Gene Summary

Gene:AKR1B10; aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10 (aldose reductase)
Aliases: HIS, HSI, ARL1, ARL-1, ALDRLn, AKR1B11, AKR1B12
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. This member can efficiently reduce aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, and it is less active on hexoses. It is highly expressed in adrenal gland, small intestine, and colon, and may play an important role in liver carcinogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: AKR1B10 (cancer-related)

Wang J, Zhong M, Liu B, et al.
Expression and functional analysis of novel molecule - Latcripin-13 domain from Lentinula edodes C91-3 produced in prokaryotic expression system.
Gene. 2015; 555(2):469-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
The shiitake mushroom Lentinula edodes has health benefits and is used to treat various diseases due to its immunomodulatory and antineoplastic properties. In the present study, the Latcripin-13 domain, isolated from L. edodes, was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami(DE3) in the form of inclusion bodies. The Latcripin-13 domain was purified by Ni-His affinity chromatography with high purity and refolded by urea gradient dialysis. The product showed biological activity in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line, by flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The MTT assay and the flow cytometry results revealed that there was a great difference between the Latcripin-13 domain-treated group and the control group (p<0.05). Similarly, cell apoptosis observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) supported the flow cytometry results. This work demonstrated that the Latcripin-13 domain can induce apoptosis of A549 cells, which will bring new insights into the development of new antitumor drugs in the future.

Hsi AC, Robirds DH, Luo J, et al.
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia frequently shows cutaneous involvement and is associated with gains of MYC, loss of ATM, and TCL1A rearrangement.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(11):1468-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare aggressive mature T-cell leukemia with frequent cutaneous presentation, which has not been well characterized. Among the 25 T-PLLs diagnosed between 1990 and 2013 at our institution, 32% (8/25) showed cutaneous manifestations, presenting as rash, purpura, papules, and ulcers. The skin biopsies showed leukemia cutis with perivascular and periadnexal irregular, small to medium-sized lymphoid infiltrates without epidermotropism. The lymphoid infiltrates were composed of mature CD4+ T cells expressing other T-cell antigens, and a subset (48%) showed dual CD4+/CD8+ coexpression. Higher median absolute peripheral blood lymphocyte count (43.0 vs. 13.0 k/mm; P=0.031) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels (P=0.00018) at the time of diagnosis were significantly associated with T-PLLs with skin involvement compared with those without. The extent of bone marrow involvement (P=0.849) and overall survival (P=0.144) was similar in the 2 groups. Fluorescence in situ hybridization or karyotype revealed frequent gains of MYC (67%; n=9), loss of ATM (64%; n=11), and TCL1A rearrangement or inversion 14q (75%; n=12). Gains of TCL1A was also seen (78%; n=9), including in some cases that had concurrent TCL1A rearrangement, whereas TP53 loss was less common (30%; n=10). No correlation was seen between the immunophenotype and morphology versus the presence or absence of skin involvement. These data suggest that cutaneous involvement by T-PLL is relatively common and often associated with significant peripheral blood involvement. The frequent MYC, ATM, and TCL1A alterations identified support that these genes are integral to the pathogenesis of T-PLL.

Huntley C, Hodder A, Ramachandran M
Clinical and historical aspects of the Elephant Man: exploring the facts and the myths.
Gene. 2015; 555(1):63-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Joseph Merrick, the Elephant Man, presented to the Royal London Hospital in 1884 with an obscure condition that puzzled his contemporaries, and fascinates clinicians to this day. Throughout the 1900s, a number of theories were advanced to explain the numerous growths that covered his body: neurofibromatosis, Proteus syndrome, and a combination of childhood injury, fibrous dysplasia, and pyarthrosis. The debate continued throughout the 20th century without resolution. Today, new consensus on the genetic and clinical diagnosis of neurofibromatosis and Proteus syndrome has allowed advancements in the Elephant Man's diagnosis. Using recent clinical diagnostic criteria it is now possible to conclude that Joseph Merrick was in all likelihood suffering from Proteus syndrome. Nevertheless, details of his genotype remain unknown. Obtaining intact DNA from the Elephant Man's skeleton is challenging, yet it is possible that sequencing Merrick's genome could provide genetic confirmation of his clinical diagnosis, and shed light on the process of tumourigenesis.

Hansford S, Huntsman DG
Boveri at 100: Theodor Boveri and genetic predisposition to cancer.
J Pathol. 2014; 234(2):142-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
One hundred years have passed since the publication of Theodore Boveri's Zur Frage der Entstehung maligner Tumouren [Concerning the Origin of Malignant Tumours]. This prescient publication created the foundations for much of our understanding of the origins of cancer and in particular the genetic basis of some cancers. In his work, Boveri suggested that loss of key cellular attributes, now known as tumour suppressor genes, are a key driver event in the development of cancer and inheritance could play a role in cancer susceptibility. He also predicted that chromosomal (genomic) instability as a key hallmark of cancer. Whilst these key insights that still inform the practice of cancer genetics, they were not the main theme of Boveri's text, which was to describe the role of chromosomal abnormalities in the development of cancer. In making his case he also suggested that genetic information could be contained in distinct packages (genes) that are linearly arranged along chromosomes and that cancers arise from single cells. These remarkably accurate hypotheses add weight to the need to celebrate this landmark publication for its accurate prediction of so much that we take for granted. Here we focus on Boveri's contributions to our understanding of hereditary cancers, which, alongside the astute clinical observations of Paul Broca and Aldred Scott Warthin, were published decades before the field became respectable, yet could still inform anyone studying hereditary cancers.

Sugita S, Arai Y, Tonooka A, et al.
A novel CIC-FOXO4 gene fusion in undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma: a genetically distinct variant of Ewing-like sarcoma.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(11):1571-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Differential diagnosis of small round cell sarcomas (SRCSs) grouped under the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) can be a challenging situation for pathologists. Recent studies have revealed that some groups of Ewing-like sarcoma show typical ESFT morphology but lack any EWSR1-ETS gene fusions. Here we identified a novel gene fusion, CIC-FOXO4, in a case of Ewing-like sarcoma with a t(X;19)(q13;q13.3) translocation. The patient was a 63-year-old man who had an asymptomatic, 30-mm, well-demarcated, intramuscular mass in his right posterior neck, and imaging findings suggested a diagnosis of high-grade sarcoma. He was treated with complete resection and subsequent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. He was alive without local recurrence or distant metastasis 6 months after the operation. Histologic examination revealed SRCS with abundant desmoplastic fibrous stroma suggesting a desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis showed weak to moderate and partial staining for MIC2 (CD99) and WT1, respectively. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing revealed a gene fusion, and the genomic rearrangement between the CIC and FOXO4 genes was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Aside from the desmoplastic stroma, the CIC-FOXO4 fusion sarcoma showed morphologic and immunohistochemical similarity to ESFT and Ewing-like sarcomas, including the recently described CIC-DUX4 fusion sarcoma. Although clinicopathologic analysis with additional cases is necessary, we conclude that CIC-FOXO4 fusion sarcoma is a new type of Ewing-like sarcoma that has a specific genetic signature. These findings have important implications for the differential diagnosis of SRCS.

Fidalgo F, Gomes EE, Moredo Facure L, et al.
Association of melanoma with intraepithelial neoplasia of the pancreas in three patients.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 97(1):144-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma and pancreatic cancer are two low frequency types of cancer. In this study, three patients who developed both melanoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the pancreas were tested for CDKN2A mutations and deletions, and investigated for rare germline copy number variations (CNVs). The three patients were negative for CDKN2A point mutations and intragenic deletions. One of these patients carried two large (>300 kb) germline CNVs, both genomic duplications affecting coding sequences that are not copy number variable in the population. A second patient exhibited loss of the entire Y chromosome, an event probably coincidental related to his advanced age (79 years-old). Our data pinpoint that rare germline CNVs harboring genes can contribute to the cancer predisposition of melanoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the pancreas.

Klahan S, Wu MS, Hsi E, et al.
Computational analysis of mRNA expression profiles identifies the ITG family and PIK3R3 as crucial genes for regulating triple negative breast cancer cell migration.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:536591 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu). TNBC has worse clinical outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. However, the key molecules and mechanisms of TNBC migration remain unclear. In this study, we compared two normalized microarray datasets from GEO database between Asian (GSE33926) and non-Asian populations (GSE46581) to determine the molecules and common pathways in TNBC migration. We demonstrated that 16 genes in non-Asian samples and 9 genes in Asian samples are related to TNBC migration. In addition, our analytic results showed that 4 genes, PIK3R3, ITGB1, ITGAL, and ITGA6, were involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Our results indicated potential genes that link to TNBC migration. This study may help identify novel therapeutic targets for drug development in cancer therapy.

Das D, Kaur I, Ali MJ, et al.
Exome sequencing reveals the likely involvement of SOX10 in uveal melanoma.
Optom Vis Sci. 2014; 91(7):e185-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify the spectrum of somatic mutations in an Asian Indian patient with uveal melanoma (UM) without metastasis using exome sequencing.
CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old man from India was diagnosed as having cilio-choroidal (uveal) melanoma (UM), without metastasis, in his right eye with the help of magnetic resonance imaging. This was later confirmed by histopathological evaluation. Two individuals from India with non-neoplastic blind eyes were recruited as controls. The affected eyes from the UM patient and the two control individuals were enucleated, and uveal tissues were collected. DNA was extracted from uveal tissue, and the matched blood sample from each of the three individuals was followed by exome sequencing. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses were done to identify somatic mutations and their putative associations with UM. Thirty-one somatic mutations (25 amino acid altering) in protein-coding (exonic) regions were detected in the UM patient. Of the amino acid-altering somatic mutations, 16 mutations were predicted to be candidate mutations relevant to UM. Somatic mutations, putatively causal for UM, were identified in GNAQ, SF3B1, and SOX10.
CONCLUSIONS: Somatic mutations in GNAQ and SF3B1 genes were probable drivers of UM in the Indian patient; these were also reported earlier in some White patients. In addition, a frameshift deletion of 20 base pairs has been identified in SOX10 in the UM patient. Somatic mutations in SOX10, a transcription factor, which acts upstream of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and synergizes with microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, was identified in some melanoma cell lines. The transcription factor SOX10 was found to have an essential role in melanocyte development and pigmentation. Our finding of the frameshift deletion (p.H387fs) in exon 4 of SOX10 in UM provides an important insight and complements earlier findings of mutations in GNAQ and SF3B1 on the genomic basis of UM.

Ulbright TM
Gonadoblastoma and hepatoid and endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: an update.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2014; 33(4):365-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dr Robert E. Scully greatly advanced our understanding of germ cell neoplasia to the extent that it is difficult to narrow the discussion of his contributions to this topic so that it can be covered in a brief article. This article accordingly focuses on some of the recent developments concerning 2 of his major contributions in this area-the gonadoblastoma (GB) and variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor. GB was defined by Dr Scully in 1953 and its features elaborated in detail by him in 1970. This neoplasm occurred in young patients who often displayed phenotypic sex ambiguities and frequently presented with primary amenorrhea. It was bilateral in 40%, and consisted of circumscribed nests of small sex cord cells and germinoma-like cells admixed with round deposits of eosinophilic, hyaline, often calcified material. These nests were set in a spindle cell gonadal stroma with Leydig-like or lutein-like cells. Because of his work we now understand that this precursor to invasive germ cell tumors occurs in patients with a specific form of disorder of sex development, namely gonadal dysgenesis, and only in those who have a particular portion of the Y chromosome, the GB locus/TSPY gene, within the gonadal tissue. An essential element to the development of GB appears to be a defect in the genetic pathway that leads to the development of Sertoli cells. Improperly formed Sertoli cells predispose to "delayed maturation" of the gonocytes of the gonad and predispose them to undergo malignant transformation. "Undifferentiated gonadal tissue" has been proposed as the precursor to the development of GB and consists of an unorganized mixture of apparently non-neoplastic germ cells, germ cells with delayed maturation, and neoplastic germ cells with sex cord cells and gonadal stroma. Two variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor were also recognized by Dr Scully. In the hepatoid variant features similar to hepatocellular carcinoma occurred, although primitive glandular foci and lack of liver involvement permitted its distinction in most cases. More recently this variant has been found to occasionally produce bile in canalicular-like structures and to stain strongly for both SALL4 and glypican 3, 2 recently described markers of yolk sac tumor. Recognition of hepatoid yolk sac tumor was followed by the description of a potential mimic, primary ovarian hepatoid carcinoma, which, however, occurred in a significantly older patient population and was occasionally associated with surface epithelial neoplasia. The endometrioid-like variant of yolk sac tumor simulated primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma. It can be suspected on routine stains because of primitive appearing nuclei, frequent subnuclear vacuoles, and in some cases association with more usual yolk sac tumor. Its recognition is now facilitated by a panel of immunohistochemical stains that are often expressed differentially in these 2 neoplasms--endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: positive for SALL4, glypican 3, and α-fetoprotein; endometrioid adenocarcinoma: positive for cytokeratin 7 and epithelial membrane antigen. Finally, Dr Scully contributed one of the first cases in the literature of yet another nuance in the complicated world of yolk sac neoplasia, namely the development of some tumors on the background of a surface epithelial neoplasm. This is analogous to the more common development of choriocarcinoma from carcinoma and, in the case of yolk sac tumor, diagnosis is aided clinically by the usual older age of the patient and nature of the associated neoplasia.

Sardar MR, Lahoti A, Khaji A, et al.
Recurrent right ventricular cardiac myxoma in a patient with Carney complex: a case report.
J Med Case Rep. 2014; 8:134 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Carney complex is a multiple neoplasia syndrome involving cardiac, endocrine, neural and cutaneous tumors with a variety of pigmented skin lesions. It has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Approximately 7% of cardiac myxomas are related to the Carney complex. Myxomas that occur as part of the Carney complex affect both sexes with equal frequency. Cardiac myxomas with Carney complex are reported mostly in the left side of the heart and are less common on the right side. As per our review, this is the first reported case of Carney complex with right ventricle cardiac myxoma.
CASE PRESENTATION: We present a rare case of recurrent cardiac myxoma in a patient later diagnosed to have Carney complex. A 46-year-old Caucasian man with a history of thyroid hyperplasia came to out-patient cardiology department with new onset atrial fibrillation. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a right ventricular mass attached to his interventricular septum, which was later seen on a transesophageal echocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. He underwent resection of the ventricular mass which on pathology revealed myxoma. He later developed skin lesions, pituitary adenoma and Sertoli cell tumor suggesting Carney complex. Two years later he developed a new mass within his right atrium which was later resected.
CONCLUSIONS: Carney complex is a rare autosomal dominant disease with variable penetrance. Since it involves multiple organs, patients diagnosed with Carney complex should undergo serial endocrine workup, neural assessments, echocardiograms and testicular ultrasounds. Of the total number of cases of Carney complex, 65% are linked to PRKAR1A gene mutation. It is important for clinicians to be cognizant of a link between cardiac myxoma and Carney complex. The use of multi-imaging modalities allows better delineation of the mass before planned resection. Carney complex-related cardiac myxoma comprises 7% of all cardiac myxomas. Right ventricular cardiac myxomas are rare. This case report is the first to describe right ventricular myxoma with Carney complex.

Tang X, Kuhlenschmidt TB, Li Q, et al.
A mechanically-induced colon cancer cell population shows increased metastatic potential.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:131 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths from cancer. Although tumor microenvironment has been shown to have a significant impact on the initiation and/or promotion of metastasis, the mechanism remains elusive. We previously reported that HCT-8 colon cancer cells underwent a phenotypic transition from an adhesive epithelial type (E-cell) to a rounded dissociated type (R-cell) via soft substrate culture, which resembled the initiation of metastasis. The objective of current study was to investigate the molecular and metabolic mechanisms of the E-R transition.
METHODS: Global gene expressions of HCT-8 E and R cells were measured by RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq); and the results were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), anoikis resistance, enzyme activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 (ALDH3A1), and in vitro invasion assay were tested on both E and R cells. The deformability of HCT-8 E and R cells was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To study the in vivo invasiveness of two cell types, athymic nude mice were intra-splenically injected with HCT-8 E or R cells and sacrificed after 9 weeks. Incidences of tumor development and metastasis were histologically evaluated and analyzed with Fisher's exact test.
RESULTS: Besides HCT-8, E-R transition on soft substrates was also seen in three other cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW480 colon and DU145 prostate cancer). The expression of some genes, such as ALDH3A1, TNS4, CLDN2, and AKR1B10, which are known to play important roles in cancer cell migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis, were increased in HCT-8 R cells. R cells also showed higher ALDH3A1 enzyme activity, higher ROS, higher anoikis resistance, and higher softness than E cells. More importantly, in vitro assay and in vivo animal models revealed that HCT-8 R cells were more invasive than E cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive comparison of HCT-8 E and R cells revealed differences of molecular, phenotypical, and mechanical signatures between the two cell types. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the molecular mechanism of E-R transition, which may greatly increase our understanding of the mechanisms of cancer mechanical microenvironment and initiation of cancer metastasis.

Wee JS, Mortimer PS, Lindhurst MJ, et al.
A limited form of proteus syndrome with bilateral plantar cerebriform collagenomas and varicose veins secondary to a mosaic AKT1 mutation.
JAMA Dermatol. 2014; 150(9):990-3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: Proteus syndrome is an extremely rare disorder of mosaic postnatal overgrowth affecting multiple tissues including bone, soft tissue, and skin. It typically manifests in early childhood with asymmetric and progressive skeletal overgrowth that leads to severe distortion of the skeleton and disability. The genetic basis has recently been identified as a somatic activating mutation in the AKT1 gene, which encodes an enzyme mediating cell proliferation and apoptosis.
OBSERVATIONS: We present a 33-year-old man who developed plantar cerebriform collagenomas on the soles of both feet and varicose veins in early childhood, in the absence of any skeletal or other connective tissue abnormality. Although the patient did not meet the diagnostic criteria for Proteus syndrome, he was found to have the c.49G>A, p.Glu17Lys AKT1 mutation in lesional skin but not in his blood.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: To our knowledge, this is the mildest molecularly confirmed case of Proteus syndrome, occurring in the absence of the characteristic skeletal overgrowth. These findings extend the spectrum of Proteus syndrome pathological characteristics and suggest that somatic mutations late in development and restricted in distribution cause subtle clinical presentations that do not meet the published clinical criteria.

Graff JN, Puri S, Bifulco CB, et al.
Sustained complete response to CTLA-4 blockade in a patient with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2014; 2(5):399-403 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present the case of a man with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, who had a complete prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response after 2½ doses of ipilimumab. His treatment course was complicated by diarrhea and autoimmune hepatitis, both of which resolved within 4 months. Sera and biopsy specimens were accessed, and sera from pretreatment and day 113 were analyzed. Augmented antibody responses were detected against 11 potential tumor antigens, with responses ranging from 5- to 20-fold in day 113 sera compared with baseline. Genes that were targets of a strong antibody response (arbitrarily set at 10-fold or greater increase) were analyzed by real-time PCR for expression in the tumor biopsy cDNA. Of the top 5 genes, only 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) could be identified in the amplified tumor biopsy cDNA. Using an antibody to HIBCH, immunohistochemical analysis documented strong expression of the protein. Together, these data suggest that an augmented antibody response to HIBCH, an antigen that was expressed by the patient's prostate cancer, could have contributed to the clinical response. After 16 months of PSA stability, he discontinued his androgen-suppression therapy. With the return of his testosterone, his PSA increased slightly, likely originating from his intact prostate. He has been disease free for the past 6 years without any additional therapy.

Santoro C, Pacileo G, Limongelli G, et al.
LEOPARD syndrome: clinical dilemmas in differential diagnosis of RASopathies.
BMC Med Genet. 2014; 15:44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis within RASopathies still represents a challenge. Nevertheless, many efforts have been made by clinicians to identify specific clinical features which might help in differentiating one disorder from another. Here, we describe a child initially diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. The follow-up of the proband, the clinical evaluation of his father together with a gene-by-gene testing approach led us to the proper diagnosis.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 8-year-old male with multiple café-au-lait macules, several lentigines and dysmorphic features that suggest Noonan syndrome initially diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. However, after a few years of clinical and ophthalmological follow-up, the absence of typical features of Neurofibromatosis type 1 and the lack of NF1 mutation led us to reconsider the original diagnosis. A new examination of the patient and his similarly affected father, who was initially referred as healthy, led us to suspect LEOPARD syndrome, The diagnosis was then confirmed by the occurrence in both patients of a heterozygous mutation c.1403 C > T, p.(Thr468Met), of PTPN11. Subsequently, the proband was also found to have type-1 Arnold-Chiari malformation in association with syringomyelia.
CONCLUSION: Our experience suggests that differential clinical diagnosis among RASopathies remains ambiguous and raises doubts on the current diagnostic clinical criteria. In some cases, genetic tests represent the only conclusive proof for a correct diagnosis and, consequently, for establishing individual prognosis and providing adequate follow-up. Thus, molecular testing represents an essential tool in differential diagnosis of RASophaties. This view is further strengthened by the increasing accessibility of new sequencing techniques.Finally, to our knowledge, the described case represents the third report of the occurrence of Arnold Chiari malformation and the second description of syringomyelia with LEOPARD syndrome.

Verduci E, Banderali G, Barberi S, et al.
Epigenetic effects of human breast milk.
Nutrients. 2014; 6(4):1711-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
A current aim of nutrigenetics is to personalize nutritional practices according to genetic variations that influence the way of digestion and metabolism of nutrients introduced with the diet. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the effects of nutrients on gene expression. Nutrition in early life or in critical periods of development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing several acute and chronic diseases. Indeed, breastfed children may have lower risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also of non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related-disorders. Beneficial effects of human breast milk on health may be associated in part with its peculiar components, possible also via epigenetic processes. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Studies have to be conducted to clarify the actual role of human breast milk on genetic expression, in particular when linked to the risk of non-communicable diseases, to potentially benefit the infant's health and his later life.

Kuwada M, Chihara Y, Lou Y, et al.
Novel missense mutation in the FH gene in familial renal cell cancer patients lacking cutaneous leiomyomas.
BMC Res Notes. 2014; 7:203 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a rare tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas and papillary type 2 renal cell cancer. Germline mutation of the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene is known to be associated with HLRCC.
CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 64-year-old father and his 39-year-old son with HLRCC who developed papillary type 2 RCCs lacking cutaneous leiomyomas at any site. A common missense mutation in the FH gene, (c.1021G > A, p.D341N) in exon 7, was detected in the 2 cases. Functional prediction with the bioinformatics programs, SIFT and Polyphen-2, reported "damaging (SIFT score 0.00)" and "probably damaging (PSIC score 1.621)" values, respectively. In 162 healthy individuals, there were no cases of a G transition to any base. Finally, (c.1021G > A) in exon 7, was identified as a point mutation.
CONCLUSION: We report a family with HLRCC in which a novel missense mutation was detected. A familial papillary type 2 renal cancer should be considered HLRCC unless typical cutaneous leiomyomas do not occur.

Zhang J, Jima D, Moffitt AB, et al.
The genomic landscape of mantle cell lymphoma is related to the epigenetically determined chromatin state of normal B cells.
Blood. 2014; 123(19):2988-96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/05/2015 Related Publications
In this study, we define the genetic landscape of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) through exome sequencing of 56 cases of MCL. We identified recurrent mutations in ATM, CCND1, MLL2, and TP53. We further identified a number of novel genes recurrently mutated in patients with MCL including RB1, WHSC1, POT1, and SMARCA4. We noted that MCLs have a distinct mutational profile compared with lymphomas from other B-cell stages. The ENCODE project has defined the chromatin structure of many cell types. However, a similar characterization of primary human mature B cells has been lacking. We defined, for the first time, the chromatin structure of primary human naïve, germinal center, and memory B cells through chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing for H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3Ac, H3K36me3, H3K27me3, and PolII. We found that somatic mutations that occur more frequently in either MCLs or Burkitt lymphomas were associated with open chromatin in their respective B cells of origin, naïve B cells, and germinal center B cells. Our work thus elucidates the landscape of gene-coding mutations in MCL and the critical interplay between epigenetic alterations associated with B-cell differentiation and the acquisition of somatic mutations in cancer.

Jomen W, Kuroda H, Matsuno T, et al.
[Polycythemia vera developed after a major molecular response to imatinib mesylate treatment in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia].
Rinsho Ketsueki. 2014; 55(3):360-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 68-year-old man complained of dizziness and was referred to our hospital by his primary physician for evaluation of an elevated leukocyte count. In April 2002, soon after the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia had been diagnosed, he was treated with imatinib. In March 2010, imatinib treatment was completed and the BCR/ABL fusion gene had become undetectable by real time quantitative PCR. Subsequently, leukocyte counts and the hematocrit gradually rose. In August 2012, a bone marrow aspirate showed hypercellular marrow with marked erythroid hyperplasia and the presence of the JAK2 gene V617F mutation. He was diagnosed with polycythemia vera. Phlebotomy and chemotherapy were started in addition to imatinib administration. Shortly thereafter complete blood counts returned to normal levels.

Ok CY, Xu-Monette ZY, Tzankov A, et al.
Prevalence and clinical implications of cyclin D1 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with immunochemotherapy: a report from the International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program.
Cancer. 2014; 120(12):1818-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cyclin D1 expression has been reported in a subset of patients with diffuse large B-cell leukemia (DLBCL), but studies have been few and generally small, and they have demonstrated no obvious clinical implications attributable to cyclin D1 expression.
METHODS: The authors reviewed 1435 patients who were diagnosed with DLBCL as part of the International DLBCL rituximab with cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) Consortium Program and performed clinical, immunohistochemical, and genetic analyses with a focus on cyclin D1. All patients who were cyclin D1-positive according to immunohistochemistry were also assessed for rearrangements of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Gene expression profiling was performed to compare patients who had DLBCL with and without cyclin D1 expression.
RESULTS: In total, 30 patients (2.1%) who had DLBCL that expressed cyclin D1 and lacked CCND1 gene rearrangements were identified. Patients with cyclin D1-positive DLBCL had a median age of 57 years (range, 16.0-82.6 years). There were 23 males and 7 females. Twelve patients (40%) had bulky disease. None of them expressed CD5. Two patients expressed cyclin D2. Gene expression profiling indicated that 17 tumors were of the germinal center type, and 13 were of the activated B-cell type. Genetic aberrations of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), BCL6, v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), mouse double minute 2 oncogene E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MDM2), MDM4, and tumor protein 53 (TP53) were rare or absent. Gene expression profiling did not reveal any striking differences with respect to cyclin D1 in DLBCL.
CONCLUSIONS: Compared with patients who had cyclin D1-negative DLBCL, men were more commonly affected with cyclin D1-positive DLBCL, and they were significantly younger. There were no other significant differences in clinical presentation, pathologic features, overall survival, or progression-free survival between these two subgroups of patients with DLBCL.

Hindumathi V, Kranthi T, Rao SB, Manimaran P
The prediction of candidate genes for cervix related cancer through gene ontology and graph theoretical approach.
Mol Biosyst. 2014; 10(6):1450-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
With rapidly changing technology, prediction of candidate genes has become an indispensable task in recent years mainly in the field of biological research. The empirical methods for candidate gene prioritization that succors to explore the potential pathway between genetic determinants and complex diseases are highly cumbersome and labor intensive. In such a scenario predicting potential targets for a disease state through in silico approaches are of researcher's interest. The prodigious availability of protein interaction data coupled with gene annotation renders an ease in the accurate determination of disease specific candidate genes. In our work we have prioritized the cervix related cancer candidate genes by employing Csaba Ortutay and his co-workers approach of identifying the candidate genes through graph theoretical centrality measures and gene ontology. With the advantage of the human protein interaction data, cervical cancer gene sets and the ontological terms, we were able to predict 15 novel candidates for cervical carcinogenesis. The disease relevance of the anticipated candidate genes was corroborated through a literature survey. Also the presence of the drugs for these candidates was detected through Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) and DrugMap Central (DMC) which affirms that they may be endowed as potential drug targets for cervical cancer.

Silva LB, Badiz TC, Enokihara MM, Porro AM
Fabry disease: clinical and genotypic aspects of three cases in first degree relatives.
An Bras Dermatol. 2014 Jan-Feb; 89(1):141-3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/05/2015 Related Publications
Fabry disease is an X-linked, lysosomal storage disease caused by the inherited deficiency of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. The diagnosis is usually late, with renal, cardiovascular and/or cerebral complications that reduce life expectancy. Angiokeratomas are asymptomatic lesions present as the initial manifestation and usually less appreciated. Their detection is important for early diagnosis and institution of treatment with enzyme replacement therapy, which prevents late complications reducing morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a male teenager with acroparestesias and angiokeratomas. Family medical research discovered that his mother and brother had similar signs and symptoms and that the three patients had the same mutation in the gene encoding the enzyme, confirming the diagnosis.

Hsi ED, Said J, Macon WR, et al.
Diagnostic accuracy of a defined immunophenotypic and molecular genetic approach for peripheral T/NK-cell lymphomas. A North American PTCL study group project.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(6):768-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/05/2015 Related Publications
The diagnosis of peripheral T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas (PTNKCL) is difficult with few standards for required ancillary studies. We evaluated a series of PTNKCLs using a tiered approach to immunohistochemistry and molecular genetic characterization to document diagnostic accuracy and clinical relevance. Seven hematopathologists reviewed 374 cases that included PTNKCL and non-PTNKCL cases to mimic diagnostic practice. Cases received tier 0, 1, and 2 diagnoses by 3 independent pathologists, on the basis of hematoxylin and eosin stains and progressive immunohistochemistry panels. A tier 2b diagnosis was rendered when gene rearrangement data were available, and a final consensus diagnosis was rendered after discussion of each case. Across all 374 cases, consensus agreement was 92.5%. For PTNKCLs, World Health Organization subclassification was possible in 16.5%, 37.1%, 82.8%, and 85.9% of individual reviewer diagnoses at tier 0, 1, 2, and 2b, respectively. Gene rearrangement contributed to a change in diagnosis in 51 of 647 (8%) individual reviews. Following this algorithm may provide prognostic information on the basis of individual marker expression in common PTNKCL types (CD4 in peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified and PD-1 in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma). This evidence-based approach to the diagnosis of PTNKCL informs practicing pathologists, clinical trial designers, and policy-makers regarding required ancillary studies.

Kropotova ES, Zinovieva OL, Zyryanova AF, et al.
Altered expression of multiple genes involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis in human colorectal cancer.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; 20(3):707-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the oxidized form of vitamin A (retinol), regulates a wide variety of biological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Multiple alcohol, retinol and retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (ADHs, RDHs, RALDHs) as well as aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) catalyze atRA production. The reduced atRA biosynthesis has been observed in several human tumors, including colorectal cancer. However, subsets of atRA-synthesizing enzymes have not been determined in colorectal tumors. We investigated the expression patterns of genes involved in atRA biosynthesis in normal human colorectal tissues, primary carcinomas and cancer cell lines by RT-PCR. These genes were identified using transcriptomic data analysis (expressed sequence tags, RNA-sequencing, microarrays). Our results indicate that each step of the atRA biosynthesis pathway is dysregulated in colorectal cancer. Frequent and significant decreases in the mRNA levels of the ADH1B, ADH1C, RDHL, RDH5 and AKR1B10 genes were observed in a majority of colorectal carcinomas. The expression levels of the RALDH1 gene were reduced, and the expression levels of the cytochrome CYP26A1 gene increased. The human colon cancer cell lines showed a similar pattern of changes in the mRNA levels of these genes. A dramatic reduction in the expression of genes encoding the predominant retinol-oxidizing enzymes could impair atRA production. The most abundant of these genes, ADH1B and ADH1C, display decreased expression during progression from adenoma to early and more advanced stage of colorectal carcinomas. The diminished atRA biosynthesis may lead to alteration of cell growth and differentiation in the colon and rectum, thus contributing to the progression of colorectal cancer.

Kashima K, Yahata T, Fujita K, Tanaka K
Polycystic ovary syndrome: association of a C/T single nucleotide polymorphism at tyrosine kinase domain of insulin receptor gene with pathogenesis among lean Japanese women.
J Reprod Med. 2013 Nov-Dec; 58(11-12):491-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the insulin receptor (INSR) gene contributes to genetic susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a Japanese population.
STUDY DESIGN: We ex-amined the frequency of the His 1058 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) found in exon 17 of the INSR gene in 61 Japanese PCOS patients and 99 Japanese healthy controls. In addition, we analyzed the association between the genotype of this SNP and the clinical phenotypes.
RESULTS: The frequency of the C/C genotype was not significantly different between all PCOS patients (47.5%) and controls (35.4%). However, among the lean cases (body mass index < or = 20 kg/m2) the frequency of the C/C genotype was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in PCOS patients (65.0%) as compared with controls (36.6%).
CONCLUSION: We concluded that the His 1058 C/T polymorphism at the tyrosine kinase domain of the INSR gene had a relationship to the pathogenesis of lean PCOS patients in a Japanese population.

Khalifa O, Al-Sakati N, Al-Mane K, et al.
Combined TSC1 and LMX1B mutations in a single patient.
Clin Dysmorphol. 2014; 23(2):47-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and nail-patella syndrome (NPS) are autosomal dominant pleiotropic disorders with full penetrance that can both involve kidneys. TSC1 and NPS genes are located on chromosome 9q3. In a large family with the two disorders with two novel frameshift TSC1 and LMX1B mutations, we describe the phenotypes. The father, who has both disorders, has passed on TSC to three of his children, NPS to another three, and both TSC and NPS to one child. Patients carrying both mutations appear to show an additive phenotype and no obvious epistatic effects. The segregation of two dominant disorders in this family poses a challenge for genetic counseling and indicates the importance of a careful clinical and molecular evaluation for accurate risk assessment.

Szymanowska-Narloch A, Jassem E, Skrzypski M, et al.
Molecular profiles of non-small cell lung cancers in cigarette smoking and never-smoking patients.
Adv Med Sci. 2013; 58(2):196-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Molecular features of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in never-smokers are not well recognized. We assessed the expression of genes potentially related to lung cancer etiology in smoking vs. never-smoking NSCLC patients.
METHODS: We assayed frozen tumor samples from surgically resected 31 never-smoking and 54 clinically pair-matched smoking NSCLC patients, and from corresponding normal lung tissue from 27 and 43 patients, respectively. Expression of 21 genes, including cell membrane kinases, sex hormone receptors, transcription factors, growth factors and others was assessed by reverse transcription - quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: Expression of 5 genes was significantly higher in tumors of non-smokers vs. smokers: CSF1R (p<0.0001), RRAD (p<0.0001), PR (p=0.0004), TGFBR2 (p=0.0027) and EPHB6 (p=0.0033). Expression of AKR1B10 (p<0.0001), CDKN2A (p<0.0001), CHRNA6 (p<0.0001), SOX9 (p<0.0001), survivin (p<0.0001) and ER2 (p=0.002) was significantly higher in tumors compared to normal lung tissue. Expression of AR (p<0.0001), EPHB6 (p<0.0001), PR (p<0.0001), TGFBR2 (p<0.0001), TGFBR3 (p<0.0001), ER1 (p=0.0006) and DLG1 (p=0.0016) was significantly lower in tumors than in normal lung tissue. Expression of IGF2 was higher in tumors than in healthy lung tissue in never-smokers (p=0.003), and expression of AHR (p<0.0001), CSF1R (p<0.0001) and RRAD (p<0.0001) was lower in tumors than in healthy lung tissue in smokers.
CONCLUSION: Expression of several genes in NSCLC is strongly related to smoking history. Lower expression of PR and higher expression of ER2 in tumors suggests a possibility of hormonal therapeutic intervention in selected NSCLC patients. Distinct molecular features of NSCLC in never-smokers, e.g. CHRNA6 upregulation, may prompt new treatment strategies.

Khlifi R, Chakroun A, Hamza-Chaffai A, Rebai A
Association of CYP1A1 and CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms with head and neck cancer in Tunisian patients.
Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(4):2591-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between head and neck cancer (HNC) and environmental agents and polymorphisms in CYP1A1, CYP2D6, NAT1 and NAT2 metabolic enzymes genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on polymorphisms in CYP1A1 6310C>T, CYP2D6 Arg365His, NAT1 52936A>T and NAT2 Arg268Lys (NAT2*12A) genes and susceptibility to HNC in Tunisian population. We study the prevalence of these polymorphisms in 169 patients with HNC and 261 control subjects using polymerase chain reaction based methods in a Tunisian population. We detected an association between HNC and CYP1A1 6310C>T (TT) and CYP2D6 Arg365His (His/His) variant carriers (OR 1.75, P = 0.008 and OR 1.66, P = 0.016, respectively). No association was found between the polymorphisms genotypes of NAT1 52936T>A and NAT2 Arg268Lys and risk of HNC. An association between HNC and CYP1A1 (TT) genotype was found among patients with smoking (P = 0.011) and drinking habit (P = 0.009). The combinations of NAT1 (AT or AA) and NAT2 (AA) at-risk genotypes increased HNC risk (OR 4.23, P = 0.005 and OR 3.60, P = 0.048, respectively). However, the combinations of CYP1A1 (AA) and CYP2D6 (CC) genotypes decreased risk of HNC (OR 0.20; P = 0.006). Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and CYP2D6 may significantly associate with HNC in the Tunisian population. The results of this study suggest a possible gene-environment interaction for certain carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, but larger studies that fully evaluate the interaction are needed.

He Y, Wang D, Li X, et al.
Expression of partial tandem duplication of mixed lineage leukaemia in patients with acute leukaemia and their relatives.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2014; 127(2):284-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Partial tandem duplication of mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL-PTD) is detected both in patients with acute leukemia and in healthy people. However, MLL-PTD in relatives of patients with MLL-PTD has not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of MLL-PTD in patients with acute leukemia and in their relatives.
METHODS: The bone marrow or peripheral blood was collected from patients with acute leukaemia and their relatives. Nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to detect the mRNA expression of the MLLPTD fused gene, and further confirm in genomic DNA level.
RESULTS: Analysing MLL-PTD in case 1, the patient's older brother and his younger brother were positive, while his mother and his son were negative. The exon type in case 1 was e9/3 fusion, but in his older brother, it was e9/3 and e11/3 fusion, and in his younger brother, it was e9/3, e10/3, and e11/3 fusion. MLL-PTD in case 2 was negative, but in the patient's older sister was positive, and the exon type was e9/3, e10/3, and e11/3.
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of MLL-PTD was present in cases with acute leukaemia with a single expression type. However, various expression types were detected in their healthy relatives. MLL-PTD can couple with other chromosome aberrations, and its impact on disease prognosis remains to be studied further.

Hsi AC, Kreisel FH, Frater JL, Nguyen TT
Clinicopathologic features of adult T-cell leukemias/lymphomas at a North American tertiary care medical center: infrequent involvement of the central nervous system.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(2):245-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Published series of ATLLs seen at a United States medical institution are rare. We present the features of 4 ATLLs diagnosed at our North American tertiary care medical center from 1990 to 2012. Despite the absence of a history of origin from an endemic region, all our ATLLs demonstrated evidence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by ATLL was uncommon in our series, and represented only 1.6% (1/64) of all CNS B-cell or T-cell lymphomas diagnosed over a 20+ year period at our institution. Review of the medical literature reveals that the majority of CNS-involved ATLLs present with the lymphoma or acute subtype, and complete remission is difficult to achieve in these cases. CNS involvement frequently occurs with a systemic disease, which carries an aggressive clinical course with poor prognosis. In addition, CNS involvement by ATLL can be the initial presentation or seen with relapsed disease, can be the only site or be associated with other tissue sites of involvement, and may manifest with variable clinical signs/symptoms. Our retrospective study reveals that ATLLs are rare mature T-cell lymphomas in a native North American population, but the clinical and histopathologic features of ATLLs from this nonendemic region are similar to those seen from other endemic regions. Early recognition of these rare ATLLs involving uncommon sites, such as the CNS, will help optimize treatment for these infrequent mature T-cell lymphomas.

Liu M, Li Y, Chen L, et al.
Allele-specific imbalance of oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1 associates with progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gastroenterology. 2014; 146(4):1084-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although there are a few highly penetrant mutations that are linked directly to cancer initiation, more less-penetrant susceptibility alleles have been associated with cancer risk and progression. We used RNA sequence analysis to search for genetic variations associated with pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: We analyzed 400 paired HCC and adjacent nontumor tissues, along with clinical information, from patients who underwent surgery at Sun Yat-Sen University in Guangzhou, China. Total RNA was extracted from tissues and sequenced, and variations with allele imbalance were identified. Effects of variants on cell functions were investigated in HCC cell lines and tumor xenografts in mice. Variants were associated with patient outcomes.
RESULTS: We found a high proportion of allele imbalance in genes related to cellular stress. A nucleotide variation in the Oxidative Stress-Induced Growth Inhibitor 1 (OSGIN1) gene (nt 1494: G-A) resulted in an amino acid substitution (codon 438: Arg-His). The variant form of OSGIN1 was specifically retained in the tumor tissues. Functional assays showed that the common form of OSGIN1 functioned as a tumor suppressor, sensitizing HCC cells to chemotherapeutic agents by inducing apoptosis. However, the variant form of OSGIN1 was less effective. It appeared to affect the translocation of OSGIN1 from the nucleus to mitochondria, which is important for its apoptotic function. The expression pattern and localization of OSGIN1 was altered in HCC specimens, compared with adjacent liver tissue. Levels of OSGIN1 messenger RNA were reduced in 24.7% of HCC specimens, and down-regulation was associated with shorter overall and disease-free survival times of patients. Patients with the OSGIN1 1494A variant had the shortest mean survival time (32.68 mo) among patient subgroups, and their tumor samples had the lowest apoptotic index.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified OSGIN1 as a tumor suppressor that is down-regulated or altered in human HCCs. Variants of OSGIN1 detected in HCC samples reduce apoptosis and are associated with shorter survival times of patients.

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