Gene Summary

Gene:CD55; CD55 molecule (Cromer blood group)
Summary:This gene encodes a glycoprotein involved in the regulation of the complement cascade. Binding of the encoded protein to complement proteins accelerates their decay, thereby disrupting the cascade and preventing damage to host cells. Antigens present on this protein constitute the Cromer blood group system (CROM). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. The predominant transcript variant encodes a membrane-bound protein, but alternatively spliced transcripts may produce soluble proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:complement decay-accelerating factor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CD55 (cancer-related)

Yoo SK, Song YS, Lee EK, et al.
Integrative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic characteristics associated with progression of aggressive thyroid cancer.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2764 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and advanced differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) show fatal outcomes, unlike DTCs. Here, we demonstrate mutational landscape of 27 ATCs and 86 advanced DTCs by massively-parallel DNA sequencing, and transcriptome of 13 ATCs and 12 advanced DTCs were profiled by RNA sequencing. TERT, AKT1, PIK3CA, and EIF1AX were frequently co-mutated with driver genes (BRAF

Gong W, Hoffmann JM, Stock S, et al.
Comparison of IL-2 vs IL-7/IL-15 for the generation of NY-ESO-1-specific T cells.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(7):1195-1209 [PubMed] Related Publications
The anti-tumor efficacy of TCR-engineered T cells in vivo depends largely on less-differentiated subsets such as T cells with naïve-like T cell (T

Kim JY, Kim SH, Kim HS
Promoter Methylation Down-regulates Osteoprotegerin Expression in Ovarian Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2361-2367 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Previous studies have documented that osteoprotegerin (OPG) is involved in the development and progression of several human malignancies. However, OPG has also been shown to act as a tumor suppressor. The aim of this study was to examine the expression status of OPG in ovarian carcinoma cells and investigate the underlying mechanism responsible for alterations in OPG expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of OPG mRNA and protein were assessed in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. The methylation status of the OPG promoter region was determined using the bisulfite pyrosequencing technique. The effects of demethylation on OPG expression were also analyzed.
RESULTS: The human ovarian carcinoma cell lines, SW 626, OVCAR-3, ES-2, TOV-112D, and TOV-21G, expressed significantly lower levels of OPG mRNA and protein than the normal human ovarian epithelial cell line, HS823.Tc. Moreover, three CpG sites in the OPG promoter region were highly methylated in the SW 626, OVCAR-3, ES-2, and TOV-112D ovarian carcinoma cell lines compared to normal control cells. Furthermore, in all the examined ovarian carcinoma cell lines, treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, resulted in significantly increased expression levels of OPG mRNA and protein compared to the respective pre-treatment levels.
CONCLUSION: OPG expression was down-regulated in the studied ovarian carcinoma cells compared to the normal control cells, while demethylation significantly restored OPG expression in the OPG-down-regulated cell lines. Our results suggest that OPG down-regulation in ovarian carcinoma occurs, at least partly, through epigenetic repression, suggesting its involvement in ovarian carcinogenesis.

Gusev A, Lawrenson K, Lin X, et al.
A transcriptome-wide association study of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer identifies new susceptibility genes and splice variants.
Nat Genet. 2019; 51(5):815-823 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
We sought to identify susceptibility genes for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) by performing a transcriptome-wide association study of gene expression and splice junction usage in HGSOC-relevant tissue types (N = 2,169) and the largest genome-wide association study available for HGSOC (N = 13,037 cases and 40,941 controls). We identified 25 transcriptome-wide association study significant genes, 7 at the junction level only, including LRRC46 at 19q21.32, (P = 1 × 10

Zhang Q, Lu S, Li T, et al.
ACE2 inhibits breast cancer angiogenesis via suppressing the VEGFa/VEGFR2/ERK pathway.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):173 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer angiogenesis is key for metastasis and predicts a poor prognosis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), was reported to restrain the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) through inhibiting angiogenesis. However, the relationship between ACE2 and breast cancer angiogenesis remains unclear.
METHODS: The prognosis and relative gene selection were analysed using the GEPIA, GEO, TCGA and STRING databases. ACE2 expression in breast cancer tissue was estimated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Breast cancer cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis were assessed by Transwell migration, proliferation, tube formation, and wound healing assays. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFa) was detected by qPCR and Western blotting. The phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was examined by Western blotting. Breast cancer metastasis and angiogenesis in vivo were measured using a zebrafish model.
RESULTS: ACE2 was downregulated in breast cancer patients. Patients with higher ACE2 expression had longer relapse-free survival (RFS). In vitro, ACE2 inhibited breast cancer migration. Meanwhile, ACE2 in breast cancer cells inhibited human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, tube formation and migration. In the zebrafish model, ACE2 inhibited breast cancer cell metastasis, as demonstrated by analyses of the number of disseminated foci and the metastatic distance. Neo-angiogenesis was also decreased by ACE2. ACE2 downregulated the expression of VEGFa in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, ACE2 in breast cancer cells inactivated the phosphorylation of VEGFR2, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 in HUVECs.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ACE2, as a potential resister to breast cancer, might inhibit breast cancer angiogenesis through the VEGFa/VEGFR2/ERK pathway.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered.

Wang T, Xing Y, Meng Q, et al.
Mammalian Eps15 homology domain 1 potentiates angiogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer by regulating β2AR signaling.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):174 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a devastating disease with a heterogeneous prognosis, and the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor progression remain elusive. Mammalian Eps15 homology domain 1 (EHD1) plays a promotive role in tumor progression, but its role in cancer angiogenesis remains unknown. This study thus explored the role of EHD1 in angiogenesis in NSCLC.
METHODS: The changes in angiogenesis were evaluated through human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tube formation assays. The impact of EHD1 on β2-adrenoceptor (β2AR) signaling was evaluated by Western blotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The interaction between EHD1 and β2AR was confirmed by immunofluorescence (IF) and coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) experiments, and confocal microscopy immunofluorescence studies revealed that β2AR colocalized with the recycling endosome marker Rab11, which indicated β2AR endocytosis. Xenograft tumor models were used to investigate the role of EHD1 in NSCLC tumor growth.
RESULTS: The microarray analysis revealed that EHD1 was significantly correlated with tumor angiogenesis, and loss- and gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that EHD1 potentiates HUVEC proliferation, migration and tube formation. EHD1 knockdown inhibited β2AR signaling activity, and EHD1 upregulation promoted vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and β2AR expression. Interestingly, EHD1 interacted with β2AR and played a novel and critical role in β2AR endocytic recycling to prevent receptor degradation. Aberrant VEGFA or β2AR expression significantly affected EHD1-mediated tumor angiogenesis. The proangiogenic role of EHD1 was confirmed in xenograft tumor models, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis confirmed that EHD1 expression was positively correlated with VEGFA expression, microvessel density (MVD) and β2AR expression in patient specimens.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, the data obtained in this study suggest that EHD1 plays a critical role in NSCLC angiogenesis via β2AR signaling and highlight a potential target for antiangiogenic therapy.

Wu AY, Gu LY, Cang W, et al.
Fn14 overcomes cisplatin resistance of high-grade serous ovarian cancer by promoting Mdm2-mediated p53-R248Q ubiquitination and degradation.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):176 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most lethal of all gynecological malignancies. Patients often suffer from chemoresistance. Several studies have reported that Fn14 could regulate migration, invasion, and angiogenesis in cancer cells. However, its functional role in chemoresistance of HGSOC is still unknown.
METHODS: The expression of Fn14 in tissue specimens was detected by IHC. CCK-8 assay was performed to determine changes in cell viability. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. The potential molecular mechanism of Fn14-regulated cisplatin resistance in HGSOC was investigated using qRT-PCR, western blotting, and Co-IP assays. The role of Fn14 in HGSOC was also investigated in a xenograft mouse model.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that Fn14 was significantly downregulated in patients with cisplatin resistance. Patients with low Fn14 expression were associated with shorter progression-free survival and overall survival. Overexpression of Fn14 suppressed cisplatin resistance in OVCAR-3 cells, whereas knockdown of Fn14 did not affect cisplatin resistance in SKOV-3 cells. Interestingly, Fn14 could exert anti-chemoresistance effect only in OVCAR-3 cells harboring a p53-R248Q mutation, but not in SKOV-3 cells with a p53-null mutation. We isolated and identified primary cells from two patients with the p53-R248Q mutation from HGSOC patients and the anti-chemoresistance effect of Fn14 was observed in both primary cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that overexpression of Fn14 could reduce the formation of a Mdm2-p53-R248Q-Hsp90 complex by downregulating Hsp90 expression, indicating that degradation of p53-R248Q was accelerated via Mdm2-mediated ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate for the first time that Fn14 overcomes cisplatin resistance through modulation of the degradation of p53-R248Q and restoration of Fn14 expression might be a novel strategy for the treatment of HGSOC.

Saeinasab M, Bahrami AR, González J, et al.
SNHG15 is a bifunctional MYC-regulated noncoding locus encoding a lncRNA that promotes cell proliferation, invasion and drug resistance in colorectal cancer by interacting with AIF.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):172 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in various types of cancers, however our understanding of their role in the disease is still very limited.
METHODS: We applied RNAseq analysis from patient-derived data with validation in independent cohort of patients. We followed these studies with gene regulation analysis as well as experimental dissection of the role of the identified lncRNA by multiple in vitro and in vivo methods.
RESULTS: We analyzed RNA-seq data from tumors of 456 CRC patients compared to normal samples, and identified SNHG15 as a potentially oncogenic lncRNA that encodes a snoRNA in one of its introns. The processed SNHG15 is overexpressed in CRC tumors and its expression is highly correlated with poor survival of patients. Interestingly, SNHG15 is more highly expressed in tumors with high levels of MYC expression, while MYC protein binds to two E-box motifs on SNHG15 sequence, indicating that SNHG15 transcription is directly regulated by the oncogene MYC. The depletion of SNHG15 by siRNA or CRISPR-Cas9 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion, decreases colony formation as well as the tumorigenic capacity of CRC cells, whereas its overexpression leads to opposite effects. Gene expression analysis performed upon SNHG15 inhibition showed changes in multiple relevant genes implicated in cancer progression, including MYC, NRAS, BAG3 or ERBB3. Several of these genes are functionally related to AIF, a protein that we found to specifically interact with SNHG15, suggesting that the SNHG15 acts, at least in part, by regulating the activity of AIF. Interestingly, ROS levels, which are directly regulated by AIF, show a significant reduction in SNHG15-depleted cells. Moreover, knockdown of SNHG15 increases the sensitiveness of the cells to 5-FU, while its overexpression renders them more resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug.
CONCLUSION: Altogether, these results describe an important role of SNHG15 in promoting colon cancer and mediating drug resistance, suggesting its potential as prognostic marker and target for RNA-based therapies.

Rodrigues-Junior DM, Tan SS, de Souza Viana L, et al.
A preliminary investigation of circulating extracellular vesicles and biomarker discovery associated with treatment response in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):373 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of plasma-based biomarkers that prospectively segregate the outcome of patients with head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) might be an alternative source for discovery of new specific markers present in patients with HNSCC, which could help to re-direct patients to appropriate curative therapies without delay.
METHODS: In order to identify new markers in plasma compartments, Cholerae toxin B chain (CTB) and Annexin V (AV) were used to isolate EVs from pooled plasma samples from patients with locally advanced HNSCC who responded (CR, n = 6) or presented incomplete response (NR, n = 6) to CRT. The crude plasma and EVs cargo were screened by antibody array.
RESULTS: Of the 370 polypeptides detected, 119 proteins were specific to NR patients while 38 were exclusive of the CR subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database analysis indicated that the content of circulating plasma EVs might have a relevant function for the tumor intercellular communication in the HNSCC patients.
CONCLUSION: This study provides a list of potential markers present in plasma compartments that might contribute to the development of tools for prediction and assessment of CRT response and potentially guide therapeutic decisions in this context.

Jin X, Li Y, Guo Y, et al.
ERα is required for suppressing OCT4-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells via DNMT1/ISL1/ERK axis.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(4):e12612 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: POU5F1 (OCT4) is implicated in cancer stem cell self-renewal. Currently, some studies have shown that OCT4 has a dual function in suppressing or promoting cancer progression. However, the precise molecular mechanism of OCT4 in breast cancer progression remains unclear.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: RT-PCR and Western blot were utilized to investigate OCT4 expression in breast cancer tissues and cells. Cell proliferation assays and mouse models were applied to determine the effects of OCT4 on breast cancer cell proliferation. DNMT1 inhibitors, ChIP, CoIP, IHC and ERα inhibitors were used to explore the molecular mechanism of OCT4 in breast cancer.
RESULTS: OCT4 was down-regulated in breast cancer tissues, and the overexpression of OCT4 promoted MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Two DNMT1 inhibitors (5-aza-dC and zebularine) suppressed OCT4-induced MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation through Ras/Raf1/ERK inactivation by targeting ISL1, which is the downstream of DNMT1. In contrast, OCT4 interacted with ERα, decreased DNMT1 expression and inactivated the Ras/Raf1/ERK signalling pathway in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, ERα inhibitor (AZD9496) reversed the suppression of OCT4-induced proliferation in MCF-7 cells via the activation of ERK signalling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: OCT4 is dependent on ERα to suppress the proliferation of breast cancer cells through DNMT1/ISL1/ERK axis.

Mao W, Huang X, Wang L, et al.
Circular RNA hsa_circ_0068871 regulates FGFR3 expression and activates STAT3 by targeting miR-181a-5p to promote bladder cancer progression.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):169 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: FGFR3 plays an important role in the development of bladder cancer (BCa). Hsa_circ_0068871 is a circRNA generated from several exons of FGFR3. However, the potential functional role of hsa_circ_0068871 in BCa remains largely unknown. Here we aim to evaluate the role of hsa_circ_0068871 in BCa.
METHODS: We selected miR-181a-5p as the potential target miRNA of hsa_circ_0068871. The expression levels of hsa_circ_0068871 and miR-181a-5p were examined in BCa tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues by quantitative real-time PCR. To characterize the function of hsa_circ_0068871, BCa cell lines were stably infected with lentivirus targeting hsa_circ_0068871, followed by examinations of cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. In addition, xenografts experiment in nude mice were performed to evaluate the effect of hsa_circ_0068871 in BCa. Biotinylated RNA probe pull-down assay, fluorescence in situ hybridization and luciferase reporter assay were conducted to confirm the relationship between hsa_circ_0068871, miR-181a-5p and FGFR3.
RESULTS: Hsa_circ_0068871 is over-expressed in BCa tissues and cell lines, whereas miR-181a-5p expression is repressed. Depletion of has_circ_0068871 or upregulation of miR-181a-5p inhibited the proliferation and migration of BCa cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, hsa_circ_0068871 upregulated FGFR3 expression and activated STAT3 by targeting miR-181a-5p to promote BCa progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Hsa_circ_0068871 regulates the miR-181a-5p/FGFR3 axis and activates STAT3 to promote BCa progression, and it may serve as a potential biomarker.

Sun L, Wang Y, Wang L, et al.
Resolvin D1 prevents epithelial-mesenchymal transition and reduces the stemness features of hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting paracrine of cancer-associated fibroblast-derived COMP.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):170 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) require stromal signals for maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal capacities to confer tumor metastasis. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), an endogenous anti-inflammatory lipid mediator, has recently been identified to display anti-cancer effects by acting on stroma cells. Our previous study reveals that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)-derived cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. However, whether RvD1 inhibits paracrine of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)-derived COMP to prevent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stemness in HCC remains to be elucidated.
METHODS: CAFs were isolated from HCC tissues. Direct and indirect co-culture models were established to analyze the interactions between HCC cells and CAFs in the presence of RvD1 in vitro. The transwell and tumor sphere formation assays were used to determine invasion and stemness of HCC cells. The subcutaneous tumor formation and orthotopic liver tumor models were established by co-implantation of CAFs and HCC cells to evaluate the role of RvD1 in vivo. To characterize the mechanism of RvD1 inhibited paracrine of COMP in CAFs, various signaling molecules were analyzed by ELISA, western blotting, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, immunofluorescence staining, dual luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay.
RESULTS: Our data revealed that RvD1 treatment can impede the CAFs-induced cancer stem-like properties and the EMT of HCC cells under co-culture conditions. In vivo studies indicated that RvD1 intervention repressed the promoting effects of CAFs on tumor growth and metastasis of HCC. Furthermore, RvD1 inhibited CAF-induced EMT and stemness features of HCC cells by suppressing the secretion of COMP. Mechanistically, formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) receptor mediated the suppressive effects of RvD1 on COMP and forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) expression in CAFs. Notably, RvD1 impaired CAF-derived COMP in a paracrine manner by targeting FPR2/ROS/FOXM1 signaling to ultimately abrogate FOXM1 recruitment to the COMP promoter.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that RvD1 impaired paracrine of CAFs-derived COMP by targeting FPR2/ROS/FOXM1 signaling to repress EMT and cancer stemness in HCC. Thus, RvD1 may be a potential agent to promote treatment outcomes in HCC.

Chen WC, Li QL, Pan Q, et al.
Xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 (XPR1) promotes progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) via activation of NF-κB signaling.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):167 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 (XPR1), a previously identified cellular receptor for several murine leukemia viruses, plays a role in many pathophysiological processes. However, the role of XPR1 in human cancers has not yet been characterized.
METHODS: Real-time PCR and western blotting assay were used to measure the expression of XPR1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) tissues. Expression of XPR1 and p65 in clinical specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical assay. The function of XPR1 on progression of TSCC was explored using in vitro and in vivo experiments. The molecular mechanism by which XPR1 helps to cancer progression was investigated by luciferase reporter activity, ELISA, PKA activity assay, immunofluorescence, western blotting and qPCR assay.
RESULTS: Herein, we find that XPR1 is markedly upregulated in TSCC tissues compared to normal tongue tissues. High expression of XPR1 significantly correlates with the malignant features and poor patient survival in TSCC. Ectopic expression of XPR1 increases, while silencing of XPR1 reduces the proliferation, invasion and anti-apoptosis capacities of TSCC cells. Importantly, silencing of XPR1 effectively inhibits the tumorigenecity of TSCC cells. Moreover, we identified that XPR1 increased the concentration of intracellular cAMP and activated PKA. Thus, XPR1 promoted phosphorylation and activation of NF-κB signaling, which is required for XPR1-mediated oncogenic roles and significantly correlates with XPR1 expression in clinical specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings uncover a critical role of XPR1 in TSCC progression via activation of NF-κB, and suggest that XPR1 might be a potential prognostic marker or therapeutic target.

Wang Y, Yu W, Zhu J, et al.
Anti-CD166/4-1BB chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):168 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells have displayed outstanding performance in the treatment of patients with hematological malignancies. However, their efficacy against solid tumors has been largely limited.
METHODS: In this study, human osteosarcoma cell lines were prepared, flow cytometry using antibodies against CD166 was performed on different cell samples. CD166-specific T cells were obtained by viral gene transfer of corresponding DNA plasmids and selectively expanded using IL-2 and IL-15. The ability of CD166.BBζ CAR-T cells to kill CD166
RESULTS: CD166 was selectively expressed on four different human osteosarcoma cell lines, indicating its role as the novel target for CAR-T cell therapy. CD166.BBζ CAR-T cells killed osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro; the cytotoxicity correlated with the level of CD166 expression on the tumor cells. Intravenous injection of CD166.BBζ CAR-T cells into mice resulted in the regression of the tumor with no obvious toxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, the data suggest that CD166.BBζ CAR-T cells may serve as a new therapeutic strategy in the future clinical practice for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Zhang Z, Yin J, Lu C, et al.
Exosomal transfer of long non-coding RNA SBF2-AS1 enhances chemoresistance to temozolomide in glioblastoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):166 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acquired drug resistance is a constraining factor in clinical treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). However, the mechanisms of chemoresponsive tumors acquire therapeutic resistance remain poorly understood. Here, we aim to investigate whether temozolomide (TMZ) resistance of chemoresponsive GBM was enhanced by long non-coding RNA SBF2 antisense RNA 1 (lncRNA SBF2-AS1) enriched exosomes.
METHOD: LncSBF2-AS1 level in TMZ-resistance or TMZ-sensitive GBM tissues and cells were analyzed by qRT-PCR and FISH assays. A series of in vitro assay and xenograft tumor models were performed to observe the effect of lncSBF2-AS1 on TMZ-resistance in GBM. CHIP assay were used to investigate the correlation of SBF2-AS1 and transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). Dual-luciferase reporter, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), immunofluorescence and western blotting were performed to verify the relation between lncSBF2-AS1, miR-151a-3p and XRCC4. Comet assay and immunoblotting were performed to expound the effect of lncSBF2-AS1 on DNA double-stand break (DSB) repair. A series of in vitro assay and intracranial xenografts tumor model were used to determined the function of exosomal lncSBF2-AS1.
RESULT: It was found that SBF2-AS1 was upregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cells and tissues, and overexpression of SBF2-AS1 led to the promotion of TMZ resistance, whereas its inhibition sensitized resistant GBM cells to TMZ. Transcription factor ZEB1 was found to directly bind to the SBF2-AS1 promoter region to regulate SBF2-AS1 level and affected TMZ resistance in GBM cells. SBF2-AS1 functions as a ceRNA for miR-151a-3p, leading to the disinhibition of its endogenous target, X-ray repair cross complementing 4 (XRCC4), which enhances DSB repair in GBM cells. Exosomes selected from temozolomide-resistant GBM cells had high levels of SBF2-AS1 and spread TMZ resistance to chemoresponsive GBM cells. Clinically, high levels of lncSBF2-AS1 in serum exosomes were associated with poor response to TMZ treatment in GBM patients.
CONCLUSION: We can conclude that GBM cells remodel the tumor microenvironment to promote tumor chemotherapy-resistance by secreting the oncogenic lncSBF2-AS1-enriched exosomes. Thus, exosomal lncSBF2-AS1 in human serum may serve as a possible diagnostic marker for therapy-refractory GBM.

Li J, He M, Xu W, Huang S
LINC01354 interacting with hnRNP-D contributes to the proliferation and metastasis in colorectal cancer through activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):161 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified to play an important role in the development and progression of various tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the regulatory molecular mechanism by lncRNA in CRC initiation and progression has not been fully clarified.
METHODS: TCGA database was used to identify the involvement of LINC01354 in CRC. qRT-PCR and western blot were used to determine RNA and protein expression. The gain- and loss-of-function assays were conducted to explore the function of LINC01354 in the progression of CRC. In order to investigate the LINC01354-mediated mRNA in CRC tumorigenesis, we applied the profiling analysis as well as GO and KEGG analysis. Pulldown and RIP assays were applied to detect the interaction of hnRNP-D with LINC01354 and β-catenin.
RESULTS: The upregulation of LINC01354 in CRC and its prognostic significance were identified by TCGA database and confirmed in CRC tissues. Functionally, forced expression of LINC01354 promoted, while knockdown of LINC01354 inhibited cell proliferation, migration and EMT phenotype formation of CRC cells. A significant enrichment of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway genes under LINC01354 overexpression. In addition, LINC01354 modulated the mRNA stability of β-catenin through interacting with hnRNP-D, thereby activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: Our investigations proposed novel regulatory axis of LINC01354/hnRNP-D/Wnt/β-catenin, which might be in favor of exploring novel therapeutic regimens for the clinical treatment of CRC.

Zhu H, Gan X, Jiang X, et al.
ALKBH5 inhibited autophagy of epithelial ovarian cancer through miR-7 and BCL-2.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):163 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ALKBH5 regulated the malignant behavior of breast cancer and glioblastoma. However, the expression and function of ALKBH5 in epithelial ovarian cancer have not yet been determined. In the present study, we investigated the expression and function of ALKBH5 in epithelial ovarian cancer with respect to its potential role in the tumorigenesis of the disease as well as an early diagnostic marker.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and western blot were used to detect protein expression. Gene silencing and over-expression experiment were used to study gene function. Cell proliferation assay and Matrigel invasion assays were used to detect cell proliferation and invasion, respectively. The nude mouse tumor formation experiment was used to evaluate the growth of cells in vivo.
RESULTS: The expression of ALKBH5 was found to be increased in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue as compared to the normal ovarian tissues. The silencing of ALKBH5 in SKOV3 cells enhanced the autophagy and inhibited the proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo, whereas the ectopic expression of ALKBH5 in A2780 cells exerted an opposite effect. Mechanical study revealed that ALKBH5 physically interacted with HuR. ALKBH5 activated EGFR-PIK3CA-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. Also, ALKBH5 enhanced the stability of BCL-2 mRNA and promoted the interaction between Bcl-2 and Beclin1.
CONCLUSION: Overall, the present study identified ALKBH5 as a candidate oncogene in epithelial ovarian cancer and a potential target for ovarian cancer therapy.

Zhang JX, He WL, Feng ZH, et al.
A positive feedback loop consisting of C12orf59/NF-κB/CDH11 promotes gastric cancer invasion and metastasis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):164 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis remains the main cause of cancer-related death for gastric cancer (GC) patients, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data base and bioinformatics analyses, we identified C12orf59 might act as a potential oncogenic protein in GC.
METHODS: We investigate the expression pattern and clinical significance of C12orf59 in two independent cohorts of GC samples. In the training cohort, we used the X-tile program software to generate the optimal cutoff value for C12orf59 expression in order to classify patients accurately according to clinical outcome. In the validation cohort, this derived cutoff score was applied to exam the association of C12orf59 expression with survival outcome. A series of in vivo and in vitro assays were then performed to investigate the function of C12orf59 in GC.
RESULTS: C12orf59 was significantly upregulated, and associated with poor survival outcome in two cohorts of GC samples. Gain- and loss of- function studies demonstrated C12orf59 promotes GC cell invasive and metastatic capacity both in vitro and in vivo, and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis. Mechanically, C12orf59 exerts oncogenic functions by up-regulating CDH11 expression via NF-κB signaling. Interesting, CDH11 could in turn promote NF-κB bind to C12orf59's promoter and form a positive feedback loop to sustain the metastatic ability of GC cells. Additionally, downregulation of miR-654-5p is another important mechanism for C12orf59 overexpression in GC.
CONCLUSION: Our finding suggested the newly identified C12orf59/NF-κB/CDH11 feedback loop may represent a new strategy for GC treatment.

Jin H, Jang Y, Cheng N, et al.
Restoration of mutant K-Ras repressed miR-199b inhibits K-Ras mutant non-small cell lung cancer progression.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):165 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: miRNAs play crucial role in the progression of K-Ras-mutated nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, most studies have focused on miRNAs that target K-Ras. Here, we investigated miRNAs regulated by mutant K-Ras and their functions.
METHODS: miRNAs regulated by mutant K-Ras were screened using miRNA arrays. miR-199b expression levels were measured by qRT-PCR. The protein expression levels were measured using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effects of miR-199b on NSCLC were examined both in vitro and in vivo by overexpressing or inhibiting miR-199b. DNA methylation was measured by bisulfite sequencing.
RESULTS: An inverse correlation was observed between K-Ras mutation status and miR-199b levels in NSCLC specimens and cell lines. The inhibition of miR-199b stimulated NSCLC growth and metastasis, while restoration of miR-199b suppressed K-Ras mutation-driven lung tumorigenesis as well as K-Ras-mutated NSCLC growth and metastasis. miR-199b inactivated ERK and Akt pathways by targeting K-Ras, KSR2, PIK3R1, Akt1, and Rheb1. Furthermore, we determined that mutant K-Ras inhibits miR-199b expression by increasing miR-199b promoter methylation.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that mutant K-Ras plays an oncogenic role through downregulating miR-199b in NSCLC and that overexpression of miR-199b is a novel strategy for the treatment of K-Ras-mutated NSCLC.

Mele L, la Noce M, Paino F, et al.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase blockade potentiates tyrosine kinase inhibitor effect on breast cancer cells through autophagy perturbation.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):160 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) correlated to cancer progression and drug resistance. We previously showed that G6PD inhibition leads to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress often associated to autophagy deregulation. The latter can be induced by target-based agents such as Lapatinib, an anti-HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) largely used in breast cancer treatment.
METHODS: Here we investigate whether G6PD inhibition causes autophagy alteration, which can potentiate Lapatinib effect on cancer cells. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry for LC3B and lysosomes tracker were used to study autophagy in cells treated with lapatinib and/or G6PD inhibitors (polydatin). Immunoblots for LC3B and p62 were performed to confirm autophagy flux analyses together with puncta and colocalization studies. We generated a cell line overexpressing G6PD and performed synergism studies on cell growth inhibition induced by Lapatinib and Polydatin using the median effect by Chou-Talay. Synergism studies were additionally validated with apoptosis analysis by annexin V/PI staining in the presence or absence of autophagy blockers.
RESULTS: We found that the inhibition of G6PD induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, which was responsible for the deregulation of autophagy flux. Indeed, G6PD blockade caused a consistent increase of autophagosomes formation independently from mTOR status. Cells engineered to overexpress G6PD became resilient to autophagy and resistant to lapatinib. On the other hand, G6PD inhibition synergistically increased lapatinib-induced cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, while autophagy blockade abolished this effect. Finally, in silico studies showed a significant correlation between G6PD expression and tumour relapse/resistance in patients.
CONCLUSIONS: These results point out that autophagy and PPP are crucial players in TKI resistance, and highlight a peculiar vulnerability of breast cancer cells, where impairment of metabolic pathways and autophagy could be used to reinforce TKI efficacy in cancer treatment.

Keller M, Dubois F, Teulier S, et al.
NDR2 kinase contributes to cell invasion and cytokinesis defects induced by the inactivation of RASSF1A tumor-suppressor gene in lung cancer cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):158 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: RASSF1A, a tumor suppressor gene, is frequently inactivated in lung cancer leading to a YAP-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Such effects are partly due to the inactivation of the anti-migratory RhoB GTPase via the inhibitory phosphorylation of GEF-H1, the GDP/GTP exchange factor for RhoB. However, the kinase responsible for RhoB/GEF-H1 inactivation in RASSF1A-depleted cells remained unknown.
METHODS: NDR1/2 inactivation by siRNA or shRNA effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, xenograft formation and growth in SCID-/- Beige mice, apoptosis, proliferation, cytokinesis, YAP/TAZ activation were investigated upon RASSF1A loss in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC).
RESULTS: We demonstrate here that depletion of the YAP-kinases NDR1/2 reverts migration and metastatic properties upon RASSF1A loss in HBEC. We show that NDR2 interacts directly with GEF-H1 (which contains the NDR phosphorylation consensus motif HXRXXS/T), leading to GEF-H1 phosphorylation. We further report that the RASSF1A/NDR2/GEF-H1/RhoB/YAP axis is involved in proper cytokinesis in human bronchial cells, since chromosome proper segregation are NDR-dependent upon RASSF1A or GEF-H1 loss in HBEC.
CONCLUSION: To summarize, our data support a model in which, upon RASSF1A silencing, NDR2 gets activated, phosphorylates and inactivates GEF-H1, leading to RhoB inactivation. This cascade induced by RASSF1A loss in bronchial cells is responsible for metastasis properties, YAP activation and cytokinesis defects.

Liang Q, Tang C, Tang M, et al.
TRIM47 is up-regulated in colorectal cancer, promoting ubiquitination and degradation of SMAD4.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):159 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tripartite motif 47 (TRIM47), a member of the TRIM family proteins, plays a key role in many types of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). We found that levels of TRIM47 mRNA and protein were increased significantly in colorectal tumors compared with nontumor tissues and the increased levels were associated with advanced tumor stage and poor outcome.
METHODS: We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot to measure levels of TRIM47 mRNA and protein in human colorectal cancer and paired normal tissues. TRIM47 was knocked down and overexpressed in colorectal cancer cells, and the effects on cell proliferation, migration and growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice were assessed. The signaling pathways were examined by western blot and immunoprecipitation assays.
RESULTS: TRIM47 promoted CRC proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo as an oncogene. Mechanistically, TRIM47 interacted physically with SMAD4, increasing its ubiquitination and degradation. Loss of SMAD4 leaded to up-regulation of CCL15 expression and caused growth and invasion in human CRC cells through the CCL15-CCR1 signaling. Moreover, TRIM47 overexpression played a role in CRC chemoresistance in response to 5-FU therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a functional role of the TRIM47-SMAD4-CCL15 axis in CRC progression and suggested a potential target for CRC therapy.

Liao Y, Guo Z, Xia X, et al.
Inhibition of EGFR signaling with Spautin-1 represents a novel therapeutics for prostate cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):157 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a challenge worldwide. Due to the development of castration-resistance, traditional first-line androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) became powerlessness. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a well characterized therapeutic target to treat colorectal carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Increasing studies have unraveled the significance of EGFR and its downstream signaling in the progression of castration-resistant PCa.
METHOD: MTS, colony formation and Edu staining assays were used to analyze the cell proliferation of PCa cells. Flow cytometry was used to analyze PCa cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis. Western blot was used to measure the expression of key proteins associated with cell cycle progression, apoptosis and EGFR signaling pathways. Transfection of exogenous small interfering RNA (siRNA) or plasmid was used to intervene specific gene expression. Nude mouse model was employed to test the in vivo effect of Spautin-1.
RESULTS: The current study reveals that Spautin-1, a known inhibitor of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 10 (USP10) and USP13, inhibits EGFR phosphorylation and the activation of its downstream signaling. Inhibition of EGFR signaling induced by Spautin-1 leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of PCa in a USP10/USP13 independent manner. The application of Spautin-1 reduces the expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) and dramatically induces cell death under glucose deprivation condition. In vivo experiments show a potent anti-tumor effect of Spautin-1 alone and in combination with Enzalutamide.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of EGFR signaling inhibition by the use of Spautin-1 for PCa treatment.

Jiang R, Hu C, Li Q, et al.
Sodium new houttuyfonate suppresses metastasis in NSCLC cells through the Linc00668/miR-147a/slug axis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):155 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: As most lung cancer patients present with invasive, metastatic disease, it is vital to investigate anti-metastatic treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Houttuynia cordata is commonly used as a Chinese anticancer medicine in the clinic, and sodium new houttuyfonate (SNH), a main compound of this herb, has long been found to have antibiotic effects, although its anticancer effects have not been investigated. Here, we tried to address this lack of research from the perspective of the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) theory.
METHODS: The effects of SNH on NSCLC cells were analysed with Cell Counting Kit-8 assays and colony formation assays. In addition, transwell assays and wound healing assays were used to determine the effects of SNH on migration and invasion in NSCLC cells. The levels of key genes and proteins were examined by quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence staining and IHC staining. Through transcriptome screening and digital gene expression profiling, Linc00668 was identified to be regulated by SNH. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and RNA immunoprecipitation assays verified the binding efficiency between miR-147a and Linc00668 or Slug.
RESULTS: In the present study, SNH regulated NSCLC cells in multiple ways, the most prominent of which was suppressing the expression of Linc00668, which was indicated to promote migration and invasion in NSCLC cells. Functional studies demonstrated that Linc00668 acted as a ceRNA by sponging miR-147a to further regulate Slug mRNA levels, thereby influencing the progression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Consistently, the results of in vivo animal models showed that SNH depressed Linc00668 and suppressed the metastasis of NSCLC.
CONCLUSIONS: SNH suppressed metastasis of NSCLC cells and the mechanism may involve with the Linc00668/miR-147a/Slug axis.

Wang YG, Wang T, Shi M, Zhai B
Long noncoding RNA EPB41L4A-AS2 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma development by sponging miR-301a-5p and targeting FOXL1.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):153 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the major histological type of liver cancer with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) has been proved to be associated with various cancer types, while its regulation in HCC is largely unknown.
METHODS: To figure out the specific role of lncRNA EPB41L4A-AS2 in HCC. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was first used to determine the cellular sublocalization of EPB41L4A-AS2 to determine its primary mode of action. QRT-PCR, Western blot and hematoxylin-eosin staining were then used to measure the expression of genes in cells and tissues. Cell proliferation and invasion assays were performed to determine the effects of EPB41L4A-AS2, miR-301a-5p and FOXL1 on the malignant phenotype of tumor cells. With luciferase reporter assay, the direct interaction between target genes were further confirmed for research on molecular mechanism. Finally, the mice hepatocarcinoma model was also established to disclose the tumor suppressor effects of EPB41L4A-AS2 in vivo.
RESULTS: Here, we have identified a novel lncRNA EPB41L4A-AS2, which is significantly downregulated both in HCC cells and tissues, and plays a negative regulatory role in HCC proliferation and invasion. Mechanistically, cytoplasmic lncRNA EPB41L4A-AS2 functions as an efficient miR-301a-5p sponge, thereby release the expression inhibition of forkhead box L1 (FOXL1). Indeed, lncRNA EPB41L4A-AS2 inhibits proliferation and migration by upregulating FOXL1 expression and FOXL1 was confirmed as a direct target of miR-301a-5p. MiR-301a-5p shows an inverse correlation with EPB41L4A-AS2 expression and was verified as a direct target of EPB41L4A-AS2 as well. Correspondingly, FOXL1 and miR-301a-5p show opposite biological effects in cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, miR-301a-5p overexpression rescued the EPB41L4A-AS2 upregulation induced depression in proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells, as well as promotion effect on FOXL1 expression. Also, in vivo experiments proved that EPB41L4A-AS2 suppress tumor growth and extrahepatic metastasis (lung) via the miR-301a-5p-FOXL1 axis.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this research revealed a concrete mechanism of lncRNA EPB41L4A-AS2 in HCC, which may serve as a potential biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for further clinical application.

Shen M, Xu Z, Xu W, et al.
Inhibition of ATM reverses EMT and decreases metastatic potential of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells through JAK/STAT3/PD-L1 pathway.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):149 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The cisplatin-resistance is still a main course for chemotherapy failure of lung cancer patients. Cisplatin-resistant cancer cells own higher malignance and exhibited increased metastatic ability, but the mechanism is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) on lung cancer metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cisplatin-resistant A549CisR and H157CisR cell line were generated by long-term treating parental A549 and H157 cells (A549P and H157P) with cisplatin. Cell growth, cell migration and cell invasion were determined. Gene expressions were determined by Western Blot and qPCR. Tumor metastasis was investigated using a xenograft mouse model.
RESULTS: The IC50 of the cisplatin-resistant cells (A549CisR and H157CisR cells) to cisplatin was 6-8 higher than parental cells. The A549CisR and H157CisR cells expressed lower level of E-cadherin and higher levels of N-cadherin, Vimentin and Snail compared to the parental A549P and H157P cells, and exhibited stronger capabilities of metastatic potential compared to the parental cells. The ATM expression was upregulated in A549CisR and H157CisR cells and cisplatin treatment also upregulated expression of ATM in parental cells, The inhibition of ATM by using specific ATM inhibitor CP466722 or knock-down ATM by siRNA suppressed Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic potential of A549CisR and H157CisR cells. These data suggest that ATM mediates the cisplatin-resistance in lung cancer cells. Expressions of JAK
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that ATM regulates PD-L1 expression through activation of JAK/STAT3 signaling in cisplatin-resistant cells. Overexpression of ATM contributes to cisplatin-resistance in lung cancer cells. Inhibition of ATM reversed EMT and inhibited cell invasion and tumor metastasis. Thus, ATM may be a potential target for the treatment of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer.

Wang X, Qin X, Yan M, et al.
Loss of exosomal miR-3188 in cancer-associated fibroblasts contributes to HNC progression.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):151 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the most common deadly diseases worldwide. An increasing number of studies have recently focused on the malignant functions of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in numerous cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms by which CAF-derived exosomes promote tumor progression need to be further elucidated. This study aims to determine whether the loss of specific miRNAs in CAF-derived exosomes may be involved in the malignant transformation of HNC.
METHODS: MiRNA array and real-time PCR assays were used to analyze the differential expression of miRNAs in exosomes from normal fibroblasts (NFs) and CAFs. Cell proliferation, EdU incorporation, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and xenograft assays were performed to examine the effects of miR-3188 on HNC in vitro and in vivo. Real-time PCR, western blotting and luciferase reporter assays were used to identify the target genes of miR-3188. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mouse models were used to prove the potential therapeutic value of miR-3188-loaded exosomes in HNC.
RESULTS: Our results showed that miR-3188 expression is reduced in exosomes and their parental CAFs from HNC tissues. In addition, miR-3188 can be transferred from fibroblasts to HNC cells by exosomes. Further exploration demonstrated that exosomal miR-3188 can influence the proliferation and apoptosis of HNC cells by directly targeting B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, we also found that miR-3188-loaded exosomes significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that CAF-derived exosomes contain lower miR-3188 levels than NFs, and the loss of miR-3188 in exosomes contributes to the malignant phenotypes of HNC cells through the derepression of BCL2. Furthermore, these data suggest the potential therapeutic value of exosomal miR-3188 for inhibiting HNC growth.

Lin T, Ren Q, Zuo W, et al.
Valproic acid exhibits anti-tumor activity selectively against EGFR/ErbB2/ErbB3-coexpressing pancreatic cancer via induction of ErbB family members-targeting microRNAs.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):150 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deregulated ErbB signaling plays an important role in tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer. However, patients with pancreatic cancer benefit little from current existed therapies targeting the ErbB signaling. Here, we explore the potential anti-tumor activity of Valproic acid against pancreatic cancer via targeting ErbB family members.
METHODS: Cell viability assay and apoptosis evaluation were carried out to determine the efficacy of VPA on pancreatic cancer cells. Western blot analyses were performed to determine the expression and activation of proteins. Apoptosis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify cytoplasmic histone associated DNA fragments. Lentiviral expression system was used to introduce overexpression of exogeneous genes or gene-targeting short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). qRT-PCR was carried out to analyze the mRNAs and miRNAs expression levels. Tumor xenograft model was established to evaluate the in vivo anti-pancreatic cancer activity of VPA.
RESULTS: VPA preferentially inhibited cell proliferation/survival of, and induced apoptosis in EGFR/ErbB2/ErbB3-coexpressing pancreatic cancer cells within its clinically achievable range [40~100 mg/L (0.24~0.6 mmol/L)]. Mechanistic investigations revealed that VPA treatment resulted in simultaneous significant down-regulation of EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3 in pancreatic cancer cells likely via induction of ErbB family members-targeting microRNAs. Moreover, the anti-pancreatic cancer activity of VPA was further validated in tumor xenograft model.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly suggest that VPA may be added to the treatment regimens for pancreatic cancer patients with co-overexpression of the ErbB family members.

Wang Y, Hou Y, Zhang W, et al.
Lipolytic inhibitor G0S2 modulates glioma stem-like cell radiation response.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):147 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation (IR) therapy is the standard first-line treatment for newly diagnosed patients with glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and malignant primary brain tumor. However, the effects of IR are limited due to the aberrant radioresistance of GBM.
METHODS: Transcriptome analysis was performed using RNA-seq in radioresistant patient-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). Survival of glioma patient and mice bearing-brain tumors was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Lipid droplet and γ-H2AX foci-positive cells were evaluated using immunofluorescence staining.
RESULTS: Lipolytic inhibitor G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is upregulated in radioresistant GSCs and elevated in clinical GBM. GBM patients with high G0S2 expression had significantly shorter overall survival compared with those with low expression of G0S2. Using genetic approaches targeting G0S2 in glioma cells and GSCs, we found that knockdown of G0S2 promoted lipid droplet turnover, inhibited GSC radioresistance, and extended survival of xenograft tumor mice with or without IR. In contrast, overexpression of G0S2 promoted glioma cell radiation resistance. Mechanistically, high expression of G0S2 reduced lipid droplet turnover and thereby attenuated E3 ligase RNF168-mediated 53BP1 ubiquitination through activated the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) signaling and increased 53BP1 protein stability in response to IR, leading to enhanced DNA repair and glioma radioresistance.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings uncover a new function for lipolytic inhibitor G0S2 as an important regulator for GSC radioresistance, suggesting G0S2 as a potential therapeutic target for treating gliomas.

Liu T, Jin L, Lu W, et al.
Sequence-dependent synergistic cytotoxicity of icotinib and pemetrexed in human lung cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):148 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent Clinical trials of administration of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in combination with standard first-line chemotherapy have failed to improve survival in patients with advanced NSCLC, However, the sequential treatment with EGFR-TKIs and chemotherapy is expected to improve survival of NSCLC. The aim of this study is to test the antiproliferative effect of pemetrexed combined with icotinib in different sequences on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines to determine the optimal combination schedule, and subsequently elaborated the potential mechanisms.
METHODS: Six human lung cancer cell lines with wild-type or mutant EGFR gene were exposed to pemetrexed and icotinib combined in different sequences. Cell proliferation was examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assay; cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry; cell migration and invasion were measured by wound healing and transwell invasion assays respectively; protein expression was by detected by Western blot.
RESULTS: The growth inhibition effect of pemetrexed combined with icotinib on NSCLC cells were schedule-dependent in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with pemetrexed followed by icotinib (P-I) had significantly stronger anticancer ability than treatment with icotinib followed by pemetrexed (I-P) and concomitant treatment with pemetrexed and icotinib (P + I). Cell cycle analysis revealed that pemetrexed blocked cells in S phase, whereas icotinib arrested cells in G1 phase. We also found that icotinib markedly enhanced the pro-apoptotic activity of pemetrexed via cytochrome-C/Caspase/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. In addition, our results showed that pemetrexed alone increased the levels of p-EGFR, p-AKT and p-MAPK, which were inhibited by icotinib. Finally, we showed that the washout period of icotinib was no less than 96 h.
CONCLUSIONS: Sequential treatment of NSCLC cells with pemetrexed followed by icotinib had powerful antiproliferative effect, and it could become a novel effective combination therapy for NSCLC patients.

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