Gene Summary

Gene:KAT6A; lysine acetyltransferase 6A
Aliases: MOZ, MRD32, MYST3, MYST-3, ZNF220, RUNXBP2, ZC2HC6A
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the MOZ, YBFR2, SAS2, TIP60 family of histone acetyltransferases. The protein is composed of a nuclear localization domain, a double C2H2 zinc finger domain that binds to acetylated histone tails, a histone acetyl-transferase domain, a glutamate/aspartate-rich region, and a serine- and methionine-rich transactivation domain. It is part of a complex that acetylates lysine-9 residues in histone 3, and in addition, it acts as a co-activator for several transcription factors. Allelic variants of this gene are associated with an autosomal dominant form of cognitive disability. Chromosomal translocations of this gene are associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:histone acetyltransferase KAT6A
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit
  • Base Sequence
  • Karyotyping
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Chromosome 8
  • Chromatin
  • Trans-Activators
  • Histones
  • Transcription Factors
  • Southern Blotting
  • Leukaemia
  • Haematological Malignancies
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • FGFR1
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Acetyltransferases
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Chromosome Inversion
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Mutation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Chromosome 16
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Newborns
  • Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • FISH
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Fusion
  • CREB-Binding Protein
  • KMT2A
  • Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KAT6A (cancer-related)

Ye J, Luo D, Yu J, Zhu S
Transcriptome analysis identifies key regulators and networks in Acute myeloid leukemia.
Hematology. 2019; 24(1):487-491 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous and highly recurrent hematological malignancy. Studies have shown an association between microRNAs and drive genes in AMLs. However, the regulatory roles of miRNAs in AML and how they act on downstream targets and the signaling pathway has been little studied.
METHODS: As to understand the mechanism of mRNA-miRNA interaction in the blood malignancy from a large scale of transcriptomic sequencing studies, we applied a comprehensive miRNA-mRNA association, co-expression gene network and ingenuity pathway analysis using TCGA AML datasets.
RESULTS: Our results showed that his-mir-335 was a critical regulatory of homeobox A gene family. PBX3, KAT6A, MEIS1, and COMMD3-BMI1 were predicted as top transcription regulators in the regulatory network of the HOXA family. The most significantly enriched functions were cell growth, proliferation, and survival in the mRNA-miRNA network.
CONCLUSION: Our work revealed that regulation of the HOXA gene family and its regulation played an important role in the development of AML.

Roberts I, Fordham NJ, Rao A, Bain BJ
Neonatal leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 182(2):170-184 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neonatal leukaemia is defined as occurring within the first 28 days of life and most, if not all, cases are congenital. With the exception of Down syndrome-associated transient abnormal myelopoiesis, which is not considered here, neonatal leukaemias are rare. In two-thirds of patients the disease manifests as an acute myeloid leukaemia, frequently with monocytic/monoblastic characteristics. Most other cases are acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, particularly B lineage, but some are mixed phenotype or blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms. The most frequently observed cytogenetic/molecular abnormality is t(4;11)(q21.3;q23.3)/KMT2A-AFF1 followed by t(1;22)(p13.3;q13.1)/RBM15-MKL1 and t(8;16)(p11.2;p13.3)/KAT6A-CREBBP. Common clinical features include prominent hepatosplenomegaly and a high incidence of skin involvement, sometimes in the absence of bone marrow disease. A distinctive feature is the occurrence of spontaneous remission in some cases, particularly in association with t(8;16). In this review, we summarise current knowledge of the clinical, cytogenetic and molecular features of neonatal leukaemia and discuss clinical management of these cases.

Cai QQ, Dong YW, Qi B, et al.
BRD1-Mediated Acetylation Promotes Integrin αV Gene Expression Via Interaction with Sulfatide.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(4):610-622 [PubMed] Related Publications
Integrin αV gene expression is often dysregulated in cancers especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the mechanism of regulation is poorly understood. Here, it is demonstrated that sulfatide activated integrin αV gene transcription, through histone H3K9/14 acetylation at the promoter, and high integrin αV expression are closely associated with poor prognosis. To elucidate the mechanism of regulation of acetylation, sulfatide-bound proteins were screened by mass spectrometry (MS), and bromodomain containing protein 1 (BRD1) was identified as an interacting protein that also colocalized with sulfatide in HCC cells. BRD1 was also formed a complex with Sp1, which was recruited to the integrin αV gene promoter. Sulfatide was also found to induce BRD1, monocytic leukemia zinc finger (MOZ) and histone acetyltransferase binding to ORC1 (HBO1) acetyltransferase multiprotein complex recruitment to the integrin αV promoter, which is responsible for histone H3K9/14 acetylation. Finally, knockdown of BRD1 limited sulfatide-induced H3K9/14 acetylation and occupancy of MOZ or HBO1 on integrin αV gene promoter.

Lv D, Jia F, Hou Y, et al.
Histone Acetyltransferase KAT6A Upregulates PI3K/AKT Signaling through TRIM24 Binding.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(22):6190-6201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lysine acetyltransferase KAT6A is a chromatin regulator that contributes to histone modification and cancer, but the basis of its actions are not well understood. Here, we identify a KAT6A signaling pathway that facilitates glioblastoma (GBM), where it is upregulated. KAT6A expression was associated with GBM patient survival. KAT6A silencing suppressed cell proliferation, cell migration, colony formation, and tumor development in an orthotopic mouse xenograft model system. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that KAT6A acetylates lysine 23 of histone H3 (H3K23), which recruits the nuclear receptor binding protein TRIM24 to activate

Fadare O, Roma AA, Parkash V, et al.
Does a p53 "Wild-type" Immunophenotype Exclude a Diagnosis of Endometrial Serous Carcinoma?
Adv Anat Pathol. 2018; 25(1):61-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
An aberrant p53 immunophenotype may be identified in several histotypes of endometrial carcinoma, and is accordingly recognized to lack diagnostic specificity in and of itself. However, based on the high frequency with which p53 aberrations have historically been identified in endometrial serous carcinoma, a mutation-type immunophenotype is considered to be highly sensitive for the histotype. Using an illustrative case study and a review of the literature, we explore a relatively routine diagnostic question: whether the negative predictive value of a wild-type p53 immunophenotype for serous carcinoma is absolute, that is, whether a p53-wild type immunophenotype is absolutely incompatible with a diagnosis of serous carcinoma. The case is an advanced stage endometrial carcinoma that was reproducibly classified by pathologists from 3 institutions as serous carcinoma based on its morphologic features. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor was p53-wild type (DO-7 clone), diffusely positive for p16 (block positivity), and showed retained expression of PTEN, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2. Next generation sequencing showed that there indeed was an underlying mutation in TP53 (D393fs*78, R213*). The tumor was microsatellite stable, had a low mutational burden (4 mutations per MB), and displayed no mutations in the exonuclease domain of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE) gene. Other genomic alterations included RB1 mutation (R46fs*19), amplifications in MYST3 and CRKL, and ARID1A deletion (splice site 5125-94_5138del108). A review of the recent literature identified 5 studies in which a total of 259 cases of serous carcinoma were whole-exome sequenced. The average TP53 mutational rate in endometrial serous carcinoma was only 75% (range, 60 to 88). A total of 12 (33%) of 36 immunohistochemical studies reported a p53-aberrant rate of <80% in endometrial serous carcinoma. We discuss in detail several potential explanations that may underlie the scenario of serous carcinoma-like morphology combined with p53-wild-type immunophenotype, including analytic limitations, a nonserous histotype displaying morphologic mimicry of serous carcinoma, and true biological phenomena (including the possibility of a TP53-independent pathway of endometrial serous carcinogenesis). Ultimately, our central thematic question is provisionally answered in the negative. At present, the available data would not support a categorical conclusion that a p53 alteration is a necessary and obligate component in the genesis and/or diagnosis of endometrial serous carcinoma. On the basis of their collective experience, the authors proffer some recommendations on the use of p53 immunohistochemistry in the histotyping of endometrial carcinomas.

Wang F, Wang AY, Chesnelong C, et al.
ING5 activity in self-renewal of glioblastoma stem cells via calcium and follicle stimulating hormone pathways.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(3):286-301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Stem cell-like brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) cause recurrence of glioblastomas, with BTIC 'stemness' affected by epigenetic mechanisms. The ING family of epigenetic regulators (ING1-5) function by targeting histone acetyltransferase (HAT) or histone deacetylase complexes to the H3K4me3 mark to alter histone acetylation and subsequently, gene expression. Here we find that ectopic expression of ING5, the targeting subunit of HBO1, MOZ and MORF HAT complexes increases expression of the Oct4, Olig2 and Nestin stem cell markers, promotes self-renewal, prevents lineage differentiation and increases stem cell pools in BTIC populations. This activity requires the plant homeodomain region of ING5 that interacts specifically with the H3K4me3 mark. ING5 also enhances PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK activity to sustain self-renewal of BTICs over serial passage of stem cell-like spheres. ING5 exerts these effects by activating transcription of calcium channel and follicle stimulating hormone pathway genes. In silico analyses of The Cancer Genome Atlas data suggest that ING5 is a positive regulator of BTIC stemness, whose expression negatively correlates with patient prognosis, especially in the Proneural and Classical subtypes, and in tumors with low SOX2 expression. These data suggest that altering histone acetylation status and signaling pathways induced by ING5 may provide useful clinical strategies to target tumor resistance and recurrence in glioblastoma.

Marneth AE, Prange KHM, Al Hinai ASA, et al.
C-terminal BRE overexpression in 11q23-rearranged and t(8;16) acute myeloid leukemia is caused by intragenic transcription initiation.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(3):828-836 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of the BRE (brain and reproductive organ-expressed) gene defines a distinct pediatric and adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subgroup. Here we identify a promoter enriched for active chromatin marks in BRE intron 4 causing strong biallelic expression of a previously unknown C-terminal BRE transcript. This transcript starts with BRE intron 4 sequences spliced to exon 5 and downstream sequences, and if translated might code for an N terminally truncated BRE protein. Remarkably, the new BRE transcript was highly expressed in over 50% of 11q23/KMT2A (lysine methyl transferase 2A)-rearranged and t(8;16)/KAT6A-CREBBP cases, while it was virtually absent from other AML subsets and normal tissues. In gene reporter assays, the leukemia-specific fusion protein KMT2A-MLLT3 transactivated the intragenic BRE promoter. Further epigenome analyses revealed 97 additional intragenic promoter marks frequently bound by KMT2A in AML with C-terminal BRE expression. The corresponding genes may be part of a context-dependent KMT2A-MLLT3-driven oncogenic program, because they were higher expressed in this AML subtype compared with other groups. C-terminal BRE might be an important contributor to this program because in a case with relapsed AML, we observed an ins(11;2) fusing CHORDC1 to BRE at the region where intragenic transcription starts in KMT2A-rearranged and KAT6A-CREBBP AML.

Koduru PR, Wilson K, Wen J, et al.
Cytogenetic and Cytogenomic Microarray Characterization of Chromothripsis in Chromosome 8 Affecting MOZ/NCOA2 (TIF2), FGFR1, RUNX1T1, and RUNX1 in a Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2017; 39(4):e227-e232 [PubMed] Related Publications
Concurrent perturbations in different driver genes have been reported primarily in lymphoma. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cases with concurrent alterations in 2 driver genes are infrequently reported. In contrast to pathogenetic pathways in lymphoma with concurrently perturbed genes, the initial gene alteration in AML arrests maturation and the alteration in the second gene promote self-renewal of the blasts. Here, we report a unique case of infantile leukemia in which chromothripsis in chromosome 8 completely altered the G-band structure and resulted in concurrent changes in MOZ/NCOA2, FGFR1, RUNX1T1, and RUNX1. These multiple-hit abnormalities in AML have not been reported previously.

Yu L, Liang Y, Cao X, et al.
Identification of MYST3 as a novel epigenetic activator of ERα frequently amplified in breast cancer.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(20):2910-2918 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a master driver of a vast majority of breast cancers. Breast cancer cells often develop resistance to endocrine therapy via restoration of the ERα activity through survival pathways. Thus identifying the epigenetic activator of ERα that can be targeted to block ERα gene expression is a critical topic of endocrine therapy. Here, integrative genomic analysis identified MYST3 as a potential oncogene target that is frequently amplified in breast cancer. MYST3 is involved in histone acetylation via its histone acetyltransferase domain (HAT) and, as a result, activates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. We found that MYST3 was amplified in 11% and/or overexpressed in 15% of breast tumors, and overexpression of MYST3 correlated with worse clinical outcome in estrogen receptor+ (ER+) breast cancers. Interestingly, MYST3 depletion drastically inhibited proliferation in MYST3-high, ER+ breast cancer cells, but not in benign breast epithelial cells or in MYST3-low breast cancer cells. Importantly, we discovered that knocking down MYST3 resulted in profound reduction of ERα expression, while ectopic expression of MYST3 had the reversed effect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that MYST3 binds to the proximal promoter region of ERα gene, and inactivating mutations in its HAT domain abolished its ability to regulate ERα, suggesting MYST3 functioning as a histone acetyltransferase that activates ERα promoter. Furthermore, MYST3 inhibition with inducible MYST3 shRNAs potently attenuated breast tumor growth in mice. Together, this study identifies the first histone acetyltransferase that activates ERα expression which may be potentially targeted to block ERα at transcriptional level.

Kim JY, Yu J, Abdulkadir SA, Chakravarti D
KAT8 Regulates Androgen Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells.
Mol Endocrinol. 2016; 30(8):925-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Androgen receptor (AR) plays pivotal roles in prostate cancer. Upon androgen stimulation, AR recruits the Protein kinase N1 (PKN1), which phosphorylates histone H3 at threonine 11, with subsequent recruitment of tryptophan, aspartic acid (WD) repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5) and the su(var)3-9, enhancer of zeste, trithorax/mixed-lineage leukemia (SET1/MLL) histone methyltransferase complex to promote AR target gene activation and prostate cancer cell growth. However, the underlying mechanisms of target gene activation and cell growth subsequent to WDR5 recruitment are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate an epigenetic cross talk between histone modifications and AR target gene regulation. We discovered that K(lysine) acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8), a member of the MOZ, YBF2/SAS2, and TIP 60 protein 1 (MYST) family of histone acetyltransferases that catalyzes histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation, colocalized with WDR5 at AR target genes, resulting in hormone-dependent gene activation in prostate cancer cells. PKN1 or WDR5 knockdown severely inhibited KAT8 association with AR target genes and histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation upon androgen treatment. Knockdown of KAT8 significantly decreased AR target gene expression and prostate cancer cell proliferation. Collectively, these data describe a trans-histone modification pathway involving PKN1/histone H3 threonine 11 phosphorylation followed by WDR5/MLL histone methyltransferase and KAT8/histone acetyltransferase recruitment to effect androgen-dependent gene activation and prostate cancer cell proliferation.

Collins CT, Hess JL
Deregulation of the HOXA9/MEIS1 axis in acute leukemia.
Curr Opin Hematol. 2016; 23(4):354-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HOXA9 is a homeodomain transcription factor that plays an essential role in normal hematopoiesis and acute leukemia, in which its overexpression is strongly correlated with poor prognosis. The present review highlights recent advances in the understanding of genetic alterations leading to deregulation of HOXA9 and the downstream mechanisms of HOXA9-mediated transformation.
RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of genetic alterations including MLL translocations, NUP98-fusions, NPM1 mutations, CDX deregulation, and MOZ-fusions lead to high-level HOXA9 expression in acute leukemias. The mechanisms resulting in HOXA9 overexpression are beginning to be defined and represent attractive therapeutic targets. Small molecules targeting MLL-fusion protein complex members, such as DOT1L and menin, have shown promising results in animal models, and a DOT1L inhibitor is currently being tested in clinical trials. Essential HOXA9 cofactors and collaborators are also being identified, including transcription factors PU.1 and C/EBPα, which are required for HOXA9-driven leukemia. HOXA9 targets including IGF1, CDX4, INK4A/INK4B/ARF, mir-21, and mir-196b and many others provide another avenue for potential drug development.
SUMMARY: HOXA9 deregulation underlies a large subset of aggressive acute leukemias. Understanding the mechanisms regulating the expression and activity of HOXA9, along with its critical downstream targets, shows promise for the development of more selective and effective leukemia therapies.

Moz S, Basso D, Padoan A, et al.
Blood expression of matrix metalloproteinases 8 and 9 and of their inducers S100A8 and S100A9 supports diagnosis and prognosis of PDAC-associated diabetes mellitus.
Clin Chim Acta. 2016; 456:24-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Based on the knowledge that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and S100A8/A9 synergistically work in causing PDAC-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we verified whether tissue and blood MMP8, MMP9, S100A8 and S100A9 expression might help in distinguishing PDAC among diabetics.
METHODS: Relative quantification of MMP8, MMP9, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA was performed in tissues obtained from 8 PDAC, 4 chronic pancreatitis (ChrPa), 4 non-PDAC tumors and in PBMCs obtained from 30 controls, 43 T2DM, 41 ChrPa, 91 PDAC and 33 pancreatic-biliary tract tumors.
RESULTS: T2DM was observed in PDAC (66%), in pancreatic-biliary tract tumors (64%) and in ChrPa (70%). In diabetics, with or without PDAC, MMP9 tissue expression was increased (p<0.05). Both MMPs increased in PDAC and MMP9 increased also in pancreatic-biliary tract tumors PBMCs. In diabetics, MMP9 was independently associated with PDAC (p=0.025), but failed to enhance CA 19-9 discriminant efficacy. A highly reduced S100A9 expression, found in 7 PDAC, was significantly correlated with a reduced overall survival (p=0.015).
CONCLUSIONS: An increased expression of tissue and blood MMP9 reflects the presence of PDAC-associated diabetes mellitus. This finding fits with the hypothesized role of MMPs as part of the complex network linking cancer to diabetes.

Hanada T, Kanamitsu K, Chayama K, et al.
A Long-term Survivor after Congenital Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(8 ; 16)(p11 ; p13).
Acta Med Okayama. 2016; 70(1):31-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The treatment of patients with congenital leukemia is difficult and often results in a poor prognosis. We present here the case of a female child with congenital acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8 ; 16) (p11 ; p13) who received chemotherapy and survived for more than 10 years without relapse. A novel MOZ-CBP chimera was found in her diagnostic sample. Although adult AML patients with MOZ-CBP have mainly been reported as having therapy-related AML and showed poor prognoses, the present case supports the idea that AML with MOZ-CBP in the pediatric population might show better prognoses.

Su J, Wang F, Cai Y, Jin J
The Functional Analysis of Histone Acetyltransferase MOF in Tumorigenesis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Changes in chromatin structure and heritably regulating the gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone post-translational modification, are involved in most cellular biological processes. Thus, abnormal regulation of epigenetics is implicated in the occurrence of various diseases, including cancer. Human MOF (males absent on the first) is a member of the MYST (Moz-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2-Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As a catalytic subunit, MOF can form at least two distinct multiprotein complexes (MSL and NSL) in human cells. Both complexes can acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16); however, the NSL complex possesses broader substrate specificity and can also acetylate histone H4 at lysines 5 and 8 (H4K5 and H4K8), suggesting the complexity of the intracellular functions of MOF. Silencing of MOF in cells leads to genomic instability, inactivation of gene transcription, defective DNA damage repair and early embryonic lethality. Unbalanced MOF expression and its corresponding acetylation of H4K16 have been found in certain primary cancer tissues, including breast cancer, medulloblastoma, ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, gastric cancer, as well as non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of MOF and its corresponding histone acetylation, introduce recent research findings that link MOF functions to tumorigenesis and speculate on the potential role that may be relevant to tumorigenic pathways.

Cheung N, Fung TK, Zeisig BB, et al.
Targeting Aberrant Epigenetic Networks Mediated by PRMT1 and KDM4C in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 29(1):32-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transcriptional deregulation plays a major role in acute myeloid leukemia, and therefore identification of epigenetic modifying enzymes essential for the maintenance of oncogenic transcription programs holds the key to better understanding of the biology and designing effective therapeutic strategies for the disease. Here we provide experimental evidence for the functional involvement and therapeutic potential of targeting PRMT1, an H4R3 methyltransferase, in various MLL and non-MLL leukemias. PRMT1 is necessary but not sufficient for leukemic transformation, which requires co-recruitment of KDM4C, an H3K9 demethylase, by chimeric transcription factors to mediate epigenetic reprogramming. Pharmacological inhibition of KDM4C/PRMT1 suppresses transcription and transformation ability of MLL fusions and MOZ-TIF2, revealing a tractable aberrant epigenetic circuitry mediated by KDM4C and PRMT1 in acute leukemia.

Zhu J, Sammons MA, Donahue G, et al.
Gain-of-function p53 mutants co-opt chromatin pathways to drive cancer growth.
Nature. 2015; 525(7568):206-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TP53 (which encodes p53 protein) is the most frequently mutated gene among all human cancers. Prevalent p53 missense mutations abrogate its tumour suppressive function and lead to a 'gain-of-function' (GOF) that promotes cancer. Here we show that p53 GOF mutants bind to and upregulate chromatin regulatory genes, including the methyltransferases MLL1 (also known as KMT2A), MLL2 (also known as KMT2D), and acetyltransferase MOZ (also known as KAT6A or MYST3), resulting in genome-wide increases of histone methylation and acetylation. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas shows specific upregulation of MLL1, MLL2, and MOZ in p53 GOF patient-derived tumours, but not in wild-type p53 or p53 null tumours. Cancer cell proliferation is markedly lowered by genetic knockdown of MLL1 or by pharmacological inhibition of the MLL1 methyltransferase complex. Our study reveals a novel chromatin mechanism underlying the progression of tumours with GOF p53, and suggests new possibilities for designing combinatorial chromatin-based therapies for treating individual cancers driven by prevalent GOF p53 mutations.

Li Q, Sun H, Shu Y, et al.
hMOF (human males absent on the first), an oncogenic protein of human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma, targeting EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2).
Cell Prolif. 2015; 48(4):436-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: MOF (males absent on the first) is a histone acetyltransferase belonging to the MYST (MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2 and TIP60) family. In mammals, MOF plays critical roles in transcription activation by acetylating histone H4 at K16. Human MOF (hMOF) essentially participates in behaviour of several human cancers. However, its role in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) remains elusive, but we propose that hMOF regulates OTSCC cell population growth.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real time PCR and western blot analysis were applied, and it was found that hMOF level was up-regulated in human OTSCC. High hMOF expression predicted poor overall and disease-free survival. hMOF knockdown attenuated OTSCC cell growth and transformation.
RESULTS: EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) was up-regulated in human OTSCC tissues and its level positively correlated with level of hMOF. hMOF knockdown inhibited EZH2 expression by reducing its promoter activity. Moreover, we have demonstrated that EZH2 was critically essential for function of hMOF in human OTSCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Human males absent on the first regulated OSTCC growth through EZH2, thus EZH2 may serve as a candidate for anti-OTSCC therapy.

Turner-Ivey B, Guest ST, Irish JC, et al.
KAT6A, a chromatin modifier from the 8p11-p12 amplicon is a candidate oncogene in luminal breast cancer.
Neoplasia. 2014; 16(8):644-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The chromosome 8p11-p12 amplicon is present in 12% to 15% of breast cancers, resulting in an increase in copy number and expression of several chromatin modifiers in these tumors, including KAT6A. Previous analyses in SUM-52 breast cancer cells showed amplification and overexpression of KAT6A, and subsequent RNAi screening identified KAT6A as a potential driving oncogene. KAT6A is a histone acetyltransferase previously identified as a fusion partner with CREB binding protein in acute myeloid leukemia. Knockdown of KAT6A in SUM-52 cells, a luminal breast cancer cell line harboring the amplicon, resulted in reduced growth rate compared to non-silencing controls and profound loss of clonogenic capacity both in mono-layer and in soft agar. The normal cell line MCF10A, however, did not exhibit slower growth with knockdown of KAT6A. SUM-52 cells with KAT6A knockdown formed fewer mammospheres in culture compared to controls, suggesting a possible role for KAT6A in self-renewal. Previous data from our laboratory identified FGFR2 as a driving oncogene in SUM-52 cells. The colony forming efficiency of SUM-52 KAT6A knockdown cells in the presence of FGFR inhibition was significantly reduced compared to cells with KAT6A knockdown only. These data suggest that KAT6A may be a novel oncogene in breast cancers bearing the 8p11-p12 amplicon. While there are other putative oncogenes in the amplicon, the identification of KAT6A as a driving oncogene suggests that chromatin-modifying enzymes are a key class of oncogenes in these cancers, and play an important role in the selection of this amplicon in luminal B breast cancers.

Zhang J, Liu H, Pan H, et al.
The histone acetyltransferase hMOF suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 452(3):575-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Males absent on the first (MOF) is a histone acetyltransferase belongs to the MYST (MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2 and TIP60) family. In mammals, MOF plays critical roles in transcription activation by acetylating histone H4K16, a prevalent mark associated with chromatin decondensation. MOF can also acetylate transcription factor p53 on K120, which is important for activation of pro-apoptotic genes; and TIP5, the largest subunit of NoRC, on K633. However, the role of hMOF in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. Here we find that the expression of hMOF is significantly down-regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma and cell lines. Furthermore, our survival analysis indicates that low hMOF expression predicts poor overall and disease-free survival. We demonstrate that hMOF knockdown promotes hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo, while hMOF overexpression reduces hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanically, we show that hMOF regulates the expression of SIRT6 and its downstream genes. In summary, our findings demonstrate that hMOF participates in human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting SIRT6, and hMOF activators may serve as potential drug candidates for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

Panagopoulos I, Torkildsen S, Gorunova L, et al.
Comparison between karyotyping-FISH-reverse transcription PCR and RNA-sequencing-fusion gene identification programs in the detection of KAT6A-CREBBP in acute myeloid leukemia.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e96570 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
An acute myeloid leukemia was suspected of having a t(8;16)(p11;p13) resulting in a KAT6A-CREBBP fusion because the bone marrow was packed with monoblasts showing marked erythrophagocytosis. The diagnostic karyotype was 46,XY,add(1)(p13),t(8;21)(p11;q22),der(16)t(1;16)(p13;p13)[9]/46,XY[1]; thus, no direct confirmation of the suspicion could be given although both 8p11 and 16p13 seemed to be rearranged. The leukemic cells were examined in two ways to find out whether a cryptic KAT6A-CREBBP was present. The first was the "conventional" approach: G-banding was followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The second was RNA-Seq followed by data analysis using FusionMap and FusionFinder programs with special emphasis on candidates located in the 1p13, 8p11, 16p13, and 21q22 breakpoints. FISH analysis indicated the presence of a KAT6A/CREBBP chimera. RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing of the amplified product showed that a chimeric KAT6A-CREBBP transcript was present in the patients bone marrow. Surprisingly, however, KATA6A-CREBBP was not among the 874 and 35 fusion transcripts identified by the FusionMap and FusionFinder programs, respectively, although 11 sequences of the raw RNA-sequencing data were KATA6A-CREBBP fragments. This illustrates that although many fusion transcripts can be found by RNA-Seq combined with FusionMap and FusionFinder, the pathogenetically essential fusion is not always picked up by the bioinformatic algorithms behind these programs. The present study not only illustrates potential pitfalls of current data analysis programs of whole transcriptome sequences which make them less useful as stand-alone techniques, but also that leukemia diagnosis still relies on integration of clinical, hematologic, and genetic disease features of which the former two by no means have become superfluous.

Jaganathan A, Chaurasia P, Xiao GQ, et al.
Coactivator MYST1 regulates nuclear factor-κB and androgen receptor functions during proliferation of prostate cancer cells.
Mol Endocrinol. 2014; 28(6):872-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In prostate cancer (PCa), the functional synergy between androgen receptor (AR) and nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB) escalates the resistance to therapeutic regimens and promotes aggressive tumor growth. Although the underlying mechanisms are less clear, gene regulatory abilities of coactivators can bridge the transcription functions of AR and NF-κB. The present study shows that MYST1 (MOZ, YBF2 and SAS2, and TIP60 protein 1) costimulates AR and NF-κB functions in PCa cells. We demonstrate that activation of NF-κB promotes deacetylation of MYST1 by sirtuin 1. Further, the mutually exclusive interactions of MYST1 with sirtuin 1 vs AR regulate the acetylation of lysine 16 on histone H4. Notably, in AR-lacking PC3 cells and in AR-depleted LNCaP cells, diminution of MYST1 activates the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase 3 that leads to apoptosis. In contrast, in AR-transformed PC3 cells (PC3-AR), depletion of MYST1 induces cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) N1A/p21, which results in G2M arrest. Concomitantly, the levels of phospho-retinoblastoma, E2F1, CDK4, and CDK6 are reduced. Finally, the expression of tumor protein D52 (TPD52) was unequivocally affected in PC3, PC3-AR, and LNCaP cells. Taken together, the results of this study reveal that the functional interactions of MYST1 with AR and NF-κB are critical for PCa progression.

Yang Y, Han X, Guan J, Li X
Regulation and function of histone acetyltransferase MOF.
Front Med. 2014; 8(1):79-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mammalian MOF (male absent on the first), a member of the MYST (MOZ, YBF2, SAS2, and Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), is the major enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of histone H4 on lysine 16. Acetylation of K16 is a prevalent mark associated with chromatin decondensation. MOF has recently been shown to play an essential role in maintaining normal cell functions. In this study, we discuss the important roles of MOF in DNA damage repair, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. We also analyze the role of MOF as a key regulator of the core transcriptional network of embryonic stem cells.

Chinen Y, Taki T, Tsutsumi Y, et al.
The leucine twenty homeobox (LEUTX) gene, which lacks a histone acetyltransferase domain, is fused to KAT6A in therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;19)(p11;q13).
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(4):299-308 [PubMed] Related Publications
The monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein KAT6A (formerly MOZ) gene is recurrently rearranged by chromosomal translocations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). KAT6A is known to be fused to several genes, all of which have histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity and interact with a number of transcription factors as a transcriptional coactivator. The present study shows that the leucine twenty homeobox (LEUTX) gene on 19q13 is fused to the KAT6A gene on 8p11 in a therapy-related AML with t(8;19)(p11;q13) using the cDNA bubble PCR method. The fusion transcripts contained 83 nucleotides upstream of the first ATG of LEUTX and are presumed to create in-frame fusion proteins. LEUTX is known to have a homeobox domain. Expression of the LEUTX gene was only detected in placenta RNA by RT-PCR, but not in any tissues by Northern blot analysis. The putative LEUTX protein does not contain any HAT domain, and this is the first study to report that KAT6A can fuse to the homeobox gene. The current study, with identification of a new partner gene to KAT6A in a therapy-related AML, does not elucidate the mechanisms of leukemogenesis in KAT6A-related AML but describes a new gene with a different putative function.

Dong YW, Wang R, Cai QQ, et al.
Sulfatide epigenetically regulates miR-223 and promotes the migration of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
J Hepatol. 2014; 60(4):792-801 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The biological relevance and regulation mechanism of aberrant miR-223 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. Our aim was to investigate miR-223 regulation in HCC.
METHODS: miR-223 and integrin αV dysregulation were verified in 57 HCC specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis of integrin αV and sulfatide levels was performed on another cohort of 103 HCC samples. Epigenetic analysis was used to explore the effect of sulfatide on miR-223 transcription. Orthotopic growth, and intrahepatic and pulmonary metastasis of tumors derived from SMMC-7721 cells expressing miR-223 or cerebroside sulfotransferase were monitored in mice.
RESULTS: miR-223 was reduced in HCC specimens and highly metastatic cell lines. Enhanced miR-223 expression had a negative effect on integrin αV-mediated cell migration. In vivo assays of metastasis in an orthotopically implanted model demonstrated that miR-223 effectively inhibited HCC metastasis. Further analysis demonstrated that integrin αV is negatively regulated by miR-223. Moreover, the integrin αV subunit was significantly positively correlated with highly expressed sulfatide in 103 HCC specimens. Intriguingly, miR-223 expression was suppressed by sulfatide in HCC in association with reduced recruitment of acetylated histone H3 and C/EBPα to the pre-miR-223 gene promoter, where monocytic leukemia zinc finger (MOZ) protein, a MYST-type histone acetyltransferase, lost its attachment. The expression of histone deacetylases, HDAC9 and HDAC10, were greatly stimulated by sulfatide and their recruitment to miR-223 gene promoter was enhanced.
CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of miR-223 in HCC is associated with the epigenetic regulation by highly expressed sulfatide and involved in tumor metastasis.

Shima H, Yamagata K, Aikawa Y, et al.
Bromodomain-PHD finger protein 1 is critical for leukemogenesis associated with MOZ-TIF2 fusion.
Int J Hematol. 2014; 99(1):21-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal translocations that involve the monocytic leukemia zinc finger (MOZ) gene are typically associated with human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and often predict a poor prognosis. Overexpression of HOXA9, HOXA10, and MEIS1 was observed in AML patients with MOZ fusions. To assess the functional role of HOX upregulation in leukemogenesis by MOZ-TIF2, we focused on bromodomain-PHD finger protein 1 (BRPF1), a component of the MOZ complex that carries out histone acetylation for generating and maintaining proper epigenetic programs in hematopoietic cells. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MOZ-TIF2 forms a stable complex with BRPF1, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MOZ-TIF2 and BRPF1 interact with HOX genes in MOZ-TIF2-induced AML cells. Depletion of BRPF1 decreased the MOZ localization on HOX genes, resulting in loss of transformation ability induced by MOZ-TIF2. Furthermore, mutant MOZ-TIF2 engineered to lack histone acetyltransferase activity was incapable of deregulating HOX genes as well as initiating leukemia. These data indicate that MOZ-TIF2/BRPF1 complex upregulates HOX genes mediated by MOZ-dependent histone acetylation, leading to the development of leukemia. We suggest that activation of BRPF1/HOX pathway through MOZ HAT activity is critical for MOZ-TIF2 to induce AML.

Rokudai S, Laptenko O, Arnal SM, et al.
MOZ increases p53 acetylation and premature senescence through its complex formation with PML.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(10):3895-900 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Monocytic leukemia zinc finger (MOZ)/KAT6A is a MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2, Tip60 (MYST)-type histone acetyltransferase that functions as a coactivator for acute myeloid leukemia 1 protein (AML1)- and Ets family transcription factor PU.1-dependent transcription. We previously reported that MOZ directly interacts with p53 and is essential for p53-dependent selective regulation of p21 expression. We show here that MOZ is an acetyltransferase of p53 at K120 and K382 and colocalizes with p53 in promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies following cellular stress. The MOZ-PML-p53 interaction enhances MOZ-mediated acetylation of p53, and this ternary complex enhances p53-dependent p21 expression. Moreover, we identified an Akt/protein kinase B recognition sequence in the PML-binding domain of MOZ protein. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of MOZ at T369 has a negative effect on complex formation between PML and MOZ. As a result of PML-mediated suppression of Akt, the increased PML-MOZ interaction enhances p21 expression and induces p53-dependent premature senescence upon forced PML expression. Our research demonstrates that MOZ controls p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity via association with PML.

Díaz-Beyá M, Navarro A, Ferrer G, et al.
Acute myeloid leukemia with translocation (8;16)(p11;p13) and MYST3-CREBBP rearrangement harbors a distinctive microRNA signature targeting RET proto-oncogene.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(3):595-603 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;16)(p11;p13) (t(8;16) AML) has unique clinico-biological characteristics, but its microRNA pattern is unknown. We analyzed 670 microRNAs in seven patients with t(8;16) AML and 113 with other AML subtypes. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that all t(8;16) AML patients grouped in an independent cluster. Supervised analysis revealed a distinctive signature of 94-microRNAs, most of which were downregulated, including miR-21 and cluster miR-17-92. The mRNA expression analysis of two known transcription factors of these microRNAs (STAT3 and c-Myc, respectively) showed significant downregulation of STAT3 (P=0.04). A bioinformatic analysis showed that 29 of the downregulated microRNAs might be regulated by methylation; we treated a t(8;16) AML sample with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-dC) and trichostatin A and found that 27 microRNAs were re-expressed after treatment. However, there was no difference in methylation status between t(8;16) and other AML subtypes, either overall or in the microRNA promoter. Cross-correlation of mRNA and microRNA expression identified RET as a potential target of several microRNAs. A Renilla-luciferase assay and flow cytometry after transfection with pre-microRNAs confirmed that RET is regulated by miR-218, miR-128, miR-27b, miR-15a and miR-195. In conclusion, t(8;16) AML harbors a specific microRNA signature that is partially epigenetically regulated and targets RET proto-oncogene.

Zambon CF, Prayer-Galetti T, Basso D, et al.
Effectiveness of the combined evaluation of KLK3 genetics and free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio for prostate cancer diagnosis.
J Urol. 2012; 188(4):1124-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Of serum prostate specific antigen variability 40% depends on inherited factors. We ascertained whether the knowledge of KLK3 genetics would enhance prostate specific antigen diagnostic performance in patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 1,058 men who consecutively underwent prostate biopsy for clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. At histology prostate cancer was present in 401 cases and absent in 657. Serum total prostate specific antigen and the free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio were determined. Four polymorphisms of the KLK3 gene (rs2569733, rs2739448, rs925013 and rs2735839) and 1 polymorphism of the SRD5A2 gene (rs523349) were studied. The influence of genetics on prostate specific antigen variability was evaluated by multivariate linear regression analysis. The performance of total prostate specific antigen and the free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio alone or combined with a genetically based patient classification were defined by ROC curve analyses.
RESULTS: For prostate cancer diagnosis the free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio index alone (cutoff 11%) was superior to total prostate specific antigen (cutoff 4 ng/ml) and to free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio reflex testing (positive predictive value 61%, 43% and 54%, respectively). Prostate specific antigen correlated with KLK3 genetics (rs2735839 polymorphism p = 0.001, and rs2569733, rs2739448 and rs925013 haplotype combination p = 0.003). In patients with different KLK3 genetics 2 optimal free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio cutoffs (11% and 14.5%) were found. For free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio values between 11% and 14.5% the prostate cancer probability ranged from 30.0% to 47.4% according to patient genetics.
CONCLUSIONS: The free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio is superior to total prostate specific antigen for prostate cancer diagnosis, independent of total prostate specific antigen results. Free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio findings below 11% are positively associated with prostate cancer and those above 14.5% are negatively associated with prostate cancer, while the interpretation of those between 11% and 14.5% is improved by patient KLK3 genetic analysis.

Jin Y, Möller E, Nord KH, et al.
Fusion of the AHRR and NCOA2 genes through a recurrent translocation t(5;8)(p15;q13) in soft tissue angiofibroma results in upregulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012; 51(5):510-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Soft tissue angiofibroma is a recently delineated tumor type of unknown cellular origin. Cytogenetic analysis of four cases showed that they shared a t(5;8)(p15;q13). In three of them it was the sole change, underlining its pathogenetic significance. FISH mapping suggested the involvement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) and nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCOA2) genes in 5p15 and 8q13, respectively. RT-PCR revealed in-frame AHRR/NCOA2 and NCOA2/AHHR transcripts in all four cases. Interphase FISH on paraffin-embedded tissue from 10 further cases without cytogenetic data showed that three were positive for fusion of AHRR and NCOA2. While AHRR has never been implicated in gene fusions before, NCOA2 is the 3'-partner in fusions with MYST3 and ETV6 in leukemias and with PAX3 and HEY1 in sarcomas. As in the previously described fusion proteins, NCOA2 contributes with its two activation domains to the AHRR/NCOA2 chimera, substituting for the repressor domain of AHRR. Because the amino terminal part of the transcription factor AHRR, responsible for the recognition of xenobiotic response elements in target genes and for heterodimerization, shows extensive homology with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), the fusion is predicted to upregulate the AHR/ARNT signaling pathway. Indeed, global gene expression analysis showed upregulation of CYP1A1 as well as other typical target genes of this pathway, such as those encoding toll-like receptors. Apart from providing a diagnostic marker for soft tissue angiofibroma, the results also suggest that this tumor constitutes an interesting model for evaluating the cellular effects of AHR signaling.

Eklund E
The role of Hox proteins in leukemogenesis: insights into key regulatory events in hematopoiesis.
Crit Rev Oncog. 2011; 16(1-2):65-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with highly variable prognoses. Identification of recurring chromosomal translocations provides some prognostic information for individual AML subjects. Population based gene-expression profiling studies also identified abnormalities relevant to prognosis. Such studies associate increased expression of a set of homeodomain transcription factors with poor prognosis in AML. This set includes HoxB3, B4, A7-11 and Meis1, which are dysregulated as a group in the bone marrow in poor prognosis AML. Aberrant expression of these homeodomain transcription factors is found in AML with chromosomal translocations involving the MLL, MYST3 and CREBBP genes, and in a poor prognosis subset with normal cytogenetics. Studies in murine models suggest that Hox protein overexpression is functionally significant for myeloid malignancies. Overexpression of individual Hox proteins expanded various bone marrow populations in vitro, leading to myeloproliferation and in some cases differentiation block and AML in vivo. Therefore, dysregulated expression of key Hox target genes may contribute to adverse prognosis in AML. Identification of these genes will provide insights into the pathobiology of prognosis in AML. Studies are beginning to identify Hox target genes which may be rational targets for therapeutic approaches to this poor prognosis leukemia subset.

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