Gene Summary

Gene:BRINP1; BMP/retinoic acid inducible neural specific 1
Aliases: DBC1, FAM5A, DBCCR1
Summary:This gene is located within a chromosomal region that shows loss of heterozygosity in some bladder cancers. It contains a 5' CpG island that may be a frequent target of hypermethylation, and it may undergo hypermethylation-based silencing in some bladder cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:BMP/retinoic acid-inducible neural-specific protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BRINP1 (cancer-related)

Yu X, Wang M, Han Q, et al.
ZNF326 promotes a malignant phenotype of breast cancer by interacting with DBC1.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(12):1803-1815 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biological role and underlying mechanism of action of zinc-finger protein 326 (ZNF326) in malignant tumors, including breast cancer, are still not clear. In this study, we detected high expression of ZNF326 in breast cancer specimens (60/111, 54.1%) and breast cancer cell lines (7/7); the expression level of ZNF326 was inversely associated with advanced pTNM stage (P = 0.002), positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.004), poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer (P = 0.0097), and ER/PR/Her2 status (P = 0.013). Meanwhile, the ectopic expression of ZNF326 significantly upregulated MMP7, EMT-related proteins (Snail and Slug), and cell cycle-related proteins (cyclinA2 and cyclinB1); downregulated E-cadherin expression; and promoted the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays both demonstrated that ZNF326 interacted with deleted in breast cancer-1 (DBC1) in breast cancer cells. Additionally, DBC1 knockdown eliminated the up-regulation of MMP7, EMT-related proteins, and cell cycle-related proteins as well as the enhanced proliferation and invasiveness induced by ZNF326. Therefore, we concluded that ZNF326 is highly expressed in breast cancer, is associated with poor prognosis, and plays a vital role in promoting the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells by interacting with DBC1.

Moon SJ, Jeong BC, Kim HJ, et al.
DBC1 promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer by positively regulating DNA binding and stability of AR-V7.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(10):1326-1339 [PubMed] Related Publications
Constitutively active AR-V7, one of the major androgen receptor (AR) splice variants lacking the ligand-binding domain, plays a key role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and anti-androgen resistance. However, our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of AR-V7-driven transcription is limited. Here we report DBC1 as a key regulator of AR-V7 transcriptional activity and stability in CRPC cells. DBC1 functions as a coactivator for AR-V7 and is required for the expression of AR-V7 target genes including CDH2, a mesenchymal marker linked to CRPC progression. DBC1 is required for recruitment of AR-V7 to its target enhancers and for long-range chromatin looping between the CDH2 enhancer and promoter. Mechanistically, DBC1 enhances DNA-binding activity of AR-V7 by direct interaction and inhibits CHIP E3 ligase-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of AR-V7 by competing with CHIP for AR-V7 binding, thereby stabilizing and activating AR-V7. Importantly, DBC1 depletion suppresses the tumorigenic and metastatic properties of CRPC cells. Our results firmly establish DBC1 as a critical AR-V7 coactivator that plays a key role in the regulation of DNA binding and stability of AR-V7 and has an important physiological role in CRPC progression.

Jin H, Xie Q, Guo X, et al.
p63α protein up-regulates heat shock protein 70 expression via E2F1 transcription factor 1, promoting Wasf3/Wave3/MMP9 signaling and bladder cancer invasion.
J Biol Chem. 2017; 292(38):15952-15963 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer (BC) is the sixth most common cancer in the United States and is the number one cause of death among patients with urinary system malignancies. This makes the identification of invasive regulator(s)/effector(s) as the potential therapeutic targets for managing BC a high priority. p63 is a member of the p53 family of tumor suppressor genes/proteins, plays a role in the differentiation of epithelial tissues, and is believed to function as a tumor suppressor. However, it remains unclear whether and how p63 functions in BC cell invasion after tumorigenesis. Here, we show that p63α protein levels were much higher in mouse high-invasive BC tissues than in normal tissues. Our results also revealed that p63α is crucial for heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression and subsequently increases the ability of BC invasion. Mechanistic experiments demonstrated that p63α can transcriptionally up-regulate Hsp70 expression, thereby promoting BC cell invasion via the Hsp70/Wasf3/Wave3/MMP-9 axis. We further show that E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) mediates p63α overexpression-induced

Clarke MA, Luhn P, Gage JC, et al.
Discovery and validation of candidate host DNA methylation markers for detection of cervical precancer and cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(4):701-710 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been recently introduced as an alternative to cytology for cervical cancer screening. However, since most HPV infections clear without causing clinically relevant lesions, additional triage tests are required to identify women who are at high risk of developing cancer. We performed DNA methylation profiling on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from women with benign HPV16 infection and histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, and cancer using a bead-based microarray covering 1,500 CpG sites in over 800 genes. Methylation levels in individual CpG sites were compared using a t-test, and results were summarized by computing p-values. A total of 12 candidate genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL1, ATP10, CADM1, DCC, DBC1, HS3ST2, MOS, MYOD1, SOX1, SOX17 and TMEFF2) identified by DNA methylation profiling, plus an additional three genes identified from the literature (EPB41L3, MAL and miR-124) were chosen for validation in an independent set of 167 liquid-based cytology specimens using pyrosequencing and targeted, next-generation bisulfite sequencing. Of the 15 candidate gene markers, 10 had an area under the curve (AUC) of ≥ 0.75 for discrimination of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL+) from

Zhou G, Ye J, Fang Y, et al.
Identification of DBCCR1 as a suppressor in the development of lung cancer that is associated with increased DNA methyltransferase 1.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(20):32821-32832 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence has pointed to a role of the CpG island hypermethylation in the regulation of cancer-related genes in tumor progression. However, the biological impacts in cancer pathogenesis associated with down-regulation of such gene targets remains elusive. Here we focused on a potential target of hypermethylation, DBCCR1 (deleted in bladder cancer chromosome region 1), a gene encoding a candidate tumor suppressor. We found that the expression of DBCCR1 is significantly lower in the lung cancer tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues of patients. Importantly, the decreased DBCCR1 was found correlated with more advanced stages of cancer, and with a significantly shorter survival of patients. Genetic silencing DBCCR1 in human lung cancer cell line A549 resulted in an enhanced proliferation, migration, and invasion capacity. Conversely, restoring DBCCR1 expression blocked the growth and inhibited the ability of cancer cell in migration and invasion. Interestingly, DBCCR1 attenuates the expression of DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1), suggesting a reciprocal regulation between genetic silencing of cancer suppressor genes and activating DNA methylation. Our data thus implicates DBCCR1 downregulation as a potential module in the pathogenesis of lung cancer through DNA methylation.

Kristensen LS, Hansen JW, Kristensen SS, et al.
Aberrant methylation of cell-free circulating DNA in plasma predicts poor outcome in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Clin Epigenetics. 2016; 8(1):95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of aberrant DNA methylation of cell-free circulating DNA in plasma has not previously been evaluated in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of this study was to investigate if aberrant promoter DNA methylation can be detected in plasma from DLBCL patients and to evaluate this as a prognostic marker. Furthermore, we wanted to follow possible changes in methylation levels during treatment. Seventy-four patients were enrolled in the study, of which 59 received rituximab and CHOP-like chemotherapy. Plasma samples were collected from all patients at the time of diagnosis and from 14 healthy individuals used as controls. In addition, plasma samples were collected during and after treatment for surviving patients. In total, 158 plasma samples were analyzed for DNA methylation in the promoter regions of DAPK (DAPK1), DBC1, MIR34A, and MIR34B/C using pyrosequencing.
RESULTS: Aberrant methylation levels at the time of diagnosis were detected in 19, 16, 8, and 10 % of the DLBCL plasma samples for DAPK1, DBC1, MIR34A, and MIR34B/C, respectively. DAPK1 methylation levels were significantly correlated with DBC1 and MIR34B/C methylation levels (P < 0.001). For the entire cohort, 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were significantly lower in the groups carrying aberrant DAPK1 (P = 0.004) and DBC1 (P = 0.044) methylation, respectively. DAPK1 methylation status were significantly correlated with stage (P = 0.015), as all patients with aberrant DAPK1 methylation were stages III and IV. Multivariate analysis identified DAPK1 as an independent prognostic factor for OS with a hazard ratio of 8.9 (95 % CI 2.7-29.3, P < 0.0007). Patients with DAPK1 methylated cell-free circulating DNA at time of diagnosis, who became long-term survivors, lost the aberrant methylation after treatment initiation. Conversely, patients that maintained or regained aberrant DAPK1 methylation died soon thereafter.
CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant promoter methylation of cell-free circulating DNA can be detected in plasma from DLBCL patients and hold promise as an easily accessible marker for evaluating response to treatment and for prognostication. In particular, aberrant DAPK1 methylation in plasma was an independent prognostic marker that may also be used to assess treatment response.

Kim SY, Shin DY, Kim SM, et al.
Aberrant DNA methylation-induced gene inactivation is associated with the diagnosis and/or therapy of T-cell leukemias.
Leuk Res. 2016; 47:116-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is known to play an important role in the development of many tumors, and aberrant DNA hypermethylation was recently identified in hematologic malignancies, where it is thought to hold relevance in leukemogenesis. Here, we report that there are differences in the DNA methylation patterns seen in normal peripheral blood and two T-cell leukemia cell lines. We identify nine genes (CLEC4E, CR1, DBC1, EPO, HAL-DOA, IGF2, IL12B, ITGA1, and LMX1B) that are significantly hypermethylated in T-cell leukemias cell lines, and suggest that aberrant hypermethylation of these normally unmethylated genes may induce their transcriptional and expressional silencing. Furthermore, we observed that the expression levels of DNMT1 and DNMT3a were significantly decreased by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC), which is a demethylation agent known to deplete DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in leukemia cancer cells and restore the expression levels of their target genes in Jurkat cells. This result suggests that the overexpression of DNMTs could contribute to the development of T-cell leukemias by inducing hypermethylation of the target genes. Together, our results show that aberrant hypermethylation is an important molecular mechanism in the progression of T-cell leukemias, and thus could prove useful as a prognostic and/or diagnostic marker. Moreover, 5-Aza-dC might be a promising candidate for the treatment of T-cell leukemia.

Sepulveda JL, Gutierrez-Pajares JL, Luna A, et al.
High-definition CpG methylation of novel genes in gastric carcinogenesis identified by next-generation sequencing.
Mod Pathol. 2016; 29(2):182-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancers are the most frequent gastric malignancy and usually arise in the sequence of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis. CpG methylation is a central mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation affecting cancer-related genes, and occurs early in gastric carcinogenesis. DNA samples from non-metaplastic gastric mucosa with variable levels of gastritis (non-metaplastic mucosa), intestinal metaplasia, or gastric cancer were screened with methylation arrays for CpG methylation of cancer-related genes and 30 gene targets were further characterized by high-definition bisulfite next-generation sequencing. In addition, data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed for correlation of methylation with gene expression. Overall, 13 genes had significantly increased CpG methylation in gastric cancer vs non-metaplastic mucosa (BRINP1, CDH11, CHFR, EPHA5, EPHA7, FGF2, FLI1, GALR1, HS3ST2, PDGFRA, SEZ6L, SGCE, and SNRPN). Further, most of these genes had corresponding reduced expression levels in gastric cancer compared with intestinal metaplasia, including novel hypermethylated genes in gastric cancer (FLI1, GALR1, SGCE, and SNRPN), suggesting that they may regulate neoplastic transformation from non-malignant intestinal metaplasia to cancer. Our data suggest a tumor-suppressor role for FLI1 in gastric cancer, consistent with recently reported data in breast cancer. For the genes with strongest methylation/expression correlation, namely FLI1, the expression was lowest in microsatellite-unstable tumors compared with other gastric cancer molecular subtypes. Importantly, reduced expression of hypermethylated BRINP1 and SGCE was significantly associated with favorable survival in gastric cancer. In summary, we report novel methylation gene targets that may have functional roles in discrete stages of gastric carcinogenesis and may serve as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer.

Nizialek EA, Sankunny M, Niazi F, Eng C
Cancer-predisposition gene KLLN maintains pericentric H3K9 trimethylation protecting genomic stability.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2016; 44(8):3586-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Maintenance of proper chromatin states and genomic stability is vital for normal development and health across a range of organisms. Here, we report on the role of KLLN in maintenance of pericentric H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and genomic stability. Germline hypermethylation of KLLN, a gene uncovered well after the human genome project, has been linked to Cowden cancer-predisposition syndrome (CS) in PTEN wild-type cases. KLLN first identified as a p53-dependent tumor suppressor gene, was believed to bind randomly to DNA and cause S-phase arrest. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-based sequencing (ChIP-seq), we demonstrated that KLLN binds to DNA regions enriched with H3K9me3. KLLN overexpression correlated with increased H3K9 methyltransferase activity and increased global H3K9me3, while knockdown of KLLN had an opposite effect. We also found KLLN to localize to pericentric regions, with loss of KLLN resulting in dysregulation of pericentric heterochromatin, with consequent chromosomal instability manifested by increased micronuclei formation and numerical chromosomal aberrations. Interestingly, we show that KLLN interacts with DBC1, with consequent abrogation of DBC1 inhibition of SUV39H1, a H3K9 methyltransferase, suggesting the mode of KLLN regulating H3K9me3. These results suggest a critical role for KLLN as a potential regulator of pericentric heterochromatin formation, genomic stability and gene expression.

Won KY, Cho H, Kim GY, et al.
High DBC1 (CCAR2) expression in gallbladder carcinoma is associated with favorable clinicopathological factors.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):11440-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There have been several studies on gallbladder carcinogenesis, and mutations of the KRAS, TP53, and CDKN2A genes have been reported in gallbladder carcinoma. The DBC1 gene (deleted in breast cancer 1) was initially cloned from region 8p21, which was homozygously deleted in breast cancer. DBC1 has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and death. The functional role of DBC1 in normal cells and the role of DBC1 loss in cancer are not entirely clear. And DBC1 expression and its clinical implications in gallbladder carcinoma have yet to be thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, we evaluated DBC1 expression in 104 gallbladder carcinoma tissues in relation to survival and other prognostic factors via immunohistochemical analysis. DBC1 expression was divided into two categories: high DBC1 expression was observed in 32/104 cases (30.8%) and low expression in 72/104 cases (69.2%). High DBC1 expression correlated significantly with favorable clinicopathologic variables. Furthermore, in survival analysis, the high-DBC1 expression group showed a better survival rate compared to the low-DBC1 expression group. In conclusion, high DBC1 expression is associated with several favorable clinicopathologic factors in gallbladder carcinoma. These findings suggest that loss of DBC1 expression plays a role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in gallbladder carcinoma.

Yu EJ, Kim SH, Kim HJ, et al.
Positive regulation of β-catenin-PROX1 signaling axis by DBC1 in colon cancer progression.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(26):3410-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway contributes to colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. However, little is known about regulatory mechanisms of the β-catenin activity in cancer progression. Here we investigated the role of DBC1, which was recently reported as a negative regulator of SIRT1 and a transcriptional coactivator, in the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We identified the genome-wide targets of DBC1 and found that loss of DBC1 inhibits the expression of β-catenin target genes including PROX1, a transcription factor linked to CRC progression. Mechanistically, DBC1 stabilizes LEF1-β-catenin interaction by inhibiting SIRT1-mediated β-catenin deacetylation, thereby enhancing LEF1-β-catenin complex formation and long-range chromatin looping at the PROX1 locus. Furthermore, DBC1 is also required for the transcriptional activity of PROX1, suggesting that DBC1 has a dual function in regulating β-catenin-PROX1 signaling axis: as a coactivator for both β-catenin and PROX1. Importantly, loss of DBC1 inhibited growth and tumorigenic potential of colon cancer cells, and DBC1 expression correlated with shorter relapse-free survival in patients with advanced CRC. Our results firmly establish DBC1 as a critical positive regulator of β-catenin-PROX1 signaling axis and a key factor in β-catenin-PROX1-mediated CRC progression.

Arnold A, Bahra M, Lenze D, et al.
Genome wide DNA copy number analysis in cholangiocarcinoma using high resolution molecular inversion probe single nucleotide polymorphism assay.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2015; 99(2):344-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to study molecular similarities and differences of intrahepatic (IH-CCA) and extrahepatic (EH-CCA) cholangiocarcinoma, 24 FFPE tumor samples (13 IH-CCA, 11 EH-CCA) were analyzed for whole genome copy number variations (CNVs) using a new high-density Molecular Inversion Probe Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (MIP SNP) assay. Common in both tumor subtypes the most frequent losses were detected on chromosome 1p, 3p, 6q and 9 while gains were mostly seen in 1q, 8q as well as complete chromosome 17 and 20. Applying the statistical GISTIC (Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer) tool we identified potential novel candidate tumor suppressor- (DBC1, FHIT, PPP2R2A) and oncogenes (LYN, FGF19, GRB7, PTPN1) within these regions of chromosomal instability. Next to common aberrations in IH-CCA and EH-CCA, we additionally found significant differences in copy number variations on chromosome 3 and 14. Moreover, due to the fact that mutations in the Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH-1 and IDH-2) genes are more frequent in our IH-CCA than in our EH-CCA samples, we suggest that the tumor subtypes have a different molecular profile. In conclusion, new possible target genes within regions of high significant copy number aberrations were detected using a high-density Molecular Inversion Probe Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (MIP SNP) assay, which opens a future perspective of fast routine copy number and marker gene identification for gene targeted therapy.

Huan Y, Wu D, Zhou D, et al.
DBC1 promotes anoikis resistance of gastric cancer cells by regulating NF-κB activity.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(2):843-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) has been known to be overexpressed and serves as a poor prognostic indicator of several human cancers. In this study, we examined DBC1 expression in a total of 142 gastric cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry and revealed that DBC1 was overexpressed in gastric cancer and significantly associated with TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. The in vitro experiments showed that DBC1 expression correlated with the ability of anoikis resistance in gastric cancer cells, which has been defined as critical to metastasis. Furthermore, the results showed that the IKK-β/NF-κB signaling pathway was involved in the regulation of anoikis resistance by DBC1 in gastric cancer cells. Taken together, the results indicated that DBC1 promotes anoikis resistance in gastric cancer cells by regulating NF-κB activity and may thus be a new therapeutic target for preventing potential metastasis.

Qin B, Minter-Dykhouse K, Yu J, et al.
DBC1 functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating p53 stability.
Cell Rep. 2015; 10(8):1324-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1), also known as CCAR2 or KIAA1967, is an important negative regulator of SIRT1 and cellular stress response. Although the Dbc1 gene localizes at a region that is homozygously deleted in breast cancer, its role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. It has been suggested to be either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene. Therefore, the function of DBC1 in cancer needs to be further explored. Here, we report that Dbc1 knockout mice are tumor prone, suggesting that DBC1 functions as a tumor suppressor in vivo. Our data suggest that the increased tumor incidence in Dbc1 knockout mice is independent of Sirt1. Instead, we found that DBC1 loss results in less p53 protein in vitro and in vivo. DBC1 directly binds p53 and stabilizes it through competition with MDM2. These studies reveal that DBC1 plays an important role in tumor suppression through p53 regulation.

Li Z, Guo X, Wu Y, et al.
Methylation profiling of 48 candidate genes in tumor and matched normal tissues from breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 149(3):767-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene-specific methylation alterations in breast cancer have been suggested to occur early in tumorigenesis and have the potential to be used for early detection and prevention. The continuous increase in worldwide breast cancer incidences emphasizes the urgent need for identification of methylation biomarkers for early cancer detection and patient stratification. Using microfluidic PCR-based target enrichment and next-generation bisulfite sequencing technology, we analyzed methylation status of 48 candidate genes in paired tumor and normal tissues from 180 Chinese breast cancer patients. Analysis of the sequencing results showed 37 genes differentially methylated between tumor and matched normal tissues. Breast cancer samples with different clinicopathologic characteristics demonstrated distinct profiles of gene methylation. The methylation levels were significantly different between breast cancer subtypes, with basal-like and luminal B tumors having the lowest and the highest methylation levels, respectively. Six genes (ACADL, ADAMTSL1, CAV1, NPY, PTGS2, and RUNX3) showed significant differential methylation among the 4 breast cancer subtypes and also between the ER +/ER- tumors. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis, we identified a panel of 13 hypermethylated genes as candidate biomarkers that performed a high level of efficiency for cancer prediction. These 13 genes included CST6, DBC1, EGFR, GREM1, GSTP1, IGFBP3, PDGFRB, PPM1E, SFRP1, SFRP2, SOX17, TNFRSF10D, and WRN. Our results provide evidence that well-defined DNA methylation profiles enable breast cancer prediction and patient stratification. The novel gene panel might be a valuable biomarker for early detection of breast cancer.

Kim HJ, Kim SH, Yu EJ, et al.
A positive role of DBC1 in PEA3-mediated progression of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(34):4500-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deleted in Breast Cancer 1 (DBC1), a negative regulator of deacetylase SIRT1, has been shown to act as an estrogen receptor α (ER) coactivator that has a key role in ER transcription complex assembly and estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation. However, little is known about its physiological role and mechanism of action in ER-negative breast cancer cells. Here we report that DBC1 functions as a coactivator for the oncogenic ETS transcription factor PEA3 to promote ER-negative breast cancer progression. DBC1 is required for the expression of PEA3 target genes and for recruitment of PEA3 and RNA polymerase II to PEA3 target promoters. We also demonstrated that acetylation of PEA3 stimulates its DNA binding and association with DBC1 by disrupting the intramolecular interaction of PEA3. The molecular mechanism underlying DBC1 function in PEA3-mediated transcription involves inhibition of SIRT1 interaction with PEA3 and of SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of PEA3. Moreover, DBC1 depletion inhibited the tumorigenic properties of ER-negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, increased DBC1 expression correlated with shorter relapse-free survival of ER-negative breast cancer patients. Our results firmly established DBC1 as a critical coactivator of PEA3 and as a key player in PEA3-mediated breast cancer progression.

Sasca D, Hähnel PS, Szybinski J, et al.
SIRT1 prevents genotoxic stress-induced p53 activation in acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood. 2014; 124(1):121-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
SIRT1 is an important regulator of cellular stress response and genomic integrity. Its role in tumorigenesis is controversial. Whereas sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) can act as a tumor suppressor in some solid tumors, increased expression has been demonstrated in many cancers, including hematologic malignancies. In chronic myeloid leukemia, SIRT1 promoted leukemia development, and targeting SIRT1 sensitized chronic myeloid leukemia progenitors to tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We show that SIRT1 protein, but not RNA levels, is overexpressed in AML samples harboring activating mutations in signaling pathways. In FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD)(+)-cells protein, expression of SIRT1 is regulated by FLT3 kinase activity. In addition, SIRT1 function is modulated via the ATM-DBC1-SIRT1 axis in a FLT3-ITD-dependent manner. In murine leukemia models driven by MLL-AF9 or AML1-ETO coexpressing FLT3-ITD, SIRT1 acts as a safeguard to counteract oncogene-induced stress, and leukemic blasts become dependent on SIRT1 activity. Pharmacologic targeting or RNAi-mediated knockdown of SIRT1 inhibited cell growth and sensitized AML cells to tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment and chemotherapy. This effect was a result of the restoration of p53 activity. Our data suggest that targeting SIRT1 represents an attractive therapeutic strategy to overcome primary resistance in defined subsets of patients with AML.

Pangon L, Mladenova D, Watkins L, et al.
MCC inhibits beta-catenin transcriptional activity by sequestering DBC1 in the cytoplasm.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(1):55-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mutated in colorectal cancer (MCC) is a multifunctional gene showing loss of expression in colorectal and liver cancers. MCC mutations can drive colon carcinogenesis in the mouse and in vitro experiments suggest that loss of MCC function promotes cancer through several important cellular pathways. In particular, the MCC protein is known to regulate beta-catenin (β-cat) signaling, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that the β-cat repressor function of MCC is strongly impaired by the presence of a disease-associated mutation. We also identify deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) as a new MCC interacting partner and regulator of β-cat signaling. RNA interference experiments show that DBC1 promotes β-cat transcriptional activity and that the presence of DBC1 is required for MCC-mediated β-cat repression. In contrast to all other DBC1 interacting partners, MCC does not interact through the DBC1 Leucine Zipper domain but with a glutamic-acid rich region located between the Nudix and EF-hand domains. Furthermore, MCC overexpression relocalizes DBC1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and reduces β-cat K49 acetylation. Treatment of cells with the SIRT1 inhibitor Nicotinamide reverses MCC-induced deacetylation of β-cat K49. These data suggest that the cytoplasmic MCC-DBC1 interaction sequesters DBC1 away from the nucleus, thereby removing a brake on DBC1 nuclear targets, such as SIRT1. This study provides new mechanistic insights into the DBC1-MCC axis as a new APC independent β-cat inhibitory pathway.

Zhang H, Xu Y, Filipovic A, et al.
SILAC-based phosphoproteomics reveals an inhibitory role of KSR1 in p53 transcriptional activity via modulation of DBC1.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(10):2675-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously identified kinase suppressor of ras-1 (KSR1) as a potential regulatory gene in breast cancer. KSR1, originally described as a novel protein kinase, has a role in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Emerging evidence has shown that KSR1 may have dual functions as an active kinase as well as a scaffold facilitating multiprotein complex assembly. Although efforts have been made to study the role of KSR1 in certain tumour types, its involvement in breast cancer remains unknown.
METHODS: A quantitative mass spectrometry analysis using stable isotope labelling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was implemented to identify KSR1-regulated phosphoproteins in breast cancer. In vitro luciferase assays, co-immunoprecipitation as well as western blotting experiments were performed to further study the function of KSR1 in breast cancer.
RESULTS: Of significance, proteomic analysis reveals that KSR1 overexpression decreases deleted in breast cancer-1 (DBC1) phosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that KSR1 decreases the transcriptional activity of p53 by reducing the phosphorylation of DBC1, which leads to a reduced interaction of DBC1 with sirtuin-1 (SIRT1); this in turn enables SIRT1 to deacetylate p53.
CONCLUSION: Our findings integrate KSR1 into a network involving DBC1 and SIRT1, which results in the regulation of p53 acetylation and its transcriptional activity.

Chini EN, Chini CC, Nin V, Escande C
Deleted in breast cancer-1 (DBC-1) in the interface between metabolism, aging and cancer.
Biosci Rep. 2013; 33(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer-1) is a nuclear protein that regulates cellular metabolism. Since alteration in cellular metabolism have been proposed to be the emerging 'hallmark' of cancer, it is possible that DBC1 may be implicated in the regulation of cancer cell energy metabolism. However, at this point any role of DBC1 in cancer is only speculative. In this review, we will discuss the new developments in DBC1 research, its molecular structure, regulatory roles and implication in metabolism, aging and cancer.

Park SH, Riley P, Frisch SM
Regulation of anoikis by deleted in breast cancer-1 (DBC1) through NF-κB.
Apoptosis. 2013; 18(8):949-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anoikis-resistance of tumor cells is critical for anchorage-independent growth and metastasis. The inflammatory-response transcription factor NF-κB contributes to anoikis-resistance and tumor progression through mechanisms that are understood incompletely. Deleted in breast cancer-1 (DBC1) protein (KIAA1967) is over-expressed in several tumor types, and correlates with a poorer prognosis in some cases. We report here that DBC1 suppressed anoikis in normal epithelial and breast cancer cell lines. DBC1 interacted with IKK-β, stimulating its kinase activity, promoting NF-κB transcriptional activity through the phosphorylation of relA serine-536 and enhancing the expression of the NF-κB target genes, c-FLIP and bcl-xl. Our results indicate that DBC1 is an important co-factor for the control of the IKK-β-NF-κB signaling pathway that regulates anoikis.

Zhang Y, Gu Y, Sha S, et al.
DBC1 is over-expressed and associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2014; 19(1):106-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) was initially cloned from a region homozygously deleted in breast cancers, but its role in colorectal cancer remains unknown. The present study aims to examine the expression level of DBC1 and assess its prognostic value in human colorectal cancer.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the expression level of DBC1 in a series of 186 colorectal cancer patients. Immunohistochemical staining results were analyzed and compared statistically with various clinicopathological characters and overall survival.
RESULTS: Compared with the corresponding non-tumor tissues, a higher expression level of DBC1 was detected in colorectal cancer (P < 0.01). Tissue microarray analysis revealed that DBC1 expression is significantly associated with tumor histological grade, TNM stage and metastatic status (P < 0.01). Importantly, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that DBC1 expression is associated with shorter overall survival (P < 0.01). Univariate Cox regression suggested that DBC1 expression, poorly differentiation status and the presence of lymph node metastasis predict shorter overall survival in colorectal cancer (P < 0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that DBC1 acts as an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that DBC1 is over-expressed in colorectal cancer and that it might serve as a predictor for selecting patients at high risk of poor prognosis.

Huang RL, Chang CC, Su PH, et al.
Methylomic analysis identifies frequent DNA methylation of zinc finger protein 582 (ZNF582) in cervical neoplasms.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e41060 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite of the trend that the application of DNA methylation as a biomarker for cancer detection is promising, clinically applicable genes are few. Therefore, we looked for novel hypermethylated genes for cervical cancer screening.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: At the discovery phase, we analyzed the methylation profiles of human cervical carcinomas and normal cervixes by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled to promoter tiling arrays (MeDIP-on-chip). Methylation-specific PCR (MSP), quantitative MSP and bisulfite sequencing were used to verify the methylation status in cancer tissues and cervical scrapings from patients with different severities. Immunohistochemical staining of a cervical tissue microarray was used to confirm protein expression. We narrowed to three candidate genes: DBC1, PDE8B, and ZNF582; their methylation frequencies in tumors were 93%, 29%, and 100%, respectively. At the pre-validation phase, the methylation frequency of DBC1 and ZNF582 in cervical scraping correlated significantly with disease severity in an independent cohort (n = 330, both P<0.001). For the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) and worse, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of ZNF582 was 0.82 (95% confidence interval= 0.76-0.87).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows ZNF582 is frequently methylated in CIN3 and worse lesions, and it is demonstrated as a potential biomarker for the molecular screening of cervical cancer.

Nordlund J, Milani L, Lundmark A, et al.
DNA methylation analysis of bone marrow cells at diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and at remission.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e34513 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To detect genes with CpG sites that display methylation patterns that are characteristic of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells, we compared the methylation patterns of cells taken at diagnosis from 20 patients with pediatric ALL to the methylation patterns in mononuclear cells from bone marrow of the same patients during remission and in non-leukemic control cells from bone marrow or blood. Using a custom-designed assay, we measured the methylation levels of 1,320 CpG sites in regulatory regions of 413 genes that were analyzed because they display allele-specific gene expression (ASE) in ALL cells. The rationale for our selection of CpG sites was that ASE could be the result of allele-specific methylation in the promoter regions of the genes. We found that the ALL cells had methylation profiles that allowed distinction between ALL cells and control cells. Using stringent criteria for calling differential methylation, we identified 28 CpG sites in 24 genes with recurrent differences in their methylation levels between ALL cells and control cells. Twenty of the differentially methylated genes were hypermethylated in the ALL cells, and as many as nine of them (AMICA1, CPNE7, CR1, DBC1, EYA4, LGALS8, RYR3, UQCRFS1, WDR35) have functions in cell signaling and/or apoptosis. The methylation levels of a subset of the genes were consistent with an inverse relationship with the mRNA expression levels in a large number of ALL cells from published data sets, supporting a potential biological effect of the methylation signatures and their application for diagnostic purposes.

Chung W, Bondaruk J, Jelinek J, et al.
Detection of bladder cancer using novel DNA methylation biomarkers in urine sediments.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20(7):1483-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BCa) remains a lethal malignancy that can be cured if detected early. DNA hypermethylation is a common epigenetic abnormality in cancer that may serve as a marker of disease activity.
METHODS: We selected 10 novel candidate genes from the most frequently hypermethylated genes detected by DNA microarray and bisulfite pyrosequencing of bladder cancers and applied them to detect bladder cancer in urine sediments. We analyzed DNA methylation in the candidate genes by quantitative methylation-specific real-time PCR (qMSP) to detect bladder cancer in urine sediments from 128 bladder cancer patients and 110 age-matched control subjects.
RESULTS: Based on a multigene predictive model, we discovered 6 methylation markers (MYO3A, CA10, SOX11, NKX6-2, PENK, and DBC1) as most promising for detecting bladder cancer. A panel of 4 genes (MYO3A, CA10, NKX6-2, and DBC1 or SOX11) had 81% sensitivity and 97% specificity, whereas a panel of 5 genes (MYO3A, CA10, NKX6-2, DBC1, and SOX11 or PENK) had 85% sensitivity and 95% specificity for detection of bladder cancer (area under curve = 0.939). By analyzing the data by cancer invasiveness, detection rate was 47 of 58 (81%) in non-muscle invasive tumors (pTa, Tis, and pT1) and 62 of 70 (90%) in muscle invasive tumors (T2, T3, and T4).
CONCLUSIONS: This biomarker panel analyzed by qMSP may help the early detection of bladder tumors in urine sediments with high accuracy.
IMPACT: The panel of biomarker deserves validation in a large well-controlled prospectively collected sample set.

Di Marcotullio L, Canettieri G, Infante P, et al.
Protected from the inside: endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitors and the road to cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011; 1815(2):241-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a crucial role in several physiological and pathological cell functions, including cell development and cancer, by deacetylating both histones and others proteins. HDACs belong to a large family of enzymes including Class I, II and IV as well as Class III or sirtuins subfamilies, that undergo a complex transcriptional and post-translational regulation. In current years, antitumor therapy is attempting to exploit several chemical classes of inhibitors that target HDACs, frequently reported to be misregulated in cancer. Nevertheless, the identity of gene products directly involved in tumorigenesis and preventing HDAC misregulation in cancer is still poorly understood. Recent evidence has demonstrated that the tumor suppressors HIC1 and DBC1 induce direct repression of Sirt1 function, whereas Chfr and REN(KCTD11/KASH family) downregulate HDAC1, by inducing its ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Loss of these gene products leads to imbalanced enhancement of HDAC activity and subsequently to oncogenesis. All these genes are frequently deleted or silenced in human cancers, highlighting the role of endogenous HDAC inhibitors to counteracts HDAC-mediated tumorigenesis. Thus, endogenous HDAC inhibitors represent a promising class of "antitumor agents" thanks to which oncogenic addiction pathways may be selectively therapeutically targeted.

Serizawa RR, Ralfkiaer U, Steven K, et al.
Integrated genetic and epigenetic analysis of bladder cancer reveals an additive diagnostic value of FGFR3 mutations and hypermethylation events.
Int J Cancer. 2011; 129(1):78-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
The bladder cancer genome harbors numerous oncogenic mutations and aberrantly methylated gene promoters. The aim of our study was to generate a profile of these alterations and investigate their use as biomarkers in urine sediments for noninvasive detection of bladder cancer. We systematically screened FGFR3, PIK3CA, TP53, HRAS, NRAS and KRAS for mutations and quantitatively assessed the methylation status of APC, ARF, DBC1, INK4A, RARB, RASSF1A, SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP4, SFRP5 and WIF1 in a prospective series of tumor biopsies (N = 105) and urine samples (N = 113) from 118 bladder tumor patients. We also analyzed urine samples from 33 patients with noncancerous urinary lesions. A total of 95 oncogenic mutations and 189 hypermethylation events were detected in the 105 tumor biopsies. The total panel of markers provided a sensitivity of 93%, whereas mutation and methylation markers alone provided sensitivities of 72% and 70%, respectively. In urine samples, the sensitivity was 70% for all markers, 50% for mutation markers and 52% for methylation markers. FGFR3 mutations occurred more frequently in tumors with no methylation events than in tumors with one or more methylation events (78% vs. 33%; p < 0.0001). FGFR3 mutation in combination with three methylation markers (APC, RASSF1A and SFRP2) provided a sensitivity of 90% in tumors and 62% in urine with 100% specificity. These results suggest an inverse correlation between FGFR3 mutations and hypermethylation events, which may be used to improve noninvasive, DNA-based detection of bladder cancer.

Alvarez S, Suela J, Valencia A, et al.
DNA methylation profiles and their relationship with cytogenetic status in adult acute myeloid leukemia.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(8):e12197 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant promoter DNA methylation has been shown to play a role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathophysiology. However, further studies to discuss the prognostic value and the relationship of the epigenetic signatures with defined genomic rearrangements in acute myeloid leukemia are required.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out high-throughput methylation profiling on 116 de novo AML cases and we validated the significant biomarkers in an independent cohort of 244 AML cases. Methylation signatures were associated with the presence of a specific cytogenetic status. In normal karyotype cases, aberrant methylation of the promoter of DBC1 was validated as a predictor of the disease-free and overall survival. Furthermore, DBC1 expression was significantly silenced in the aberrantly methylated samples. Patients with chromosome rearrangements showed distinct methylation signatures. To establish the role of fusion proteins in the epigenetic profiles, 20 additional samples of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) transduced with common fusion genes were studied and compared with patient samples carrying the same rearrangements. The presence of MLL rearrangements in HSPC induced the methylation profile observed in the MLL-positive primary samples. In contrast, fusion genes such as AML1/ETO or CBFB/MYH11 failed to reproduce the epigenetic signature observed in the patients.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides a comprehensive epigenetic profiling of AML, identifies new clinical markers for cases with a normal karyotype, and reveals relevant biological information related to the role of fusion proteins on the methylation signature.

Sung JY, Kim R, Kim JE, Lee J
Balance between SIRT1 and DBC1 expression is lost in breast cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2010; 101(7):1738-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
SIRT1 (silent mating-type information regulation 2 homologue 1)-mediated cellular resistance to various stresses is negatively regulated by deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1), which was originally reported to be deleted in breast cancer. However, the suggested functions of SIRT1 as a potential tumor promoter and of DBC1 as a potential tumor suppressor have been challenged by observations of their respective down- and up-regulation in various cancers. The aim of the present study was to simultaneously evaluate the expression levels of SIRT1 and DBC1 in the normal and tumor breast tissues from 28 breast cancer patients and to determine correlations with clinicopathological variables. SIRT1 and DBC1 expression was higher in tumor tissues than in matched normal tissues at the protein level, but not at the transcriptional level. Overexpression of SIRT1 and DBC1 in tumor tissue was correlated with favorable and unfavorable clinicopathological factors, suggesting their pleiotropic functions as a potential tumor promoter and tumor suppressor in tumorigenesis. Interestingly, although the overall expression of SIRT1 and DBC1 increased in tumor breast tissues, the correlation between SIRT1 and DBC1 expression was weaker in tumor tissue than in normal tissue. This suggests that the negative regulation of SIRT1 by DBC1 may retard tumorigenesis in breast tissue. Therefore, the correlation between SIRT1 and DBC1 is a potential prognostic indicator in breast cancer.

Pollard C, Smith SC, Theodorescu D
Molecular genesis of non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (NMIUC).
Expert Rev Mol Med. 2010; 12:e10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common type of bladder cancer in Western nations. Most patients present with the non-muscle-invasive (NMIUC) form of the disease, while up to a third harbour the invasive form (MIUC). Specifically, the aetiology of NMIUC appears to be multifactorial and very different from that of MIUC. Loss of specific tumour suppressor genes as well as gain-of-function mutations in proteins within defined cellular signalling pathways have been implicated in NMIUC aetiology. The regions of chromosome 9 that harbour CDKN2A, CDKN2B, TSC1, PTCH1 and DBC1 are frequently mutated in NMIUC, resulting in functional loss; in addition, HRAS and FGFR3, which are both proto-oncogenes encoding components of the Ras-MAPK signalling pathway, have been found to harbour activating mutations in a large number of NMIUCs. Interestingly, some of these molecular events are mutually exclusive, suggesting functional equivalence. Since several of these driving changes are amenable to therapeutic targeting, understanding the signalling events in NMIUC may offer novel approaches to manage the recurrence and progression of this disease.

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