Gene Summary

Gene:RHOH; ras homolog family member H
Aliases: TTF, ARHH
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ras superfamily of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-metabolizing enzymes. The encoded protein is expressed in hematopoietic cells, where it functions as a negative regulator of cell growth and survival. This gene may be hypermutated or misexpressed in leukemias and lymphomas. Chromosomal translocations in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occur between this locus and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6) on chromosome 3, leading to the production of fusion transcripts. Alternative splicing in the 5' untranslated region results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoH
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • Lymphocytes
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Chromosome 3
  • Signal Transduction
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Mutation
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Splenic Neoplasms
  • PAX5 Transcription Factor
  • FISH
  • Chromosome 4
  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Skin Cancer
  • Translocation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Follicular Lymphoma
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • myc Genes
  • ras Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Transcriptome
  • Cell Movement
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • ARHH
  • Genomic Instability
  • Nucleic Acid Regulatory Sequences
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RHOH (cancer-related)

Sun S, Hu Z, Huang S, et al.
REG4 is an indicator for KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma with TTF-1 low expression.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(9):2273-2283 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Recent research has classified lung adenocarcinoma patients with KRAS mutation into three subtypes by co-occurring genetic events in TP53 (KP subgroup), STK11/LKB1 (KL subgroup) and CDKN2A/B inactivation plus TTF-1 low expression (KC subgroup). The aim of this study was to identify valuable biomarkers by searching the candidate molecules that contribute to lung adenocarcinoma pathogenesis, especially KC subtype.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the publicly available database and identified the candidate REG4 using the E-GEOD-31210 dataset, and then confirmed by TCGA dataset. In addition, an independent cohort of 55 clinical samples was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Functional studies and RNA sequencing were performed after silencing the REG4 expression.
RESULTS: REG4, an important regulator of gastro-intestinal carcinogenesis, was highly expressed in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma with low expression of TTF-1 (KC subtype). The results were validated both by gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry study in an independent 55 clinical samples from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Further in vitro and in vivo functional assays revealed silencing REG4 expression significantly reduces cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Moreover, RNA sequencing and GSEA analysis displayed that REG4 knockdown might induce cell cycle arrest by regulating G2/M checkpoint and E2F targets.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that REG4 plays an important role in KRAS-driven lung cancer pathogenesis and is a novel biomarker of lung adenocarcinoma subtype. Future studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms of REG4 in the division and proliferation of KC tumors and its potential therapeutic value.

Huang TS, Lee JJ, Li YS, Cheng SP
Ethacridine Induces Apoptosis and Differentiation in Thyroid Cancer Cells
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4095-4100 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Ethacridine is used as a topical antiseptic as well as for second-trimester abortion. Recent studies showed that ethacridine is an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and an activator of the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ). This study examined the effects of ethacridine on thyroid cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thyroid cancer cell lines (FTC133 and SW1736) and thyroid follicular epithelial cells (Nthy-ori 3-1) were treated with ethacridine. Viability, clonogenicity, cell-cycle distribution, and apoptosis were evaluated. The expression of thyroid differentiation markers (TTF-1, PAX8, and NIS) was determined by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: Ethacridine suppressed cell growth and clonogenic ability of thyroid cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (p<0.001). No cell-cycle arrest was found, but ethacridine dose-dependently induced apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells (p<0.001). The PAX8 and NIS expressions were significantly increased in SW1736 (3.41-fold and 1.53-fold, respectively) and Nthy-ori 3-1 cells (2.73-fold and 4.12-fold, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Ethacridine elicits apoptotic cell death in thyroid cancer cells and promotes differentiation in a subset of thyroid follicular cells.

Shao K, Wang Y, Xue Q, et al.
Clinicopathological features and prognosis of ciliated muconodular papillary tumor.
J Cardiothorac Surg. 2019; 14(1):143 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUNDS: The pulmonary ciliated muconodular papillary tumor (CMPT) is a very rare tumor with only several case reports in published literatures, and its clinicopathological features, standard treatment methods and prognosis has not been well defined.
METHODS: Two cases of CMPT diagnosed and treated in our hospital and 39 cases reported in the published literature were analyzed retrospectively.
RESULTS: The cohort of 41 CMPT patients comprised of 20 males and 21 females, aged 9-84 years. The diameter of the primary tumor was 0.3-4.5 cm. Most of these lesions were subsolid nodules, as observed on computed tomography and easily misdiagnosed as early lung adenocarcinoma. Tumors of 26 patients were stained by immunohistochemistry method, which revealed that CK7, CEA, and TTF-1 were positive and CK20 was negative in most patients. The results of gene alternation demonstrated mutations in EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF and ALK rearrangements in CMPT. All the patients underwent surgical treatment and did not receive postoperative adjuvant therapy. The follow-up duration was 0-120 months, and no case of tumor recurrence was found until the final follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CMPT was low and rate of image misdiagnosis high. Immunohistochemistry is helpful for accurate diagnosis of CMPT. Sub-lobectomy may be proper and adjuvant treatment should be avoided since the disease is now prone to benign lesions. Furthermore, since the biological behavior of this tumor is not yet fully elucidated, additional case data are essential for accurate conclusions.

Pawelczyk K, Piotrowska A, Ciesielska U, et al.
Role of PD-L1 Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Prognostic Significance according to Clinicopathological Factors and Diagnostic Markers.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The latest immunotherapy, used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), uses monoclonal antibodies directed against programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) to inhibit its interaction with the PD-1 receptor. Elevated levels of PD-L1 expression were observed on NSCLC cells. The association between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological features is still unclear. Therefore, we examined this relationship and also compare PD-L1 expression levels with Ki-67, p63 and TTF-1.
METHODS: 866 samples of NSCLCs were used to prepare tissue microarrays (TMAs) on which immunohistochemical (IHC) reactions were performed. Changes in the level of
RESULTS: PD-L1 expression was observed in 32.6% of NSCLCs. PD-L1 expression was increased in higher malignancy grades (G) (
CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 expression seems to be associated with increased tumor proliferation and aggressiveness as well as shorter patient survival in NSCLC, predominantly in the AC group.

Kim HS, Kim JH, Han B, Choi DR
Correlation of Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 Expression with
Medicina (Kaunas). 2019; 55(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis investigated the relationship between thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) expression and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to clarify whether TTF-1 can be a potential surrogate marker for EGFR mutation status in advanced NSLCL.
METHODS: A systematic searching of databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar, was performed to identify studies assessing the correlation of TTF-1 expression with EGFR mutations. From 17 studies, 9764 patients were included in the combined analysis of odds ratio (OR) for the correlation between TTF-1 expression and
RESULTS: Compared with NSCLCs showing negative TTF-1 expression, tumors harboring TTF-1 overexpression showed a significantly higher rate of EGFR mutations (OR = 5.19, 95% confidence interval: 3.60⁻7.47, p < 0.00001). This correlation was observed in both subgroups of East Asian (OR = 4.33, 95% CI: 3.46⁻5.41, p < 0.00001) and European patients (OR = 4.64, 95% CI: 1.41⁻15.28, p < 0.01). In addition, TTF-1 expression was significantly associated with EGFR mutations in exon 19 (OR = 4.63, 95% CI: 2.89⁻7.41, p < 0.00001) as well as exon 21 (OR = 3.16, 95% CI: 1.04⁻9.60, p = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrates a significant correlation between TTF-1 expression and EGFR mutations in patients with NSCLC. The status of TTF-1 expression may be a biomarker to guide anticancer treatment in patients with NSCLC and unknown EGFR mutation status.

Huang YL, Chang YL, Chen KC, Wu CT
Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung: A case report of a novel mutation in the BRAF gene and coexistent HPV infection, possible relationship to ciliated muconodular papillary tumor.
Pathol Int. 2019; 69(2):104-109 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (mixed papilloma) is a very rare tumor, with fewer than 25 cases having been reported in the literature. Although a scattering of cases of p16

Qiu GQ, Xie X, Zhao B, et al.
Fusion protein tTF-EG3287 induces occlusion of tumor vessels and impairs tumor growth in human colon caner.
Neoplasma. 2019; 66(2):252-260 [PubMed] Related Publications
The problems including narrow indications, low drug loading, and difficulty in intervention severely affect the clinical efficacy of anti-tumor embolization. Here, we designed a novel tTF-EG3287 protein consisting of the truncated tissue factor (tTF) fused with the bicyclic polypeptide which was encoded by exons 7 and 8 for accurate localization in the tumor vascular endothelial cells (EG3287). This study aims to explore its anti-cancer effect. Gene sequencing was used to verify the fusion gene and SDS-PAGE gel to confirm the optimal induction time and concentration of tTF-EG3287. Nickel affinity chromatography column was used to purify the fusion protein. Confocal microscopy was used to assess the target activity of tTF-EG3287 on colon cancer cells in vitro. Thrombelastography assay was used to identify the pro-coagulant activity of tTF-EG3287. In in vivo experiments, the specific localization of tTF-EG3287 in tumor tissues and the effect of tTF-EG3287 on tumor thrombosis were further detected by in vivo imaging and HE staining, respectively. The tTF-EG3287 fusion protein was efficiently purified by nickel-affinity chromatography column. Moreover, tTF-EG3287 fusion protein showed strong coagulation a ctivity and specific binding ability to the cell surface of colon cancer. In vivo, tTF-EG3287 stably and persistently accumulated in tumor tissues, and specifically induced mixed thrombus formation in tumor vessels, and then impaired tumor growth (tumor inhibition rate=79.2%, p<0.01). Our data prove that the fusion protein tTF-EG3287 could be used as a novel and promising anti-cancer strategy and has great potential value for clinical applications.

Dey P, Ghosh RK
Fine-needle aspiration cytology of non-small cell lung carcinoma: A paradigm shift.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2019; 47(4):351-358 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung carcinoma is one of the commonest causes of cancer related death. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established technique in the diagnosis of various malignant tumors. FNAC is now an important technique in classifying lung carcinomas and also detecting salient mutational changes in lung carcinomas. The judicious use of the various immunological markers such as TTF-1, p40, CK 5/6, CK 7 and Napsin may help in sub-classification of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). The mutational changes in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ALK genes are needed in targeted therapy of adenocarcinoma of lung. With the help of immunocytochemistry, polymerase chain receptor, fluorescent in situ hybridization and next generation sequencing, one can detect various mutational changes in NSCLC. In this review article, we have discussed the role of cytology and other ancillary techniques to classify lung carcinomas. The important mutational changes in lung carcinoma for targeted therapy have also been discussed in detail.

Selberherr A, Koperek O, Riss P, et al.
Neuroendocrine Liver Metastasis-a Specific Set of Markers to Detect Primary Tumor Sites.
Endocr Pathol. 2019; 30(1):31-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) is often made at an advanced stage of disease, including hepatic metastasis. At this point, the primary may still be unknown and sometimes cannot even be detected by functional imaging, especially in very small tumors of the pancreas (pan) and small intestinal (si) entities. The site of the primary may be based on biopsy specimens of the liver applying a specific set of markers. Specimens of liver metastases from 87 patients with NENs were studied. In retrospect, 50 patients had si and 37 pan NENs. Tissue samples were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The markers applied were insulin gene enhancer protein Islet-1 (ISL-1), homeobox protein CDX-2 (CDX2), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), and serotonin. Positive stains for CDX2 were documented in 43 (86%) and for serotonin in 45 (90%) of 50 siNENs. Three panNENs were positive for CDX2 and one for serotonin, respectively. ISL-1 was negative throughout in siNENs and also negative in 8 of 50 panNENs (21.6%). TTF-1 was negative in more than 90% of the specimens of either entity. Immunohistochemical markers in liver metastasis can lead the way to the site of the primary NEN. They should always be used in combined clusters.

Jester R, Znoyko I, Garnovskaya M, et al.
Expression of renal cell markers and detection of 3p loss links endolymphatic sac tumor to renal cell carcinoma and warrants careful evaluation to avoid diagnostic pitfalls.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm arising in the temporal petrous region thought to originate from endolymphatic sac epithelium. It may arise sporadically or in association with Von-Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL). The ELST prevalence in VHL ranges from 3 to 16% and may be the initial presentation of the disease. Onset is usually in the 3rd to 5th decade with hearing loss and an indolent course. ELSTs present as locally destructive lesions with characteristic computed tomography imaging features. Histologically, they show papillary, cystic or glandular architectures. Immunohistochemically, they express keratin, EMA, and variably S100 and GFAP. Currently it is recommended that, given its rarity, ELST needs to be differentiated from other entities with similar morphologic patterns, particularly other VHL-associated neoplasms such as metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Nineteen ELST cases were studied. Immunohistochemistry (18/19) and single nucleotide polymorphism microarray testing was performed (12/19). Comparison with the immunophenotype and copy number profile in RCC is discussed. Patients presented with characteristic bone destructive lesions in the petrous temporal bones. Pathology of tumors showed characteristic ELST morphology with immunoexpression of CK7, GFAP, S100, PAX-8, PAX-2, CA-9 in the tumor cells. Immunostaines for RCC, CD10, CK20, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, and transthyretin were negative in the tumor cells. Molecular testing showed loss of 3p and 9q in 66% (8/12) and 58% (7/12) cases, respectively. Immunoreactivity for renal markers in ELST is an important diagnostic caveat and has not been previously reported. In fact, renal markers are currently recommended in order to rule out metastatic RCC although PAX gene complex and CA-9 have been implicated in the development of the inner ear. Importantly copy number assessment of ELST has not been previously reported. Loss of 3p (including the VHL locus) in ELST suggests similar mechanistic origins as ccRCC.

Zamboni M, Civitareale D
TTF-1/Nkx2.1 functional connection with mutated EGFR relies on LRIG1 and β-catenin pathways in lung cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 505(4):1027-1031 [PubMed] Related Publications
In non-small lung cancer, the expression of the transcription factor TTF-1/Nkx2.1 correlates with the presence of EGFR mutations, therefore TTF-1/Nkx2.1 expression is used to optimize an EGFR testing strategy and to guide clinical treatment. We investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the functional connection between EGFR and TTF-1/Nkx2.1 gene expression in lung adenocarcinoma. Using the H1975 cell line as a non-small cell lung cancer model system and short hairpin RNA, we have selected clones with TTF-1/Nkx2.1 silenced expression. We have found that Leucine-rich immunoglobulin repeats-1 (LRIG1) gene is a direct target of TTF-1/Nkx2.1 and the transcription factor binding to the LRIG1 genomic sequence inhibits its gene expression. In TTF-1/Nkx2.1 depleted clones, we have found high levels of LRIG1 and decreased presence of EGFR protein. Furthermore, in TTF-1/Nkx2.1 depleted clones we detected a reduced β-catenin level and we provide experimental evidence indicating that TTF-1/Nkx2.1 gene expression is regulated by β-catenin. Published studies indicate that LRIG1 triggers EGFR degradation and that mutated EGFR induces β-catenin activity. Hence, with the present study we show that mutated EGFR, enhancing β-catenin, stimulates TTF-1/Nkx2.1 gene expression and, at the same time, TTF-1/Nkx2.1, down-regulating LRIG1, sustains EGFR pathway. Therefore, LRIG1 and β-catenin mediate the functional connection between TTF-1/Nkx2.1 and mutated EGFR.

Sarun KH, Lee K, Williams M, et al.
Genomic Deletion of
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly cancer that is caused by asbestos exposure and that has limited treatment options. The current standard of MPM diagnosis requires the testing of multiple immunohistochemical (IHC) markers on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue to differentiate MPM from other lung malignancies. To date, no single biomarker exists for definitive diagnosis of MPM due to the lack of specificity and sensitivity; therefore, there is ongoing research and development in order to identify alternative biomarkers for this purpose. In this study, we utilized primary MPM cell lines and tested the expression of clinically used biomarker panels, including CK8/18, Calretinin, CK 5/6, CD141, HBME-1, WT-1, D2-40, EMA, CEA, TAG72, BG8, CD15, TTF-1, BAP1, and Ber-Ep4. The genomic alteration of

Inamura K
Clinicopathological Characteristics and Mutations Driving Development of Early Lung Adenocarcinoma: Tumor Initiation and Progression.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with lung adenocarcinoma representing the most common lung cancer subtype. Among all lung adenocarcinomas, the most prevalent subset develops via tumorigenesis and progression from atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) to adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), to minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), to overt invasive adenocarcinoma with a lepidic pattern. This stepwise development is supported by the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of these tumors. In the 2015 World Health Organization classification, AAH and AIS are both defined as preinvasive lesions, whereas MIA is identified as an early invasive adenocarcinoma that is not expected to recur if removed completely. Recent studies have examined the molecular features of lung adenocarcinoma tumorigenesis and progression.

Kamamoto D, Ohara K, Kitamura Y, et al.
Association between programmed cell death ligand-1 expression and extracranial metastasis in intracranial solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 139(2):251-259 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) often shows extracranial metastasis, and treatment options are very limited. Immune-checkpoint molecules have not been studied well in SFT/HPCs, and their role in intracranial SFT/HPCs remains unclear.
METHODS: We investigated the expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in 16 patients of intracranial SFT/HPC by immunohistochemistry to determine if correlation with prognosis exists.
RESULTS: Median overall survival (OS) of 16 patients was 9.2 years, and median follow-up of alive patients was 9.9 years. Recurrence was observed in 13 (81.3%) patients, and extracranial metastasis were observed in 6 (37.5%). PD-L1 expression was observed in all 16 tumors, whereas PD-1 expression was observed in 2. CD3 and CD8 expressions were observed in TILs in 12 and 13 patients respectively. Although the ratio of PD-L1 positive-tumor cells was not associated with OS, progression-free survival, or metastasis-free survival (MFS), diffuse staining of PD-L1 showed a trend toward shorter time to treatment failure (TTF: time to either extracranial metastasis or death) (p = 0.072). Similarly, the intense staining of PD-L1 was associated with shorter MFS (p = 0.0084) and TTF (p = 0.033). CD3 or CD8 expression was not associated with any of the prognostic parameters. In the combined analysis of PD-L1 and CD8, diffuse PD-L1 staining coupled with no or sparse CD8 expression was significantly associated with a shorter TTF (p = 0.005) and showed a trend toward shorter MFS (p = 0.0611).
CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 is frequently expressed in intracranial SFT/HPCs, and diffuse or intense PD-L1 expression might be associated with the early occurrence of extracranial metastases.

Kataoka T, Okudela K, Matsumura M, et al.
A molecular pathological study of four cases of ciliated muconodular papillary tumors of the lung.
Pathol Int. 2018; 68(6):353-358 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ciliated muconodular papillary tumors (CMPTs) are a recently categorized benign or low-grade malignant neoplasm that develops in the peripheral lung. Only about 40 cases have been reported to date, and the clinicopathological characteristics have yet to be defined in detail. Here, we present four cases of CMPTs with a focus on their immunohistochemical profiles and driver gene mutations. These tumors were a papillary proliferation of a mixture of ciliated, mucous, and basal cells located in the peripheral lung. Ciliated, mucous and basal cells were positive for TTF-1 when using the clone SPT24, but negative for HNF-4α. Basal cells were positive for p40. Mucous cells in some tumors were positive for MUC5AC and MUC6. The Ki-67 index was less than 5%, and strong expression of p53 was not detected. Three of the four tumors had a BRAF (V600E) driver mutation, an EGFR (del E746-T751/S752V) driver mutation, or driver mutations in both EGFR (E709G) and KRAS (G12V). These mutation types are rare for any histological type of lung cancer. The present results confirmed that CMPT is a neoplasm with immunohistochemical features and driver gene mutations that are distinct from those of common lung tumors.

Lai SC, Phelps CA, Short AM, et al.
Thyroid transcription factor 1 enhances cellular statin sensitivity via perturbing cholesterol metabolism.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(24):3290-3300 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have discovered an unexpected connection between a critical lung development and cancer gene termed thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1 also known as NKX2-1) and cholesterol metabolism. Our published work implicates that TTF-1 positively regulates miR-33a which is known to repress ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) and thus its cholesterol efflux activity. We set out to demonstrate that a higher TTF-1 expression would presumably inhibit cholesterol efflux and consequently raise intracellular cholesterol level. Surprisingly, raising TTF-1 expression actually lowers intracellular cholesterol level, which, we believe, is attributed to a direct transactivation of ABCA1 by TTF-1. Subsequently, we show that lung cancer cells primed with a TTF-1-driven decrease of cholesterol were more vulnerable to simvastatin, a frequently prescribed cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor. In view of the fact that pathologists routinely interrogate human lung cancers for TTF-1 immunopositivity to guide diagnosis and the prevalent use of statins, TTF-1 should be further investigated as a putative biomarker of lung cancer vulnerability to statins.

Tajadura-Ortega V, Garg R, Allen R, et al.
An RNAi screen of Rho signalling networks identifies RhoH as a regulator of Rac1 in prostate cancer cell migration.
BMC Biol. 2018; 16(1):29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cell migration is essential for development and tissue repair, but it also contributes to disease. Rho GTPases regulate cell migration, but a comprehensive analysis of how each Rho signalling component affects migration has not been carried out.
RESULTS: Through an RNA interference screen, and using a prostate cancer cell line, we find that approximately 25% of Rho network components alter migration. Some genes enhance migration while others decrease basal and/or hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated migration. Surprisingly, we identify RhoH as a screen hit. RhoH expression is normally restricted to haematopoietic cells, but we find it is expressed in multiple epithelial cancer cell lines. High RhoH expression in samples from prostate cancer patients correlates with earlier relapse. RhoH depletion reduces cell speed and persistence and decreases migratory polarity. Rac1 activity normally localizes to the front of migrating cells at areas of dynamic membrane movement, but in RhoH-depleted cells active Rac1 is localised around the whole cell periphery and associated with membrane regions that are not extending or retracting. RhoH interacts with Rac1 and with several p21-activated kinases (PAKs), which are Rac effectors. Similar to RhoH depletion, PAK2 depletion increases cell spread area and reduces cell migration. In addition, RhoH depletion reduces lamellipodium extension induced by PAK2 overexpression.
CONCLUSIONS: We describe a novel role for RhoH in prostate cancer cell migration. We propose that RhoH promotes cell migration by coupling Rac1 activity and PAK2 to membrane protrusion. Our results also suggest that RhoH expression levels correlate with prostate cancer progression.

Takeshita T, Yamamoto Y, Yamamoto-Ibusuki M, et al.
Clinical significance of plasma cell-free DNA mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1, and ESR1 gene according to treatment lines in ER-positive breast cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The somatic activation of PI3K/AKT pathway mutations, PIK3CA and AKT1, and ESR1 mutations in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been studied as a non-invasive procedure to quickly assess and monitor disease progression or therapeutic effect in breast cancer (BC) patients, but the clinical significance of these mutations in late treatment lines (TLs) remains unclear. The subjects of this study were a total of 251 plasma samples from 128 estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) BC patients. Of these plasma samples, 133 were from 73 primary BC (PBC) patients, and 118 plasma samples were from 68 metastatic BC (MBC) patients. We developed droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays to verify the clinical significance of PIK3CA, AKT1, and ESR1 mutations in these patients. cfDNA PIK3CA mutations were observed in 15.1% of the PBC patients, while a cfDNA AKT1 mutation was observed in 1.4% of patients, and cfDNA ESR1 mutations were observed in 2.7% of patients. Patients with detectable cfDNA PIK3CA mutations were not associated with clinical outcomes. According to the TL, the prevalence of the PIK3CA and ESR1 mutations in cfDNA were lower in early TLs compared with late TLs. In the early TL group, patients with cfDNA PIK3CA mutations had a shorter time to treatment failure (TTF) than patients without mutations (P = 0.035). However, there was no statistically significant difference between patients with or without cfDNA ESR1 mutations. However, in the late TL group, patients with cfDNA ESR1 mutations had a shorter TTF than patients without mutations (P = 0.048). However, there was no statistically significant difference between patients with or without cfDNA PIK3CA mutations. Since the prevalence of cfDNA AKT1 mutation is low in both PBC and MBC patients, the impact of AKT1 mutations on the prognosis remains unclear. We have demonstrated the difference in the clinical significance of the hotspot PIK3CA, AKT1, and ESR1 mutations in cfDNA for each TL in ER+ BC patients.

Mengoli MC, Bertolini F, Maur M, et al.
ALK-positive adenocarcinoma of the lung expressing neuroendocrine markers and presenting as a "pituitary adenoma".
Pathologica. 2017; 109(4):408-411 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report an ALK-rearranged adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting as a pituitary metastasis, clinically simulating a pituitary adenoma. The patient, a 50 year-old, former-smoking woman was admitted with a Parinaud's syndrome characterized by progressive oculomotor impairment of visual verticality, bitemporal hemianopsia and nystagmus. Imaging studies showed a sellar tumor and the biopsy revealed a TTF-1 and napsin positive lung adenocarcinoma strongly expressing synaptophysin and CD56, also harboring ALK rearrangement. A subsequent CT scan disclosed the primary lung mass of the left upper lobe. The patient progressed after 4 cycles of cisplatin/pemetrexed as first line treatment, but showed a partial response and a significant clinical benefit from the combination of ceritinib and nivolumab in a phase Ib trial. Despite its central nervous system tropism, ALK-rearranged adenocarcinoma manifesting with pituitary gland involvement was never reported. Second generation ALK inhibitors seem the best therapeutic strategy.

Phelps CA, Lai SC, Mu D
Roles of Thyroid Transcription Factor 1 in Lung Cancer Biology.
Vitam Horm. 2018; 106:517-544 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1 or NKX2-1) is a transcription factor of fundamental importance in driving lung maturation and morphogenesis. In the last decade, scientists began to appreciate the functional roles of TTF-1 in lung tumorigenesis. This movement was triggered by the discoveries of genetic alterations of TTF-1 in the form of gene amplification in lung cancer. Many downstream target genes of TTF-1 relevant to the lung cancer biology of TTF-1 have been documented. One of the most surprising findings was that TTF-1 may exhibit either pro- or antitumorigenic activities, an outcome with the complexity exceeding the original anticipation purely based on the fact that TTF-1 undergoes gene amplification in lung cancer. In the coming decade, we believe, we will witness additional surprises as the research exploring the cancer roles of TTF-1 progresses.

Wang LX, Li Y, Chen GZ
Network-based co-expression analysis for exploring the potential diagnostic biomarkers of metastatic melanoma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190447 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer and is one of the global malignancies with high mortality and morbidity. It is essential to identify and verify diagnostic biomarkers of early metastatic melanoma. Previous studies have systematically assessed protein biomarkers and mRNA-based expression characteristics. However, molecular markers for the early diagnosis of metastatic melanoma have not been identified. To explore potential regulatory targets, we have analyzed the gene microarray expression profiles of malignant melanoma samples by co-expression analysis based on the network approach. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by the EdgeR package of R software. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used for the identification of DEGs in the special gene modules and hub genes. Subsequently, a protein-protein interaction network was constructed to extract hub genes associated with gene modules. Finally, twenty-four important hub genes (RASGRP2, IKZF1, CXCR5, LTB, BLK, LINGO3, CCR6, P2RY10, RHOH, JUP, KRT14, PLA2G3, SPRR1A, KRT78, SFN, CLDN4, IL1RN, PKP3, CBLC, KRT16, TMEM79, KLK8, LYPD3 and LYPD5) were treated as valuable factors involved in the immune response and tumor cell development in tumorigenesis. In addition, a transcriptional regulatory network was constructed for these specific modules or hub genes, and a few core transcriptional regulators were found to be mostly associated with our hub genes, including GATA1, STAT1, SP1, and PSG1. In summary, our findings enhance our understanding of the biological process of malignant melanoma metastasis, enabling us to identify specific genes to use for diagnostic and prognostic markers and possibly for targeted therapy.

Sim EH, Yang IA, Wood-Baker R, et al.
Gefitinib for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018; 1:CD006847 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The role of gefitinib for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is evolving. We undertook a systematic review to evaluate the available evidence from all randomised trials.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of gefitinib as first-line, second-line or maintenance treatment for advanced NSCLC.
SEARCH METHODS: We performed searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase from inception to 17 February 2017. We handsearched relevant conference proceedings, clinical trial registries and references lists of retrieved articles.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We included trials assessing gefitinib, alone or in combination with other treatment, compared to placebo or other treatments in the first- or successive-line treatment of patients with NSCLC, excluding compassionate use.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard Cochrane methodology. Two authors independently assessed the search results to select those with sound methodological quality. We carried out all analyses on an intention-to-treat basis. We recorded the following outcome data: overall survival, progression-free survival, toxicity, tumour response and quality of life. We also collected data for the following subgroups: Asian ethnicity and positive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation.
MAIN RESULTS: We included 35 eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs), which examined 12,089 patients.General populationGefitinib did not statistically improve overall survival when compared with placebo or chemotherapy in either first- or second-line settings. Second-line gefitinib prolonged time to treatment failure (TTF) (hazard ratio (HR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75 to 0.90, P < 0.0001) when compared with placebo. Maintenance gefitinib improved progression-free survival (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.91, P = 0.007) after first-line therapy.Studies in patients of Asian ethnicity or that conducted subgroup analysesSecond-line gefitinib prolonged overall survival over placebo (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.91, P = 0.01). In the first-line setting, progression-free survival was improved with gefitinib over chemotherapy alone (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.98, P = 0.04, moderate quality of evidence). Gefitinib given in combination with a chemotherapy regimen improved progression-free survival versus either gefitinib alone or chemotherapy alone (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.96, P = 0.03; HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.77, P < 0.00001, respectively). In the second-line setting, progression-free survival was superior in patients given gefitinib over placebo or chemotherapy (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.91, P = 0.009; HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.88, P = 0.002; moderate quality of evidence, respectively). Combining gefitinib with chemotherapy in the second-line setting was superior to gefitinib alone (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.97, P = 0.04). As maintenance therapy, gefitinib improved progression-free survival when compared with placebo (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.54, P < 0.00001).Patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumoursStudies in patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumours showed an improvement in progression-free survival in favour of gefitinib over first-line and second-line chemotherapy (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.61, P < 0.00001; HR 0.24, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.47, P < 0.0001, respectively). Gefitinib as maintenance therapy following chemotherapy improved overall and progression-free survival (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.98, P = 0.05; HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.41, P < 0.0001, respectively) in one phase III study when compared to placebo.Toxicities from gefitinib included skin rash, diarrhoea and liver transaminase derangements. Toxicities from chemotherapy included anaemia, neutropenia and neurotoxicity.In terms of quality of life, gefitinib improved Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (FACT-L) (standardised mean difference (SMD) 10.50, 95% CI 9.55 to 11.45, P < 0.000001), lung cancer subscale (SMD 3.63, 95% CI 3.08 to 4.19, P < 0.00001) and Trial Outcome Index (SMD 9.87, 95% CI 1.26 to 18.48, P < 0.00001) scores when compared with chemotherapy.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review shows that gefitinib, when compared with standard first- or second-line chemotherapy or maintenance therapy, probably has a beneficial effect on progression-free survival and quality of life in selected patient populations, particularly those with tumours bearing sensitising EGFR mutations.Patients with EGFR mutations lived longer when given maintenance gefitinib than those given placebo.One study conducted subgroup analysis and showed that gefitinib improved overall survival over placebo in the second-line setting in patients of Asian ethnicity. All other studies did not detect any benefit on overall survival. The data analysed in this review were very heterogenous. We were limited in the amount of data that could be pooled, largely due to variations in study design. The risk of bias in most studies was moderate, with some studies not adequately addressing potential selection, attrition and reporting bias. This heterogeneity may have an impact on the applicability of the resultsCombining gefitinib with chemotherapy appears to be superior in improving progression-free survival to either gefitinib or chemotherapy alone, however further data and phase III studies in these settings are required.Gefitinib has a favourable toxicity profile when compared with current chemotherapy regimens. Although there is no improvement in overall survival, gefitinib compares favourably with cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with EGFR mutations with a prolongation of progression-free survival and a lesser side effect profile.

Mawas AS, Amatya VJ, Kushitani K, et al.
MUC4 immunohistochemistry is useful in distinguishing epithelioid mesothelioma from adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1):134 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The differential diagnosis of epithelioid mesothelioma from lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma requires the positive and negative immunohistochemical markers of mesothelioma. The IMIG guideline has suggested the use of Calretinin, D2-40, WT1, and CK5/6 as mesothelial markers, TTF-1, Napsin-A, Claudin 4, CEA as lung adenocarcinoma markers p40, p63, CK5/6, MOC-31 as squamous cell markers. However, use of other immunohistochemical markers is still necessary. We evaluated 65 epithelioid mesotheliomas, 60 adenocarcinomas, and 57 squamous cell carcinomas of the lung for MUC4 expression by immunohistochemistry and compared with the previously known immunohistochemical markers. MUC4 expression was not found in any of 65 cases of epithelioid mesothelioma. In contrast, MUC4 expression was observed in 50/60(83.3%) cases of lung adenocarcinoma and 50/56(89.3%) cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma. The negative MUC4 expression showed 100% sensitivity, 86.2% specificity and accuracy rate of 91.2% to differentiate epithelioid mesothelioma from lung carcinoma. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MUC4 are comparable to that of previously known markers of lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, namely CEA, Claudin 4 and better than that of MOC-31. In conclusion, MUC4 immunohistochemistry is useful for differentiation of epithelioid mesothelioma from lung carcinoma, either adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.

Fang T, Huang H, Li X, et al.
Effects of siRNA Silencing of TUG1 and LCAL6 Long Non-coding RNAs on Patient-derived Xenograft of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(1):179-186 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the present study was to establish a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse model of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigate the anti-tumor efficacy of silencing of TUG1 and LCAL6 long non-coding RNA in the PDX model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: PDXs were established by subcutaneously implanting NSCLC surgical tumor fragments into immunodeficient mice. PDX characterization was performed by histopathological, immunohistochemical and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses for NSCLC subtype-specific markers and expression of LCAL6 and TUG1. Anti-tumor efficacy of siRNA silencing of TUG1 and LCAL6 was also investigated in the PDX model. The effect of TUG1 and LCAL6 silencing on protein expression of proliferation marker Ki67 and HOX-gene family HOXB7 in the tumors was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting.
RESULTS: Establishment of NSCLC PDX models resulted in 9 of 26 cases (34.6%). Lung squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) had a higher engraftment rate (58.3%) than lung adenocarcinomas (ADC) (18.2%) (p<0.05). Comparative analysis indicated these established PDX models of NSCLC closely resembled the original tumors with regard to NSCLC subtype-specific markers TTF-1, napsin A, p63 and expression of LCAL6 and TUG1. The tumor volume and weight were significantly reduced in the TUG1-silenced group as compared to the control group (p<0.05). However, no significant tumor growth inhibition was found in the LCAL6-silenced group (p>0.05). Expression of both TUG1and LCAL6 was reduced by siRNA treatment. Expression of Ki67 and HOXB7 was significantly suppressed in both the TUG1- and LCAL6-silenced groups compared to the control group (p<0.01). The TUG1-silenced group showed more reduced Ki67 expression than the LCAL6-silenced group (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: PDX NSCLC models were established with a high degree of similarity with the original tumor with regard to histological, immunohistochemical features and RNA expression of TUG1 and LCAL6. Silencing of TUG1 inhibited both tumor growth and expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 and HOX-gene family HOXB7 in the PDX model of NSCLC.

Fan X, Lin L, Wang J, et al.
Genome profile in a extremely rare case of pulmonary sclerosing pneumocytoma presenting with diffusely-scattered nodules in the right lung.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2018; 19(1):13-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary sclerosing pneumocytoma (PSP) typically presents solitary and peripheral mass, while only rarely cases display unusual multiple lesions. We reported a extremely rare case of PSP with diffusely-scattered nodules in the right lung.
CASE PRESENTATION: Diffusely round-shaped nodular shadows in the right lung were found by CT scan in a 31-year-old Chinese woman. The patient undergone the right pneumnectomy. Grossly, numerous small nodules, up to 2.5 cm in greatest dimension were identified in the upper, middle and lower lobes of the right lung. Histologically, the tumor presented the typical features of PSP, with a variable proportion of solid, sclerotic and papillary patterns. Immunohistochemical staining further revealed that cuboidal surface epithelial cells were positive for TTF-1, EMA, AE1/3 and vimentin (partially), and round or polygonal cells expressed TTF-1, vimentin, EMA (weakly), synaptophysin (partially), progesterone receptor (partially), and estrogen receptor (scatteredly). The patient has been followed up for 83 months after surgery by annual chest CT and no new lesions are detected in her left lung and other organs. The whole-exome sequencing identified 15 somatic mutations genes (MEGF6, DNAH5, AKT1, GPRIN2, PIK3AP1, FBXO40, HERC1, VPS16, MORN1, ZNF474, CTNNB1, ZNF251, TSC1, ATM, KDR). Pathway analysis showed possible pathways like the components of CTNNB1, AKT1, and TSC1 mutations in the PI3K/AKT signalings and AKT1, KDR and ATM in VEGF signaling pathway and AKT1 activation seemed closely related with these pathways.
CONCLUSION: According to our and previous data, PSP with diffuse or multiple lesions is very rare, and the patients are most commonly seen in women in Asian countries. The misdiagnosis rate by clinical and intraoperative frozen-section assessment is high because of the multiple nodules in the lung and its confusing histological features. Long time follow up indicates surgical resection should not be considered as the preferred strategy for treating multiple PSP in the intralobar sites. AKT1 activation may contribute to the development of PSP while the pathogenesis of diffuse or multiple PSP still needs to be further analyzed.

Liao H, Khan A, Miron PM, Cornejo KM
Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Thyroid Mimicking Locally Advanced Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Rare Case Report.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2018; 26(5):459-463 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) harboring ETV6 gene rearrangements was first described in the salivary gland with a relatively favorable prognosis and a possible molecular therapeutic target with pan-Trk inhibitors. Recently, primary MASC of the thyroid gland has been reported. We report a case of a 4.0 cm MASC arising from the left thyroid of a 58-year-old female with extrathyroidal extension. Initially, it was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration as suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and subsequently called a poorly differentiated carcinoma on resection. A final diagnosis of primary MASC of the thyroid was confirmed after an expanded immunohistochemical panel and identification of an ETV6 gene rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Morphologically, the tumor was composed of solid, microcystic and focally papillary growth with dense fibrotic stroma and necrosis. Overlapping cytological features with PTC were identified, including foci of enlarged cells with irregular nuclear membranes/grooves. However, most of the cells contained prominent nucleoli with intraluminal and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic secretions. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly positive for pancytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, PAX8, mammaglobin, and GCDFP-15, with rare staining for GATA3 and S100 and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. We report a rare case of a primary thyroid MASC, initially misdiagnosed as PTC. Pathologists should be aware of this entity and, given the similarities to PTC, have a high index of suspicion, prompting the addition of immunohistochemical and molecular studies. Furthermore, an accurate diagnosis is important because of the possible prognostic and treatment implications.

Forest F, Stachowicz ML, Casteillo F, et al.
EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and HER2 testing in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma: Value of testing on samples with poor specimen adequacy and analysis of discrepancies.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2017; 103(3):306-310 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular testing on metastatic lung adenocarcinoma or on non-small cell non-squamous lung carcinoma often relies on small specimen. In this group of patient with poor specimen adequacy, we analyzed the rate of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and HER2 mutations compared to their rate in optimal specimen. We analyzed discrepancies in molecular testing results in patients with iterative analysis on several samples. We performed a retrospective study of 1538 samples consecutively analyzed. 263/665 (39,5%) biopsies and 37/708 (5,2%) surgical specimens were considered as samples with poor specimen adequacy (p<0,0001). A lower tumor cell content was associated with a lower rate of KRAS mutation: 15,8% in samples with <10% of tumor cells or <100 tumor cells versus 29,8% in samples with >10% tumor cell and >100 tumor cells (p=0,001). KRAS mutational rate was at 11,1% in cytology specimens, significantly lower than in biopsy or surgical specimens respectively at 28,2% and 28,5% (p=0,0002). Tumor cell content was not associated with mutational rate for EGFR, BRAF and HER2 mutations. DNA quantity was not associated with mutational rate for EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and HER2. A discrepancy in molecular testing was found in 16 patients. For 5 patients there was also a discrepancy for TTF-1 expression. On the 11 without TTF-1 discrepancy, specimen adequacy was not fulfilled in 10 cases at least for tumor content. Discrepancies were found in the case of low cellularity, poor cell content or testing on cytological specimens. Tumor cell content is a crucial parameter for molecular analysis rather than the type of specimen or the DNA quantity. Discrepancies in molecular testing results are rare but might suggest the presence of another tumor type, the emergence of another clone or a molecular testing in a sample with low cell content.

Appleby N, O'Brien D, Quinn FM, et al.
Risk adjusted therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a phase II cancer trials Ireland (CTRIAL-IE [ICORG 07-01]) study of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab therapy evaluating response adapted, abbreviated frontline therapy with FCR in non-del(17p) CLL.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2018; 59(6):1338-1347 [PubMed] Related Publications
Minimal residual disease negative complete response (MRD-negative CR) provides an early marker for time to treatment failure (TTF) in CLL treated with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR). MRD was assessed after four FCR cycles (FCR4); MRD-negative CR patients discontinued treatment. Fifty-two patients (35M; 17F) were enrolled. Eighteen (18/52; 34.6%) patients reached MRD-negative CR after FCR4 and 29/52 (55.8%) were MRD-negative CR at end of treatment (EOT). Median TTF was 71.1 months (95% CI 61.3-84.1 months), with median overall survival not reached. Mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements (IGHV) were associated with early MRD-negative remissions, translating into prolonged TTF. Unmutated-IGHV, mutated-SF3B1 and mutated-NOTCH1 were associated with shortened TTF. No TTF difference was observed between patients in MRD-negative CR after four versus six cycles (82.2 versus 85.3 months, p = .6306). Abbreviated FCR therapy is effective for patients achieving early MRD-negative remissions. Interim MRD assessment assists in personalizing therapy and reducing chemotherapy-associated toxicity.

Ritterhouse LL, Vivero M, Mino-Kenudson M, et al.
GNAS mutations in primary mucinous and non-mucinous lung adenocarcinomas.
Mod Pathol. 2017; 30(12):1720-1727 [PubMed] Related Publications
GNAS mutations have been described in mucinous and non-mucinous epithelial neoplasms of the appendix, pancreas, and colon, with hotspot GNAS mutations found in up to two-thirds of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Additionally, many GNAS-mutated tumors have concurrent mutations in the Ras/Raf pathway. The clinicopathologic features of GNAS-mutated lung carcinomas, however, have not yet been characterized. Primary lung carcinomas from Brigham and Women's Hospital (n=1282) or Massachusetts General Hospital (n=1070) were genotyped on a targeted massively parallel sequencing panel of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes including GNAS. Clinical and pathological features were reviewed, and TTF-1 immunohistochemistry was performed when material was available. Nineteen lung adenocarcinomas with hotspot GNAS mutations were identified (19/2352, 0.8%) including 14 at codon 201 and 5 at codon 227. GNAS-mutated lung adenocarcinomas occurred predominantly in female patients (16/19, 84%). Ten (10) were classified as invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas (IMA), and nine (9) were non-mucinous adenocarcinomas. All IMAs had GNAS codon 201 mutations and concurrent Ras/Raf pathway mutations (9 KRAS, 1 BRAF). No tumors with GNAS codon 227 mutations had mucinous histological features. 86% of GNAS-mutated non-mucinous adenocarcinomas (6/7) were positive for TTF-1 immunohistochemistry, while only 25% of GNAS-mutated IMAs (1/4) were positive for TTF-1. Patients with GNAS-mutated non-mucinous adenocarcinomas were more likely to have a history of smoking (9/9, 100%) compared to patients with GNAS-mutated IMAs (2/10, 20%) (P<0.001). Hotspot GNAS mutations can occur in primary lung adenocarcinomas. When associated with concurrent mutations in the Ras/Raf pathway, these neoplasms often present as IMAs. GNAS mutations are not specific to neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, and clinicopathologic correlation is necessary in GNAS-mutated adenocarcinomas in the lung to determine the primary site of origin.

Chan KI, Vong HT, Sin LF, et al.
Relationship between driver gene mutations, their relative protein expressions and survival in non-small cell lung carcinoma in Macao.
Clin Respir J. 2018; 12(4):1416-1423 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We report the status of most common gene mutations in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in Macao, and explore the relationship between each gene mutation and clinicopathologic features and survival.
METHODS: EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutations were detected by PCR in 122 cases of NSCLC. ALK translocation and MET amplification were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). MET and thyroid transcription factor (TTF-1) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Clinical data were collected for analyzing their correlation with the gene mutations.
RESULTS: The mutation of EGFR, KRAS and BRAF was detected in 48 (39.3%), 13 (10.7%) and 3 (2.5%) of 122 cases of NSCLC, respectively. ALK translocation and MET amplification were detected in 7 (5.7%) and 3 cases (2.5%). The rate of EGFR mutation was significantly higher in female and non-smoker patients. In TTF-1 positive cases EGFR mutation was more frequent. Age of the patients over 62-year old was correlated with KRAS mutations. The concordance between ALK IHC and FISH was 58.3%. The MET protein in the cases with MET amplification was 100% positive. The survival was lower in the patients with positive MET protein than those with negative. MET protein was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC.
CONCLUSIONS: EGFR mutation occurred frequently in the female never smoke patients with NSCLC. KRAS mutation was more common in old patients. Negative MET protein expression could be used as a negative predictive marker of MET amplification. MET protein expression was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC.

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