Research IndicatorsGraph generated 08 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 08 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: ADAM9 (cancer-related)
Jiang L, He A, Zhang Q, Tao CmiR-126 inhibits cell growth, invasion, and migration of osteosarcoma cells by downregulating ADAM-9.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):12645-54 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) has become one of the most common primary malignant tumors in the children and adolescents with a poor prognosis mainly due to high metastasis. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 9 (ADAM-9) plays a role in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis in several tumors. miR-126 has been reported to be downregulated in OS tumor. However, the involvement of ADAM-9 in the pathology of OS and the relationship between miR-126 and ADAM-9 in OS cells remain unclear. In this study, using quantitative reverse-transcribed PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis on 37 pairs of OS tumors and matched adjacent normal bone tissues, we found that ADAM-9 is significantly upregulated, while miR-126 is downregulated in human OS tumors. Association analysis revealed that upregulation of ADAM-9 and downregulation of miR-126 are significantly involved in advanced clinical stage development and distant metastasis. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-126 could directly target ADAM-9 3' untranslated region (UTR) and inhibit its expression in U2OS and MG-63 cells. Functional experiments revealed that downregulating ADAM-9 by miR-126 inhibited cellular growth, invasion, and migration in U2OS and MG-63 cells. In rescue experiments, restored ADAM-9 expression attenuated miR-126-mediated suppression, while knockdown of ADAM-9 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) represented similar results with miR-126-mediated tumor suppression in U2OS cells. Taken together, our data indicated that miR-126 inhibits cell growth, invasion, and migration of OS cells by downregulating ADAM-9.
Lin CY, Chen HJ, Huang CC, et al.ADAM9 promotes lung cancer metastases to brain by a plasminogen activator-based pathway.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(18):5229-43 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The transmembrane cell adhesion protein ADAM9 has been implicated in cancer cell migration and lung cancer metastasis to the brain, but the underpinning mechanisms are unclear and clinical support has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate that ADAM9 enhances the ability of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to cleave and stimulate the function of the promigratory protein CDCP1 to promote lung metastasis. Blocking this mechanism of cancer cell migration prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice and cooperated with dexamethasone and dasatinib (a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor) treatment to enhance cytotoxic treatment. In clinical specimens, high levels of ADAM9 and CDCP1 correlated with poor prognosis and high risk of mortality in patients with lung cancer. Moreover, ADAM9 levels in brain metastases derived from lung tumors were relatively higher than the levels observed in primary lung tumors. Our results show how ADAM9 regulates lung cancer metastasis to the brain by facilitating the tPA-mediated cleavage of CDCP1, with potential implications to target this network as a strategy to prevent or treat brain metastatic disease.
BACKGROUND: The miRNA deregulation is commonly observed in human malignancies, where they act as tumour suppressors or oncogenes. Despite the association of several miRNAs with bladder cancer, little is known about the miRNAs that contribute to bladder cancer progression from non-muscle invasive (NMI) to muscle-invasive (MI) disease.
METHODS: We first profiled the expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in a cohort of urothelial carcinomas and further characterised the role of miR-126 in invasion, as it emerged as the most downregulated miRNA between MI and NMI tumours.
RESULTS: We found that restoration of miR-126 levels attenuated the invasive potential of bladder cancer cells. Mechanistically, we identified the role of miR-126 in invasion through its ability to target ADAM9. Notably, a significant inverse correlation between miR-126 and ADAM9 expression was observed, where ADAM9 was upregulated in MI bladder cancer cells. While knockdown of ADAM9 attenuated the invasiveness of cells with low miR-126 levels, experimental upregulation of ADAM9 recapitulated the invasive phenotype. Furthermore, ADAM9 expression assessed by immunohistochemistry significantly correlated with poor prognosis in patients with urothelial carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study we describe the role of miR-126 in bladder cancer progression, identifying miR-126 and ADAM9 as potential clinical biomarkers of disease aggressiveness.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and brain metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in lung cancer. CDH2 (N-cadherin, a mesenchymal marker of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and ADAM9 (a type I transmembrane protein) are related to lung cancer brain metastasis; however, it is unclear how they interact to mediate this metastasis. Because microRNAs regulate many biological functions and disease processes (e.g., cancer) by down-regulating their target genes, microRNA microarrays were used to identify ADAM9-regulated miRNAs that target CDH2 in aggressive lung cancer cells. Luciferase assays and western blot analysis showed that CDH2 is a target gene of miR-218. MiR-218 was generated from pri-mir-218-1, which is located in SLIT2, in non-invasive lung adenocarcinoma cells, whereas its expression was inhibited in aggressive lung adenocarcinoma. The down-regulation of ADAM9 up-regulated SLIT2 and miR-218, thus down-regulating CDH2 expression. This study revealed that ADAM9 activates CDH2 through the release of miR-218 inhibition on CDH2 in lung adenocarcinoma.
Our recent study indicated that overexpression of Sp1 enhances the proliferation of lung cancer cells, while represses metastasis. In this study, we found that the transcriptional activity of FOXO3 was increased, but its protein levels decreased following Sp1 expression. Sp1 increased expression of miR-182, which was then recruited to the 3'-untranslated region of FOXO3 mRNA to silence its translational activity. Knockdown of miR-182 inhibited lung cancer cells growth, but enhanced the invasive and migratory abilities of these cells through increased N-cadherin expression. Repression of FOXO3 expression in the miR-182 knockdown cells partially reversed this effect, suggesting that miR-182 promotes cancer cell growth and inhibits cancer metastatic activity by regulating the expression of FOXO3. The expression of several cancer metastasis-related genes such as ADAM9, CDH9 and CD44 was increased following miR-182 knockdown. In conclusion, in the early stages of lung cancer progression, Sp1 stimulates miR-182 expression, which in turn decreases FOXO3 expression. This stimulates proliferation and tumor growth. In the late stages, Sp1 and miR-182 decline, thus increasing FOXO3 expression, which leads to lung metastasis.
We have used a novel affinity-based proteomics technology to examine the protein signature of small secreted extracellular vesicles called exosomes. The technology uses a new class of protein binding reagents called SOMAmers® (slow off-rate modified aptamers) and allows the simultaneous precise measurement of over 1000 proteins. Exosomes were highly purified from the Du145 prostate cancer cell line, by pooling selected fractions from a continuous sucrose gradient (within the density range of 1.1 to 1.2 g/ml), and examined under standard conditions or with additional detergent treatment by the SOMAscan™ array (version 3.0). Lysates of Du145 cells were also prepared, and the profiles were compared. Housekeeping proteins such as cyclophilin-A, LDH, and Hsp70 were present in exosomes, and we identified almost 100 proteins that were enriched in exosomes relative to cells. These included proteins of known association with cancer exosomes such as MFG-E8, integrins, and MET, and also those less widely reported as exosomally associated, such as ROR1 and ITIH4. Several proteins with no previously known exosomal association were confirmed as exosomally expressed in experiments using individual SOMAmer® reagents or antibodies in micro-plate assays. Western blotting confirmed the SOMAscan™-identified enrichment of exosomal NOTCH-3, L1CAM, RAC1, and ADAM9. In conclusion, we describe here over 300 proteins of hitherto unknown association with prostate cancer exosomes and suggest that the SOMAmer®-based assay technology is an effective proteomics platform for exosome-associated biomarker discovery in diverse clinical settings.
Ebrahimi F, Gopalan V, Smith RA, Lam AKmiR-126 in human cancers: clinical roles and current perspectives.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 96(1):98-107 [PubMed
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miR-126 has been implicated in the processes of inflammation and angiogenesis. Through these processes, miR-126 is implicated in cancer biology, but its role there has not been well reviewed. The aim of this review is to examine the molecular mechanisms and clinicopathological significance of miR-126 in human cancers. miR-126 was shown to have roles in cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, genital tracts, breast, thyroid, lung and some other cancers. Its expression was suppressed in most of the cancers studied. The molecular mechanisms that are known to cause aberrant expression of miR-126 include alterations in gene sequence, epigenetic modification and alteration of dicer abundance. miR-126 can inhibit progression of some cancers via negative control of proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell survival. In some instances, however, miR-126 supports cancer progression via promotion of blood vessel formation. Downregulation of miR-126 induces cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via targeting specific oncogenes. Also, reduced levels of miR-126 are a significant predictor of poor survival of patients in many cancers. In addition, miR-126 can alter a multitude of cellular mechanisms in cancer pathogenesis via suppressing gene translation of numerous validated targets such as PI3K, KRAS, EGFL7, CRK, ADAM9, HOXA9, IRS-1, SOX-2, SLC7A5 and VEGF. To conclude, miR-126 is commonly down-regulated in cancer, most likely due to its ability to inhibit cancer cell growth, adhesion, migration, and invasion through suppressing a range of important gene targets. Understanding these mechanisms by which miR-126 is involved with cancer pathogenesis will be useful in the development of therapeutic targets for the management of patients with cancer.
Shen Z, Kauttu T, Cao J, et al.Macrophage coculture enhanced invasion of gastric cancer cells via TGF-β and BMP pathways.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2013; 48(4):466-72 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily plays an important role in regulating gastric cancer progression. As previously demonstrated, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promoted the invasion of gastric cancer cells in Matrigel. However, the role of TGF-β superfamily signaling between TAMs and gastric cancer remains unclear.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three-dimensional dynamic migration imaging system was used to detect gastric cancer invasion rate cocultured with macrophages in Matrigel before or after TGF-β receptor 1 or bone morphogenic protein (BMP) receptor 1A and 1B inhibition; real-time RT-PCR was used to quantitatively investigate gene expression (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, BMP4, and BMP7, ADAM9, MMP9, TIMP3, VEGF-A, and VEGF-C).
RESULTS: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, BMP4, and BMP7 expressions were increased significantly in macrophages grown with cancer cells as compared to macrophages grown alone. The invasion rate and invasion-related genes expressions of both AGS and Hs-746T gastric cancer cell lines were upregulated by macrophages, although the expression profile was different. Invasion rate and invasion-related genes' expressions of AGS cells cocultured with macrophages were downregulated significantly after TGF-βR1 and BMPR1 inhibition.
CONCLUSIONS: Macrophages associated with tumor might promote gastric cancer cells invasion though enhancing TGF-β/BMPs signal pathway. Inhibiting TGF-β/BMPs signal between TAMs and gastric cancer cells might provide a new therapeutic method of gastric cancer.
The abnormal expression of several microRNAs has a causal role in tumorigenesis with either antineoplastic or oncogenic functions. Here we demonstrated that miR-126 and miR-126* play a tumor suppressor role in human melanoma through the direct or indirect repression of several key oncogenic molecules. The expression levels of miR-126&126* were elevated in normal melanocytes and primary melanoma cell lines, whereas they markedly declined in metastatic cells. Indeed, the restored expression of miR-126&126* in two advanced melanoma cell lines was accompanied by a significant reduction of proliferation, invasion and chemotaxis in vitro as well as of growth and dissemination in vivo. In accordance, the reverse functional effects were obtained by knocking down miR-126&126* by transfecting antisense LNA oligonucleotides in melanoma cells. Looking for the effectors of these antineoplastic functions, we identified ADAM9 and MMP7, two metalloproteases playing a pivotal role in melanoma progression, as direct targets of miR-126&126*. In addition, as ADAM9 and MMP7 share a role in the proteolytic cleavage of the HB-EGF precursor, we looked for the effectiveness of this regulatory pathway in melanoma, confirming the decrease of HB-EGF activation as a consequence of miR-126&126*-dependent downmodulation of ADAM9 and MMP7. Finally, gene profile analyses showed that miR-126&126* reexpression was sufficient to inactivate other key signaling pathways involved in the oncogenic transformation, as PI3K/AKT and MAPK, and to restore melanogenesis, as indicated by KIT/MITF/TYR induction. In view of this miR-126&126* wide-ranging action, we believe that the replacement of these microRNAs might be considered a promising therapeutic approach.
Despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), mortality and morbidity rates have not improved over the past decade. A major drawback in diagnosis and treatment of OSCC is the lack of knowledge relating to how genetic instability in oral cancer genomes affects oral carcinogenesis. Hence, the key aim of this study was to identify copy number alterations (CNAs) that may be cancer associated in OSCC using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). To our knowledge this is the first study to use ultra-high density aCGH microarrays to profile a large number of OSCC genomes (n = 46). The most frequently amplified CNAs were located on chromosome 11q11(52%), 2p22.3(52%), 1q21.3-q22(54%), 6p21.32(59%), 20p13(61%), 7q34(52% and 72%),8p11.23-p11.22(80%), 8q11.1-q24.4(54%), 9q13-q34.3(54%), 11q23.3-q25(57%); 14q21.3-q31.1(54%); 14q31.3-q32.33(57%), 20p13-p12.3(54%) and 20q11.21-q13.33(52%). The most frequently deleted chromosome region was located on 3q26.1 (54%). In order to verify the CNAs from aCGH using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the three top most amplified regions and their associated genes, namely ADAM5P (8p11.23-p11.22), MGAM (7q34) and SIRPB1 (20p13.1), were selected in this study. The ADAM5P locus was found to be amplified in 39 samples and deleted in one; MGAM (24 amplifications and 3 deletions); and SIRPB1 (12 amplifications, others undetermined). On the basis of putative cancer-related annotations, two genes, namely ADAM metallopeptidase domain 9 (ADAM9) and maltase-glucoamylase alpha-glucosidase (MGAM), that mapped to CNA regions were selected for further evaluation of their mRNA expression using reverse transcriptase qPCR. The over-expression of MGAM was confirmed with a 6.6 fold increase in expression at the mRNA level whereas the fold change in ADAM9 demonstrated a 1.6 fold increase. This study has identified significant regions in the OSCC genome that were amplified and resulted in consequent over-expression of the MGAM and ADAM9 genes that may be utilized as biological markers for OSCC.
Liu CM, Hsieh CL, He YC, et al.In vivo targeting of ADAM9 gene expression using lentivirus-delivered shRNA suppresses prostate cancer growth by regulating REG4 dependent cell cycle progression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53795 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells respond to stress by activating a variety of survival signaling pathways. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 9 is upregulated during cancer progression and hormone therapy, functioning in part through an increase in reactive oxygen species. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that therapeutic targeting of ADAM9 gene expression by lentivirus-delivered small hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly inhibited proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines and blocked tumor growth in a murine model of prostate cancer bone metastasis. Cell cycle studies confirmed an increase in the G1-phase and decrease in the S-phase population of cancer cells under starvation stress conditions, which correlated with elevated intracellular superoxide levels. Microarray data showed significantly decreased levels of regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (REG4) expression in prostate cancer cells with knockdown of ADAM9 gene expression. This REG4 downregulation also resulted in induction of expression of p21(Cip1/WAF1), which negatively regulates cyclin D1 and blocks the G1/S transition. Our data reveal a novel molecular mechanism of ADAM9 in the regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation, and suggests a combined modality of ADAM9 shRNA gene therapy and cytotoxic agents for hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancer.
Shen Z, Kauttu T, Seppänen H, et al.Both macrophages and hypoxia play critical role in regulating invasion of gastric cancer in vitro.
Acta Oncol. 2013; 52(4):852-60 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: As previously demonstrated, tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) infiltration is associated with some cancers invasion and metastasis. However, the role of TAMs in the gastric cancer remains unclear.
METHODS: Three- dimensional dynamic migration imaging system and real time RT-PCR were used to quantitatively investigate the effect of macrophages on the cancer cell mobility and gene expression related to cancer invasion and metastasis, including ADAM8, ADAM9, MMP9, TIMP3, VEGF-A and IL8 genes, in AGS, HGC-27, Hs-746T and NCI-N87 gastric cancer cell lines under normal or hypoxic conditions.
RESULTS: Under normal conditions, the cancer cell invasion rate was increased significantly and all six gene expressions were upregulated in all four cancer cell lines by macrophages. Under hypoxia the changes in the cancer cell invasion rate induced by macrophages was negatively correlated to the TIMP3 expression. In non- metastatic cell line AGS, the increase in migration rate induced by macrophages was further elevated under hypoxia with increased ADAM8 and ADAM9 expression and decreased MMP9 and TIMP3 expressions. Under hypoxia, the induction by macrophages for IL-8 expression was increased significantly in distant metastatic cell lines NCI-N87 and HS-746T, VEGF-A was increased in HGC-27 cell line.
CONCLUSIONS: Both macrophages and hypoxia play an indispensable role in regulating the invasion of gastric cancer cells in vitro; ADAMs, MMP9 and TIMP3 might be involved in TAM induced invasive power of gastric cancer cells.
Shinozuka E, Miyashita M, Mizuguchi Y, et al.SnoN/SKIL modulates proliferation through control of hsa-miR-720 transcription in esophageal cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 430(1):101-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
It is now evident that changes in microRNA are involved in cancer progression, but the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of miRNAs remain unknown. Ski-related novel gene (SnoN/SKIL), a transcription co-factor, acts as a potential key regulator within a complex network of p53 transcriptional repressors. SnoN has pro- and anti-oncogenic functions in the regulation of cell proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, and differentiation. We characterized the roles of SnoN in miRNA transcriptional regulation and its effects on cell proliferation using esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Silencing of SnoN altered a set of miRNA expression profiles in TE-1cells, and the expression levels of miR-720, miR-1274A, and miR-1274B were modulated by SnoN. The expression of these miRNAs resulted in changes to the target protein p63 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 9 (ADAM9). Furthermore, silencing of SnoN significantly upregulated cell proliferation in TE-1 cells, indicating a potential anti-oncogenic function. These results support our observation that cancer tissues have lower expression levels of SnoN, miR-720, and miR-1274A compared to adjacent normal tissues from ESCC patients. These data demonstrate a novel mechanism of miRNA regulation, leading to changes in cell proliferation.
Hamada S, Satoh K, Miura S, et al.miR-197 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells by targeting p120 catenin.
J Cell Physiol. 2013; 228(6):1255-63 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Invasive ductal adenocarcinoma (IDA) of the pancreas manifests poor prognosis due to the early invasion and distant metastasis. In contrast, intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma or carcinoma (IPMA or IPMC) reveals better clinical outcomes. Various molecular mechanisms contribute to these differences but entire picture is still unclear. Recent researches emphasized the important role of miRNA in biological processes including cancer invasion and metastasis. We previously described that miR-126 is down-regulated in IDA compared with IPMA or IPMC, and miR-126 regulates the expression of invasion related molecule disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 9 (ADAM9). Assessing the difference of miRNA expression profiles of IDA, IPMA, and IPMC, we newly identified miR-197 as an up-regulated miRNA specifically in IDA. Expression of miR-197 in pancreatic cancer cells resulted in the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) along with the down-regulation of p120 catenin which is a putative target of miR-197. Direct interaction between miR-197 and p120 catenin mRNA sequence was confirmed by 3'UTR assay, and knockdown of p120 catenin recapitulated EMT induction in pancreatic cancer cells. In situ hybridization of miR-197 and immunohistochemistry of p120 catenin showed mutually exclusive patterns suggesting pivotal role of miR-197 in the regulation of p120 catenin. This miR-197/p120 catenin axis could be a novel therapeutic target.
Although there is extensive information on gene expression and molecular interactions in various cell types, integrating those data in a functionally coherent manner remains challenging. This study explores the premise that genes whose expression at the mRNA level is correlated over diverse cell lines are likely to function together in a network of molecular interactions. We previously derived expression-correlated gene clusters from the database of the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines and associated each cluster with function categories of the Gene Ontology (GO) database. From a cluster rich in genes associated with GO categories related to cell migration, we extracted 15 genes that were highly cross-correlated; prominent among them were RRAS, AXL, ADAM9, FN14, and integrin-beta1. We then used those 15 genes as bait to identify other correlated genes in the NCI-60 database. A survey of current literature disclosed, not only that many of the expression-correlated genes engaged in molecular interactions related to migration, invasion, and metastasis, but that highly cross-correlated subsets of those genes engaged in specific cell migration processes. We assembled this information in molecular interaction maps (MIMs) that depict networks governing 3 cell migration processes: degradation of extracellular matrix, production of transient focal complexes at the leading edge of the cell, and retraction of the rear part of the cell. Also depicted are interactions controlling the release and effects of calcium ions, which may regulate migration in a spaciotemporal manner in the cell. The MIMs and associated text comprise a detailed and integrated summary of what is currently known or surmised about the role of the expression cross-correlated genes in molecular networks governing those processes.
Gene amplification is an important mechanism for oncogene activation, a crucial step in carcinogenesis. Compared to female breast cancer, little is known on the genetic makeup of male breast cancer, because large series are lacking. Copy number changes of 21 breast cancer related genes were studied in 110 male breast cancers using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A ratio of >1.3 was regarded indicative for gene copy number gain and a ratio >2.0 for gene amplification. Data were correlated with clinicopathological features, prognosis and 17 genes were compared with a group of female breast cancers. Gene copy number gain of CCND1, TRAF4, CDC6 and MTDH was seen in >40 % of the male breast cancer cases, with also frequent amplification. The number of genes with copy number gain and several single genes were associated with high grade, but only CCND1 amplification was an independent predictor of adverse survival in Cox regression (p = 0.015; hazard ratio 3.0). In unsupervised hierarchical clustering a distinctive group of male breast cancer with poor prognosis (p = 0.009; hazard ratio 3.4) was identified, characterized by frequent CCND1, MTDH, CDC6, ADAM9, TRAF4 and MYC copy number gain. Compared to female breast cancers, EGFR (p = 0.005) and CCND1 (p = 0.041) copy number gain was more often seen in male breast cancer, while copy number gain of EMSY (p = 0.004) and CPD (p = 0.001) and amplification in general was less frequent. In conclusion, several female breast cancer genes also seem to be important in male breast carcinogenesis. However, there are also clear differences in copy number changes between male and female breast cancers, pointing toward differences in carcinogenesis between male and female breast cancer and emphasizing the importance of identifying biomarkers and therapeutic agents based on research in male breast cancer. In addition CCND1 amplification seems to be an independent prognosticator in male breast cancer.
Kuo PL, Huang MS, Cheng DE, et al.Lung cancer-derived galectin-1 enhances tumorigenic potentiation of tumor-associated dendritic cells by expressing heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(13):9753-64 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is a vicious cycle that enhances the survival and progression of cancer, resulting in metastasis. This study is the first to indicate that lung cancer-derived galectin-1 secretion is responsible for stimulating tumor-associated dendritic cells (TADCs) production of mature heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), which, in turn, increases cancer progression. Treatment of galectin-1, present in large amounts in lung cancer conditioned medium and lung cancer patient sera, mimicked the inductive effect of lung cancer conditioned medium on the expression and ectodomain shedding of HB-EGF by TNFα-converting enzyme/a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 (ADAM9) and ADAM17. Significant up-regulation of HB-EGF has been seen in tumor-infiltrating CD11c(+) dendritic cells in human lung cancer samples. Active cleavage of HB-EGF in TADCs by ADAM9 and ADAM17 is associated with increased protein kinase C δ and Lyn signaling. Enhancement of HB-EGF production in TADCs increased the proliferation, migration, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition abilities of lung cancer. In contrast, inhibiting HB-EGF by siRNA suppressed TADC-mediated cancer progression. Moreover, mice injected with galectin-1 knockdown Lewis lung carcinoma showed decreased expression and ectodomain shedding of HB-EGF and reduced incidence of cancer development, resulting in increased survival rates. We demonstrate here for the first time that human and mouse DCs are a source of HB-EGF, an EGFR ligand with tumorigenic properties. Antagonists of the effect of lung cancer-derived galectin-1 on DCs and anti-HB-EGF blocking antibodies could, therefore, have therapeutic potential as antitumor agents.
Hamada S, Satoh K, Fujibuchi W, et al.MiR-126 acts as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer cells via the regulation of ADAM9.
Mol Cancer Res. 2012; 10(1):3-10 [PubMed
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The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step for pancreatic cancer cells as an entry of metastatic disease. Wide variety of cytokines and signaling pathways are involved in this complex process while the entire picture is still cryptic. Recently, miRNA was found to regulate cellular function including EMT by targeting multiple mRNAs. We conducted comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in invasive ductal adenocarcinoma (IDA), intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma, intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma, and human pancreatic cancer cell line to elucidate essential miRNAs which regulate invasive growth of pancreatic cancer cells. Along with higher expression of miR-21 which has been shown to be highly expressed in IDA, reduced expression of miR-126 in IDA and pancreatic cancer cell line was detected. The miR-126 was found to target ADAM9 (disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 9) which is highly expressed in pancreatic cancer. The direct interaction between miR-126 and ADAM9 mRNA was confirmed by 3' untranslated region assay. Reexpression of miR-126 and siRNA-based knockdown of ADAM9 in pancreatic cancer cells resulted in reduced cellular migration, invasion, and induction of epithelial marker E-cadherin. We showed for the first time that the miR-126/ADAM9 axis plays essential role in the inhibition of invasive growth of pancreatic cancer cells.
Hayashi T, Oue N, Sakamoto N, et al.Identification of transmembrane protein in prostate cancer by the Escherichia coli ampicillin secretion trap: expression of CDON is involved in tumor cell growth and invasion.
Pathobiology. 2011; 78(5):277-84 [PubMed
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AIMS: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Genes expressed only in cancer tissue, and especially related to proteins located on the cell membrane, will be useful molecular markers for diagnosis and may also be good therapeutic targets. The aim of this study was to identify genes that encode transmembrane proteins present in PCa.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated Escherichia coli ampicillin secretion trap (CAST) libraries from 2 PCa cell lines and normal prostate tissues. By sequencing 3,264 colonies from CAST libraries, we identified 18 candidate genes that encode transmembrane proteins present in PCa. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of these candidates revealed that STEAP1, ADAM9 and CDON were expressed much more highly in PCa than in 15 kinds of normal tissues. Among the candidates, CDON encodes the CDO protein, which is an orphan cell surface receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Additional quantitative RT-PCR revealed that 83% of PCa tissues showed CDON overexpression. Knockdown of CDON in DU145 cells induced 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis and inhibited invasion ability.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CDON has a high potential as a therapeutic target for PCa.
The incurability of malignant glioblastomas is mainly attributed to their highly invasive nature coupled with resistance to chemo- and radiation therapy. Because invasiveness is partially dictated by the proteins these tumors secrete we used SILAC to characterize the secretomes of four glioblastoma cell lines (LN18, T98, U118 and U87). Although U87 and U118 cells both secreted high levels of well-known invasion promoting proteins, a Matrigel invasion assay showed U87 cells to be eight times more invasive than U118 cells, suggesting that additional proteins secreted by U87 cells may contribute to the highly invasive phenotype. Indeed, we identified a number of proteins highly or exclusively expressed by U87 cells as compared to the less invasive cell lines. The most striking of these include ADAM9, ADAM10, cathepsin B, cathepsin L1, osteopontin, neuropilin-1, semaphorin-7A, suprabasin, and chitinase-3-like protein 1. U87 cells also expressed significantly low levels of some cell adhesion proteins such as periostin and EMILIN-1. Correlation of secretome profiles with relative levels of invasiveness using Pavlidis template matching further indicated potential roles for these proteins in U87 glioblastoma invasion. Antibody inhibition of CH3L1 reduced U87 cell invasiveness by 30%.
Kenney S, Vistica DT, Stockwin LH, et al.ASPS-1, a novel cell line manifesting key features of alveolar soft part sarcoma.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2011; 33(5):360-8 [PubMed
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In vitro growth of alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) and establishment of an ASPS cell line, ASPS-1, are described in this study. Using a recently developed xenograft model of ASPS derived from a lymph node metastasis, organoid nests consisting of 15 to 25 ASPS cells were isolated from ASPS xenograft tumors by capture on 70 μm filters and plated in vitro. After attachment to the substratum, these nests deposited small aggregates of ASPS cells. These cells grew slowly and were expanded over a period of 3 years and have maintained characteristics consistent with those of both the original ASPS tumor from the patient and the xenograft tumor including (1) presence of the alveolar soft part locus-transcription factor E3 type 1 fusion transcript and nuclear expression of the alveolar soft part locus-transcription factor E3 type 1 fusion protein; (2) maintenance of the t(X;17)(p11;q25) translocation characteristic of ASPS; and (3) expression of upregulated ASPS transcripts involved in angiogenesis (ANGPTL2, HIF-1-α, MDK, c-MET, VEGF, and TIMP-2), cell proliferation (PRL, PCSK1), metastasis (ADAM9), as well as the transcription factor BHLHB3 and the muscle-specific transcripts TRIM63 and ITGβ1BP3. This ASPS cell line forms colonies in soft agar and retains the ability to produce highly vascularized ASPS tumors in NOD.SCID/NCr mice. Immunohistochemistry of selected ASPS markers on these tumors indicated similarity to those of the original patient tumor as well as to the xenografted ASPS tumor. We anticipate that this ASPS cell line will accelerate investigations into the biology of ASPS including identification of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of this slow growing soft tissue sarcoma.
Zhou C, Liu J, Li Y, et al.microRNA-1274a, a modulator of sorafenib induced a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 (ADAM9) down-regulation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
FEBS Lett. 2011; 585(12):1828-34 [PubMed
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex and heterogeneous tumor with poor prognosis. Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, has been widely used to treat patients with advanced HCC in clinic. We postulated that microRNAs (miRNA) might be involved in HCC target-chemotherapy with sorafenib. MiRNA profile of HepG2 was evaluated after cells were treated with vehicle or sorafenib and alterations in miRNA expression occurred with 14 miRNAs. MiR-1274a, which is up-regulated by sorafenib, could significantly repress expression of ADAM9, a protease that is involved in sorafenib target-therapy of HCC, in HCC cells. Taken together, our data emphasizes a new miRNA-based mechanism of sorafenib antitumor therapy.
Lesbats P, Botbol Y, Chevereau G, et al.Functional coupling between HIV-1 integrase and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex for efficient in vitro integration into stable nucleosomes.
PLoS Pathog. 2011; 7(2):e1001280 [PubMed
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Establishment of stable HIV-1 infection requires the efficient integration of the retroviral genome into the host DNA. The molecular mechanism underlying the control of this process by the chromatin structure has not yet been elucidated. We show here that stably associated nucleosomes strongly inhibit in vitro two viral-end integration by decreasing the accessibility of DNA to integrase. Remodeling of the chromatinized template by the SWI/SNF complex, whose INI1 major component interacts with IN, restores and redirects the full-site integration into the stable nucleosome region. These effects are not observed after remodeling by other human remodeling factors such as SNF2H or BRG1 lacking the integrase binding protein INI1. This suggests that the restoration process depends on the direct interaction between IN and the whole SWI/SNF complex, supporting a functional coupling between the remodeling and integration complexes. Furthermore, in silico comparison between more than 40,000 non-redundant cellular integration sites selected from literature and nucleosome occupancy predictions also supports that HIV-1 integration is promoted in the genomic region of weaker intrinsic nucleosome density in the infected cell. Our data indicate that some chromatin structures can be refractory for integration and that coupling between nucleosome remodeling and HIV-1 integration is required to overcome this natural barrier.
A characteristic of malignant cells is their capacity to invade their surrounding and to metastasize to distant organs. During these processes, proteolytic activities of tumor and stromal cells modify the extracellular matrix to produce a microenvironment suitable for their growth and migration. In recent years the family of ADAM proteases has been ascribed important roles in these processes. ADAM-9 is expressed in human melanoma at the tumor-stroma border where direct or indirect interactions between tumor cells and fibroblasts occur. To analyze the role of ADAM-9 for the interaction between melanoma cells and stromal fibroblasts, we produced the recombinant disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain of ADAM-9 (DC-9). Melanoma cells and human fibroblasts adhered to immobilized DC-9 in a Mn(2+)-dependent fashion suggesting an integrin-mediated process. Inhibition studies showed that adhesion of fibroblasts was mediated by several β1 integrin receptors independent of the RGD and ECD recognition motif. Furthermore, interaction of fibroblasts and high invasive melanoma cells with soluble recombinant DC-9 resulted in enhanced expression of MMP-1 and MMP-2. Silencing of ADAM-9 in melanoma cells significantly reduced cell adhesion to fibroblasts. Ablation of ADAM-9 in fibroblasts almost completely abolished these cellular interactions and melanoma cell invasion in vitro. In summary, these results suggest that ADAM-9 expression plays an important role in mediating cell-cell contacts between fibroblasts and melanoma cells and that these interactions contribute to proteolytic activities required during invasion of melanoma cells.
Moelans CB, de Weger RA, Monsuur HN, et al.Molecular differences between ductal carcinoma in situ and adjacent invasive breast carcinoma: a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification study.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst). 2010; 33(3):165-73 [PubMed
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Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) accounts for approximately 20% of mammographically detected breast cancers. Although DCIS is generally highly curable, some women with DCIS will develop life-threatening invasive breast cancer, but the determinants of progression to infiltrating ductal cancer (IDC) are largely unknown. In the current study, we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a multiplex PCR-based test, to compare copy numbers of 21 breast cancer related genes between laser-microdissected DCIS and adjacent IDC lesions in 39 patients. Genes included in this study were ESR1, EGFR, FGFR1, ADAM9, IKBKB, PRDM14, MTDH, MYC, CCND1, EMSY, CDH1, TRAF4, CPD, MED1, HER2, CDC6, TOP2A, MAPT, BIRC5, CCNE1 and AURKA.There were no significant differences in copy number for the 21 genes between DCIS and adjacent IDC. Low/intermediate-grade DCIS showed on average 6 gains/amplifications versus 8 in high-grade DCIS (p=0.158). Furthermore, alterations of AURKA and CCNE1 were exclusively found in high-grade DCIS, and HER2, PRDM14 and EMSY amplification was more frequent in high-grade DCIS than in low/intermediate-grade DCIS. In contrast, the average number of alterations in low/intermediate and high-grade IDC was similar, and although EGFR alterations were exclusively found in high-grade IDC compared to low/intermediate-grade IDC, there were generally fewer differences between low/intermediate-grade and high-grade IDC than between low/intermediate-grade and high-grade DCIS.In conclusion, there were no significant differences in copy number for 21 breast cancer related genes between DCIS and adjacent IDC, indicating that DCIS is genetically as advanced as its invasive counterpart. However, high-grade DCIS showed more copy number changes than low/intermediate-grade DCIS with specifically involved genes, supporting a model in which different histological grades of DCIS are associated with distinct genomic changes that progress to IDC in different routes. These high-grade DCIS specific genes may be potential targets for treatment and/or predict progression.
Tumor cell migration is mediated by cell-autonomous signaling mechanisms as well as paracrine and autocrine factors secreted by activated stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Like other members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) family, the integrin-binding metalloproteinase ADAM9 modulates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions as well as ectodomain shedding of cell surface receptors and ligands, thereby modifying intracellular and extracellular signaling. ADAM9 transcripts are alternatively spliced to express a transmembrane protein (ADAM9-L) and a secreted variant (ADAM9-S). In this study, we show that ADAM9-S promotes breast cancer cell migration in a manner requiring its metalloproteinase activity, whereas ADAM9-L suppresses cell migration independent of its metalloproteinase activity. Suppression of migration by ADAM9-L requires a functional disintegrin domain and integrin binding. Expression analysis revealed that both ADAM9 isoforms are expressed in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Therefore, relative levels of membrane-tethered and secreted variants of ADAM9 are a key determinant in manifestation of aggressive migratory phenotypes associated with breast cancer progression.
Moelans CB, de Weger RA, Monsuur HN, et al.Molecular profiling of invasive breast cancer by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification-based copy number analysis of tumor suppressor and oncogenes.
Mod Pathol. 2010; 23(7):1029-39 [PubMed
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Several oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes have been shown to be implicated in the development, progression and response to therapy of invasive breast cancer. The phenotypic uniqueness (and thus the heterogeneity of clinical behavior) among patients' tumors may be traceable to the underlying variation in gene copy number of these genes. To obtain a more complete view of gene copy number changes and their relation to phenotype, we analyzed 20 breast cancer-related genes in 104 invasive breast cancers with the use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). We identified MYC gene amplification in 48% of patients, PRDM14 in 34%, topoisomerase IIalpha (TOP2A) in 32%, ADAM9 in 32%, HER2 in 28%, cyclin D1 (CCND1) in 26%, EMSY in 25%, IKBKB in 21%, AURKA in 17%, FGFR1 in 17%, estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in 16%, CCNE1 in 12% and EGFR in 9% of patients. There was a significant correlation between the number of amplified genes and the histological grade and mitotic index of the tumor. Gene amplifications of EGFR, CCNE1 and HER2 were negatively associated with estrogen receptor status whereas FGFR1, ADAM9, IKBKB and TOP2A revealed a positive association. Amplifications of ESR1, PRDM14, MYC and HER2 were associated with a high mitotic index, and PRDM14 and HER2 amplifications with high histological grade. MYC amplification was detected more frequently in ductal tumors and high-level MYC amplifications were significantly associated with large tumor size. HER2/MYC, HER2/CCNE1 and EGFR/MYC co-amplified tumors were significantly larger than tumors with either of these amplifications. Gene loss occurred most frequently in E-cadherin (CDH1) (20%) and FGFR1 (10%). In conclusion, MLPA analysis with this 'breast cancer kit' allowed to simultaneously assess copy numbers of 20 important breast cancer genes, providing an overview of the most frequent (co)amplifications as well as interesting phenotypic correlations, and thereby data on the potential importance of these genes in breast cancer.
Xu Q, Liu X, Cai Y, et al.RNAi-mediated ADAM9 gene silencing inhibits metastasis of adenoid cystic carcinoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2010; 31(3):217-24 [PubMed
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A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 (ADAM9) is a type I transmembrane protein that has been associated with cancer development and metastases. Here, we show that ADAM9 is highly expressed in metastatic cancer tissues and in an adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line with a high metastatic potential. Using RNA interference for gene silencing, we show that ADAM9 is essential for in vitro cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as in vivo cancer metastasis in an experimental murine model of lung metastases. These data indicate that ADAM9 is potentially an important new therapeutic target for the prevention of tumor metastases in adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Kohga K, Tatsumi T, Takehara T, et al.Expression of CD133 confers malignant potential by regulating metalloproteinases in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Hepatol. 2010; 52(6):872-9 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although CD133 expression is identified as a cancer stem cell marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the detailed characteristics of HCC cells expressing CD133 remain unclear.
METHODS: We examined the malignant characteristics of CD133-expressing HCC cells.
RESULTS: CD133-expressing cells could be detected with low frequency in 5 HCC tissues. We derived two different HCC cell lines by (1) transfection of CD133 siRNA in PLC/PRF/5 cells in (CD133si-PLC/PRF/5), and (2) by a magnetic cell sorting method that allowed to divide Huh7 cells into two CD133 positive (+) and negative (-) groups. CD133 knockdown in PLC/PRF/5 cells resulted in a decrease of the mRNA and protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)9. We next examined the malignant characteristics related to decreasing MMP-2 and ADAM9 in HCC cells. In CD133si-PLC/PRF/5 cells and CD133- Huh7 cells, invasiveness and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, which are both related to the activity of MMP-2, were inhibited compared CD133-expressing HCC cells. We previously demonstrated that ADAM9 protease plays critical roles in the shedding of MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) which regulates the sensitivity of tumor cells to natural killer cells (NK). Decreasing ADAM9 expression in CD133si-PLC/PRF/5 cells and CD133- Huh7 cells resulted in an increase in membrane-bound MICA and a decrease in soluble MICA production. Both CD133si-PLC/PRF/5 cells and CD133- Huh7 cells were susceptible to NK activity, depending on the expression levels of membrane-bound MICA, but CD133-expressing HCC cells were not.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that CD133 expression in HCC cells confers malignant potential which may contribute to the survival of HCC cells.
Stokes A, Joutsa J, Ala-Aho R, et al.Expression profiles and clinical correlations of degradome components in the tumor microenvironment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2010; 16(7):2022-35 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are characterized by high morbidity and mortality, largely due to the high invasive and metastatic potential of these tumors, high recurrence rates, and low treatment responses. Proteinases have been implicated in several aspects of tumor growth and metastasis in a broad range of tumors including HNSCC.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Comprehensive expression profiling of proteinases [matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAMs), and ADAMs with thrombospondin motif (ADAMTSs)] and their inhibitors [tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)] was done using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of a large cohort of tissue samples representing the tumor (n = 83), the invasive margin (n = 41), and the adjacent tissue (n = 41) from 83 HNSCC patients, along with normal tissue controls (n = 13), as well as cell lines established from tumors of 34 HNSCC patients.
RESULTS: The results show specifically elevated gene expression of several proteinases, including MMP1, MMP3, MMP10, and MMP13 within tumor tissue and peritumoral adjacent tissue. In addition, the results identify several novel HNSCC-associated proteinases, including ADAM8, ADAM9, ADAM17, ADAM28, ADAMTS1, ADAMTS8, and ADAMTS15. There were also significant differences in proteinase expression based on clinical parameters, i.e., tumor location, grade, and local invasion. MMP13 expression was significantly higher in large (>4 cm) locally invasive tumors (P < 0.05). MMP9 expression was significantly decreased in tumors with regional metastasis, whereas increased expression of ADAM8 was noted in the metastatic tumors (P < 0.001 for both).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the HNSCC degradome as a valuable source of diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic molecular markers for these malignant tumors.