SQSTM1, Atg7, or cathepsin B result in partial reversal of the suppressive effects of AS(2)O(3) on BCR-ABL expressing leukemic progenitors, including primitive leukemic precursors from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. Altogether, these findings indicate that autophagic degradation of BCR-ABL is critical for the induction of the antileukemic effects of As(2)O(3) and raise the potential for future therapeutic approaches to target BCR-ABL expressing cells by modulating elements of the autophagic machinery to promote BCR-ABL degradation.

Chen MK, Su SC, Lin CW, et al.
Cathepsin B SNPs elevate the pathological development of oral cancer and raise the susceptibility to carcinogen-mediated oral cancer.
Hum Genet. 2012; 131(12):1861-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral cancer is causally associated with environmental carcinogens, and the susceptibility to carcinogen-mediated tumorigenesis is proposed to be genotype-dependent. Cathepsin B (CTSB) is a lysosomal cysteine protease and may serve as a candidate biomarker of oral cancer. The current study aimed to explore the influences of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CTSB gene, combined with environmental carcinogens on the risk and clinicopathological development of oral cancer. Three SNPs of CTSB, CTSB C76G (rs12338), CTSB A4383C (rs13332), and CTSB A8422G (rs8898), from 444 male patients with oral cancer and 426 control participants (males not diagnosed with cancer) in Taiwan were analyzed. These three CTSB SNPs all exhibited insignificant (P > 0.05) effects on the risk of oral cancer. However, the risk for developing the poor clinical stage of moderately or poorly differentiated cells was significantly (P < 0.001) increased to 3.325-fold in patients with oral cancer carrying the polymorphic genotype of rs8898 compared to patients with the ancestral genotype. Additionally, while considering the exposure of environmental carcinogens, the presence of these three CTSB SNPs, combined with betel quid chewing [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 36.570, 21.772, and 43.962 for rs12338, rs13332, and rs8898, respectively] and/or tobacco use (AOR was 3.794, and 8.972 for rs12338 and rs13332, respectively), robustly elevated the susceptibility to oral cancer. These results suggest that the genetic polymorphism of CTSB A8422G (rs8898) was associated with a high risk for the clinicopathological development of oral cancer and CTSB gene polymorphisms may increase the susceptibility to environmental carcinogens-mediated oral cancer.

Capparelli C, Guido C, Whitaker-Menezes D, et al.
Autophagy and senescence in cancer-associated fibroblasts metabolically supports tumor growth and metastasis via glycolysis and ketone production.
Cell Cycle. 2012; 11(12):2285-302 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
Senescent fibroblasts are known to promote tumor growth. However, the exact mechanism remains largely unknown. An important clue comes from recent studies linking autophagy with the onset of senescence. Thus, autophagy and senescence may be part of the same physiological process, known as the autophagy-senescence transition (AST). To test this hypothesis, human fibroblasts immortalized with telomerase (hTERT-BJ1) were stably transfected with autophagy genes (BNIP3, CTSB or ATG16L1). Their overexpression was sufficient to induce a constitutive autophagic phenotype, with features of mitophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction and a shift toward aerobic glycolysis, resulting in L-lactate and ketone body production. Autophagic fibroblasts also showed features of senescence, with increased p21(WAF1/CIP1), a CDK inhibitor, cellular hypertrophy and increased β-galactosidase activity. Thus, we genetically validated the existence of the autophagy-senescence transition. Importantly, autophagic-senescent fibroblasts promoted tumor growth and metastasis, when co-injected with human breast cancer cells, independently of angiogenesis. Autophagic-senescent fibroblasts stimulated mitochondrial metabolism in adjacent cancer cells, when the two cell types were co-cultured, as visualized by MitoTracker staining. In particular, autophagic ATG16L1 fibroblasts, which produced large amounts of ketone bodies (3-hydroxy-butyrate), had the strongest effects and promoted metastasis by up to 11-fold. Conversely, expression of ATG16L1 in epithelial cancer cells inhibited tumor growth, indicating that the effects of autophagy are compartment-specific. Thus, autophagic-senescent fibroblasts metabolically promote tumor growth and metastasis, by paracrine production of high-energy mitochondrial fuels. Our current studies provide genetic support for the importance of "two-compartment tumor metabolism" in driving tumor growth and metastasis via a simple energy transfer mechanism. Finally, β-galactosidase, a known lysosomal enzyme and biomarker of senescence, was localized to the tumor stroma in human breast cancer tissues, providing in vivo support for our hypothesis. Bioinformatic analysis of genome-wide transcriptional profiles from tumor stroma, isolated from human breast cancers, also validated the onset of an autophagy-senescence transition. Taken together, these studies establish a new functional link between host aging, autophagy, the tumor microenvironment and cancer metabolism.

Alapati K, Gopinath S, Malla RR, et al.
uPAR and cathepsin B knockdown inhibits radiation-induced PKC integrated integrin signaling to the cytoskeleton of glioma-initiating cells.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 41(2):599-610 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
Despite advances in radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic techniques and aggressive surgical resection, the prognosis of glioblastoma patients is dismal. Accumulation of evidence indicates that some cancer cells survive even the most aggressive treatments, and these surviving cells, which are resistant to therapy and are perhaps essential for the malignancy, may be cancer stem cells. The CD133 surface marker is commonly used to isolate these extremely resistant glioma-initiating cells (GICs). In the present study, GICs which tested positive for the CD133 marker (CD133+) were isolated from both the established U251 cell line and the 5310 xenograft glioma cell line to study the events related to the molecular pathogenesis of these cells. Simultaneous down-regulation of uPAR and cathepsin B by shRNA (pUC) treatment caused the disruption of radiation-induced complex formation of pPKC θ/δ, integrin β1 and PKC ζ, integrin β1 in glioma cells. Further, pUC treatment inhibited PKC/integrin signaling via FAK by causing disassociation of FAK and the cytoskeletal molecules vinculin and α-actinin. Also, we observed the inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. This inhibition was mediated by pUC and directed a negative feedback mechanism over the FAK signaling molecules, which led to an extensive reduction in the signal for cytoskeletal organization generating migratory arrest. Altogether, it can be hypothesized that knockdown of uPAR and cathepsin B using shRNA is an effective strategy for controlling highly invasive glioma cells and extremely resistant glioma-initiating cells.

Arancio W
A bioinformatics analysis of Lamin-A regulatory network: a perspective on epigenetic involvement in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.
Rejuvenation Res. 2012; 15(2):123-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare human genetic disease that leads to premature aging. HGPS is caused by mutation in the Lamin-A (LMNA) gene that leads, in affected young individuals, to the accumulation of the progerin protein, usually present only in aging differentiated cells. Bioinformatics analyses of the network of interactions of the LMNA gene and transcripts are presented. The LMNA gene network has been analyzed using the BioGRID database (http://thebiogrid.org/) and related analysis tools such as Osprey (http://biodata.mshri.on.ca/osprey/servlet/Index) and GeneMANIA ( http://genemania.org/). The network of interaction of LMNA transcripts has been further analyzed following the competing endogenous (ceRNA) hypotheses (RNA cross-talk via microRNAs [miRNAs]) and using the miRWalk database and tools (www.ma.uni-heidelberg.de/apps/zmf/mirwalk/). These analyses suggest particular relevance of epigenetic modifiers (via acetylase complexes and specifically HTATIP histone acetylase) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodelers (via pBAF, BAF, and SWI/SNF complexes).

Rafn B, Nielsen CF, Andersen SH, et al.
ErbB2-driven breast cancer cell invasion depends on a complex signaling network activating myeloid zinc finger-1-dependent cathepsin B expression.
Mol Cell. 2012; 45(6):764-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase activation in breast cancer is strongly linked to an invasive disease. The molecular basis of ErbB2-driven invasion is largely unknown. We show that cysteine cathepsins B and L are elevated in ErbB2 positive primary human breast cancer and function as effectors of ErbB2-induced invasion in vitro. We identify Cdc42-binding protein kinase beta, extracellular regulated kinase 2, p21-activated protein kinase 4, and protein kinase C alpha as essential mediators of ErbB2-induced cysteine cathepsin expression and breast cancer cell invasiveness. The identified signaling network activates the transcription of cathepsin B gene (CTSB) via myeloid zinc finger-1 transcription factor that binds to an ErbB2-responsive enhancer element in the first intron of CTSB. This work provides a model system for ErbB2-induced breast cancer cell invasiveness, reveals a signaling network that is crucial for invasion in vitro, and defines a specific role and targets for the identified serine-threonine kinases.

Holthoewer D, Endres K, Schuck F, et al.
Acitretin, an enhancer of alpha-secretase expression, crosses the blood-brain barrier and is not eliminated by P-glycoprotein.
Neurodegener Dis. 2012; 10(1-4):224-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) has been demonstrated to act as the main physiological α-secretase. Enzymatic activity of the α-secretase on the one hand prevents the formation of toxic Aβ peptides and on the other hand promotes the secretion of a neurotrophic and neuroprotective amyloid precursor protein fragment (APPs-α) by cleaving the amyloid precursor protein within its Aβ sequence. Enhancement of ADAM10's gene expression may therefore present a valuable therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), where Aβ peptides are severely involved in the pathogenesis.
OBJECTIVE: In cell culture and in a transgenic mouse model of AD, retinoids led to increased ADAM10 expression and activity. We therefore endeavor to develop a clinical application of synthetic retinoids such as acitretin in AD.
METHODS: The effect of synthetic retinoids on ADAM10 gene expression was analyzed by reporter gene assays in human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Penetrance of acitretin into the murine brain was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) double-knockout mice with a deficiency in both isoforms, mdr1a and 1b, were used to analyze a possible role of P-gp-dependent efflux on acitretin distribution.
RESULTS: Acitretin and tamibarotene are both potent activators of ADAM10 promoter activity. Acitretin crosses the murine blood-brain barrier and its level in the mouse brain is not reduced by P-gp.
CONCLUSION: Synthetic retinoids and especially acitretin seem to be ideal candidates to establish an ADAM10-based AD treatment, and therefore have already entered first clinical trials.

Chan KH, Chandramathi S, Suresh K, et al.
Effects of symptomatic and asymptomatic isolates of Blastocystis hominis on colorectal cancer cell line, HCT116.
Parasitol Res. 2012; 110(6):2475-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
The pathogenesis of Blastocystis hominis in human hosts has always been a matter of debate as it is present in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. A recent report showed that B. hominis isolated from an asymptomatic individual could facilitate the proliferation and growth of existing cancer cells while having the potential to downregulate the host immune response. The present study investigated the differences between the effects of symptomatic and asymptomatic derived solubilized antigen of B. hominis (Blasto-Ag) on the cell viability and proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. Besides that, the gene expression of cytokine and nuclear transcriptional factors in response to the symptomatic and asymptomatic B. hominis antigen in HCT116 was also compared. In the current study, an increase in cell proliferation was observed in HCT116 cells which led to the speculation that B. hominis infection could facilitate the growth of colorectal cancer cells. In addition, a more significant upregulation of Th2 cytokines observed in HCT116 may lead to the postulation that symptomatic Blasto-Ag may have the potential in weakening the cellular immune response, allowing the progression of existing tumor cells. The upregulation of nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) was observed in HCT116 exposed to symptomatic Blasto-Ag, while asymptomatic Blasto-Ag exhibited an insignificant effect on NF-κB gene expression in HCT116. HCT116 cells exposed to symptomatic and asymptomatic Blasto-Ag caused a significant upregulation of CTSB which lead to the postulation that the Blasto-Ag may enhance the invasive and metastasis properties of colorectal cancer. In conclusion, antigen isolated from a symptomatic individual is more pathogenic as compared to asymptomatic isolates as it caused a more extensive inflammatory reaction as well as more enhanced proliferation of cancer cells.

Gutiérrez VF, Marcos CÁ, Llorente JL, et al.
Genetic profile of second primary tumors and recurrences in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Head Neck. 2012; 34(6):830-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Second primary tumors and recurrences are an important problem in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic changes in tumor samples to improve knowledge of tumor progression.
METHODS: Copy number changes of 37 genes were analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in 36 primary tumors and their corresponding 21 second primary tumors and 15 recurrences.
RESULTS: CCND1 and EMS1 amplifications and gain of BCL2L1 were the most common genetic alterations in the primary tumor, second primary tumor, and recurrence samples. Gains of ERBB2 and PTPN1 were associated with recurrences.
CONCLUSION: Specific genetic profiles for each group have been found. Similarities between primary tumor and second primary tumor and dissimilarity between primary tumor and recurrence suggest that clinicopathological criteria do not always accurately differentiate these entities. Genetic profiling may aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of these difficult cases.

Wu D, Wang H, Li Z, et al.
Cathepsin B may be a potential biomarker in cervical cancer.
Histol Histopathol. 2012; 27(1):79-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cathepsin B is a protease which is able to digest extracellular matrix. It is currently unknown whether cathepsin B plays a role in cervical cancer development and progression. With Q-PCR and Western blotting, we observed cathepsin B expression in cervical cancer cell line Hela cells. After the gene was silenced in HeLa cells with SiRNA, we confirmed that cathepsin B expressions at both mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced. At the same time, cell proliferation, migration and invasion of the HeLa cells were significantly decreased compared to control cells. In addition, a significant regression of tumor growth in nude mice which received the siRNA targeted cathepsin B HeLa cells was observed. We further studied the expression of cathepsin B in a series of 169 clinical samples, including 56 invasive cervical squamous carcinoma, 85 CINs and 28 normal cervical tissues. It was found that cathepsin B expression in invasive carcinomas was significantly higher than that in the CINs and normal tissues (P<0.01). In addition, cathepsin B expression in the invasive carcinomas was positively correlated to tumor invasion depth and lymphatic metastasis. Our results indicate that cathepsin B may be a potential biomarker for further strategical clinical studies in cervical cancer.

Ponnala S, Chetty C, Veeravalli KK, et al.
Metabolic remodeling precedes mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in human glioma xenograft cells.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 40(2):509-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
Glioma cancer cells adapt to changing microenvironment and shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis for their metabolic needs irrespective of oxygen availability. In the present study, we show that silencing MMP-9 in combination with uPAR/cathepsin B switch the glycolytic metabolism of glioma cells to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to predispose glioma cells to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. shRNA for MMP-9 and uPAR (pMU) as well as shRNA for MMP-9 and cathepsin B (pMC) activated complexes of mitochondria involved in OXPHOS and inhibited glycolytic hexokinase expression. The decreased interaction of hexokinase 2 with mitochondria in the treated cells indicated the inhibition of glycolysis activation. Overexpression of Akt reversed the pMU- and pMC-mediated OXPHOS to glycolysis switch. The OXPHOS un-coupler oligomycin A altered the expression levels of the Bcl-2 family of proteins; treatment with pMU or pMC reversed this effect and induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. In addition, our results show changes in mitochondrial pore transition to release cytochrome c due to changes in the VDAC-Bcl-XL and BAX-BAK interaction with pMU and pMC treatments. Taken together, our results suggest that pMU and pMC treatments switch glioma cells from the glycolytic to the OXPHOS pathway through an inhibitory effect on Akt, ROS induction and an increase of cytosolic cytochrome c accumulation. These results demonstrate the potential of pMU and pMC as therapeutic candidates for the treatment of glioma.

Veeravalli KK, Ponnala S, Chetty C, et al.
Integrin α9β1-mediated cell migration in glioblastoma via SSAT and Kir4.2 potassium channel pathway.
Cell Signal. 2012; 24(1):272-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
The α9β1 integrin accelerates cell migration through binding of the α9 cytoplasmic domain to SSAT, which catalyzes the catabolism of higher order polyamines, spermidine and spermine, to the lower order polyamine, putrescine. SSAT levels were downregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels by shRNA-mediated simultaneous knockdown of MMP-9 and uPAR/cathepsin B. In addition, we noted a prominent reduction in the expression of SSAT with MMP-9 and uPAR/cathepsin B knockdown in the tumor regions of 5310 injected nude mice brains. Further, SSAT knockdown in glioma xenograft cells significantly reduced their migration potential. Interestingly, MMP-9, uPAR and cathepsin B overexpression in these xenograft cells significantly elevated SSAT mRNA and protein levels. The migratory potential of MMP-9/uPAR/cathepsin B-overexpressed 4910 and 5310 cells was not affected by either glybenclamide (Kir 6.x inhibitor) or tertiapin-Q (Kir 1.1 and 3.x inhibitor) but instead was significantly inhibited by either barium or Kir4.2 siRNA treatments. Co-localization of α9 integrin with Kir4.2 was observed in both 4910 and 5310 xenograft cells. However, MMP-9 and uPAR/cathepsin B knockdown in these cells prominently reduced the co-localization of α9 with Kir4.2. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that α9β1 integrin-mediated cell migration utilizes SSAT and the Kir4.2 potassium channel pathway, and inhibition of the migratory potential of these glioma xenograft cells by simultaneous knockdown of MMP-9 and uPAR/cathepsin B could be attributed to the reduced SSAT levels and co-localization of α9 integrin with Kir4.2 inward rectifier potassium channels.

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