Gene Summary

Gene:CCL5; C-C motif chemokine ligand 5
Aliases: SISd, eoCP, SCYA5, RANTES, TCP228, D17S136E, SIS-delta
Summary:This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is divided into four subfamilies based on the arrangement of the N-terminal cysteine residues of the mature peptide. This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and eosinophils. It causes the release of histamine from basophils and activates eosinophils. This cytokine is one of the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ cells. It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it suppresses in vitro replication of the R5 strains of HIV-1, which use CCR5 as a coreceptor. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-C motif chemokine 5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (103)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (4)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cultured Cells
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Disease Progression
  • Chemokines
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Receptors, CCR5
  • Selection Bias
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Chemokine CCL5
  • Tumor Escape
  • Cytokines
  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Inflammation
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Temperance
  • Promoter Regions
  • Chromosome 17
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • Protein Array Analysis
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • WT1
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cell Movement
  • Polymorphism
  • Phenotype
  • Breast Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
  • NF-kappa B
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Lung Cancer
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCL5 (cancer-related)

Xu W, Qian J, Zeng F, et al.
Protein kinase Ds promote tumor angiogenesis through mast cell recruitment and expression of angiogenic factors in prostate cancer microenvironment.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):114 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are being increasingly recognized as critical components in the tumor microenvironment. Protein Kinase D (PKD) is essential for the progression of prostate cancer, but its role in prostate cancer microenvironment remains poorly understood.
METHODS: The expression of PKD, mast cells and microvessel density were examined by IHC. The clinical significance was determined by statistical analyses. The biological function of PKD and the underlying mechanisms were investigated using in vitro and in vivo models.
RESULTS: PKD2/3 contributed to MCs recruitment and tumor angiogenesis in the prostate cancer microenvironment. Clinical data showed that increased activation of PKD at Ser744/748 in prostate cancer was correlated with mast cell infiltration and microvascular density. PKD2/3 silencing of prostate cancer cells markedly decreased MCs migration and tube formation of HUVEC cells. Moreover, PKD2/3 depletion not only reduced SCF, CCL5 and CCL11 expression in prostate cancer cells but also inhibited angiogenic factors in MCs. Conversely, exogenous SCF, CCL5 and CCL11 reversed the effect on MCs migration inhibited by PKD2/3 silencing. Mechanistically, PKD2/3 interacted with Erk1/2 and activated Erk1/2 or NF-κB signaling pathway, leading to AP-1 or NF-κB binding to the promoter of scf, ccl5 and ccl11. Finally, PKD-specific inhibitor significantly reduced tumor volume and tumor growth in mice bearing RM-1 prostate cancer cells, which was attributed to attenuation of mast cell recruitment and tumor angiogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a novel PKDs function that contributes to tumor angiogenesis and progression through mast cells recruitment in prostate cancer microenvironment.

Liu H, Wang SH, Chen SC, et al.
Zoledronic acid blocks the interaction between breast cancer cells and regulatory T-cells.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):176 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Zoledronic acid (ZA), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that ZA has anti-tumor and anti-metastatic properties for breast cancer cells. In a mouse model of ZA-related osteonecrosis of the jaw, ZA administration was found to suppress regulatory T-cells (Tregs) function. Our previous reports also demonstrated ZA acted as an immune modulator to block Tregs. Manipulation of Tregs represents a new strategy for cancer treatment. However, the relationship among ZA, Tregs, and cancer cells remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of ZA on the interaction of breast cancer cells and Tregs.
METHODS: The anti-tumor effect of ZA on triple negative breast cancer cell lines were validated by XTT, wound healing and apoptosis analysis. A flow cytometry-based assay was used to analyze the immunosuppressive effect of Tregs treated with media conditioned by breast cancer cells, and a transwell assay was used to evaluate the chemotactic migration of Tregs. Differential gene expression profile on MDA-MB-231 treated with ZA (25 μM) was analyzed by. microarrays to describe the molecular basis of actions of ZA for possible direct anti-tumor effects. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and quantitative real-time PCR were used to investigate the effect of ZA on the expression of cytokines/factors by breast cancer cells.
RESULTS: ZA was found to inhibit the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Media conditioned by the MDA-MB-231 cells promoted the expansion, chemotactic migration, and immunosuppressive activity of Tregs, and these effects were attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by ZA treatment, and the attenuation was due to reduced expression of selected breast cancer cell factors (CCL2, CCL5, and IDO).
CONCLUSIONS: ZA can significantly affect the interaction between breast cancer cells and Tregs. Our findings indicate that ZA is a potential therapeutic agent that can be used to reduce cancer aggressiveness by abolishing the supportive role of Tregs.

Haralambiev L, Wien L, Gelbrich N, et al.
Effects of Cold Atmospheric Plasma on the Expression of Chemokines, Growth Factors, TNF Superfamily Members, Interleukins, and Cytokines in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):151-157 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Therapeutic options for osteosarcoma (OS) are still limited. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) leads to inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis, but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate CAP-induced changes in cytokine expression in OS cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: OS cell lines (U2-OS, MNNG/HOS) were treated with CAP and administered to an RT2 Profiler PCR Array (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) detecting 84 chemokines, growth factors, TNF superfamily members, interleukins, and cytokines.
RESULTS: The analyses showed that 15 factors (C5, CCL5, CNTF, CSF1, CSF3, CXCL1, IL-1A, IL-1B, IL-18, IL-22, IL23A, MSTN, NODAL, TGFβ2, THPO) were induced, but only one factor (VEGFA) was suppressed after CAP treatment.
CONCLUSION: No extensive systemic cell response with presumably far-reaching consequences for neighboring cells was detectable after CAP treatment. Since the antitumoral effect of CAP on OS cells has already been demonstrated, intraoperative treatment with CAP represents a promising and systemic safe option for the therapy of OS.

Pervaiz A, Zepp M, Mahmood S, et al.
CCR5 blockage by maraviroc: a potential therapeutic option for metastatic breast cancer.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2019; 42(1):93-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Bone metastasis is observed in up to 70% of breast cancer patients. The currently available treatment options are palliative in nature. Chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has gained attention as therapeutic target in various malignancies. Here, we investigated the effects of targeting CCR5 by its antagonist maraviroc in metastatic breast cancer cells.
METHODS: In response to maraviroc exposure, cytotoxicity was assessed using an MTT proliferation assay, whereas the effects on colony formation and migration were assessed using colony formation, transwell chamber migration and scratch wound healing assays, respectively. Apoptosis-related activities were investigated using nuclear staining, annexin-V FITC staining and Western blotting. Cell cycle changes were analysed using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR for cell cycle relevant genes. A nude rat model for breast cancer bone metastasis was used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of CCR5 targeting by maraviroc. Circulatory levels of the three cognate ligands for CCR5 (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5) were analysed in sera of breast cancer patients using ELISA.
RESULTS: We found that blockade of CCR5 attenuated the proliferation, colony formation and migration of metastatic breast cancer cells, and induced apoptosis and arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Expression profiling highlighted the involvement of cell cycle related signalling cascades. We also found that treatment with maraviroc significantly inhibited bone metastasis in nude rats implanted with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Finally, we found that the circulatory levels of three cognate ligands for the CCR5 receptor varied between breast cancer patients and healthy controls.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that targeting CCR5 may be an effective strategy to combat breast cancer bone metastasis.

Suenaga M, Cao S, Zhang W, et al.
Genetic variants in CCL5 and CCR5 genes and serum VEGF-A levels predict efficacy of bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(10):2567-2577 [PubMed] Related Publications
Early VEGF-A reduction (EVR) by targeting abundant VEGF-A is a potential predictive marker of bevacizumab (BEV). The CCL5/CCR5 axis modulates VEGF-A production via endothelial progenitor cells migration. We tested whether genetic polymorphisms in the CCL5/CCR5 pathway could predict efficacy of BEV in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in a first-line setting. Genomic DNA was extracted from 215 samples from three independent cohorts: 61 patients receiving FOLFOX+BEV (evaluation cohort); 83 patients receiving FOLFOX (control cohort); 71 patients receiving FOLFOX/XELOX+BEV (exploratory cohort) for validation and serum biochemistry assay (n = 48). Single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes in the CCL5/CCR5 pathway were analyzed by PCR-based direct sequencing. Considering the unbalanced distribution of patient baseline characteristics between the evaluation and control cohorts, propensity score matching analysis was performed. Serum VEGF-A levels during treatment were measured using ELISA. Among the evaluation and control cohorts, patients with any CCL5 rs2280789 G allele had longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) when receiving FOLFOX+BEV than FOLFOX (PFS: 19.8 vs. 11.0 months, HR 0.44, 95%CI: 0.24-0.83, p = 0.004; OS: 41.8 vs. 24.5 months, HR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.26-0.95, p = 0.024). No significant difference was shown in patients with the A/A variant. In the exploratory cohort, CCL5 rs2280789 G alleles were associated with higher VEGF-A levels at baseline and a greater decrease in VEGF-A levels at day 14 compared to the A/A variant. CCL5 and CCR5 impact the angiogenic environment, and the genotypes in CCL5/CCR5 genes may identify specific populations who will benefit from BEV in first-line treatment for mCRC.

Xiao M, Noman MZ, Menard L, et al.
Driving Cytotoxic Natural Killer Cells into Melanoma: If CCL5 Plays the Music, Autophagy Calls the Shots.
Crit Rev Oncog. 2018; 23(5-6):321-332 [PubMed] Related Publications
Autophagy is a quality control process executed at the basal level in almost all cell types. However, in cancer cells, autophagy is activated by several stimuli, including hypoxia. Depending on tumor type, stage, and genetic context, autophagy is a double-edged sword. Autophagy promotes regression in newly established tumors; however, it supports tumor progression in well-established tumors by maintaining cancer cell survival under stress conditions. These data, in addition to the emerging role of autophagy in impairing antitumor immunity, have attracted significant interest in developing autophagy inhibitors as a new approach to cancer treatment. The enthusiasm for developing selective drugs inhibiting autophagy has been seriously challenged by the discovery that most autophagy-related proteins display nonautophagic functions. Autophagy inhibitors chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are currently being investigated in several clinical trials in combination with standard anticancer therapies. Here, we provide a brief overview on the nonautophagic function of autophagy-related proteins and summarize the major mechanisms whereby autophagy modulation could positively or negatively impact cancer therapies. We also focus on the emerging role of targeting autophagy in the improvement of NK-mediated antitumor immunity through the regulation of CCL5 and its receptors' expression in melanoma, and we provide some clues revealing how autophagy modulators could be exploited to improve cancer immunotherapies.

Braun SA, Baran J, Schrumpf H, et al.
Ingenol mebutate induces a tumor cell-directed inflammatory response and antimicrobial peptides thereby promoting rapid tumor destruction and wound healing.
Eur J Med Res. 2018; 23(1):45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ingenol mebutat (IM)-gel is effective for the topical treatment of epithelial tumors, including actinic keratoses (AKs) or anogenital warts (AGW). AK patients treated with IM develop intensified inflammatory reactions on sights of prior clinical visible or palpable AKs as compared to the surrounding actinically damaged skin, suggesting the induction of a tumor cell-directed inflammation. AGW patients treated with IM develop even stronger inflammatory reactions with large erosions, suggesting a directed inflammatory response against HPV-infected keratinocytes. Of note, even widespread erosions heal very fast without any superinfections. Here, we set out to elucidate underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of these clinical observations.
METHODS: The effects of IM (10
RESULTS: Ingenol mebutat significantly and dose-dependently induced the expression of proinflammatory chemokines (CXCL8, CCL2) and AMP (RNase7, HBD3) in HEK and epithelial cancer cell lines. A significantly stronger induction of CXCL8 and CCL2 was observed in our tested tumor cells as compared to HEK. We did not observe any significant effect of IM on HEK migration, respectively wound healing responses in vitro for any tested concentration (10
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that tumor cells are more susceptible to IM as compared to differentiated HEK. This is evident by a stronger IM-mediated induction of proinflammatory chemokines in tumor cells, which may result in a tumor cell-directed inflammatory response and rapid tumor destruction. In addition, IM induces AMP in keratinocytes and seems not to severely interfere with keratinocyte migration, which contributes to a fast and uncomplicated wound healing. Surprising is a selective inhibition of keratinocyte migration by IM at the concentration of 10

Zhao R, Bei X, Yang B, et al.
Endothelial cells promote metastasis of prostate cancer by enhancing autophagy.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):221 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Increasing evidence suggested that endothelial cells may contribute to prostate cancer progression and metastasis. Most recently, autophagy has been proposed to plays a significant role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Also, it is reported that downregulation of androgen receptor (AR) induces autophagy in prostate cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we aim to explore the role and mechanisms of endothelial cell in prostate cancer progression.
METHODS: The coculture system was established to test the effect of endothelial cells on prostate cancer cells. We performed antibody array and ELISA were used to profile the cytokine expression pattern of endothelial cells in supernatant. Western blot and RT-PCR were used to determine the mechanism by endothelial cells to promote invasion ability of prostate cancer cells. Maraviroc and chloroquine were used to block the CCL5/CCR5 and autophagy pathway respectively. Orthotopic xenograft mouse models and drug treatment study were conducted to determine the role of endothelial cells in promoting metastatic potential in vivo.
RESULTS: We use CPRC prostate cancer model and demonstrate that endothelial cells secrete large amount of CCL5 and induces autophagy by suppressing AR expression in prostate cancer cell lines. Consequently, elevated autophagy accelerates focal adhesions proteins disassembly and promoted prostate cancer invasion. Inhibition of both CCL5/CCR5 signaling and autophagy significantly reduces metastasis in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, our data establish the function for endothelial cells in tumor metastasis and propose new drug target for mCRPC.

Romero-Masters JC, Ohashi M, Djavadian R, et al.
An EBNA3C-deleted Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mutant causes B-cell lymphomas with delayed onset in a cord blood-humanized mouse model.
PLoS Pathog. 2018; 14(8):e1007221 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
EBV causes human B-cell lymphomas and transforms B cells in vitro. EBNA3C, an EBV protein expressed in latently-infected cells, is required for EBV transformation of B cells in vitro. While EBNA3C undoubtedly plays a key role in allowing EBV to successfully infect B cells, many EBV+ lymphomas do not express this protein, suggesting that cellular mutations and/or signaling pathways may obviate the need for EBNA3C in vivo under certain conditions. EBNA3C collaborates with EBNA3A to repress expression of the CDKN2A-encoded tumor suppressors, p16 and p14, and EBNA3C-deleted EBV transforms B cells containing a p16 germline mutation in vitro. Here we have examined the phenotype of an EBNAC-deleted virus (Δ3C EBV) in a cord blood-humanized mouse model (CBH). We found that the Δ3C virus induced fewer lymphomas (occurring with a delayed onset) in comparison to the wild-type (WT) control virus, although a subset (10/26) of Δ3C-infected CBH mice eventually developed invasive diffuse large B cell lymphomas with type III latency. Both WT and Δ3C viruses induced B-cell lymphomas with restricted B-cell populations and heterogeneous T-cell infiltration. In comparison to WT-infected tumors, Δ3C-infected tumors had greatly increased p16 levels, and RNA-seq analysis revealed a decrease in E2F target gene expression. However, we found that Δ3C-infected tumors expressed c-Myc and cyclin E at similar levels compared to WT-infected tumors, allowing cells to at least partially bypass p16-mediated cell cycle inhibition. The anti-apoptotic proteins, BCL2 and IRF4, were expressed in Δ3C-infected tumors, likely helping cells avoid c-Myc-induced apoptosis. Unexpectedly, Δ3C-infected tumors had increased T-cell infiltration, increased expression of T-cell chemokines (CCL5, CCL20 and CCL22) and enhanced type I interferon response in comparison to WT tumors. Together, these results reveal that EBNA3C contributes to, but is not essential for, EBV-induced lymphomagenesis in CBH mice, and suggest potentially important immunologic roles of EBNA3C in vivo.

Qin Y, Vasilatos SN, Chen L, et al.
Inhibition of histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 elicits breast tumor immunity and enhances antitumor efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(3):390-405 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunotherapy strategies have been emerging as powerful weapons against cancer. Early clinical trials reveal that overall response to immunotherapy is low in breast cancer patients, suggesting that effective strategies to overcome resistance to immunotherapy are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated whether epigenetic reprograming by modulating histone methylation could enhance effector T lymphocyte trafficking and improve therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade in breast cancer with focus on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype. In silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data shows that expression of histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is inversely associated with the levels of cytotoxic T cell-attracting chemokines (C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 and 10 (CXCL9, CXCL10)) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in clinical TNBC specimens. Tiling chromatin immunoprecipitation study showed that re-expression of chemokines by LSD1 inhibition is associated with increased H3K4me2 levels at proximal promoter regions. Rescue experiments using concurrent treatment with small interfering RNA or inhibitor of chemokine receptors blocked LSD1 inhibitor-enhanced CD8+ T cell migration, indicating a critical role of key T cell chemokines in LSD1-mediated CD8+ lymphocyte trafficking to the tumor microenvironment. In mice bearing TNBC xenograft tumors, anti-PD-1 antibody alone failed to elicit obvious therapeutic effect. However, combining LSD1 inhibitors with PD-1 antibody significantly suppressed tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis, which was associated with reduced Ki-67 level and augmented CD8+ T cell infiltration in xenograft tumors. Overall, these results suggest that LSD1 inhibition may be an effective adjuvant treatment with immunotherapy as a novel management strategy for poorly immunogenic breast tumors.

Liang L, Zeng JH, Qin XG, et al.
Distinguishable Prognostic Signatures of Left- and Right-Sided Colon Cancer: a Study Based on Sequencing Data.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(2):475-490 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Left- and right-sided colon cancers are considered to be two different diseases and have altered outcomes. However, specific molecules to predict the prognosis of left- and right-sided colon cancers are currently lacking.
METHODS: Expression profiling of colon cancer were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of left- and right-sided colon cancers were compared by DESeq analysis. The prognostic values of DEGs were assessed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Prognostic index models of two side colon cancers were conducted with prognostic values genes, respectively. Interaction of DEGs was then analyzed by the protein-protein interaction (PPI). Different biology function of two sides of colon cancer was assessed by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA).
RESULTS: A total of 167 DEGs were identified between left- and right-sided colon cancers based on TCGA data. Using univariate COX regression analysis, five genes (PHACTR3, CKMT2, CYP2W1, ERFE, HOXC4) were related to overall survival in left-sided, and eight distinguishable genes (EREG, ERFE, HOXC6, SLC22A31, TFF1, GFI1, ZG16, RASL10B) in right-sided. Further, left-sided prognostic model was established with PHACTR3 and CKMT2 (HR=2.040; 95%CI=1.004-4.145; P=0.049). Distinguishable prognostic signature for right-sided colon cancer was established based on EREG, ERFE, GFI1, and RASL10B (HR=3.530; 95%CI: 1.934-6.444; P< 0.001) in multivariate analysis. PPI analysis of 167 DEGs showed that CCL5, GNG4, GNLY, GZMH, DRD2, and FASLG genes were at the core of interaction network. In GSEA function analysis, four pathways, including antigen processing and presentation, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, intestinal immune network for Iga production, and type I diabetes mellitus, were significantly enriched in the DEGs of the right-sided colon cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: This study constructs a panel of potential prognostic model of left- and right-sided colon cancers, respectively. We also provide molecular biological alterations between left- and right-sided colon cancers.

Feng LR, Fernández-Martínez JL, Zaal KJM, et al.
mGluR5 mediates post-radiotherapy fatigue development in cancer patients.
Transl Psychiatry. 2018; 8(1):110 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common burden in cancer patients and little is known about its underlying mechanism. The primary aim of this study was to identify gene signatures predictive of post-radiotherapy fatigue in prostate cancer patients. We employed Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to identify predictive genes using whole genome microarray data from 36 men with prostate cancer. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to determine functional networks of the predictive genes. Functional validation was performed using a T lymphocyte cell line, Jurkat E6.1. Cells were pretreated with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) agonist (DHPG), antagonist (MPEP), or control (PBS) for 20 min before irradiation at 8 Gy in a Mark-1 γ-irradiator. NF-κB activation was assessed using a NF-κB/Jurkat/GFP Transcriptional Reporter Cell Line. LDA achieved 83.3% accuracy in predicting post-radiotherapy fatigue. "Glutamate receptor signaling" was the most significant (p = 0.0002) pathway among the predictive genes. Functional validation using Jurkat cells revealed clustering of mGluR5 receptors as well as increased regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) production post irradiation in cells pretreated with DHPG, whereas inhibition of mGluR5 activity with MPEP decreased RANTES concentration after irradiation. DHPG pretreatment amplified irradiation-induced NF-κB activation suggesting a role of mGluR5 in modulating T cell activation after irradiation. These results suggest that mGluR5 signaling in T cells may play a key role in the development of chronic inflammation resulting in fatigue and contribute to individual differences in immune responses to radiation. Moreover, modulating mGluR5 provides a novel therapeutic option to treat CRF.

Karapetsas A, Tokamani M, Evangelou C, Sandaltzopoulos R
The homeodomain transcription factor MEIS1 triggers chemokine expression and is involved in CD8+ T-lymphocyte infiltration in early stage ovarian cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(9):1251-1263 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD8+ T-lymphocytes infiltration is a favorable prognostic marker in ovarian cancer. Recently we identified MEIS1 as a gene overexpressed in early stage ovarian tumors enriched for CD8+ T-cells. Here, we report the molecular mechanism of the homeodomain transcription factor MEIS1 in lymphocyte recruitment. We validated that MEIS1 expression is a positive predictor of CD8+ T cells in early stage ovarian cancer. We showed that MEIS1 induces the expression of CCL18, CCL4, CXCL7, CCL5, CXCL1, and IL8 chemokines in cancer cells followed by their secretion in the culture medium ultimately triggering CD8+ T-lymphocyte recruitment in vitro. Knock down of MEIS1 expression by siRNA resulted in downregulation of these chemokines. We verified that MEIS1 binds to the promoters of chemokine genes, both in vitro and in vivo. We also showed that the expression levels of MEIS1 correlated tightly with the mRNA levels of chemokines CCL4 and CCL18 in early stage ovarian cancer patient samples and served as a positive prognostic marker, as shown by Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis. In conclusion, we propose that MEIS1 plays a pivotal role in the regulatory circuitry governing T-cell chemo-attraction during the early stages of ovarian cancer.

Dedoni S, Campbell LA, Harvey BK, et al.
The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 75 signaling is activated by the chemokine CCL5.
J Neurochem. 2018; 146(5):526-539 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
The chemokine CCL5 prevents neuronal cell death mediated both by amyloid β, as well as the human immunodeficiency virus viral proteins gp120 and Tat. Because CCL5 binds to CCR5, CCR3 and/or CCR1 receptors, it remains unclear which of these receptors plays a role in neuroprotection. Indeed, CCL5 also has neuroprotective activity in cells lacking these receptors. CCL5 may bind to a G-protein-coupled receptor 75 (GPR75), which encodes for a 540 amino-acid orphan receptor of the Gqα family. In this study, we have used SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells to characterize whether CCL5 could activate a Gq signaling through GPR75. Both qPCR and flow cytometry show that these cells express GPR75 but do not express CCR5, CCR3 or CCR1 receptors. SY-SY5Y cells were then used to examine CCL5-mediated signaling. We report that CCL5 promotes a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Specific antagonists of CCR5, CCR3, and CCR1 did not prevent CCL5 from increasing phosphorylated AKT or ERK. Moreover, CCL5 promotes a time-dependent internalization of GPR75. Lastly, knocking down GPR75 expression by a CRISPR-Cas9 approach inhibited the ability of CCL5 to activate pERK in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, we propose that GPR75 is a novel receptor for CCL5 that could explain some of the pharmacological action of this chemokine. These findings may help in the development of small molecule GPR75 agonists that mimic CCL5. Open Science: This manuscript was awarded with the Open Materials Badge. For more information see:

Hleihel R, Khoshnood B, Dacklin I, et al.
The HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax is modified by the ubiquitin related modifier 1 (Urm1).
Retrovirology. 2018; 15(1):33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy secondary to chronic human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 infection, triggered by the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. The transforming activity and subcellular localization of Tax is strongly influenced by posttranslational modifications, among which ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been identified as key regulators of the nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of Tax, as well as its ability to activate NF-κB signaling.
RESULTS: Adding to the complex posttranslational modification landscape of Tax, we here demonstrate that Tax also interacts with the ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (Urm1). Conjugation of Urm1 to Tax results in a redistribution of Tax to the cytoplasm and major increase in the transcription of the NF-ĸB targets Rantes and interleukin-6. Utilizing a tax-transgenic Drosophila model, we show that the Urm1-dependent subcellular targeting of Tax is evolutionary conserved, and that the presence of Urm1 is strongly correlated with the transcriptional output of Diptericin, an antimicrobial peptide and established downstream target of NF-κB in flies.
CONCLUSIONS: These data put forward Urm1 as a novel Tax modifier that modulates its oncogenic activity and hence represents a potential novel target for developing new strategies for treating ATL.

Vaniotis G, Rayes RF, Qi S, et al.
Collagen IV-conveyed signals can regulate chemokine production and promote liver metastasis.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(28):3790-3805 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver metastases remain a major cause of death from gastrointestinal tract cancers as well as from other malignancies such as breast and lung carcinomas and melanoma. Understanding the underlying biology is essential for the design of effective targeted therapies. We previously reported that collagen IV α1/α2 overexpression in non-metastatic lung carcinoma (M27

Suenaga M, Schirripa M, Cao S, et al.
Gene Polymorphisms in the CCL5/CCR5 Pathway as a Genetic Biomarker for Outcome and Hand-Foot Skin Reaction in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated With Regorafenib.
Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2018; 17(2):e395-e414 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The C-C motif chemokine ligand 5/C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCL5/CCR5) pathway has been shown to induce endothelial progenitor cell migration, resulting in increased vascular endothelial growth factor A expression. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in the CCL5/CCR5 pathway predict efficacy and toxicity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with regorafenib.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed genomic DNA extracted from 229 tumor samples from 2 different cohorts of patients who received regorafenib: an evaluation cohort of 79 Japanese patients and a validation cohort of 150 Italian patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of CCL5/CCR5 pathway-related genes were analyzed by PCR-based direct sequencing.
RESULTS: CCL4 rs1634517 and CCL3 rs1130371 were associated with progression-free survival in the evaluation cohort (hazard ratio [HR] 1.54, P = .043; HR 1.48, P = .064), and progression-free survival (HR 1.74, P < .001; HR 1.66, P = .002) and overall survival (HR 1.65, P = .004; HR 1.65, P = .004) in the validation cohort. The allelic frequencies of CCL5 single nucleotide polymorphisms varied between the evaluation and validation cohorts (G/G variant in rs2280789, 21.5% vs. 1.3%, P < .001; T/T variant in rs3817655, 22.8% vs. 2.7%, P < .001). In the evaluation cohort, patients with the G/G variant in rs2280789 had a higher incidence of grade 3+ hand-foot skin reaction compared to any A allele (53% vs. 27%, P = .078), and similarly to the T/T variant in rs3817655 compared to any A allele (56% vs. 26%, P = .026).
CONCLUSION: Genetic variants in the CCL5/CCR5 pathway may serve as prognostic markers and may predict severe hand-foot skin reaction in mCRC patients receiving regorafenib therapy.

Fang H, Jin J, Huang D, et al.
PAI-1 induces Src inhibitor resistance via CCL5 in HER2-positive breast cancer cells.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(6):1949-1957 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Tyrosine kinase Src is overexpressed and activated in various tumors, including breast cancer, and is supposed to promote cancer formation and development. Src inhibitors have been developed recently and have shown efficacy in breast cancer as a single agent or in combination with anti-HER2 antibodies or chemotherapy. Unfortunately, the potency of Src inhibitor is limited by the development of drug resistance. In our study, we established an Src inhibitor saracatinib-resistant breast cancer cell line (SKBR-3/SI) for the first time and by evaluating mRNA expression profile, we found that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was upregulated in saracatinib-resistant cells compared to the parent cells. Further study demonstrated that PAI-1 might induce saracatinib resistance in breast cancer cells by increasing the secretion of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5). Functional assays showed that PAI-1 and CCL5 overexpression promoted cell proliferation and migration in breast cancer cells, while inhibition of PAI-1 and CCL5 decreased cell proliferation and migration in saracatinib-resistant cells. We also showed that targeting PAI-1 or CCL5 could reverse saracatinib resistance, which deserves more attention in clinical settings.

Ma W, Feng L, Zhang S, et al.
Induction of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 by Epstein-Barr virus infection enhances tumor angiogenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(5):1710-1722 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is etiologically associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and is known to be highly vascularized. Previous studies have suggested that EBV oncoproteins contribute to NPC angiogenesis. However, the regulatory network of EBV in angiogenesis still remains elusive. Herein, we reveal a novel mechanism of EBV-induced angiogenesis in NPC. First, we showed that EBV-infected NPC cell lines generated larger tumors with more microvessels in mouse xenograft models. Subsequent proteomic analysis revealed that EBV infection increased the expression of a series of angiogenic factors, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5). We then proved that CCL5 was a target of EBV in inducing tumor angiogenesis and growth. Further investigation through transcriptome analysis indicated that the pro-angiogenic function of CCL5 might be mediated by the PI3K/AKT pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathways was essential for CCL5-promoted angiogenesis. Finally, the immunohistochemical analysis of human NPC specimens also showed that CCL5 was correlated with angiogenesis. Taken together, our study identifies CCL5 as a key EBV-regulated molecular driver that promotes NPC angiogenesis, suggesting it as a potential therapeutic target.

Chew V, Lee YH, Pan L, et al.
Immune activation underlies a sustained clinical response to Yttrium-90 radioembolisation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gut. 2019; 68(2):335-346 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Yttrium-90 (Y90)-radioembolisation (RE) significantly regresses locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and delays disease progression. The current study is designed to deeply interrogate the immunological impact of Y90-RE, which elicits a sustained therapeutic response.
DESIGN: Time-of-flight mass cytometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were used to analyse the immune landscapes of tumour-infiltrating leucocytes (TILs), tumour tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at different time points before and after Y90-RE.
RESULTS: TILs isolated after Y90-RE exhibited signs of local immune activation: higher expression of granzyme B (GB) and infiltration of CD8
CONCLUSION: High-dimensional analysis of tumour and systemic immune landscapes identified local and systemic immune activation that corresponded to the sustained response to Y90-RE. Potential biomarkers associated with a positive clinical response were identified and a prediction model was built to identify sustained responders prior to treatment.

Cremonesi E, Governa V, Garzon JFG, et al.
Gut microbiota modulate T cell trafficking into human colorectal cancer.
Gut. 2018; 67(11):1984-1994 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) favour survival in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotactic factors underlying their recruitment remain undefined. We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers.
DESIGN: Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues. Chemokine receptor expression on TILs was evaluated by flow cytometry on cell suspensions from digested tissues. Chemokine production by CRC cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo, on generation of intraperitoneal or intracecal tumour xenografts in immune-deficient mice. T cell trafficking was assessed on adoptive transfer of human TILs into tumour-bearing mice. Gut flora composition was analysed by 16SrRNA sequencing.
RESULTS: CRC infiltration by distinct T cell subsets was associated with defined chemokine gene signatures, including CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10 for cytotoxic T lymphocytes and T-helper (Th)1 cells; CCL17, CCL22 and CXCL12 for Th1 and regulatory T cells; CXCL13 for follicular Th cells; and CCL20 and CCL17 for interleukin (IL)-17-producing Th cells. These chemokines were expressed by tumour cells on exposure to gut bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Their expression was significantly higher in intracecal than in intraperitoneal xenografts and was dramatically reduced by antibiotic treatment of tumour-bearing mice. In clinical samples, abundance of defined bacteria correlated with high chemokine expression, enhanced T cell infiltration and improved survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiota stimulate chemokine production by CRC cells, thus favouring recruitment of beneficial T cells into tumour tissues.

Fan W, Ye G
Microarray analysis for the identification of specific proteins and functional modules involved in the process of hepatocellular carcinoma originating from cirrhotic liver.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(4):5619-5626 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
In order to identify the potential pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developing from cirrhosis, a microarray‑based transcriptome profile was analyzed. The GSE63898 expression profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included data from 228 HCC tissue samples and 168 cirrhotic tissue samples. The Robust Multi‑array Average in the Affy package of R was used for raw data processing and Student's t‑test was used to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs). An enrichment analysis was then conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online tool, and the protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes and Cytoscape. Furthermore, the MCODE plug‑in of Cytoscape was used to conduct a sub‑module analysis. A total of 634 DEGs were identified between HCC and cirrhosis, of which 165 were upregulated and 469 were downregulated. According to the cut‑off criteria, the PPI network was constructed and Jun proto‑oncogene, AP‑1 transcription factor subunit (degree, 39), Fos proto‑oncogene, AP‑1 transcription factor subunit (degree, 34) and v‑myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (degree, 32) were identified as the hub nodes of the PPI network. Based on the sub‑module analysis, four specific modules were identified. In particular, module 1 was significantly enriched in the chemokine signaling pathway, and C‑X‑C motif chemokine ligand 12, C‑C motif chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and C‑C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) were three important proteins in this module. Module 4 was significantly enriched in chemical carcinogenesis, and cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily E member 1, cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily C member 9 (CYP2C9) and cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily A member 6 (CYP2A6) were three important proteins in this module. In conclusion, the present study revealed that CCR7, CCL5, CYP2C9 and CYP2A6 are novel genes identified in the development of HCC; however, the actual functions of these genes require verification.

Böttcher JP, Bonavita E, Chakravarty P, et al.
NK Cells Stimulate Recruitment of cDC1 into the Tumor Microenvironment Promoting Cancer Immune Control.
Cell. 2018; 172(5):1022-1037.e14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Conventional type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1) are critical for antitumor immunity, and their abundance within tumors is associated with immune-mediated rejection and the success of immunotherapy. Here, we show that cDC1 accumulation in mouse tumors often depends on natural killer (NK) cells that produce the cDC1 chemoattractants CCL5 and XCL1. Similarly, in human cancers, intratumoral CCL5, XCL1, and XCL2 transcripts closely correlate with gene signatures of both NK cells and cDC1 and are associated with increased overall patient survival. Notably, tumor production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE

Noman MZ, Berchem G, Janji B
Targeting autophagy blocks melanoma growth by bringing natural killer cells to the tumor battlefield.
Autophagy. 2018; 14(4):730-732 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Solid tumors are able to establish and sustain an immune suppressive microenvironment, which prevents the infiltration of cytotoxic effector immune cells into the tumor bed. We showed that genetic targeting of the macroautophagy/autophagy gene Becn1/Beclin1 in B16-F10 tumors inhibits their growth by inducing a massive infiltration of functional natural killer (NK) cells into the tumor bed. Such infiltration is primarily due to the ability of BECN1-defective tumor cells to overexpress and release CCL5 cytokine in the tumor microenvironment by a mechanism involving the activation of the MAPK8/JNK-JUN/c-Jun signaling pathway. Clinically, we reported a strong positive correlation between the expression of NK cell marker and CCL5 in human melanoma tumors and more importantly, a significant increased survival is found in melanoma patients expressing a high level of CCL5. Overall, these findings highlight the impact of targeting autophagy in breaking the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment barrier, thus allowing the trafficking of cytotoxic NK cells into the tumor bed. This study underscore the importance of autophagy inhibition in tumors as a novel therapeutic strategy to fully exploit NK cells antitumor properties in clinical settings.

Lee K, Ahn JH, Lee KT, et al.
Deoxyschizandrin, Isolated from Schisandra Berries, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Ovarian Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Protumoural Activation of Tumour-Associated Macrophages.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(1) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Deoxyschizandrin, a major lignan of Schisandra berries, has been demonstrated to have various biological activities such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. However, the anti-cancer effects of deoxyschizandrin are poorly characterized. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of deoxyschizandrin on human ovarian cancer cell lines and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs). Deoxyschizandrin induced G₀/G₁ phase cell cycle arrest and inhibited cyclin E expression in human ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of cyclin E significantly reversed the deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition. Interestingly, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased activation of Akt were observed in A2780 cells treated with deoxyschizandrin, and the antioxidant compromised the deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition and Akt inactivation. Moreover, deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition was markedly suppressed by Akt overexpression. In addition, deoxyschizandrin was found to inhibit the expression of the M2 phenotype markers CD163 and CD209 in TAMs, macrophages stimulated by the ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, expression and production of the tumour-promoting factors MMP-9, RANTES, and VEGF, which are highly enhanced in TAMs, was significantly suppressed by deoxyschizandrin treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that deoxyschizandrin exerts anti-cancer effects by inducing G₀/G₁ cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer cells and reducing the protumoural phenotype of TAMs.

Urata S, Izumi K, Hiratsuka K, et al.
C-C motif ligand 5 promotes migration of prostate cancer cells in the prostate cancer bone metastasis microenvironment.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(3):724-731 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Chemokines and their receptors have key roles in cancer progression. The present study investigated chemokine activity in the prostate cancer bone metastasis microenvironment. Growth and migration of human prostate cancer cells were assayed in cocultures with bone stromal cells. The migration of LNCaP cells significantly increased when co-cultured with bone stromal cells isolated from prostate cancer bone metastases. Cytokine array analysis of conditioned medium from bone stromal cell cultures identified CCL5 as a concentration-dependent promoter of LNCaP cell migration. The migration of LNCaP cells was suppressed when C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5) neutralizing antibody was added to cocultures with bone stromal cells. Knockdown of androgen receptor with small interfering RNA increased the migration of LNCaP cells compared with control cells, and CCL5 did not promote the migration of androgen receptor knockdown LNCaP. Elevated CCL5 secretion in bone stromal cells from metastatic lesions induced prostate cancer cell migration by a mechanism consistent with CCL5 activity upstream of androgen receptor signaling.

Song E, Song W, Ren M, et al.
Identification of potential crucial genes associated with carcinogenesis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(7):5163-5174 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common genitourinary malignancy with high mortality. However, the molecular pathogenesis of ccRCC remains unclear and effective biomarkers for daily practice are still limited. Thus, we aimed to identify the potential crucial genes and pathways associated with carcinogenesis of ccRCC and further analyze the molecular mechanisms implicated in tumorigenesis. In the present study, expression profiles GSE 66270, GSE 53757, GSE 36895, and GSE 76351 were downloaded from GEO database, including 244 matched primary and adjacent normal tissues, furthermore, the level 3 RNAseq dataset (RNAseqV2 RSEM) of KIRC was also downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which consist of 529 ccRCC tumors and 72 normal tissues. Then, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathway enrichment were analyzed by using R software. A total of 129 up- and 123 down-regulated genes were identified, which were aberrantly expressed both in GEO and TCGA data. Second, Gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that most of the DEGs were significantly enriched in integral component of membrane, extracellular exosome, plasma membrane, cell adhesion, and receptor binding. Signaling pathway analyses indicated that DEGs had common pathways in signal transduction, metabolism, and immune system. Third, hub genes were identified with protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, including PTPRC, TGFB1, EGF, MYC, ITGB2, CTSS, FN1, CCL5, KNG1, and CD86. Additionally, sub-networks analyse was also performed by using MCODE plugin. In conclusion, the novel DEGs and pathways in ccRCC identified in this study may provide new insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms that facilitates RCC carcinogenesis.

Serrels B, McGivern N, Canel M, et al.
IL-33 and ST2 mediate FAK-dependent antitumor immune evasion through transcriptional networks.
Sci Signal. 2017; 10(508) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mediates tumor cell-intrinsic behaviors that promote tumor growth and metastasis. We previously showed that FAK also induces the expression of inflammatory genes that inhibit antitumor immunity in the microenvironment. We identified a crucial, previously unknown role for the dual-function cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) in FAK-dependent immune evasion. In murine squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells, specifically nuclear FAK enhanced the expression of the genes encoding IL-33, the chemokine CCL5, and the soluble, secreted form of the IL-33 receptor, called soluble ST2 (sST2). The abundance of IL-33 and CCL5 was increased in FAK-positive SCC cells but not in normal keratinocytes. IL-33 associated with FAK in the nucleus, and the FAK-IL-33 complex interacted with a network of chromatin modifiers and transcriptional regulators, including TAF9, WDR82, and BRD4, which promote the activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and its induction of genes encoding chemokines, including CCL5. We did not detect secretion of IL-33 from FAK-positive SCC cells; thus, we propose that the increased production and secretion of sST2 likely sequesters IL-33 secreted by other cell types within the tumor environment, thus blocking its stimulatory effects on infiltrating host immune cells. Depleting FAK, IL-33, or sST2 from SCC cells before implantation induced tumor regression in syngeneic mice, except when CD8

Mohr A, Zwacka R
The future of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapeutic approaches for cancer - From cells to ghosts.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 414:239-249 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells which can differentiate into a variety of cell types including osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. They are normally resident in adipose tissue, bone marrow and the umbilical cord, but can also be found in other tissues and are known to be recruited to sites of wound healing as well as growing tumours. The therapeutic potential of MSCs has been explored in a number of phase I/II and III clinical trials, of which several were targeted against graft-versus-host disease and to support engraftment of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but currently only very few in the oncology field. There are now three clinical trials either ongoing or recruiting patients that use MSCs to treat tumour disease. In these, MSCs target gastrointestinal, lung and ovarian cancer, respectively. The first study uses MSCs loaded with a HSV-TK expression construct under the control of the CCL5 promoter, and has recently reported successful completion of Phase I/II. While no adverse side effects were seen during this study, no outcomes with respect to therapeutic benefits have been published. The other clinical trials targeting lung and ovarian cancer will be using MSCs expressing cytokines as therapeutic payload. Despite these encouraging early steps towards their clinical use, many questions are still unanswered regarding the biology of MSCs in normal and pathophysiological settings. In this review, in addition to summarising the current state of MSC-based therapeutic approaches for cancer, we will describe the remaining questions, obstacles and risks, as well as novel developments such as MSC-derived nanoghosts.

Lu X, Lu J, Liao B, et al.
Driver pattern identification over the gene co-expression of drug response in ovarian cancer by integrating high throughput genomics data.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):16188 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Multiple types of high throughput genomics data create a potential opportunity to identify driver patterns in ovarian cancer, which will acquire some novel and clinical biomarkers for appropriate diagnosis and treatment to cancer patients. To identify candidate driver genes and the corresponding driving patterns for resistant and sensitive tumors from the heterogeneous data, we combined gene co-expression modules with mutation modulators and proposed the method to identify driver patterns. Firstly, co-expression network analysis is applied to explore gene modules for gene expression profiles through weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA). Secondly, mutation matrix is generated by integrating the CNV data and somatic mutation data, and a mutation network is constructed from the mutation matrix. Thirdly, candidate modulators are selected from significant genes by clustering vertexs of the mutation network. Finally, a regression tree model is utilized for module network learning, in which the obtained gene modules and candidate modulators are trained for the driving pattern identification and modulators regulatory exploration. Many identified candidate modulators are known to be involved in biological meaningful processes associated with ovarian cancer, such as CCL11, CCL16, CCL18, CCL23, CCL8, CCL5, APOB, BRCA1, SLC18A1, FGF22, GADD45B, GNA15, GNA11, and so on.

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