Gene Summary

Gene:ARID2; AT rich interactive domain 2 (ARID, RFX-like)
Aliases: p200, BAF200
Summary:ARID2 is a subunit of the PBAF chromatin-remodeling complex (see BAF180; MIM 606083), which facilitates ligand-dependent transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors (Yan et al., 2005 [PubMed 15985610]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 26 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 26 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 26 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ARID2 (cancer-related)

Kovac M, Navas C, Horswell S, et al.
Recurrent chromosomal gains and heterogeneous driver mutations characterise papillary renal cancer evolution.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:6336 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is an important subtype of kidney cancer with a problematic pathological classification and highly variable clinical behaviour. Here we sequence the genomes or exomes of 31 pRCCs, and in four tumours, multi-region sequencing is undertaken. We identify BAP1, SETD2, ARID2 and Nrf2 pathway genes (KEAP1, NHE2L2 and CUL3) as probable drivers, together with at least eight other possible drivers. However, only ~10% of tumours harbour detectable pathogenic changes in any one driver gene, and where present, the mutations are often predicted to be present within cancer sub-clones. We specifically detect parallel evolution of multiple SETD2 mutations within different sub-regions of the same tumour. By contrast, large copy number gains of chromosomes 7, 12, 16 and 17 are usually early, monoclonal changes in pRCC evolution. The predominance of large copy number variants as the major drivers for pRCC highlights an unusual mode of tumorigenesis that may challenge precision medicine approaches.

Huang HT, Chen SM, Pan LB, et al.
Loss of function of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling genes leads to genome instability of human lung cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(1):283-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes are frequently mutated in a variety of human cancers. We investigated the mutation incidence and the role of mSWI/SNF (BAF) complexes in human lung cancer. In the present study, we analyzed somatic mutations of BAF complexes and other driver mutated genes of lung carcinoma deposited in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. BAF complexes were mutated in 282 of 803 (35.12%) lung carcinoma samples analyzed, ranking second to TP53. Significantly, BAF-mutated samples exhibited more genomic mutations than BAF wild-type ones. Moreover, a significant positive correlation existed between the BAF mutations and overall genomic mutations in these lung carcinoma samples (P<0.001, Pearson's correlation analysis). Specifically, the mutant-typing of 6 BAF genes, SMARCA4, ARID2, ARID1B, BCL11A, BCL11B and BRD9 was associated with more overall mutations in the lung carcinoma samples. A mutation reporter system was developed by means of the establishment of stable cell sublines with slippage-luciferase transcript in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line, Calu-3. SMARCA4, the most frequently mutated BAF gene in lung cancer, was stably knocked down by pSUPER constructs carrying short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Mutation ratios determined from the mutation reporters of Calu-3 cells were significantly increased upon stable SMARCA4 knockdown. We demonstrated that genetic mutations of BAF complexes lead to genome instability of lung carcinoma. Therefore, BAF complexes play an important role in maintaining genome stability in human lung cancer.

Jhunjhunwala S, Jiang Z, Stawiski EW, et al.
Diverse modes of genomic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Genome Biol. 2014; 15(8):436 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous disease with high mortality rate. Recent genomic studies have identified TP53, AXIN1, and CTNNB1 as the most frequently mutated genes. Lower frequency mutations have been reported in ARID1A, ARID2 and JAK1. In addition, hepatitis B virus (HBV) integrations into the human genome have been associated with HCC.
RESULTS: Here, we deep-sequence 42 HCC patients with a combination of whole genome, exome and transcriptome sequencing to identify the mutational landscape of HCC using a reasonably large discovery cohort. We find frequent mutations in TP53, CTNNB1 and AXIN1, and rare but likely functional mutations in BAP1 and IDH1. Besides frequent hepatitis B virus integrations at TERT, we identify translocations at the boundaries of TERT. A novel deletion is identified in CTNNB1 in a region that is heavily mutated in multiple cancers. We also find multiple high-allelic frequency mutations in the extracellular matrix protein LAMA2. Lower expression levels of LAMA2 correlate with a proliferative signature, and predict poor survival and higher chance of cancer recurrence in HCC patients, suggesting an important role of the extracellular matrix and cell adhesion in tumor progression of a subgroup of HCC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneous disease of HCC features diverse modes of genomic alteration. In addition to common point mutations, structural variations and methylation changes, there are several virus-associated changes, including gene disruption or activation, formation of chimeric viral-human transcripts, and DNA copy number changes. Such a multitude of genomic events likely contributes to the heterogeneous nature of HCC.

Yoshikawa Y, Sato A, Tsujimura T, et al.
Biallelic germline and somatic mutations in malignant mesothelioma: multiple mutations in transcription regulators including mSWI/SNF genes.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(3):560-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
We detected low levels of acetylation for histone H3 tail lysines in malignant mesothelioma (MM) cell lines resistant to histone deacetylase inhibitors. To identify the possible genetic causes related to the low histone acetylation levels, whole-exome sequencing was conducted with MM cell lines established from eight patients. A mono-allelic variant of BRD1 was common to two MM cell lines with very low acetylation levels. We identified 318 homozygous protein-damaging variants/mutations (18-78 variants/mutations per patient); annotation analysis showed enrichment of the molecules associated with mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes and co-activators that facilitate initiation of transcription. In seven of the patients, we detected a combination of variants in histone modifiers or transcription factors/co-factors, in addition to variants in mSWI/SNF. Direct sequencing showed that homozygous mutations in SMARCA4, PBRM1 and ARID2 were somatic. In one patient, homozygous germline variants were observed for SMARCC1 and SETD2 in chr3p22.1-3p14.2. These exhibited extended germline homozygosity and were in regions containing somatic mutations, leading to a loss of BAP1 and PBRM1 expression in MM cell line. Most protein-damaging variants were heterozygous in normal tissues. Heterozygous germline variants were often converted into hemizygous variants by mono-allelic deletion, and were rarely homozygous because of acquired uniparental disomy. Our findings imply that MM might develop through the somatic inactivation of mSWI/SNF complex subunits and/or histone modifiers, including BAP1, in subjects that have rare germline variants of these transcription regulators and/or transcription factors/co-factors, and in regions prone to mono-allelic deletion during oncogenesis.

Cajuso T, Hänninen UA, Kondelin J, et al.
Exome sequencing reveals frequent inactivating mutations in ARID1A, ARID1B, ARID2 and ARID4A in microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(3):611-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
ARID1A has been identified as a novel tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer and subsequently in various other tumor types. ARID1A belongs to the ARID domain containing gene family, which comprises of 15 genes involved, for example, in transcriptional regulation, proliferation and chromatin remodeling. In this study, we used exome sequencing data to analyze the mutation frequency of all the ARID domain containing genes in 25 microsatellite unstable (MSI) colorectal cancers (CRCs) as a first systematic effort to characterize the mutation pattern of the whole ARID gene family. Genes which fulfilled the selection criteria in this discovery set (mutations in at least 4/25 [16%] samples, including at least one nonsense or splice site mutation) were chosen for further analysis in an independent validation set of 21 MSI CRCs. We found that in addition to ARID1A, which was mutated in 39% of the tumors (18/46), also ARID1B (13%, 6/46), ARID2 (13%, 6/46) and ARID4A (20%, 9/46) were frequently mutated. In all these genes, the mutations were distributed along the entire length of the gene, thus distinguishing them from typical MSI target genes previously described. Our results indicate that in addition to ARID1A, other members of the ARID gene family may play a role in MSI CRC.

Gu DL, Chen YH, Shih JH, et al.
Target genes discovery through copy number alteration analysis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(47):8873-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-throughput short-read sequencing of exomes and whole cancer genomes in multiple human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cohorts confirmed previously identified frequently mutated somatic genes, such as TP53, CTNNB1 and AXIN1, and identified several novel genes with moderate mutation frequencies, including ARID1A, ARID2, MLL, MLL2, MLL3, MLL4, IRF2, ATM, CDKN2A, FGF19, PIK3CA, RPS6KA3, JAK1, KEAP1, NFE2L2, C16orf62, LEPR, RAC2, and IL6ST. Functional classification of these mutated genes suggested that alterations in pathways participating in chromatin remodeling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, JAK/STAT signaling, and oxidative stress play critical roles in HCC tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, because there are few druggable genes used in HCC therapy, the identification of new therapeutic targets through integrated genomic approaches remains an important task. Because a large amount of HCC genomic data genotyped by high density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays is deposited in the public domain, copy number alteration (CNA) analyses of these arrays is a cost-effective way to reveal target genes through profiling of recurrent and overlapping amplicons, homozygous deletions and potentially unbalanced chromosomal translocations accumulated during HCC progression. Moreover, integration of CNAs with other high-throughput genomic data, such as aberrantly coding transcriptomes and non-coding gene expression in human HCC tissues and rodent HCC models, provides lines of evidence that can be used to facilitate the identification of novel HCC target genes with the potential of improving the survival of HCC patients.

Mutational landscape of gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma reveals new recurrently-mutated genes and molecular subgroups.
Nat Commun. 2013; 4:2873 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC-GB), an anatomical and clinical subtype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), is prevalent in regions where tobacco-chewing is common. Exome sequencing (n=50) and recurrence testing (n=60) reveals that some significantly and frequently altered genes are specific to OSCC-GB (USP9X, MLL4, ARID2, UNC13C and TRPM3), while some others are shared with HNSCC (for example, TP53, FAT1, CASP8, HRAS and NOTCH1). We also find new genes with recurrent amplifications (for example, DROSHA, YAP1) or homozygous deletions (for example, DDX3X) in OSCC-GB. We find a high proportion of C>G transversions among tobacco users with high numbers of mutations. Many pathways that are enriched for genomic alterations are specific to OSCC-GB. Our work reveals molecular subtypes with distinctive mutational profiles such as patients predominantly harbouring mutations in CASP8 with or without mutations in FAT1. Mean duration of disease-free survival is significantly elevated in some molecular subgroups. These findings open new avenues for biological characterization and exploration of therapies.

Oike T, Ogiwara H, Nakano T, et al.
Inactivating mutations in SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling genes in human cancer.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2013; 43(9):849-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid and histone proteins form a highly condensed structure known as chromatin. Chromatin remodeling proteins regulate deoxyribonucleic acid transcription, synthesis and repair by changing nucleosomal composition in an adenosine triphosphate-dependent manner and mediate access of deoxyribonucleic acid-binding proteins to deoxyribonucleic acid double strands. Recently, large-scale genome sequencing studies identified somatic mutations in genes encoding chromatin remodeling proteins in a variety of human solid cancers. Notably, inactivating mutations in genes encoding the catalytic and regulatory subunits of the switch/sucrose non-fermenting chromatin remodeling complex have been detected in several solid cancers: sucrose non-fermenting/switch/sucrose non-fermenting-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1/Brahma-related gene 1-associated factor 47/integrase interactor 1 mutations in rhabdoid tumors; AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1 A/Brahma-related gene 1-associated factor 250a mutations in ovarian clear cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma; polybromo 1/Brahma-related gene 1-associated factor 180 mutations in renal clear cell carcinoma; Brahma-related gene 1/switch/sucrose non-fermenting-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4 mutations in non-small-cell lung carcinoma and AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 2/Brahma-related gene 1-associated factor 200 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma and malignant melanoma. This suggests that the switch/sucrose non-fermenting complex has a tumor-suppressive function, and that switch/sucrose non-fermenting gene deficiencies may affect the properties of cancer cells, which could be of value for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Shain AH, Pollack JR
The spectrum of SWI/SNF mutations, ubiquitous in human cancers.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e55119 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SWI/SNF is a multi-subunit chromatin remodeling complex that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to reposition nucleosomes, thereby modulating gene expression. Accumulating evidence suggests that SWI/SNF functions as a tumor suppressor in some cancers. However, the spectrum of SWI/SNF mutations across human cancers has not been systematically investigated. Here, we mined whole-exome sequencing data from 24 published studies representing 669 cases from 18 neoplastic diagnoses. SWI/SNF mutations were widespread across diverse human cancers, with an excess of deleterious mutations, and an overall frequency approaching TP53 mutation. Mutations occurred most commonly in the SMARCA4 enzymatic subunit, and in subunits thought to confer functional specificity (ARID1A, ARID1B, PBRM1, and ARID2). SWI/SNF mutations were not mutually-exclusive of other mutated cancer genes, including TP53 and EZH2 (both previously linked to SWI/SNF). Our findings implicate SWI/SNF as an important but under-recognized tumor suppressor in diverse human cancers, and provide a key resource to guide future investigations.

Biankin AV, Waddell N, Kassahn KS, et al.
Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes.
Nature. 2012; 491(7424):399-405 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

Manceau G, Letouzé E, Guichard C, et al.
Recurrent inactivating mutations of ARID2 in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(9):2217-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
In eukaryotic cells, DNA is packaged into chromatin and this compact storage in the nucleus promotes transcriptional repression of genes. Chromatin remodeling complexes such as the SWI/SNF complex are involved in making DNA accessible to transcription factors and thereby are implicated in the regulation of gene expression. Mutations and altered expression of chromatin remodeling complex genes have been described in cancer cells. Indeed, non-small cell lung cancer cell lines have been shown to harbor mutations in SMARCA4 (BRG1), a member of the SWI/SNF complex, but evidence has been less clear in primary tumors. Recently, inactivating mutations in AT-rich interaction domain 2 (ARID2) were found in liver cancer related to HCV infection and in melanoma. Here, we explored, using a genome-wide strategy and subsequent sequencing of targeted genes, whether chromatin remodeling is implicated in primary lung adenocarcinoma. Two genes were individualized from the genome screening as homozygously deleted in a set of samples: JARID2 and ARID2. Subsequent analysis of the entire coding sequences showed that ARID2 loss-of-function mutations were found in 5% of nonsmall cell lung cancers, thereby constituting one of the most frequently mutated genes in this cancer type after TP53, KRAS, EGFR, CDKN2A and STK11.

Hodis E, Watson IR, Kryukov GV, et al.
A landscape of driver mutations in melanoma.
Cell. 2012; 150(2):251-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite recent insights into melanoma genetics, systematic surveys for driver mutations are challenged by an abundance of passenger mutations caused by carcinogenic UV light exposure. We developed a permutation-based framework to address this challenge, employing mutation data from intronic sequences to control for passenger mutational load on a per gene basis. Analysis of large-scale melanoma exome data by this approach discovered six novel melanoma genes (PPP6C, RAC1, SNX31, TACC1, STK19, and ARID2), three of which-RAC1, PPP6C, and STK19-harbored recurrent and potentially targetable mutations. Integration with chromosomal copy number data contextualized the landscape of driver mutations, providing oncogenic insights in BRAF- and NRAS-driven melanoma as well as those without known NRAS/BRAF mutations. The landscape also clarified a mutational basis for RB and p53 pathway deregulation in this malignancy. Finally, the spectrum of driver mutations provided unequivocal genomic evidence for a direct mutagenic role of UV light in melanoma pathogenesis.

Fujimoto A, Totoki Y, Abe T, et al.
Whole-genome sequencing of liver cancers identifies etiological influences on mutation patterns and recurrent mutations in chromatin regulators.
Nat Genet. 2012; 44(7):760-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. We sequenced and analyzed the whole genomes of 27 HCCs, 25 of which were associated with hepatitis B or C virus infections, including two sets of multicentric tumors. Although no common somatic mutations were identified in the multicentric tumor pairs, their whole-genome substitution patterns were similar, suggesting that these tumors developed from independent mutations, although their shared etiological backgrounds may have strongly influenced their somatic mutation patterns. Statistical and functional analyses yielded a list of recurrently mutated genes. Multiple chromatin regulators, including ARID1A, ARID1B, ARID2, MLL and MLL3, were mutated in ∼50% of the tumors. Hepatitis B virus genome integration in the TERT locus was frequently observed in a high clonal proportion. Our whole-genome sequencing analysis of HCCs identified the influence of etiological background on somatic mutation patterns and subsequent carcinogenesis, as well as recurrent mutations in chromatin regulators in HCCs.

Zhao H, Wang J, Han Y, et al.
ARID2: a new tumor suppressor gene in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2011; 2(11):886-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, however, genetic-environmental interactions and mechanisms associated with the development of HCC remains largely unclear. Our recent work described novel inactivating mutations of ARID2 (AT-rich interactive domain 2) in four major subtypes of HCC through exomic sequencing of ten HCV-associated HCCs and subsequent evaluation of the tumors from additional affected individuals. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about the relevance of ARID2 in HCC and the implication in future patient care.

Li M, Zhao H, Zhang X, et al.
Inactivating mutations of the chromatin remodeling gene ARID2 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Nat Genet. 2011; 43(9):828-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Through exomic sequencing of ten hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and subsequent evaluation of additional affected individuals, we discovered novel inactivating mutations of ARID2 in four major subtypes of HCC (HCV-associated HCC, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated HCC, alcohol-associated HCC and HCC with no known etiology). Notably, 18.2% of individuals with HCV-associated HCC in the United States and Europe harbored ARID2 inactivation mutations, suggesting that ARID2 is a tumor suppressor gene that is relatively commonly mutated in this tumor subtype.

Veeranki S, Choubey D
Systemic lupus erythematosus and increased risk to develop B cell malignancies: role of the p200-family proteins.
Immunol Lett. 2010; 133(1):1-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease, develops at a female-to-male ratio of 10:1. Increased serum levels of type I interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) and induction of "IFN-signature" genes are associated with an active SLE disease in patients. Moreover, SLE patients exhibit three- to four-fold increase in the risk of developing malignancies involving B cells, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Interestingly, homozygous mice expressing a deletion mutant (the proline-rich domain deleted) of the p53 develop various types of spontaneous tumors, particularly of B cell origin upon aging. The deletion is associated with defects in transcriptional activation of genes by p53 and inhibition of DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Notably, increased levels of the p202 protein, which is encoded by the p53-repressible interferon-inducible Ifi202 gene, in B cells of female mice are associated with defects in B cell apoptosis, inhibition of the p53-mediated transcription of pro-apoptotic genes, and increased lupus susceptibility. In this review we discuss how increased levels of the p202 protein (and its human functional homologue IFI16 protein) in B cells increase lupus susceptibility and are likely to increase the risk of developing certain B cell malignancies. A complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate B cell homeostasis is necessary to identify SLE patients with an increased risk to develop B cell malignancies.

Li SW, Koya V, Li Y, et al.
Pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 protein is a novel beta-cell-specific autoantigen for type I diabetes.
Lab Invest. 2010; 90(1):31-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) protein is a key transcription factor involved in the regulation of insulin gene expression that is expressed at high levels in the beta-cells of the pancreatic islets. We asked whether Pdx1 is a target of anti-islet autoimmunity in type I diabetes (T1D). Pdx1 autoantibodies (PAAs) were detected in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice using ELISA, western blotting, and radioimmunoprecipitation of [(35)S]-labeled insulinoma cell line-derived Pdx1 protein. PAAs were detected as early as at 5 weeks of age, and generally peaked before the onset of clinically overt diabetes in diabetes-prone female NOD mice. Levels declined substantially after the onset of diabetes. PAAs were not detected in the sera of NOD-scid, C57BL/6, or BALB/c mice. The titers of PAAs in NOD mouse sera were as high as 1/93 750 by ELISA. The fine specificity of PAAs was determined by western blotting using a series of truncated recombinant Pdx1 proteins. The immunodominant epitopes were located to the C-terminus of the Pdx1 (p200-283) in NOD mice. PAAs also were detected in sera from human T1D patients, but the major epitopes were localized to amino acids 159-200 as well as the same region (p200-283) recognized by PAAs from NOD mice. Using [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, the p83 fragment of Pdx1 specifically stimulated proliferation of splenic T cells from recent-onset diabetic NOD mice. The presence of PAAs in prediabetic NOD mice and human T1D patients, and Pdx1-specific T-cell proliferation in NOD mice provide a strong rationale for further investigation of the pathogenic role of immune responses against Pdx1 in T1D.

Choubey D, Deka R, Ho SM
Interferon-inducible IFI16 protein in human cancers and autoimmune diseases.
Front Biosci. 2008; 13:598-608 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interferon-inducible IFI16 protein (encoded by IFI16 gene located at 1q21 region) is a member of the p200-protein family. The family includes structurally and functionally-related mouse (for example, p202, p203, and p204 proteins) and human (for example, MNDA, AIM2, and IFIX) proteins. Increased expression of p200-family proteins in a variety of cells is known to inhibit cell cycle progression and modulate cell survival. Consistent with this role of p200-family proteins, increased expression of IFI16 protein in normal human diploid fibroblasts and prostate epithelial cells is associated with cellular senescence-associated permanent cell growth arrest. Furthermore, reduced or loss of IFI16 expression in cells is associated with the development of certain cancers, such as breast and prostate cancer. Interestingly, recent studies have provided evidence that the constitutive and interferon-induced expression of the IFI16 gene varies among individuals and may depend on the race. These studies raise the possibility that alterations (increases or decreases) in the expression of IFI16 protein may contribute to the development of human diseases. In this review, we discuss how our understanding of the regulation of IFI16 expression and its role in cell growth regulation will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the development of various human diseases.

Zhang Y, Howell RD, Alfonso DT, et al.
IFI16 inhibits tumorigenicity and cell proliferation of bone and cartilage tumor cells.
Front Biosci. 2007; 12:4855-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
IFI16 is a member of the interferon-inducible p200-protein family, capable of modulating cell proliferation, and cellular senescence. In this study, these effects of IFI16 were studied in tumor cells derived from bone and cartilage. The level of IFI16 was markedly lower in human osteosarcomas as compared with its level in normal bone. Overexpression of functional IFI16 in human osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma cell lines markedly inhibited colony formation, and significantly inhibited cell growth, an effect that could be reversed by introduction of gene specific siRNA into tumor cells. These inhibitory effects of IFI16 were associated with upregulation of p21 and inhibition of cyclin E, cyclin D1, c-Myc and Ras. In addition, ectopic expression of IFI16 in tumor cells increased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase and induced a senescence-like phenotype. In view of such effects, IFI16 might be a suitable target for therapeutic intervention in osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma.

Asefa B, Klarmann KD, Copeland NG, et al.
The interferon-inducible p200 family of proteins: a perspective on their roles in cell cycle regulation and differentiation.
Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2004 Jan-Feb; 32(1):155-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
The interferon-inducible p200 (IFI-200) family of proteins is among the numerous gene products induced by interferons (IFNs), which are important regulators of cell growth, immunomodulation and host resistance to tumors and viral infections. The members of this family of proteins are highly homologous to one another and consist of five murine proteins including p202, p203, p204 and p205 as well as three human homologues; IFI-16, myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) and absent in melanoma (AIM) 2. They possess at least one copy of a conserved 200 amino-acid motif which exists in two types; the a and b domains. Most of the IFI-200 proteins also possess a domain in apoptosis and interferon response (DAPIN)/PYRIN domain, which is a conserved motif associated with protein-protein interactions in the regulation of apoptotic and inflammatory signaling pathways. The p200 proteins have been implicated in cell cycle regulation and differentiation based on their ability to interact with and modulate the activities of multiple transcriptional factors such as Rb and p53, and there are significant findings that link mutations in their genetic loci to the incidence of cancer. Here, we describe the structure and biological activities of these proteins, and discuss recent studies that describe their relevant roles in processes regulating cell proliferation and differentiation.

Xin H, Curry J, Johnstone RW, et al.
Role of IFI 16, a member of the interferon-inducible p200-protein family, in prostate epithelial cellular senescence.
Oncogene. 2003; 22(31):4831-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have implicated interferon signaling in the regulation of cellular senescence. However, the role of specific interferon-inducible proteins in cellular senescence remains to be defined. Here we report that IFI 16, an interferon-inducible transcriptional modulator from the p200-protein family, contributes to cellular senescence of prostate epithelial cells. Normal human prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) in culture expressed detectable levels of IFI 16, and the levels increased more than fourfold when cells approached cellular senescence. Consistent with a role of IFI 16 in cellular senescence, human prostate cancer cell lines either did not express IFI 16 or expressed a variant form, which was primarily detected in the cytoplasm of prostate cancer cells and not in the nucleus. Moreover, overexpression of functional IFI 16 in human prostate cancer cell lines inhibited colony formation. Additionally, ectopic expression of IFI 16 in clonal prostate cancer cell lines was associated with a senescence-like phenotype, production of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (a biochemical marker for cellular senescence), and reduction of S-phase cells in culture. Importantly, upregulation of p21WAF1 and inhibition of E2F-stimulated transcription accompanied inhibition of cell growth by IFI 16 in prostate cancer cell lines. Collectively, our observations support the idea that increased levels of IFI 16 in PrECs contribute to senescence-associated irreversible cell growth arrest.

Goulet B, Watson P, Poirier M, et al.
Characterization of a tissue-specific CDP/Cux isoform, p75, activated in breast tumor cells.
Cancer Res. 2002; 62(22):6625-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Two isoforms of the CCAAT-displacement protein/cut homeobox (CDP/Cux) transcription factor have been characterized thus far. The full length protein, p200, which contains four DNA binding domains, transiently binds to DNA and carries the CCAAT-displacement activity. The p110 isoform is generated by proteolytic processing at the G1-S transition and is capable of stable interaction with DNA. Here we demonstrate the existence of a shorter CDP/Cux isoform, p75, which contains only two DNA binding domains, Cut repeat 3 and the Cut homeodomain, and binds more stably to DNA. CDP/Cux p75 was able to repress a reporter carrying the promoter for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 gene and to activate a DNA polymerase alpha gene reporter. Expression of CDP/Cux p75 involved a novel mechanism: transcription initiation within intron 20. The intron 20-initiated mRNA (I20-mRNA) was expressed at higher level in the thymus and in CD4+/CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. I20-mRNA was expressed only weakly or not at all in normal human mammary epithelial cells and normal breast tissues but was detected in many breast tumor cells lines and breast tumors. In invasive tumors a significant association was established between higher I20-mRNA expression and a diffuse infiltrative growth pattern (n = 41, P = 0.0137). In agreement with these findings, T47D breast cancer cells stably expressing p75 could not form tubule structures in collagen but rather developed as solid undifferentiated aggregates of cells. Taken together, these results suggest that aberrant expression of the CDP/Cux p75 isoform in mammary epithelial cells may be associated with the process of tumorigenesis in breast cancer.

Martinelli G, Amabile M, Giannini B, et al.
Novel types of bcr-abl transcript with breakpoints in BCR exon 8 found in Philadelphia positive patients with typical chronic myeloid leukemia retain the sequence encoding for the DBL- and CDC24 homology domains but not the pleckstrin homology one.
Haematologica. 2002; 87(7):688-94; discussion 694 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We previously described a novel type of the chimeric bcr-abl mRNA transcript in a patient with a Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia. A similar bcr-abl transcript has also been described by others.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Sequence analysis of the fusion region showed a join between part of exon e8 of the bcr gene and an intronic sequence of abl intron 1b spliced on exon a2 of the abl gene, giving rise to an in-frame e8-int-a2 bcr-abl transcript, translated into a 197.5 kDa BCR-ABL protein of 1804 amino acid residues, which we named p200 BCR-ABL.
RESULTS: In this work, employing protein comparison analysis (pFAM) we show that these novel bcr-abl transcripts retain the DBL homology (DH) domain and the recently recognized CDC24 homology domain, but not the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the bcr gene.
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: This observation, along with the myeloid immunophenotype of the tumor and, at least in one case, the patient's correspondingly good response to alpha-interferon therapy, suggests that p200 BCR-ABL is more similar to p210 BCR-ABL, in which the DH, CDC24 and PH domains are all maintained, than to p185, in which these domains are all lost.

Martinelli G, Terragna C, Amabile M, et al.
Alu and translisin recognition site sequences flanking translocation sites in a novel type of chimeric bcr-abl transcript suggest a possible general mechanism for bcr-abl breakpoints.
Haematologica. 2000; 85(1):40-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We further characterized a novel type of chimeric BCR-ABL mRNA transcript detected in a patient with Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
DESIGN AND METHODS: We used reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequence analysis of the fusion region of the amplified cDNA fragment. Western analysis was performed on total protein.
RESULTS: Part of exon e8 of the BCR gene was joined to an intronic sequence of ABL intron Ib spliced on exon a2 of the ABL gene, giving rise to an in-frame e8-int-a2 BCR-ABL transcript. Only part of exon 8 of the BCR gene (e8) (intra-exonic break) was retained. The consequent BCR-int-ABL transcript was translated into a BCR-ABL protein of 1804 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 197.5 kilodaltons (kDa) called p200 BCR-ABL. The 3' part of bcr exon 8 recombined within or alongside Alu elements at the additional sites. Sequence motifs similar to consensus binding sites of the lymphoid-associated TRAX and translisin proteins were present on both participating strands at 22q11 and 9q34 recombination sites, respectively. No differences in clinical or laboratory findings at diagnosis were found between this patient and CML patients with bcr-abl fusion.
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Alu sequences and of the translisin binding motif on both sides of the breaks in this novel translocation suggests a possible general mechanism of molecular recombination in CML patients.

Hjelmsoe I, Allen CE, Cohn MA, et al.
The kappaB and V(D)J recombination signal sequence binding protein KRC regulates transcription of the mouse metastasis-associated gene S100A4/mts1.
J Biol Chem. 2000; 275(2):913-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
A kappaB-like sequence, Sb, is integral to the composite enhancer located in the first intron of the metastasis-associated gene, S100A4/mts1. Oligonucleotides containing this sequence form three specific complexes with nuclear proteins prepared from S100A4/mts1-expressing CSML100 adenocarcinoma cells. Protein studies show the Sb-interacting complexes include NF-kappaB/Rel proteins, p50.p50 and p50.p65 dimers. Additionally, the Sb sequence was bound by an unrelated approximately 200-kDa protein, p200. Site-directed mutagenesis in conjunction with transient transfections indicate that p200, but not the NF-kappaB/Rel proteins, transactivates S100A4/mts1. To identify candidate genes for p200, double-stranded DNA probes containing multiple copies of Sb were used to screen a randomly primed lambdagt11 cDNA expression library made from CSML100 poly(A)(+) RNA. Two clones corresponding to the DNA-binding proteins KRC and Alf1 were identified. KRC encodes a large zinc finger protein that binds to the kappaB motif and to the signal sequences of V(D)J recombination. In vitro DNA binding assays using bacterially expressed KRC fusion proteins, demonstrate specific binding of KRC to the Sb sequence. In addition, introduction of KRC expression vectors into mammalian cells induces expression of S100A4/mts1 and reporter genes driven by S100A4/mts1 gene regulatory sequences. These data indicate that KRC positively regulates transcription of S100A4/mts1.

Chen H, Wang P, Stastny JJ, et al.
Molecular cloning and primary characterization of a single-chain antibody against human sarcoma-associated antigen p200.
Anticancer Res. 1996 Nov-Dec; 16(6B):3551-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Monoclonal Antibody (MAb) 29-13 reacts with the human sarcoma-associated antigen (SAA) p200. We report here engineering and primary characterization of a single chain antibody (scFV2913).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The scFV2913 recombinant gene, consisting of VH-linker-VK, was constructed with RT-PCR. This gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The renatured scFV2913 was used in the immunostaining study.
RESULTS: Consistent with its parent MAb 29-13, purified and renatured scFV2913 showed affinity and specificity to the SAA p200 according to the immuno-histochemical staining study of 99 specimens of human sarcomas and other tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: Due to its retained specificity and affinity, scFV2913 may be useful in immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy for sarcoma patients.

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