CDKN1C

Gene Summary

Gene:CDKN1C; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (p57, Kip2)
Aliases: BWS, WBS, p57, BWCR, KIP2, p57Kip2
Location:11p15.5
Summary:This gene is imprinted, with preferential expression of the maternal allele. The encoded protein is a tight-binding, strong inhibitor of several G1 cyclin/Cdk complexes and a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are implicated in sporadic cancers and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndorome, suggesting that this gene is a tumor suppressor candidate. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (17)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDKN1C (cancer-related)

Zhang H, Chen X, Wang J, et al.
EGR1 decreases the malignancy of human non-small cell lung carcinoma by regulating KRT18 expression.
Sci Rep. 2014; 4:5416 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Early growth response 1 (EGR1) is a multifunctional transcription factor; Positive and negative functions of EGR1 in various tumors rely on the integrated functions of various genes it regulates. In this study, we observed the role of EGR1 in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and identified genes that influence cell fate and tumor development. Various assays showed that EGR1 arrested cell mobility, inhibited migration, and induced apoptosis. Microarray analysis revealed that 100 genes, including CDKN1C, CDC27 and PRKDC, changed their mRNA expressions with the increase of EGR1 and contributed to intervention of tumor progression. Bioinformatics analysis and promoter analysis indicated that an EGR1 binding site was situated in the promoter of KRT18 (also named CK18) and KRT18 could assist in inhibition of NSCLC development. The expression level of EGR1 and KRT18 in NSCLC clinical cases was investigated by immunohistochemistry, in which the protein expression of KRT18 was found to be significantly associated with EGR1 and lymph node metastasis. The results collectively confirm that EGR1 functions as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC. This study is the first to report KRT18 expression is directly regulated by EGR1, and contributes to decrease malignancy of NSCLC.

Liu W, Xu C, Wan H, et al.
MicroRNA-206 overexpression promotes apoptosis, induces cell cycle arrest and inhibits the migration of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.
Int J Mol Med. 2014; 34(2):420-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-206 (miR-206) is known to regulate cell proliferation and migration and is involved in various types of cancer. However, the role of miR-206 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HHC) has not been previously reported. In the present study, the expression of Notch3 in HCC and adjacent non-neoplastic tissue was immunohistochemically assessed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. miR-206 mimics were transiently transfected into HepG2 cells using Lipofectamine™ 2000. Subsequently, we evaluated the role of miR-206 in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and migration by MTS assay, Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, flow cytometry and wound healing assay. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT‑PCR) and western blot analysis, we detected the expression of Notch3, Bax, Bcl-2, Hes1, p57 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 at the mRNA and protein level, respectively. In addition, we measured the expression of miR-206 at the mRNA level and that of caspase-3 at the protein level. After miR-206 was upregulated in HepG2 cells, Notch3, Hes1, Bcl-2 and MMP-9 were downregulated both at the mRNA and protein level, whereas p57 and Bax were upregulated. Cleaved caspase-3 protein expression was also markedly increased. Cell proliferation was significantly attenuated and apoptosis was markedly increased. Furthermore, miR-206 overexpression induced cell cycle arrest and inhibited the migration of HepG2 cells. Taken together, our results uggest that miR-206 is a potential regulator of apoptosis, the cell cycle and migration in HepG2 cells and that it has the potential for use in the targeted therapy of HCC and is a novel tumor suppressor.

Nojiri S, Joh T
Albumin suppresses human hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation and the cell cycle.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(3):5163-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Many investigations have revealed that a low recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with high serum albumin levels in patients; therefore, high levels of serum albumin are a major indicator of a favorable prognosis. However, the mechanism inhibiting the proliferation of HCC has not yet been elucidated, so we investigated the effect of serum albumin on HCC cell proliferation. Hep3B was cultured in MEM with no serum or containing 5 g/dL human albumin. As control samples, Prionex was added to generate the same osmotic pressure as albumin. After 24-h incubation, the expressions of α-fetoprotein (AFP), p53, p21, and p57 were evaluated with real-time PCR using total RNA extracted from the liver. Protein expressions and the phosphorylation of Rb (retinoblastoma) were determined by Western blot analysis using total protein extracted from the liver. For flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle, FACS analysis was performed. The percentages of cell cycle distribution were evaluated by PI staining, and all samples were analyzed employing FACScalibur (BD) with appropriate software (ModFit LT; BD). The cell proliferation assay was performed by counting cells with using a Scepter handy automated cell counter (Millipore). The mRNA levels of AFP relative to Alb(-): Alb(-), Alb(+), and Prionex, were 1, 0.7 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001 for Alb(-)), and 1 ± 0.3, respectively. The mRNA levels of p21 were 1, 1.58 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007 for Alb(-) and p = 0.004 for Prionex), and 0.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The mRNA levels of p57 were 1, 4.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.002 for Alb(-) and Prionex), and 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively. The protein expression levels of Rb were similar in all culture media. The phosphorylation of P807/811 and P780 of Rb protein was reduced in Alb(+). More cells in the G0/G1 phase and fewer cells in S and G2/M phases were obtained in Alb(+) than in Alb(-) (G0/G1: 60.9%, 67.7%, 61.5%; G2/M: 16.5%, 13.1%, 15.6%; S: 22.6%, 19.2%, 23.0%, Alb(-), Alb(+), Prionex, respectively). The same results were obtained in HepG2. Cell proliferation was inhibited in 5 g/dL albumin medium in both HepG2 cells and Hep3B cells in 24 h culture by counting cell numbers. The presence of albumin in serum reduces the phosphorylation of Rb proteins and enhances the expression of p21 and p57, following an increase in the G0/G1 cell population, and suppresses cell proliferation. These results suggest that albumin itself suppresses the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Espinosa-Parrilla Y, Muñoz X, Bonet C, et al.
Genetic association of gastric cancer with miRNA clusters including the cancer-related genes MIR29, MIR25, MIR93 and MIR106: results from the EPIC-EURGAST study.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(9):2065-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators involved in a wide range of biological processes including tumorigenesis. Deregulation of miRNA pathways has been associated with cancer but the contribution of their genetic variability to this disorder is poorly known. We analyzed the genetic association of gastric cancer (GC) and its anatomical and histological subtypes, with 133 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging 15 isolated miRNAs and 24 miRNA clusters potentially involved in cancer, in 365 GC cases and 1,284 matched controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Various SNPs were associated with GC under the log-additive model. Furthermore, several of these miRNAs passed the gene-based permutation test when analyzed according to GC subtypes: three tagSNPs of the miR-29a/miR-29b-1 cluster were associated with diffuse subtype (minimum p-value = 1.7 × 10(-4) ; odds ratio, OR = 1.72; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.30-2.28), two tagSNPs of the miR-25/miR-93/miR-106b cluster were associated with cardia GC (minimum p-value = 5.38 × 10(-3) ; OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.37-0.86) and one tagSNP of the miR-363/miR-92a-2/miR-19b-2/miR-20b/miR-18b/miR-106a cluster was associated with noncardia GC (minimum p-value = 5.40 × 10(-3) ; OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12-1.78). Some functionally validated target genes of these miRNAs are implicated in cancer-related processes such as methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3B), cell cycle (E2F1, CDKN1A, CDKN1C), apoptosis (BCL2L11, MCL1), angiogenesis (VEGFA) and progression (PIK3R1, MYCN). Furthermore, we identified genetic interactions between variants tagging these miRNAs and variants in their validated target genes. Deregulation of the expression of these miRNAs in GC also supports our findings, altogether suggesting for the fist time that genetic variation in MIR29, MIR25, MIR93 and MIR106b may have a critical role in genetic susceptibility to GC and could contribute to the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis.

Fan GH, Wang ZM, Yang X, et al.
Resveratrol inhibits oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell proliferation via AMP-activated protein kinase signaling.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(2):677-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resveratrol has been examined in several model systems for potential effects against cancer. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is reported to suppress proliferation in most eukaryocyte cells. Whether resveratrol via AMPK inhibits proliferation of oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells (OAC) is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the roles of AMPK in the protective effects of resveratrol in OAC proliferation and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Treatment of cultured OAC derived from human subjects or cell lines with resveratrol resulted in decreased cell proliferation. Further, inhibition of AMPK by pharmacological reagent or genetical approach abolished resveratrol-suppressed OAC proliferation, reduced the level of p27Kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and increased the levels of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) of p27Kip1-E3 ubiquitin ligase and 26S proteasome activity reduced by resveratrol. Furthermore, gene silencing of p27Kip1 reversed resveratrol-suppressed OAC proliferation. In conclusion, these findings indicate that resveratrol inhibits Skp2-mediated ubiquitylation and 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of p27Kip1 via AMPK activation to suppress OAC proliferation.

Ribarska T, Goering W, Droop J, et al.
Deregulation of an imprinted gene network in prostate cancer.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(5):704-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Multiple epigenetic alterations contribute to prostate cancer progression by deregulating gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms, especially differential DNA methylation at imprinting control regions (termed DMRs), normally ensure the exclusive expression of imprinted genes from one specific parental allele. We therefore wondered to which extent imprinted genes become deregulated in prostate cancer and, if so, whether deregulation is due to altered DNA methylation at DMRs. Therefore, we selected presumptive deregulated imprinted genes from a previously conducted in silico analysis and from the literature and analyzed their expression in prostate cancer tissues by qRT-PCR. We found significantly diminished expression of PLAGL1/ZAC1, MEG3, NDN, CDKN1C, IGF2, and H19, while LIT1 was significantly overexpressed. The PPP1R9A gene, which is imprinted in selected tissues only, was strongly overexpressed, but was expressed biallelically in benign and cancerous prostatic tissues. Expression of many of these genes was strongly correlated, suggesting co-regulation, as in an imprinted gene network (IGN) reported in mice. Deregulation of the network genes also correlated with EZH2 and HOXC6 overexpression. Pyrosequencing analysis of all relevant DMRs revealed generally stable DNA methylation between benign and cancerous prostatic tissues, but frequent hypo- and hyper-methylation was observed at the H19 DMR in both benign and cancerous tissues. Re-expression of the ZAC1 transcription factor induced H19, CDKN1C and IGF2, supporting its function as a nodal regulator of the IGN. Our results indicate that a group of imprinted genes are coordinately deregulated in prostate cancers, independently of DNA methylation changes.

Gkountela S, Li Z, Chin CJ, et al.
PRMT5 is required for human embryonic stem cell proliferation but not pluripotency.
Stem Cell Rev. 2014; 10(2):230-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are critical in vitro tools for understanding mechanisms that regulate lineage differentiation in the human embryo as well as a potentially unlimited supply of stem cells for regenerative medicine. Pluripotent human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts share a similar transcription factor network to maintain pluripotency and self-renewal, yet there are considerable molecular differences reflecting the diverse environments in which mouse and human ESCs are derived. In the current study we evaluated the role of Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) in human ESC (hESC) self-renewal and pluripotency given its critical role in safeguarding mouse ESC pluripotency. Unlike the mouse, we discovered that PRMT5 has no role in hESC pluripotency. Using microarray analysis we discovered that a significant depletion in PRMT5 RNA and protein from hESCs changed the expression of only 78 genes, with the majority being repressed. Functionally, we discovered that depletion of PRMT5 had no effect on expression of OCT4, NANOG or SOX2, and did not prevent teratoma formation. Instead, we show that PRMT5 functions in hESCs to regulate proliferation in the self-renewing state by regulating the fraction of cells in Gap 1 (G1) of the cell cycle and increasing expression of the G1 cell cycle inhibitor P57. Taken together our data unveils a distinct role for PRMT5 in hESCs and identifies P57 as new target.

Yan GJ, Yu F, Wang B, et al.
MicroRNA miR-302 inhibits the tumorigenicity of endometrial cancer cells by suppression of Cyclin D1 and CDK1.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 345(1):39-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA miR-302 has been found to induce some tumor cell lines to "transdifferentiate" into miRNA-induced pluripotent stem cells (mirPS), thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and reducing tumorigenicity. This study firstly found that miR-302 inhibited the proliferation and migration of endometrial cell line, Ishikawa and HEC-1-B, and arrested cell cycle at the G2/M phase. In addition, miR-302 inhibited tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice transplanted with Ishikawa cells. Microarray and Western blotting results showed that miR-302 significantly inhibited CDK1 and Cyclin D1 gene expression in Ishikawa cells. MiR-302 directly targeted Cyclin D1, but indirectly regulated CDK1 gene expression.

Wan J, Huang M, Zhao H, et al.
A novel tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism within KCNQ1OT1 confers risk for hepatocellular carcinoma.
DNA Cell Biol. 2013; 32(11):628-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
KCNQ1 overlapping transcript 1 (KCNQ1OT1), a long noncoding RNA responsible for silencing a cluster of genes in cis, has been shown to be involved in multiple cancers. However, much remains unclear of how KCNQ1OT1 contributes to carcinogenesis. By thoroughly analyzing 510 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases and 1014 healthy controls in a Chinese population, we identified a novel short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism (rs35622507) within the KCNQ1OT1 coding region and evaluated its association with HCC susceptibility. Logistic regression analysis showed that compared with individuals carrying the homozygote 10-10 genotype, those heterozygote subjects who carry only one allele 10 had a significantly decreased risk of HCC (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.53-0.86, p=0.0009), with the risk decreased even further in those without allele 10 (adjusted OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.21-0.69, p=0.0005). Furthermore, genotype-phenotype correlation studies using four hepatoma cell lines support a significant association between STR genotypes and the expression of KCNQ1OT1. Cell lines without allele 10 conferred a 20.9-33.3-fold higher expression of KCNQ1OT1. Meanwhile, KCNQ1OT1 expression was reversely correlated with the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C), a tumor suppressor gene located within the CDKN1C/KCNQ1OT1 imprinted region, in three hepatoma cell lines. Finally, in silico prediction suggested that different alleles could alter the local structure of KCNQ1OT1. Taken together, our findings suggest that the STR polymorphism within KCNQ1OT1 contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis, possibly by affecting KCNQ1OT1 and CDKN1C expression through a structure-dependent mechanism. The replication of our studies and further functional studies are needed to validate our hypothesis and understand the roles of KCNQ1OT1 polymorphisms in predisposition for HCC.

Wang Y, Dai W, Chu X, et al.
Metformin inhibits lung cancer cells proliferation through repressing microRNA-222.
Biotechnol Lett. 2013; 35(12):2013-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metformin, which is commonly used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent of the biguanide family, may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis. However, the mechanism by which metformin affects various cancers, including lung cancer, remains unknown. MiR-222 induces cell growth and cell cycle progression via direct targeting of p27, p57 and PTEN in cancer cells. In the present study, we used A549 and NCI-H358 human lung cancer cell lines to study the effects and mechanisms of metformin. Metformin treatment reduced expression of miR-222 in these cells (p < 0.05). As a result, protein abundance of p27, p57 and PTEN were increased in cells exposed to metformin. Therefore, these data provide novel evidence for a mechanism that may contribute to the anti-neoplastic effects of metformin suggested by recent population studies and justifying further work to explore potential roles for it in lung cancer treatment.

Christoforidis A, Tsakalides C, Chatziavramidis A, et al.
Sizeable acquired subglottic cyst in a baby with Williams-Beuren syndrome: association or coincidence?
Gene. 2013; 529(1):148-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe a case of an acquired subglottic cyst presented with persistent stridor and voice hoarsening in a baby diagnosed with Williams-Beuren syndrome that was born premature and required intubation during neonatal period. We also comment on whether this is a coincidence or there can be an association between impaired elastogenesis, a feature of patients with the syndrome and the formation of a subglottic cyst.

Li Y, Wang D, Zhang H, et al.
P21-activated kinase 4 regulates the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57(kip2) in human breast cancer.
Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2013; 296(10):1561-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The p21-activated kinases have been implicated in the control of cell cycle progression. However, the biological mechanism underlying the role of p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) in cell cycle control remains unknown. Here, by using quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses, we discovered that over-expression of PAK4 could suppress cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (p57(Kip2) ) expression in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, whereas lentiviral vector-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of PAK4 markedly promoted p57(Kip2) expression in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, PAK4-mediated down-regulation of p57(Kip2) was reversed by MG132, a specific proteasome inhibitor. The ubiquitination assay confirmed that the activity of PAK4 attenuated p57(Kip2) protein stability through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation between PAK4 and p57(Kip2) protein levels was observed in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel function for PAK4 in regulating the stability of p57(Kip2) , possibly through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, leading to increased proliferation of breast cancer cells. Thus, PAK4 may be used as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for human breast cancer.

Hu T, Guo H, Wang W, et al.
Loss of p57 expression and RhoA overexpression are associated with poor survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(4):1707-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
p57 and Ras homology A (RhoA) have been implicated in the growth and metastasis of several types of human cancers. This study aimed to detect their expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue specimens and to determine a possible association with clinicopathological data and patient survival. A total of 80 HCC and corresponding distant normal tissue specimens were processed for immunohistochemical and qPCR analyses of p57 and RhoA expression. The data showed that expression of p57 mRNA and protein was reduced in HCC tissues when compared to that in distant non-cancer tissues (P<0.05), while expression of RhoA mRNA and protein was significantly higher in HCC tissue specimens when compared to that of the distant normal tissues. Loss of p57 expression was associated with HCC with higher α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels (>400 ng/ml; P=0.044), larger tumor size (>5 cm, P=0.004), poor tumor differentiation (P=0.020), advanced TNM stage (P=0.027), capsule invasion (P=0.018) and tumor thrombosis (P=0.008), whereas expression of RhoA protein was significantly associated with poor tumor differentiation (P=0.042), capsule invasion (P=0.022), and tumor thrombosis (P=0.002). Furthermore, there was a strong inverse relationship between p57 and RhoA expression in HCC tissues, indicating that loss of p57 expression may contribute to RhoA overexpression in HCC tissues. The median survival time of HCC patients with p57+ and p57- expression was 13.0 and 9.0 months, respectively, whereas the median survival time of HCC patients with RhoA+ and RhoA- was 9.0 and 15.0 months. Univariate analysis revealed that the levels of AFP, tumor size, TNM stage, histological grade, capsule invasion, tumor thrombosis, p57, RhoA and co-expression of p57 and RhoA were all significant prognostic indicators for overall survival of HCC patients. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size, TNM stage, p57, RhoA and combined loss of p57 with RhoA were risk factors for poor survival of HCC patients. This study indicates that the abnormal expression of p57 and RhoA contributes to progression of HCC and poor survival of patients.

Hamid AS, Li J, Wang Y, et al.
Recombinant human decorin upregulates p57KIP² expression in HepG2 hepatoma cell lines.
Mol Med Rep. 2013; 8(2):511-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing the expression of cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (cyclin-CDK) using small molecule inhibitors is a therapeutic strategy used to suppress cancer cell growth. Decorin (DCN), a functional component of the extracellular matrix, has been implicated in the suppression of cell proliferation by upregulating p21, a cyclin-CDK inhibitor. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of recombinant decorin on the reactivation of p57KIP2, whose expression is silenced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis assay and quantitative real time-PCR experiments were performed in three groups of HepG2 human cells: Uninfected HepG2 cells (control group), pcDNA3.1 vector-infected HepG2 cells (pcDNA3.1 group) and pcDNA3.1-DCN-infected HepG2 cells (pcDNA3.1‑DCN group). Our results revealed that recombinant human decorin inhibited cell proliferation, induced G0/G1 phase arrest and induced apoptosis by increasing the expression of caspase-3 in the pcDNA3.1-DCN group. The expression of p57KIP2 mRNA in the pcDNA3.1-DCN group was higher than in the pcDNA3.1 and control groups (P<0.05); however, there was no statistically significant difference between the control and pcDNA3.1 groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, recombinant human decorin reactivated p57KIP2 expression in HepG2 cells. As the expression level of p57KIP2 is downregulated in HCC, our finding may serve as a basis for the therapy and prognosis of HCC, although further studies are required.

Wang JY, Yu P, Chen S, et al.
Activation of Rac1 GTPase promotes leukemia cell chemotherapy resistance, quiescence and niche interaction.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(5):907-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) reside in bone marrow niche and receive important signals from the microenvironment that support self-renewal, maintain quiescence and endow LSC with the ability of chemotherapy resistance. Rac1 belongs to the small GTP-binding protein superfamily and is implicated in the interactions of hematopoietic progenitors and bone marrow niche. Our previous studies have shown that Rac1 is over-expressed in leukemia patients and activation of Rac1 GTPase is closely associated with the efficient migration of leukemia cells. However, the potential functions for Rac1 GTPase in LSCs behaviors and in the residence of leukemia cells in niche remain unknown. In this study, by forced expression of a dominant-negative form of Rac1 GTPase in a CD34(+) myeloid leukemia cell line, as well as bone marrow cells from leukemia patients, we show that inactivation of Rac1 GTPase causes impaired migration and enhances chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Inactivation of Rac1 in leukemia cells also lead to a reduction in the frequency of cells in quiescent state and inhibition of homing to bone marrow niche. Gene expression analysis shows that inactivation of Rac1 down-regulates the expression of several cell intrinsic cell cycle inhibitors such as p21, p27, and p57, as well as the extrinsic molecules that mediated the interaction of LSC with osteoblastic niche. Furthermore, we show that Rac1 mediated the localization in niche is further attributed to the maintenance of quiescence. Our results provide evidence for the critical role of Rac1 GTPase in leukemia cell chemotherapy resistance, quiescence maintenance and the interaction with bone marrow microenvironment.

Costa-Guda J, Soong CP, Parekh VI, et al.
Germline and somatic mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes CDKN1A, CDKN2B, and CDKN2C in sporadic parathyroid adenomas.
Horm Cancer. 2013; 4(5):301-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular pathogenesis of sporadic parathyroid adenomas is incompletely understood. The possible role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) genes was raised by recognition of cyclin D1 as a parathyroid oncogene, identification of rare germline mutations in CDKI genes in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1; that in rodents, mutation in Cdkn1b caused parathyroid tumors; and subsequently through identification of rare predisposing germline sequence variants and somatic mutation of CDKN1B, encoding p27(kip1), in sporadic human parathyroid adenoma. We therefore sought to determine whether mutations/variants in the other six CDKI genes CDKN1A, CDKN1C, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, and CDKN2D, encoding p21, p57, p14(ARF)/p16, p15, p18, and p19, respectively, contribute to the development of typical parathyroid adenomas. In a series of 85 sporadic parathyroid adenomas, direct DNA sequencing identified alterations in five adenomas (6 %): Two contained distinct heterozygous changes in CDKN1A, one germline and one of undetermined germline status; one had a CDKN2B germline alteration, accompanied by loss of the normal allele in the tumor (LOH); two had variants of CDKN2C, one somatic and one germline with LOH. Abnormalities of three of the mutant proteins were readily demonstrable in vitro. Thus, germline mutations/rare variants in CDKN1A, CDKN2B, and CDKN2C likely contribute to the development of a significant subgroup of common sporadic parathyroid adenomas, and somatic mutation in CDKN2C further suggests a direct role for CDKI alteration in conferring a selective growth advantage to parathyroid cells, providing novel support for the concept that multiple CDKIs can play primary roles in human neoplasia.

Qu Y, Dang S, Hou P
Gene methylation in gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 424:53-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

Holm R, Førsund M, Nguyen MT, et al.
Expression of p15INK⁴b and p57KIP² and relationship with clinicopathological features and prognosis in patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61273 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p15(INK4b) and p57(KIP2) are important regulators of the cell cycle, and their abnormal expression has been detected in various tumors. However, little is known about the role of p15(INK4b) and p57(KIP2) in the pathogenesis of vulvar carcinoma, and the prognostic impact is still unknown. In our current study, we examined the expression of p15(INK4b) and p57(KIP2) in a large series of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas to elucidate the prognostic impact.
METHODS: Expression of p15(INK4b) and p57(KIP2) were examined in 297 vulvar squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry. Both uni- and multivariate analysis of prognostic factors were performed, and correlations with clinicopathologic parameters were examined.
RESULTS: Compared to the high levels of p15(INK4b) and p57(KIP2) in normal vulvar squamous epithelium, low levels of p15(INK4b) and p57(KIP2) were found in 82% and 44% of vulvar carcinomas, respectively. Low levels of p15(INK4b) and p57(KIP2) correlated significantly with malignant features, including large tumor diameter (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively) and increased invasiveness (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04, respectively). Although p15(INK4b) and p57(KIP2) levels could not be identified as prognostic markers, combined analysis of p14(ARF)/p15(INK4b)/p16(INK4a) showed that patients whose tumors expressed low levels of two or three of these INK4 proteins had a worse prognosis than those with only low levels of one or no protein (univariate analysis p = 0.02). The independent prognostic significance of these INK4 proteins was confirmed by multivariate analysis (p = 0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that p15(INK4b) and p57(KIP2) may be involved in the progression of vulvar carcinomas and the combined p14(ARF)/p15(INK4b)/p16(INK4a) status was a statistically independent prognostic factor.

Stricker SH, Feber A, Engström PG, et al.
Widespread resetting of DNA methylation in glioblastoma-initiating cells suppresses malignant cellular behavior in a lineage-dependent manner.
Genes Dev. 2013; 27(6):654-69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
Epigenetic changes are frequently observed in cancer. However, their role in establishing or sustaining the malignant state has been difficult to determine due to the lack of experimental tools that enable resetting of epigenetic abnormalities. To address this, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming techniques to invoke widespread epigenetic resetting of glioblastoma (GBM)-derived neural stem (GNS) cells. GBM iPSCs (GiPSCs) were subsequently redifferentiated to the neural lineage to assess the impact of cancer-specific epigenetic abnormalities on tumorigenicity. GiPSCs and their differentiating derivatives display widespread resetting of common GBM-associated changes, such as DNA hypermethylation of promoter regions of the cell motility regulator TES (testis-derived transcript), the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C; p57KIP2), and many polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) target genes (e.g., SFRP2). Surprisingly, despite such global epigenetic reconfiguration, GiPSC-derived neural progenitors remained highly malignant upon xenotransplantation. Only when GiPSCs were directed to nonneural cell types did we observe sustained expression of reactivated tumor suppressors and reduced infiltrative behavior. These data suggest that imposing an epigenome associated with an alternative developmental lineage can suppress malignant behavior. However, in the context of the neural lineage, widespread resetting of GBM-associated epigenetic abnormalities is not sufficient to override the cancer genome.

Di Martino MT, Gullà A, Cantafio ME, et al.
In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity of miR-221/222 inhibitors in multiple myeloma.
Oncotarget. 2013; 4(2):242-55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
A rising body of evidence suggests that silencing microRNAs (miRNAs) with oncogenic potential may represent a successful therapeutic strategy for human cancer. We investigated the therapeutic activity of miR-221/222 inhibitors against human multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Enforced expression of miR-221/222 inhibitors triggered in vitro anti-proliferative effects and up-regulation of canonic miR-221/222 targets, including p27Kip1, PUMA, PTEN and p57Kip2, in MM cells highly expressing miR-221/222. Conversely, transfection of miR-221/222 mimics increased S-phase and down-regulated p27Kip1 protein expression in MM with low basal miR-221/222 levels. The effects of miR-221/222 inhibitors was also evaluated in MM xenografts in SCID/ NOD mice. Significant anti-tumor activity was achieved in xenografted mice by the treatment with miR-221/222 inhibitors, together with up-regulation of canonic protein targets in tumors retrieved from animals. These findings provide proof of principle that silencing the miR-221/222 cluster exerts significant therapeutic activity in MM cells with high miR-221/222 level of expression, which mostly occurs in TC2 and TC4 MM groups. These findings suggest that MM genotyping may predict the therapeutic response. All together our results support a framework for clinical development of miR-221/222 inhibitors-based therapeutic strategy in this still incurable disease.

Sistrunk C, Kim SH, Wang X, et al.
Skp2 deficiency inhibits chemical skin tumorigenesis independent of p27(Kip1) accumulation.
Am J Pathol. 2013; 182(5):1854-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) functions as the receptor component of the Skp-Cullin-F-box complex and is implicated in the degradation of several cell cycle regulators, such as p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1), p57(Kip2), and cyclin E. Numerous studies in human and experimental tumors have demonstrated low p27(Kip1) levels and elevated Skp2 expression. However, a direct association between the inverse correlation of Skp2 and p27(Kip1) with tumorigenesis has not been demonstrated. Herein, we provide evidence that skin tumorigenesis is inhibited in Skp2(-/-) mice. An analysis of mouse keratinocytes indicates that increased p27(Kip1) levels in Skp2(-/-) epidermis cause reduced cell proliferation that is alleviated in the epidermis from Skp2(-/-)/p27(-/-) compound mice. In contrast, we establish that a p27(Kip1) deficiency does not overturn the reduced skin tumorigenesis experienced by Skp2(-/-) mice. In addition, Skp2(-/-) epidermis exhibits an accumulation of p53-cofactor CBP/p300 that is associated with elevated apoptosis in hair follicles and decreased skin tumorigenesis. We conclude that p27(Kip1) accumulation is responsible for the hypoplasia observed in normal tissues of Skp2(-/-) mice but does not have a preponderant function in reducing skin tumorigenesis.

Zhang J, Zhou Y, Ma L, et al.
The alteration of miR-222 and its target genes in nickel-induced tumor.
Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013; 152(2):267-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nickel is an important kind of metal and a necessary trace element in people's production and livelihood; it is also a well-confirmed human carcinogen. In the past few years, researchers did a large number of studies about the molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis, and they focused on activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of anti-oncogenes caused by gene point mutation, gene deletion, gene amplification, DNA methylation, chromosome condensation, and so on that were induced by nickel. However, the researches on tumorigenic molecular mechanisms regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) are rare. In this study, we established nickel-induced tumor by injecting Ni3S2 compounds to Wistar Rattus. By establishing a cDNA library of miRNA from rat muscle tumor tissue induced by Ni3S2, we found that the expression of miR-222 was significantly upregulated in tumor tissue compared with the normal tissue. As we expected, the expression levels of target genes of miR-222, CDKN1B and CDKN1C, were downregulated in the nickel-induced tumor. The same alteration of miR-222 and its target genes was also found in malignant 16HBE cells induced with Ni3S2 compounds. We conclude that miR-222 may promote cell proliferation infinitely during nickel-induced tumorigenesis in part by regulating the expression of its target genes CDKN1B and CDKN1C. Our study elucidated a novel molecular mechanism of nickel-induced tumorigenesis.

Abdou A, Kandil M, El-Wahed MA, et al.
The diagnostic value of p27 in comparison to p57 in differentiation between different gestational trophoblastic diseases.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2013; 32(6):395-411 [PubMed] Related Publications
The histologic features that permit the identification of complete mole (CM) and partial mole (PM) as well as hydropic abortion (HA) may be overlapping. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57Kip2 protein (p57) has been included among the paternally imprinted genes in humans that commonly used for diagnosis of CM. P27 is one of the cell-cycle controlling molecules that may be involved in the proliferation, differentiation and oncogenesis of trophoblastic cells. The current study tried to test the diagnostic validity of several histopathological parameters together with p57 and p27 immunostaining in differentiation between different gestational trophoblastic diseases. The current study was carried out on 13 cases product of conception, 13 cases PM, 25 cases CM and 8 cases choriocarcinoma. Maximal villous diameter at 1.5 mm cut-off point was found to be the most reliable factor in discrimination between PM and product of conception followed by presence of villous cistern, p57 expression by extravillous cytotrophoblasts at 1.5% cut-off point and p27 expression by villous cytotrophoblasts at 25% cut-off point. P27 expression by stromal cells and total trophoblastic population at 7.5% cut-off point could discriminate between PM and CM. P57 and p27 are co-parallely expressed in non-molar as well as partial molar gestations, but they did not show this coordination in choriocarcinoma. This study demonstrated diagnostic values for several cut-off points for p57 and p27 in discrimination between different categories of gestational trophoblastic diseases. The co-expression of p27 and p57 by extravillous cytotrophoblasts and their positive correlation in non-molar gestations may indicate its suppressive role on the proliferation of these cells to provide them the capacity for differentiation and invasion.

Vasilatos SN, Katz TA, Oesterreich S, et al.
Crosstalk between lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and histone deacetylases mediates antineoplastic efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in human breast cancer cells.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(6):1196-207 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
Our previous studies demonstrated that lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) closely interact in controlling growth of breast cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we showed that knockdown of LSD1 expression (LSD1-KD) by RNAi decreased mRNA levels of HDAC isozymes in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of HDAC5 expression induced the most significant accumulation of H3K4me2, a specific substrate of LSD1. Combined treatment with LSD1 inhibitor, pargyline, and HDAC inhibitor, SAHA (Vorinostat), led to superior growth inhibition and apoptotic death in TNBC cells, but exhibited additive or antagonistic effect on growth inhibition in non-TNBC counterparts or non-tumorigenic breast cells. Additionally, LSD1-KD enhanced SAHA-induced reexpression of a subset of aberrantly silenced genes, such as NR4A1, PCDH1, RGS16, BIK, and E-cadherin whose reexpression may be tumor suppressive. Genome-wide microarray study in MDA-MB-231 cells identified a group of tumor suppressor genes whose expression was induced by SAHA and significantly enhanced by LSD1-KD. We also showed that concurrent depletion of RGS16 by siRNA reduced overall cytotoxicity of SAHA and blocked the reexpression of E-cadherin, CDKN1C and ING1 in LSD1-deficient MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, cotreatment with RGS16 siRNA reversed the downregulation of nuclear factor-kappaB expression induced by combined inhibition of LSD1 and HDACs, suggesting a crucial role of RGS16 in controlling key pathways of cell death in response to combination therapy. Taken together, these results provide novel mechanistic insight into the breast cancer subtype-dependent role of LSD1 in mediating HDAC activity and therapeutic efficacy of HDAC inhibitor.

Calton EA, Temple IK, Mackay DJ, et al.
Hepatoblastoma in a child with a paternally-inherited ABCC8 mutation and mosaic paternal uniparental disomy 11p causing focal congenital hyperinsulinism.
Eur J Med Genet. 2013; 56(2):114-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatoblastoma is a tumour of early childhood occurring in association with genetic syndromes including Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) which results from dominance of paternally-inherited genes on chromosome 11p15. We report a child without clinical BWS, neonatally diagnosed with focal congenital hyperinsulinism resulting from a paternally-inherited recessively-acting mutation of ABCC8 and pancreatic paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 11p15, who subsequently developed hepatoblastoma. Genetic testing showed UPD 11p15 in the pancreas and liver but not systemically, allowing the expression of mutated ABCC8 in both tissues. Infants with large or multifocal forms of focal congenital hyperinsulinism may be at risk of BWS-like tumours due to mosaic UPD despite negative whole-blood and buccal DNA testing and tumour surveillance should be considered for this minority.

Litvinov IV, Kupper TS, Sasseville D
The role of AHI1 and CDKN1C in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma progression.
Exp Dermatol. 2012; 21(12):964-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is the most common lymphoma of the skin. Recent reports suggest that AHI1 is overexpressed in a subset of CTCL-derived cell lines, where it downregulates the expression of CDKN1C tumor suppressor gene. In the current work, we test the expression of these genes in 60 patients with Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome by RT-PCR and correlate our findings with 6 years of clinical follow-up. These findings reveal that AHI1 and CDKN1C exhibit opposite expression patterns, where AHI1 is expressed in poor and intermediate prognosis patients, while CDKN1C is expressed in favourable prognosis patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis documents that downregulation of CDKN1C is associated with poor disease outcome in patients with CTCL, while upregulation of AHI1 shows a weak association with aggressive disease course.

Ferraz C, Lorenz S, Wojtas B, et al.
Inverse correlation of miRNA and cell cycle-associated genes suggests influence of miRNA on benign thyroid nodule tumorigenesis.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(1):E8-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: The molecular etiology of cold and benign thyroid nodules (CBTNs) is largely unknown. Increased thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a hallmark of CBTNs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are prominent regulators of cell proliferation.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the influence of miRNAs on the increased proliferation and thus the molecular etiology of CBTNs.
DESIGN: By using microarrays, we defined the molecular pattern of increased proliferation of CBTNs as a differential expression of cell-cycle-associated genes and miRNAs. In silico integration of differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs showed an inverse correlation between the expression of 59 miRNAs and 133 mRNAs. Inverse correlations between cell-cycle-associated genes such as CDKN1C and miR-221, CCND1 and miR-31, GADD45A and miR-130b, or CDKN1A and let-7f suggest a modulation of proliferation in CBTNs by miRNAs. Their expression was validated using quantitative RT-PCR and functionally characterized in cell line models.
RESULTS: Comparative quantitative RT-PCR of 20 samples of CBTNs and their surrounding tissue revealed an 11-fold down-regulation of miR-31 with a 2.6-fold up-regulation of CCND1, and a 2.6-fold up-regulation of miR-130b with a 2.3-fold down-regulation of its target GADD45A. Using HTori and FTC-133 cell lines, we analyzed proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis after transfection of miRNA-31 and miRNA-130b mimic and inhibitors. Overexpression of miR-31 and the resultant down-regulation of CCND1 led to an arrest in the cell cycle phase G1. Overexpression of miR-130b led to an increase of apoptosis and necrosis within 72 h.
CONCLUSION: miR-31 and miR-130b may have an effect on tumorigenesis of CBTNs by regulating proliferation and apoptosis and the cell cycle through cyclin D1.

Fallahian M, Sebire NJ, Savage PM, et al.
Mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L confer a complete hydatidiform mole phenotype on digynic triploid conceptions.
Hum Mutat. 2013; 34(2):301-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Digynic triploidy is classically associated with a severely growth restricted fetus and a small nonmolar placenta. However, in genotyping hydatidiform moles as part of clinical practice, we identified two digynic triploid conceptions presenting with histopathological features of classical complete hydatidiform mole (CHM). Both cases occurred in women with a history of previous molar pregnancies and no normal pregnancies. Pathological review and genotyping of other molar pregnancies in these cases showed them to be typical CHM with negative p57(KIP2) immunostaining of the cytotrophoblast cells and villous stroma and to be diploid but biparental, confirming a diagnosis of familial recurrent hydatidiform mole (FRHM). Mutation screening of NLRP7 had identified a homozygous duplication, leading to a truncated protein, in case 1 whereas mutation screening of KHDC3L (C6orf221) in case 2 showed both the proband and her sister to be compound heterozygotes for mutations in KHDC3L. The observation of a single digynic, triploid conception presenting as a CHM in women with FRHM, where other pregnancies are diploid and biparental, supports the hypothesis that the role of both NLRP7 and KHDC3L in pregnancy is in setting and/or maintaining the maternal imprint. Clinically, a diagnosis of FRHM should be considered in women with genetically unusual conceptions that are phenotypically CHM.

Zhukova N, Naqvi A
Williams-Beuren Syndrome and Burkitt Leukemia.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013; 35(1):e30-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is associated with constitutional deletion of 7q11.23, which includes the elastin gene. Cytogenetic abnormalities of chromosome 7 are frequently described in several human malignancies. Here, we report Burkitt Leukemia in an 8-year-old boy with WBS. In this patient, constitutional deletion of chromosome 7q11.23 including BCL7B was confirmed. WBS may predispose patients to Burkitt Leukemia.

Zhao Y, Guo J, Gu S, et al.
SDF-1/CXCR4 signal is involved in decreased expression of p57kip2 in de novo MDS patients.
Hematology. 2012; 17(4):220-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
p57kip2 is considered as a candidate tumor suppressor gene involvement in cell cycle control. In this study, we explored the expression of p57kip2 in various myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) subsets by real-time quantitative PCR, as well as the relationship between p57kip2 and CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4). We also searched the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 signal in p57kip2 expression in vitro. The expression of p57kip2 decreased in MDS cases (low grade MDS, P<0.001, n = 46; high grade MDS, P<0.001, n = 21), compared with that in control group. Patients with poor karyotype (according to IPSS) had lower p57kip2 than that in the normal group (P<0.05). p57kip2 expression increased after treatment with decitabine in the cases that had achieved response (P = 0.009, n = 7). Additionally, a positive correlation between p57kip2 and CXCR4 was investigated (r = 0.652, P<0.001, n = 67). p57kip2 expression in bone marrow mononuclear cells of normal controls increased significantly when co-cultured with SDF-1 in vitro, which could be blocked by AMD3100, whereas SDF-1 only induced a mild increase in p57kip2 in MDS. In conclusion, low expression of p57kip2 is common in MDS, which may play an important role in MDS pathogenesis. Reduced response to SDF-1 contributed to low expression of p57kip2 in MDS cases.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. CDKN1C, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/CDKN1C.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 27 February, 2015     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999