Gene Summary

Gene:CTCFL; CCCTC-binding factor like
Aliases: CT27, BORIS, CTCF-T, HMGB1L1, dJ579F20.2
Summary:CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), an 11-zinc-finger factor involved in gene regulation, utilizes different zinc fingers to bind varying DNA target sites. CTCF forms methylation-sensitive insulators that regulate X-chromosome inactivation. This gene is a paralog of CTCF and appears to be expressed primarily in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes, unlike CTCF which is expressed primarily in the nucleus of somatic cells. CTCF and the protein encoded by this gene are normally expressed in a mutually exclusive pattern that correlates with resetting of methylation marks during male germ cell differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcriptional repressor CTCFL
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (18)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 20
  • Transcription Factors
  • Base Sequence
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Tumor Antigens
  • Protein Binding
  • Histones
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Sulfites
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cell Line
  • Retinoic Acid
  • CpG Islands
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Transketolase
  • Young Adult
  • DNA Methylation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • Transcription Initiation Site
  • Transcriptome
  • Epigenetics
  • Testis
  • p53 Protein
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • CCCTC-Binding Factor
  • Lung Cancer
  • Binding Sites
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Uniparental Disomy
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CTCFL (cancer-related)

Reizis B
Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells: Development, Regulation, and Function.
Immunity. 2019; 50(1):37-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/01/2020 Related Publications
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique sentinel cell type that can detect pathogen-derived nucleic acids and respond with rapid and massive production of type I interferon. This review summarizes our current understanding of pDC biology, including transcriptional regulation, heterogeneity, role in antiviral immune responses, and involvement in immune pathology, particularly in autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiency, and cancer. We also highlight the remaining gaps in our knowledge and important questions for the field, such as the molecular basis of unique interferon-producing capacity of pDCs. A better understanding of cell type-specific positive and negative control of pDC function should pave the way for translational applications focused on this immune cell type.

Gerashchenko GV, Grygoruk OV, Kononenko OA, et al.
Expression pattern of genes associated with tumor microenvironment in prostate cancer.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(4):315-322 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To assess relative expression (RE) levels of CAF-, TAM-specific, immune defense-associated genes in prostate tumors and to show correlation of RE with clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics, with the aim to define clinically significant specific alterations in a gene expression pattern.
METHODS: RE of 23 genes was analyzed by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 37 freshly frozen samples of prostate cancer tissues of a different Gleason score (GS) and at various tumor stages, compared with RE in 37 paired conventionally normal prostate tissue (CNT) samples and 20 samples of prostate adenomas.
RESULTS: Differences in RE were shown for 11 genes out of 23 studied, when tumor samples were compared with corresponding CNTs. 7 genes, namely ACTA2, CXCL14, CTGF, THY1, FAP, CD163, CCL17 were upregulated in tumors. 4 genes, namely CCR4, NOS2A, MSMB, IL1R1 were downregulated in tumors. 14 genes demonstrated different RE in TNA at different stages: CXCL12, CXCL14, CTGF, FAP, HIF1A, THY1, CCL17, CCL22, CCR4, CD68, CD163, NOS2A, CTLA4, IL1R1. RE changes of 9 genes - CXCL12, CXCL14, HIF1A, CCR4, CCL17, NOS2A, CTLA4, IL1R1, IL2RA - were found in tumors with different GS. Moreover, 9 genes showed differences in RE in TNA, dependently on the presence or absence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion and 7 genes showed differences in RE of groups with differential PTEN expression. Significant correlations were calculated between RE of 9 genes in adenocarcinomas and the stage, and GS; also, between RE of 2 genes and the fusion presence; and between RE of 4 genes and PTEN expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Several gene expression patterns were identified that correlated with the GS, stage and molecular characteristics of tumors, i.e. presence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion and alterations in PTEN expression. These expression patterns can be used for molecular profiling of prostate tumors, with the aim to develop personalized medicine approaches. However, the proposed profiling requires a more detailed analysis and a larger cohort of patients with prostate tumor.

Kim TN, Kim WT, Jeong MS, et al.
Short rare minisatellite variant of BORIS-MS2 is related to bladder cancer susceptibility.
Genes Genomics. 2019; 41(2):249-256 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: BORIS/CTCFL, a paralog of CTCF and member of the cancer-testicular antigen family, is abnormally activated in multiple cancers.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between polymorphic variants of the BORIS minisatellite 2 (BORIS-MS2), located within the 5' upstream promoter region of BORIS, and bladder cancer.
METHODS: We used case-control study with 516 controls and 113 bladder cancer patients. To evaluate whether minisatellite variants play a role in BORIS expression, we examined the transcript levels of a reporter gene linked to these minisatellites in cell lines. We also examined BORIS expression in cancerous and non-cancerous bladder tissue.
RESULTS: A statistically significant association was identified between the short rare allele (13-repeat) and bladder cancer incidence (odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.14, 7.74]; P = 0.020). In particular, short rare alleles in the younger group (aged < 65) were associated with statistically significant increase in bladder cancer risk (OR 5.38, CI [1.32, 21.87]; P = 0.01). The BORIS-MS2 region acted as a negative regulator, and the expression level of the luciferase reporter in bladder cancer cells was less effectively inhibited than in normal cells. Furthermore, the expression of BORIS mRNA significantly differed (P < 0.05) between normal and cancerous muscle-invasive bladder cancer tissues, and relationship to clinical parameters was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The short rare allele of BORIS-MS2 could be used to identify bladder cancer risk. BORIS expression levels have been shown to increase with the progression of bladder cancer, could be used as a biomarker for its progression.

Loukinov D
Targeting CTCFL/BORIS for the immunotherapy of cancer.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2018; 67(12):1955-1965 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer vaccines have great potential in the fight against metastatic malignancies. Current anti-tumor immunotherapy is hindered by existing tolerance to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and tumor escape using various mechanisms, highlighting the need for improved targets for immunotherapy. The cancer-testis antigen CTCFL/BORIS was discovered 16 years ago and possesses all features necessary for an ideal TAA. Recently CTCFL/BORIS has received additional attention as a target expressed in cancer stem cells (CSC). These cells drive tumor growth recurrence, metastasis, and treatment resistance. CTCFL/BORIS silencing leads to senescence and death of CSC. Therefore, an immunotherapeutic strategy that targets CTCFL/BORIS may lead to the selective destruction of CSC and potential eradication of metastatic disease. The high immunotherapeutic potential of CTCFL/BORIS antigen was shown in a stringent 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer. Using these highly metastatic, poorly immunogenic carcinoma cells inoculated into T-helper2 prone mice, we showed that DC fed with recombinant CTCFL/BORIS as an immunogen inhibited tumor growth and reduced the number of metastases in distant organs. About 20% of CTCFL/BORIS immunized animals were tumor free. 50% of animals remained metastasis free. Those having metastasis showed at least tenfold fewer metastases compared to controls. In a rat model of breast cancer, we showed that alphavirus-based CTCFL/BORIS immunotherapy was capable of cancer elimination as we were able to cure 50% of animals. Based on the above data, we believe that translation of CTCFL/BORIS-targeting immunotherapeutic strategies to the clinic will provide new avenues for improving survival of breast cancer patients with advanced metastatic disease.

Shain AH, Joseph NM, Yu R, et al.
Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Incremental Disruption of Key Signaling Pathways during Melanoma Evolution.
Cancer Cell. 2018; 34(1):45-55.e4 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/01/2020 Related Publications
We elucidated genomic and transcriptomic changes that accompany the evolution of melanoma from pre-malignant lesions by sequencing DNA and RNA from primary melanomas and their adjacent precursors, as well as matched primary tumors and regional metastases. In total, we analyzed 230 histopathologically distinct areas of melanocytic neoplasia from 82 patients. Somatic alterations sequentially induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation, upregulation of telomerase, modulation of the chromatin landscape, G1/S checkpoint override, ramp-up of MAPK signaling, disruption of the p53 pathway, and activation of the PI3K pathway; no mutations were specifically associated with metastatic progression, as these pathways were perturbed during the evolution of primary melanomas. UV radiation-induced point mutations steadily increased until melanoma invasion, at which point copy-number alterations also became prevalent.

Erickson KE, Rukhlenko OS, Posner RG, et al.
New insights into RAS biology reinvigorate interest in mathematical modeling of RAS signaling.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2019; 54:162-173 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
RAS is the most frequently mutated gene across human cancers, but developing inhibitors of mutant RAS has proven to be challenging. Given the difficulties of targeting RAS directly, drugs that impact the other components of pathways where mutant RAS operates may potentially be effective. However, the system-level features, including different localizations of RAS isoforms, competition between downstream effectors, and interlocking feedback and feed-forward loops, must be understood to fully grasp the opportunities and limitations of inhibiting specific targets. Mathematical modeling can help us discern the system-level impacts of these features in normal and cancer cells. New technologies enable the acquisition of experimental data that will facilitate development of realistic models of oncogenic RAS behavior. In light of the wealth of empirical data accumulated over decades of study and the advancement of experimental methods for gathering new data, modelers now have the opportunity to advance progress toward realization of targeted treatment for mutant RAS-driven cancers.

Singh S, Narayanan SP, Biswas K, et al.
Intragenic DNA methylation and BORIS-mediated cancer-specific splicing contribute to the Warburg effect.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(43):11440-11445 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Aberrant alternative splicing and epigenetic changes are both associated with various cancers, but epigenetic regulation of alternative splicing in cancer is largely unknown. Here we report that the intragenic DNA methylation-mediated binding of Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) at the alternative exon of Pyruvate Kinase (

He J, Huang Y, Liu Z, et al.
Hypomethylation of BORIS is a promising prognostic biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gene. 2017; 629:29-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The brother of the regulator of the imprinted site (BORIS), an 11 zinc finger (ZF) protein, is a paralogue of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), involves in a few crucial events of chromatin functions, complex transcription regulation during spermatogenesis. As a novel tumor oncogene, abnormal expression of BORIS is observed in human hepatocellular carcinoma, however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. In this study, the methylation status of BORIS was tested by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in human HCC cell lines and 43 pairs of tissue specimens. Frequently demethylation of BORIS in HCC was significantly higher than that in the paired adjacent non-tumor tissues (P=0.019), and it was correlated with tumor size (P=0.025) and clinical TNM stage (P=0.035). Patients with hypomethylated BORIS had a shorter disease free survival than those without demethylated BORIS (P=0.006). Further, analyses using Cox regression have indicated that the BORIS demethylation status was an independent risk to the reduced overall survival rate of HCC patients (P=0.035). These findings provide clues to clarify whether the demethylation may lead to activation of the promoter for upregulation expression of BORIS. In conclusions, aberrant BORIS hypomethylation is a promising biomarker for the prognosis of HCC.

Radtke JP, Takhar M, Bonekamp D, et al.
Transcriptome Wide Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-targeted Biopsy and Matching Surgical Specimens from High-risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radical Prostatectomy: The Target Must Be Hit.
Eur Urol Focus. 2018; 4(4):540-546 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The most suspicious lesions on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be representative of final pathology.
OBJECTIVE: We connect imaging with high-precision spatial annotation of biopsies and genomic cancer signatures to compare the genomic signals of the index lesion and biopsy cores of adjacent and far away locations.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Eleven patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer on MRI/transrectal ultrasound-fusion biopsy (Bx) and treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). Five tissue specimens were collected from each patient.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Whole transcriptome RNA-expression was profiled for each sample. Genomic signatures were used to compare signals in MRI invisible versus visible foci using Pearson's correlation and to assess intratumoral heterogeneity using hierarchical clustering.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Ten RP and 27 Bx-samples passed quality control. Gene expression between RP and index Bx, but not adjacent benign samples, was highly correlated. Genomic Gleason grade classifier features measured across the different samples showed concordant expression across Bx and RP tumor samples, while an inverse expression pattern was observed between tumor and benign samples indicating the lack of a strong field-effect. The distribution of low and high Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) samples was 10 and 11, respectively. Genomics of all low PI-RADS samples resembled benign tissue and most high PI-RADS samples resembled cancer tissue. A strong association was observed between PI-RADS version 2 and Decipher as well as the genomic Gleason grade classifier score. Clustering analysis showed that most samples cluster tightly by patient. One patient showed unique tumor biology in index versus secondary lesion suggesting the presence of intrapatient heterogeneity and the utility in profiling multiple foci identified by MRI.
CONCLUSIONS: MRI-targeted Bx-genomics show excellent correlation with RP-genomics and confirm the information captured by PI-RADS. Sampling of the target lesion must be precise as correlation between index and benign lesions was not seen.
PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we tested if targeted prostate sampling using magnetic resonance imaging-fusion biopsy allows to genetically describe index tumors of prostate cancer. We found that imaging genomics correlated well with final prostatectomy provided that the target is hit precisely.

Liu Q, Chen K, Liu Z, et al.
BORIS up-regulates OCT4 via histone methylation to promote cancer stem cell-like properties in human liver cancer cells.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 403:165-174 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence has revealed the importance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in chemoresistance and recurrence. BORIS, a testes-specific CTCF paralog, has been shown to be associated with stemness traits of embryonic cancer cells and epithelial CSCs. We previously reported that BORIS is correlated with the expression of the CSC marker CD90 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These results encourage us to wonder whether BORIS exerts functions on CSC-like traits of human liver cancer cells. Here, we report that BORIS was enriched in HCC tissues. Exogenous overexpression of BORIS promoted CSC-like properties, including self-renewal, chemoresistance, migration and invasion in Huh7 and HCCLM3 cells. Conversely, BORIS knockdown suppressed CSC-like properties in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells and inhibited tumorigenicity in SMMC-7721 cells. Moreover, BORIS alteration did not affect the DNA methylation status of the minimal promoter and exon 1 region of OCT4. However, BORIS overexpression enhanced the amount of BORIS bound on the OCT4 promoter and increased H3K4me2, while reducing H3K27me3; BORIS depletion decreased BORIS and H3K4me2 on the OCT4 promoter, while increasing H3K27me3. These results revealed that BORIS is associated with the CSC-like traits of human liver cancer cells through the epigenetic regulation of OCT4.

Bauer J
The Molecular Revolution in Cutaneous Biology: Era of Cytogenetics and Copy Number Analysis.
J Invest Dermatol. 2017; 137(5):e57-e59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Development of karyotyping techniques in the 1950s sparked groundbreaking reports of chromosomal aberrations in cancer, such as the Philadelphia chromosome in chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1960, followed by a number of others. Spatial resolution of karyotyping is limited and vital tumor cells are required for metaphase preparation. To overcome these limitations, DNA hybridization techniques were developed. In situ hybridization of radioactively or fluorescence labeled RNA probes onto tumor samples allowed the identification of specific genomic regions, translocations and copy number alterations. However, it is only suited for a limited number of candidate genes or regions. Genome-wide copy number analysis was made possible by the development of comparative genomic hybridization. It compares an entire cancer genome to a normal genome by differential fluorescence labeling and hybridization onto normal metaphase chromosomes. Replacing the metaphase chromosomes with arrays of oligonucleotides significantly increased the resolution. Karyotypic analysis of melanomas could demonstrate chromosomal aberrations decades ago. However, only CGH allowed understanding the complex melanoma genomes. Based on mutation analysis and CGH data, Boris Bastian and his group changed our view of melanoma towards a variety of genetically distinct tumors. Recent next generation sequencing allows simultaneous mutation, translocation and copy number analysis, and thereby accelerates melanoma research.

Van Tongelen A, Loriot A, De Smet C
Oncogenic roles of DNA hypomethylation through the activation of cancer-germline genes.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 396:130-137 [PubMed] Related Publications
Global loss of DNA methylation is frequently observed in the genome of human tumors. Although this epigenetic alteration is clearly associated with cancer progression, the way it exerts its pro-tumoral effect remains incompletely understood. A remarkable consequence of DNA hypomethylation in tumors is the aberrant activation of "cancer-germline" genes (also known as "cancer-testis" genes), which comprise a diverse group of germline-specific genes that use DNA methylation as a primary mechanism for repression in normal somatic tissues. Here we review the evidence that such cancer-germline genes contribute to key processes of tumor development. Notably, several cancer-germline genes were found to stimulate oncogenic pathways involved in cell proliferation (SSX, DDX43, MAEL, PIWIL1), angiogenesis (DDX53), immortality (BORIS/CTCFL), and metastasis (CT-GABRA3). Others appear to inhibit tumor suppressor pathways, including those controlling growth inhibition signals (MAGEA11, MAGEB2), apoptosis (MAGEA2, MAGEC2), and genome integrity (HORMAD1, NXF2). Cancer-germline genes were also implicated in the regulation of tumor metabolism (MAGEA3/MAGEA6). Together, our survey substantiates the concept that DNA hypomethylation promotes tumorigenesis via transcriptional activation of oncogenes. Importantly, considering their highly restricted pattern of expression, cancer-germline genes may represent valuable targets for the development of anti-cancer therapies with limited side effects.

Garikapati KR, Patel N, Makani VKK, et al.
Down-regulation of BORIS/CTCFL efficiently regulates cancer stemness and metastasis in MYCN amplified neuroblastoma cell line by modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 484(1):93-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
BORIS/CTCFL is a vital nucleotide binding protein expressed during embryogenesis and gametogenesis. BORIS/CTCFL is the paralogue of transcriptional repressor protein CTCF, which is aberrantly expressed in various malignancies and primarily re-expressed in cancer stem cells (CSCs). The mechanism behind regulation of BORIS in various cancer conditions and tumor metastases is so far not explored in detail. The aim of the study was to understand the influence of BORIS/CTCFL on stemness and metastasis by regulating well-known oncogenes and related signaling pathways. In our study, we have identified a cross-talk between expression of BORIS/CTCFL and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which plays a crucial role in various processes including ontogenesis, embryogenesis and maintenance of stem cell properties. Upon knockdown of BORIS/CTCFL, we observed an upregulation of Mesenchymal to Epithelial transition markers such as E-cad and downregulation of Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition markers such as N-CAD, Vimentin, SNAIL, etc. This transition was accomplished by activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by regulating upstream and downstream Wnt associated proteins including β-catenin, Wnt3a/5a, CD44, MYC etc. We also identified that BMI1, an oncogene belonging to polycomb group expressed positively with levels of BORIS/CTCFL. Our study implicates the role of BORIS/CTCFL in maintenance of stemness and in transition from mesenchymal to epithelial state in MYC amplified neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. Effectively controlling BORIS/CTCFL levels can inhibit disease establishment and hence can be considered as a potent target for cancer therapy.

Zhang Y, Fang M, Song Y, et al.
Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) suppresses apoptosis in colorectal cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:40786 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Identifying oncogenes that promote cancer cell proliferation or survival is critical for treatment of colorectal cancer. The Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) is frequently expressed in most types of cancer, but rarely in normal tissues. Aberrantly expressed BORIS relates to colorectal cancer, but its function in colorectal cancer cells remains unclear. In addition, previous studies indicated the significance of cytoplasm-localized BORIS in cancer cells. However, none of them investigated its function. Herein, we investigated the functions of BORIS in cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and the role of cytoplasm-localized BORIS in colorectal cancer. BORIS expression correlated with colorectal cancer proliferation. BORIS overexpression promoted colorectal cancer cell growth, whereas BORIS knockdown suppressed cell proliferation. Sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was inversely correlated with BORIS expression. These data suggest that BORIS functions as an oncogene in colorectal cancer. BORIS silencing induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis, whereas BORIS supplementation inhibited apoptosis induced by BORIS short interfering RNA (siRNA), hydrogen peroxide (H

Ceribelli M, Hou ZE, Kelly PN, et al.
A Druggable TCF4- and BRD4-Dependent Transcriptional Network Sustains Malignancy in Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 30(5):764-778 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive and largely incurable hematologic malignancy originating from plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Using RNAi screening, we identified the E-box transcription factor TCF4 as a master regulator of the BPDCN oncogenic program. TCF4 served as a faithful diagnostic marker of BPDCN, and its downregulation caused the loss of the BPDCN-specific gene expression program and apoptosis. High-throughput drug screening revealed that bromodomain and extra-terminal domain inhibitors (BETis) induced BPDCN apoptosis, which was attributable to disruption of a BPDCN-specific transcriptional network controlled by TCF4-dependent super-enhancers. BETis retarded the growth of BPDCN xenografts, supporting their clinical evaluation in this recalcitrant malignancy.

Kaiser JC, Meckbach R, Eidemüller M, et al.
Integration of a radiation biomarker into modeling of thyroid carcinogenesis and post-Chernobyl risk assessment.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(12):1152-1160 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Strong evidence for the statistical association between radiation exposure and disease has been produced for thyroid cancer by epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl accident. However, limitations of the epidemiological approach in order to explore health risks especially at low doses of radiation appear obvious. Statistical fluctuations due to small case numbers dominate the uncertainty of risk estimates. Molecular radiation markers have been searched extensively to separate radiation-induced cancer cases from sporadic cases. The overexpression of the CLIP2 gene is the most promising of these markers. It was found in the majority of papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs) from young patients included in the Chernobyl tissue bank. Motivated by the CLIP2 findings we propose a mechanistic model which describes PTC development as a sequence of rate-limiting events in two distinct paths of CLIP2-associated and multistage carcinogenesis. It integrates molecular measurements of the dichotomous CLIP2 marker from 141 patients into the epidemiological risk analysis for about 13 000 subjects from the Ukrainian-American cohort which were exposed below age 19 years and were put under enhanced medical surveillance since 1998. For the first time, a radiation risk has been estimated solely from marker measurements. Cross checking with epidemiological estimates and model validation suggests that CLIP2 is a marker of high precision. CLIP2 leaves an imprint in the epidemiological incidence data which is typical for a driver gene. With the mechanistic model, we explore the impact of radiation on the molecular landscape of PTC. The model constitutes a unique interface between molecular biology and radiation epidemiology.

Vanderstraeten A, Tuyaerts S, Everaert T, et al.
In Vitro Assessment of the Expression and T Cell Immunogenicity of the Tumor-Associated Antigens BORIS, MUC1, hTERT, MAGE-A3 and Sp17 in Uterine Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: While immunotherapy moved to the forefront of treatment of various cancers, it remains underexplored for uterine cancer. This might be due to the small patient population with advanced endometrial carcinoma and uterine sarcoma. Data about immunotherapeutic targets are scarce in endometrial carcinoma and lacking in uterine sarcoma.
METHODS: Expression of five tumor-associated antigens (TAA) (BORIS, MUC1, hTERT, MAGE-A3 and Sp17) was validated in uterine tumor samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TAA immunogenicity was analyzed by determining spontaneous T cell responses towards overlapping peptide pools covering the whole TAA in patient blood.
RESULTS: At mRNA level, MAGE-A3 and Sp17 were overexpressed in a minority of patients and BORIS was moderately overexpressed (26% in endometrial carcinoma and 62% in uterine sarcoma). hTERT was overexpressed in the vast majority of tumors. On protein level, MUC1 was upregulated in primary, recurrent and metastatic EMCAR and in metastatic US tumors. hTERT protein was highly expressed in both normal and malignant tissue. Spontaneous TAA-specific T cell responses were detected in a minority of patients, except for hTERT to which T cell responses occurred more frequently.
CONCLUSIONS: These data point to MUC1 and hTERT as most suitable targets based on expression levels and T cell immunogenicity for use in immunotherapeutic regimens.

Yoon SL, Roh YG, Chu IS, et al.
A polymorphic minisatellite region of BORIS regulates gene expression and its rare variants correlate with lung cancer susceptibility.
Exp Mol Med. 2016; 48(7):e246 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Aberrant expression of BORIS/CTCFL (Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites/CTCF-like protein) is reported in different malignancies. In this study, we characterized the entire promoter region of BORIS/CTCFL, including the CpG islands, to assess the relationship between BORIS expression and lung cancer. To simplify the construction of luciferase reporter cassettes with various-sized portions of the upstream region, genomic copies of BORIS were isolated using TAR cloning technology. We analyzed three promoter blocks: the GATA/CCAAT box, the CpG islands and the minisatellite region BORIS-MS2. Polymorphic minisatellite sequences were isolated from genomic DNA prepared from the blood of controls and cases. Of the three promoter blocks, the GATA/CCAAT box was determined to be a critical element of the core promoter, while the CpG islands and the BORIS-MS2 minisatellite region were found to act as regulators. Interestingly, the polymorphic minisatellite region BORIS-MS2 was identified as a negative regulator that repressed the expression levels of luciferase reporter cassettes less effectively in cancer cells compared with normal cells. We also examined the association between the size of BORIS-MS2 and lung cancer in a case-control study with 590 controls and 206 lung cancer cases. Rare alleles of BORIS-MS2 were associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.08; and P=0.039). To conclude, our data provide information on the organization of the BORIS promoter region and gene regulation in normal and cancer cells. In addition, we propose that specific alleles of the BORIS-MS2 region could be used to identify the risk for lung cancer.

El-Sharkawy NM, Radwan WM, Essa ES, et al.
Increased expression of brother of the regulator of imprinted sites in peripheral blood neutrophils is associated with both benign and malignant breast lesions.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2017; 92(5):355-360 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: BORIS, a paralog of the multifunctional CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) gene is restricted to testis and normally not present in females. It is aberrantly activated in various human cancers including cancer breast. Using immunohistochemistry, western blot and/or RT-PCR, significantly higher levels of BORIS expression were reported in the neutrophils of cancer breast patients. We hypothesized that Flow Cytometry might be a better technique for objective quantitative evaluation of BORIS in neutrophils and we wanted to investigate if BORIS would discriminate between benign and malignant breast lesions.
METHODS: The study included 85 females; 52 breast cancer, 13 benign breast lesions and 20 age-matched healthy controls. BORIS expression in the neutrophils was detected by Flow Cytometry.
RESULTS: High level of BORIS was detected in all malignant (64.4 ± 16.6%) and benign cases (67 ± 12.3), mean florescent intensity ratio (MFIR) of 7.2 ± 4.1 and 7 ± 3.5, median 5.8 and 6.6%; and staining index (SI) 8.3 ± 3.9 and 8.2 ± 3.4, median 7.6 and 7.9 respectively vs.13.4 ± 11.5% MFI 1.8 ± 0.7, median1.6 and SI 2.6 ± 0.69, median 2.5 for the control. BORIS level was comparable in the malignant and benign group (P = 0.934) and significantly higher than control (P = 0.0001). There was no correlation between neutrophil BORIS expression and ER/PR status, HER-2/neu expression or tumor stage or size.
CONCLUSIONS: Increased BORIS expression in peripheral blood neutrophils is associated with both benign and malignant breast lesions; apparently, increased proliferation of breast tissue is the determining factor. This excludes BORIS as a tumor marker but it does not jeopardize its value as a potential therapeutic target. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

Rykunov D, Beckmann ND, Li H, et al.
A new molecular signature method for prediction of driver cancer pathways from transcriptional data.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2016; 44(11):e110 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Assigning cancer patients to the most effective treatments requires an understanding of the molecular basis of their disease. While DNA-based molecular profiling approaches have flourished over the past several years to transform our understanding of driver pathways across a broad range of tumors, a systematic characterization of key driver pathways based on RNA data has not been undertaken. Here we introduce a new approach for predicting the status of driver cancer pathways based on signature functions derived from RNA sequencing data. To identify the driver cancer pathways of interest, we mined DNA variant data from TCGA and nominated driver alterations in seven major cancer pathways in breast, ovarian and colon cancer tumors. The activation status of these driver pathways were then characterized using RNA sequencing data by constructing classification signature functions in training datasets and then testing the accuracy of the signatures in test datasets. The signature functions differentiate well tumors with nominated pathway activation from tumors with no signs of activation: average AUC equals to 0.83. Our results confirm that driver genomic alterations are distinctively displayed at the transcriptional level and that the transcriptional signatures can generally provide an alternative to DNA sequencing methods in detecting specific driver pathways.

Tarpgaard LS, Qvortrup C, Nygård SB, et al.
A phase II study of Epirubicin in oxaliplatin-resistant patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and TOP2A gene amplification.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The overall purpose of this study is to provide proof of concept for introducing the anthracycline epirubicin as an effective, biomarker-guided treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients who are refractory to treatment with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy and have TOP2A gene amplification in their tumor cells.
BACKGROUND: Epirubicin is an anthracycline that targets DNA topoisomerase 2-α enzyme encoded by the TOP2A gene. It is used for treatment of several malignancies, but currently not in CRC. TOP2A gene amplifications predict improved efficacy of epirubicin in patients with breast cancer and thus could be an alternative option for patients with CRC and amplified TOP2A gene. We have previously analysed the frequency of TOP2A gene aberrations in CRC and found that 46.6% of these tumors had TOP2A copy gain and 2.0% had loss of TOP2A when compared to adjacent normal tissue. The TOP2A gene is located on chromosome 17 and when the TOP2A/CEN-17 ratio was applied to identify tumors with gene loss or amplifications, 10.5% had a ratio ≥ 1.5 consistent with gene amplification and 2.6% had a ratio ≤ 0.8 suggesting gene deletions. Based on these observations and the knowledge gained from treatment of breast cancer patients, we have initiated a prospective clinical, phase II protocol using epirubicin (90 mg/m2 iv q 3 weeks) in mCRC patients, who are refractory to treatment with oxaliplatin.
METHODS/DESIGN: The study is an open label, single arm, phase II study, investigating the efficacy of epirubicin in patients with oxaliplatin refractory mCRC and with a cancer cell TOP2A/CEN-17 ratio ≥ 1.5. TOP2A gene amplification measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A total of 25 evaluable patients (15 + 10 in two steps) will be included (Simon's two-stage minimax design). Every nine weeks, response is measured by computed tomography imaging and evaluated according to RECIST 1.1. The primary end-point of the study is progression-free survival.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Eudract no. 2013-001648-79.

Crochiere M, Kashyap T, Kalid O, et al.
Deciphering mechanisms of drug sensitivity and resistance to Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:910 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Exportin 1 (XPO1) is a well-characterized nuclear export protein whose expression is up-regulated in many types of cancers and functions to transport key tumor suppressor proteins (TSPs) from the nucleus. Karyopharm Therapeutics has developed a series of small-molecule Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds, which have been shown to block XPO1 function both in vitro and in vivo. The drug candidate, selinexor (KPT-330), is currently in Phase-II/IIb clinical trials for treatment of both hematologic and solid tumors. The present study sought to decipher the mechanisms that render cells either sensitive or resistant to treatment with SINE compounds, represented by KPT-185, an early analogue of KPT-330.
METHODS: Using the human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line, resistance to SINE was acquired over a period of 10 months of constant incubation with increasing concentration of KPT-185. Cell viability was assayed by MTT. Immunofluorescence was used to compare nuclear export of TSPs. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and immunoblots were used to measure effects on cell cycle, gene expression, and cell death. RNA from naïve and drug treated parental and resistant cells was analyzed by Affymetrix microarrays.
RESULTS: Treatment of HT1080 cells with gradually increasing concentrations of SINE resulted in >100 fold decrease in sensitivity to SINE cytotoxicity. Resistant cells displayed prolonged cell cycle, reduced nuclear accumulation of TSPs, and similar changes in protein expression compared to parental cells, however the magnitude of the protein expression changes were more significant in parental cells. Microarray analyses comparing parental to resistant cells indicate that a number of key signaling pathways were altered in resistant cells including expression changes in genes involved in adhesion, apoptosis, and inflammation. While the patterns of changes in transcription following drug treatment are similar in parental and resistant cells, the extent of response was more robust in the parental cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that SINE resistance is conferred by alterations in signaling pathways downstream of XPO1 inhibition. Modulation of these pathways could potentially overcome the resistance to nuclear export inhibitors.

Schultz B, Yao X, Deng Y, et al.
A Common Polymorphism within the IGF2 Imprinting Control Region Is Associated with Parent of Origin Specific Effects in Infantile Hemangiomas.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0113168 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common tumor of the pediatric age group, affecting up to 4% of newborns ranging from inconsequential blemishes, to highly aggressive tumors. Following well defined growth phases (proliferative, plateau involutional) IH usually regress into a fibro-fatty residuum. Despite the high prevalence of IH, little is known regarding the pathogenesis of disease. A reported six fold decrease in IGF2 expression (correlating with transformation of proliferative to involuted lesions) prompted us to study the IGF-2 axis further. We demonstrate that IGF2 expression in IH is strongly related to the expression of a cancer testes and suspected oncogene BORIS (paralog of CTCF), placing IH in the unique category of being the first known benign BORIS positive tumor. IGF2 expression was strongly and positively related to BORIS transcript expression. Furthermore, a stronger association was made when comparing BORIS levels against the expression of CTCF via either a percentage or difference between the two. A common C/T polymorphism at CTCF BS6 appeared to modify the correlation between CTCF/BORIS and IGF2 expression in a parent of origin specific manner. Moreover, these effects may have phenotypic consequences as tumor growth also correlates with the genotype at CTCF BS6. This may provide a framework for explaining the clinical variability seen in IH and suggests new insights regarding CTCF and BORIS related functionality in both normal and malignant states.

Qian M, Yang X, Li Z, et al.
P50-associated COX-2 extragenic RNA (PACER) overexpression promotes proliferation and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells by activating COX-2 gene.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(3):3879-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
P50-associated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) extragenic RNA (PACER) is a novel long noncoding RNA that has been found to activate the COX-2 gene, which may function as an oncogene in osteosarcoma. However, the role of PACER and the relationship between PACER and COX-2 in osteosarcoma progression have been unknown until now. Here, we examined the expression levels of PACER in clinical tumor samples and human osteosarcoma cell lines, assessed the functions of PACER in osteosarcoma cell proliferation and invasion, and then explored the mechanism of PACER dysregulation in osteosarcoma. The results showed that PACER was overexpressed in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines compared with normal tissues and osteoblasts, respectively. PACER knockdown inhibited the proliferation and invasion of human osteosarcoma cells. Downregulation of PACER significantly suppressed the expression of COX-2, and the effects of PACER on cell proliferation and invasion were rescued by COX-2 overexpression. Furthermore, COX-2 activation by PACER was NF-κB-dependent. The regulation of PACER by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) was associated with DNA methylation status. Taken together, these findings suggest that PACER promotes proliferation and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells by activating the COX-2 gene and its own expression was influenced by DNA methylation.

Prokhorova EA, Zamaraev AV, Kopeina GS, et al.
Role of the nucleus in apoptosis: signaling and execution.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015; 72(23):4593-612 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since their establishment in the early 1970s, the nuclear changes upon apoptosis induction, such as the condensation of chromatin, disassembly of nuclear scaffold proteins and degradation of DNA, were, and still are, considered as the essential steps and hallmarks of apoptosis. These are the characteristics of the execution phase of apoptotic cell death. In addition, accumulating data clearly show that some nuclear events can lead to the induction of apoptosis. In particular, if DNA lesions resulting from deregulation during the cell cycle or DNA damage induced by chemotherapeutic drugs or viral infection cannot be efficiently eliminated, apoptotic mechanisms, which enable cellular transformation to be avoided, are activated in the nucleus. The functional heterogeneity of the nuclear organization allows the tight regulation of these signaling events that involve the movement of various nuclear proteins to other intracellular compartments (and vice versa) to initiate and govern apoptosis. Here, we discuss how these events are coordinated to execute apoptotic cell death.

Liu NW, Shatagopam K, Monn MF, et al.
Risk for Clostridium difficile infection after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: Analysis of a contemporary series.
Urol Oncol. 2015; 33(12):503.e17-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: This study seeks to evaluate the incidence and associated risk factors of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a single institution׳s bladder cancer database including all patients who underwent RC between 2010 and 2013. CDI was diagnosed by detection of Clostridium difficile toxin B gene using polymerase chain reaction-based stool assay in patients with clinically significant diarrhea within 90 days of the index operation. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify demographics and perioperative factors associated with developing CDI.
RESULTS: Of the 552 patients who underwent RC, postoperative CDI occurred in 49 patients (8.8%) with a median time to diagnosis after RC of 7 days (interquartile range: 5-19). Of the 122 readmissions for postoperative complications, 10% (n = 12) were related to CDI; 2 patients died of sepsis directly related to severe CDI. On multivariate logistic regression, the use of chronic antacid therapy (odds ratio = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.02-3.68, P = 0.04) and antibiotic exposure greater than 7 days (odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.11-4.44, P = 0.02) were independently associated with developing CDI. The use of preoperative antibiotics for positive findings on urine culture within 30 days before surgery was not statistically significantly associated with development of CDI (P = 0.06).
CONCLUSIONS: The development of CDI occurs in 8.8% of patients undergoing RC. Our study demonstrates that use of chronic antacid therapy and long duration of antimicrobial exposure are associated with development of CDI. Efforts focusing on minimizing antibiotic exposure in patients undergoing RC are needed, and perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines should be followed.

Pugacheva EM, Rivero-Hinojosa S, Espinoza CA, et al.
Comparative analyses of CTCF and BORIS occupancies uncover two distinct classes of CTCF binding genomic regions.
Genome Biol. 2015; 16:161 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CTCF and BORIS (CTCFL), two paralogous mammalian proteins sharing nearly identical DNA binding domains, are thought to function in a mutually exclusive manner in DNA binding and transcriptional regulation.
RESULTS: Here we show that these two proteins co-occupy a specific subset of regulatory elements consisting of clustered CTCF binding motifs (termed 2xCTSes). BORIS occupancy at 2xCTSes is largely invariant in BORIS-positive cancer cells, with the genomic pattern recapitulating the germline-specific BORIS binding to chromatin. In contrast to the single-motif CTCF target sites (1xCTSes), the 2xCTS elements are preferentially found at active promoters and enhancers, both in cancer and germ cells. 2xCTSes are also enriched in genomic regions that escape histone to protamine replacement in human and mouse sperm. Depletion of the BORIS gene leads to altered transcription of a large number of genes and the differentiation of K562 cells, while the ectopic expression of this CTCF paralog leads to specific changes in transcription in MCF7 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We discover two functionally and structurally different classes of CTCF binding regions, 2xCTSes and 1xCTSes, revealed by their predisposition to bind BORIS. We propose that 2xCTSes play key roles in the transcriptional program of cancer and germ cells.

Velázquez-Hernández N, Reyes-Romero MA, Barragán-Hernández M, et al.
BORIS and CTCF are overexpressed in squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(2):6094-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the expression of Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) in squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer. To analyze BORIS and CTCF expression, an endocervical cytobrush sample was taken for total RNA isolation. CTCF and BORIS mRNA was quantified from total RNA using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 71 samples were collected and classified according to the Bethesda Classification of squamous intraepithelial lesions. BORIS expression was observed in 9 (12.7%) samples; of these, 5.3, 5.9, 14.8, and 37.5% in the groups that were cytology negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and invasive cervical carcinoma, respectively. The expression level of BORIS was significantly higher in the group with invasive cervical carcinoma as compared with the groups negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, LSIL, and HSIL (P < 0.0005). CTCF mRNA was expressed in all samples. CTCF expression was significantly higher in carcinoma groups compared with LSIL, HSIL, and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy groups. We found that BORIS and CTCF expressions in the LSIL and invasive cervical carcinoma groups were higher than expression in cytological normal samples. Additional studies should be conducted to examine the function of transcription factors during different stages of the transformation of cervical cancer cells.

Damaschke NA, Yang B, Blute ML, et al.
Frequent disruption of chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8) and functionally associated chromatin regulators in prostate cancer.
Neoplasia. 2014; 16(12):1018-27 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Abnormal expression and function of chromatin regulators results in the altered chromatin structure seen in cancer. The chromatin regulator CTCF, its cofactor CHD8, and antagonistic paralogue BORIS have wide-ranging effects on gene regulation. Their concurrent expression and regulation was examined in benign, localized, and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) arrays with extended follow-up using an automated quantitative imaging system, VECTRA. Epithelial staining was quantified and compared against a range of clinicopathologic variables. CHD8 expression was decreased in HGPIN, localized, and metastatic PCa compared to benign (P < .001). CHD8 promoter hypermethylation, assessed by Quantitative Pyrosequencing, occurred in over 45% of primary cancers in this population as well as the TGCA database. Treatment of cell lines with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine reinduced expression. An interesting dichotomy for CHD8 was observed within primary cancers, with higher nuclear protein expression associated with adverse clinical outcomes including extracapsular extension (P = .007), presence of metastases (P = .025) and worse PSA-recurrence free survival (P = .048). CHD8 outperformed Gleason score and predicted biochemical failure within intermediate grade prostate cancers. The BORIS/CTCF expression ratio increased in localized (P = .03) and metastatic PCa (P = .006) and was associated with higher Gleason score (P = .02), increased tumor volume (P = .02) and positive margins (P = .04). Per cell heterogeneity of expression revealed all protein expression to be more heterogeneous in cancerous tissue (both P < .001), especially high grade (P < .01). In the first detailed analysis in cancer, a marked loss of CHD8 expression and increased BORIS/CTCF ratio indicate frequent disruption of CTCF and its effector genes in PCa.

Alberti L, Renaud S, Losi L, et al.
High expression of hTERT and stemness genes in BORIS/CTCFL positive cells isolated from embryonic cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e109921 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BORIS/CTCFL is a member of cancer testis antigen family normally expressed in germ cells. In tumors, it is aberrantly expressed although its functions are not completely well-defined. To better understand the functions of BORIS in cancer, we selected the embryonic cancer cells as a model. Using a molecular beacon, which specifically targets BORIS mRNA, we demonstrated that BORIS positive cells are a small subpopulation of tumor cells (3-5% of total). The BORIS-positive cells isolated using BORIS-molecular beacon, expressed higher telomerase hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2) and cancer stem cell marker genes (CD44 and ALDH1) compared to the BORIS-negative tumor cells. In order to define the functional role of BORIS, stable BORIS-depleted embryonic cancer cells were generated. BORIS silencing strongly down-regulated the expression of hTERT, stem cell and cancer stem cell marker genes. Moreover, the BORIS knockdown increased cellular senescence in embryonic cancer cells, revealing a putative role of BORIS in the senescence biological program. Our data indicate an association of BORIS expressing cells subpopulation with the expression of stemness genes, highlighting the critical role played by BORIS in embryonic neoplastic disease.

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