Gene Summary

Gene:FGFR1; fibroblast growth factor receptor 1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and throughout evolution. FGFR family members differ from one another in their ligand affinities and tissue distribution. A full-length representative protein consists of an extracellular region, composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains, a single hydrophobic membrane-spanning segment and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The extracellular portion of the protein interacts with fibroblast growth factors, setting in motion a cascade of downstream signals, ultimately influencing mitogenesis and differentiation. This particular family member binds both acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors and is involved in limb induction. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Pfeiffer syndrome, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Antley-Bixler syndrome, osteoglophonic dysplasia, and autosomal dominant Kallmann syndrome 2. Chromosomal aberrations involving this gene are associated with stem cell myeloproliferative disorder and stem cell leukemia lymphoma syndrome. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fibroblast growth factor receptor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FGFR1 (cancer-related)

Loriot Y, Necchi A, Park SH, et al.
Erdafitinib in Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma.
N Engl J Med. 2019; 381(4):338-348 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor (
METHODS: In this open-label, phase 2 study, we enrolled patients who had locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with prespecified
RESULTS: A total of 99 patients in the selected-regimen group received a median of five cycles of erdafitinib. Of these patients, 43% had received at least two previous courses of treatment, 79% had visceral metastases, and 53% had a creatinine clearance of less than 60 ml per minute. The rate of confirmed response to erdafitinib therapy was 40% (3% with a complete response and 37% with a partial response). Among the 22 patients who had undergone previous immunotherapy, the confirmed response rate was 59%. The median duration of progression-free survival was 5.5 months, and the median duration of overall survival was 13.8 months. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher, which were managed mainly by dose adjustments, were reported in 46% of the patients; 13% of the patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. There were no treatment-related deaths.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of erdafitinib was associated with an objective tumor response in 40% of previously treated patients who had locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with

Zhong X, Huang G, Ma Q, et al.
Identification of crucial miRNAs and genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by miRNA-mRNA integrated analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(27):e16269 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a malignancy that severely threatens human health and carries a high incidence rate and a low 5-year survival rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are commonly accepted as a key regulatory function in human cancer, but the potential regulatory mechanisms of miRNA-mRNA related to ESCC remain poorly understood.The GSE55857, GSE43732, and GSE6188 miRNA microarray datasets and the gene expression microarray datasets GSE70409, GSE29001, and GSE20347 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus databases. The differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained using GEO2R. Gene ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis for DEGs were performed by Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and functional modules were established using the STRING database and were visualized by Cytoscape. Kaplan-Meier analysis was constructed based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.In total, 26 DEMs and 280 DEGs that consisted of 96 upregulated and 184 downregulated genes were screened out. A functional enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in the ECM-receptor interaction and cytochrome P450 metabolic pathways. In addition, MMP9, PCNA, TOP2A, MMP1, AURKA, MCM2, IVL, CYP2E1, SPRR3, FOS, FLG, TGM1, and CYP2C9 were considered to be hub genes owing to high degrees in the PPI network. MiR-183-5p was with the highest connectivity target genes in hub genes. FOS was predicted to be a common target gene of the significant DEMs. Hsa-miR-9-3p, hsa-miR-34c-3p and FOS were related to patient prognosis and higher expression of the transcripts were associated with a poor OS in patients with ESCC.Our study revealed the miRNA-mediated hub genes regulatory network as a model for predicting the molecular mechanism of ESCC. This may provide novel insights for unraveling the pathogenesis of ESCC.

Zhang J, Li J, Li S, et al.
miR‑802 inhibits the aggressive behaviors of non‑small cell lung cancer cells by directly targeting FGFR1.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(6):2211-2221 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging reports have revealed that several microRNAs (miRNAs) are abnormally expressed in non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). miRNAs have been identified as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, and regulate various biological processes including oncogenesis and development. miR‑802 is dysregulated in multiple types of human cancer, and exerts tumor‑suppressive or promoting roles. However, the expression levels and functional roles of miR‑802 in NSCLC remain largely unknown. In the present study, miR‑802 expression was demonstrated to be decreased in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. A low miR‑802 expression was significantly correlated with the tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and brain metastasis in NSCLC patients. Restoring miR‑802 expression inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation and colony formation, induced cell apoptosis, decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro, and hindered in vivo tumor growth. Mechanistically, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) was confirmed as the target gene of miR‑802 in NSCLC cells. In addition, FGFR1 silencing mimicked the tumor‑suppressing roles of miR‑802 upregulation in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, rescue experiments revealed that FGFR1 reintroduction rescued the miR‑802‑induced inhibition of the malignant phenotypes in NSCLC cells. Notably, miR‑802 was able to deactivate the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT serine/threonine kinase (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. Overall, these results demonstrated that miR‑802 could downregulate FGFR1 expression, thereby deactivating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and inhibiting the malignant development of NSCLC. Thus, miR‑802 may be a therapeutic candidate for patients with NSCLC.

Chacon-Camacho OF, Lopez-Moreno D, Morales-Sanchez MA, et al.
Expansion of the phenotypic spectrum and description of molecular findings in a cohort of patients with oculocutaneous mosaic RASopathies.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(5):e625 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Postzygotic KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, and FGFR1 mutations result in a group of mosaic RASopathies characterized by related developmental anomalies in eye, skin, heart, and brain. These oculocutaneous disorders include oculoectodermal syndrome (OES) encephalo-cranio-cutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL), and Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome (SFMS). Here, we report the results of the clinical and molecular characterization of a novel cohort of patients with oculocutaneous mosaic RASopathies.
METHODS: Two OES, two ECCL, and two SFMS patients were ascertained in the study. In addition, two subjects with unilateral isolated epibulbar dermoids were also enrolled. Molecular analysis included PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, and FGFR1 genes in DNA obtained from biopsies (skin/epibulbar dermoids), buccal mucosa, and blood leukocytes. Massive parallel sequencing was employed in two cases with low-level mosaicism.
RESULTS: In DNA from biopsies, mosaicism for pathogenic variants, including KRAS p.Ala146Thr in two OES subjects, FGFR1 p.Asn546Lys and KRAS p.Ala146Val in ECCL patients, and KRAS p.Gly12Asp in both SFMS patients, was demonstrated. No mutations were shown in DNA from conjunctival lesions in two subjects with isolated epibubar dermoids.
CONCLUSION: Our study allowed the expansion of the clinical spectrum of mosaic RASopathies and supports that mosaicism for recurrent mutations in KRAS and FGFR1 is a commonly involved mechanism in these rare oculocutaneous anomalies.

Quaas A, Heydt C, Waldschmidt D, et al.
Alterations in ERBB2 and BRCA and microsatellite instability as new personalized treatment options in small bowel carcinoma.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2019; 19(1):21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Carcinomas of the small bowel are rare tumors usually with dismal prognosis. Most recently, some potentially treatable molecular alterations were described. We emphasize the growing evidence of individualized treatment options in small bowel carcinoma.
METHODS: We performed a DNA- based multi-gene panel using ultra-deep sequencing analysis (including 14 genes with up to 452 amplicons in total; KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, DDR2, ERBB2, KEAP1, NFE2L2, PIK3CA, PTEN, RHOA, BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53) as well as an RNA-based gene fusion panel including ALK, BRAF, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, MET, NRG1, NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3, RET and ROS1 on eleven formalin fixed and paraffin embedded small bowel carcinomas. Additionally, mismatch-repair-deficiency was analyzed by checking the microsatellite status using the five different mononucleotide markers BAT25, BAT26, NR-21, NR-22 and NR-27 and loss of mismatch repair proteins using four different markers (MLH1, MSH6, MSH2, PMS2).
RESULTS: In five out of eleven small bowel carcinomas we found potentially treatable genetic alterations. Three patients demonstrated pathogenic (class 5) BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations - one germline-related in a mixed neuroendocrine-non neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN). Two additional patients revealed an activating ERBB2 mutation or PIK3CA mutation. Furthermore two tumors were highly microsatellite-instable (MSI-high), in one case associated to Lynch-syndrome. We did not find any gene fusions.
CONCLUSION: Our results underscore, in particular, the relevance of potentially treatable molecular alterations (like ERBB2, BRCA and MSI) in small bowel carcinomas. Further studies are needed to proof the efficacy of these targeted therapies in small bowel carcinomas.

Gao XH, Yu GY, Hong YG, et al.
Clinical significance of multiple gene detection with a 22-gene panel in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of 207 colorectal cancer patients.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2019; 24(2):141-152 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous detection of multiple molecular biomarkers is helpful in the prediction of treatment response and prognosis for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.
METHODS: A 22-gene panel consisting of 103 hotspot regions was utilized in the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of 207 CRC patients, using the next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based multiplex PCR technique. Those 22 genes included AKT1, ALK, BRAF, CTNNB1, DDR2, EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB4, FBXW7, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, KRAS, MAP2K1, MET, NOTCH1, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, SMAD4, STK11, and TP53.
RESULTS: Of the 207 patients, 193 had one or more variants, with 170, 20, and 3 having one, two, and three mutated genes, respectively. Of the total 414 variants identified in this study, 384, 25, and 5 were single-nucleotide variants, deletion, and insertion. The top four frequently mutated genes were TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, and FBXW7. There was high consistency between the results of NGS-PCR technique and routine ARMS-PCR in KRAS and BRAF mutation detection. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that advanced TNM stage, elevated serum CEA, total variants number ≥ 2, AKT1 and PTEN mutation were independent predictors of shorter DFS; poor differentiation, advanced TNM stage, total variants number ≥ 2, BRAF, CTNNB1 and NRAS mutation were independent predictors of shorter OS.
CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to detect multiple gene mutations with a 22-gene panel in FFPE CRC specimens. TNM stage and total variants number ≥ 2 were independent predictors of DFS and OS. Detection of multiple gene mutations may provide additional prognostic information to TNM stage in CRC patients.

Haq F, Sung YN, Park I, et al.
FGFR1 expression defines clinically distinct subtypes in pancreatic cancer.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):374 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) protein expression in pancreatic cancer is largely unknown. In this study, we aimed investigate the clinical significance of FGFR1 expression in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: First, we investigated the relationship between FGFR pathway gene expression and clinicopathological data in three pancreatic cancer cohorts containing 313 cases. Subsequently, to confirm the findings from the discovery cohorts, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) of FGFR1 protein in a validation cohort of 205 pancreatic cancer cases.
RESULTS: In discovery cohort 1, FGFR1 and Klotho beta (KLB) overexpression was associated with low tumor stage (P < 0.05), low tumor grade (P < 0.05), and better overall survival. Multivariate analysis predicted FGFR1 (P < 0.05) as a prognostic factor for better overall survival. In discovery cohorts 2 and 3, only FGFR1 overexpression was associated with better overall survival (P < 0.05). In the validation cohort, there were 15.7% and 61% strong and weak/moderate FGFR1-positive cases, respectively. FGFR1-positive cases showed better overall survival than FGFR1-negative cases (P < 0.05). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed FGFR1 positivity as an independent prognostic factor for better overall survival in pancreatic cancer patients (hazard ratio 0.677, 95% confidence interval 0.471-0.972, P = 0.035).
CONCLUSIONS: FGFR1 expression, as estimated by IHC, may be used to define clinically distinct subtypes in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, FGFR1-based subclassification of pancreatic cancer may lead to new therapeutic approaches for the FGFR1-positive subtype.

Xie G, Ke Q, Ji YZ, et al.
FGFR1 is an independent prognostic factor and can be regulated by miR-497 in gastric cancer progression.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2018; 52(1):e7816 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) has been reported in gastric cancer to be a prognostic factor. However, miR-497-targeted FGFR1 has not been explored in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. The present study intended to revalidate the prognostic significance of FGFR1 in patients with gastric cancer, and the mechanism of miR-497-regulated FGFR1 was investigated in gastric cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were assayed by RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively. The targeted genes were predicted by a bioinformatics algorithm and confirmed by a dual luciferase reporter assay. Cell proliferation was analyzed by CCK-8 assay. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining was used to evaluate the apoptosis in AGS and SGC-7901 cells. FGFR1 was frequently up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and associated with poor overall survival in patients with gastric cancer. Interestingly, FGFR1 loss-of-function resulted in a significant growth inhibition and apoptosis in AGS and SGC-7901 cells. In addition, we found that miR-497 was inhibited in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, while overexpression of miR-497 could suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in AGS and SGC-7901 cells. Importantly, bioinformatics analysis and experimental data suggested that FGFR1 was a direct target of miR-497, which could inhibit FGFR1 expression when transfected with miR-497 mimics. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of FGFR1 reversed the growth inhibition and apoptosis of miR-497 mimics in AGS and SGC-7901 cells. These findings suggested that overexpression of miR-497 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer through the suppression of FGFR1.

Heim D, Montavon G, Hufnagl P, et al.
Computational analysis reveals histotype-dependent molecular profile and actionable mutation effects across cancers.
Genome Med. 2018; 10(1):83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Comprehensive mutational profiling data now available on all major cancers have led to proposals of novel molecular tumor classifications that modify or replace the established organ- and tissue-based tumor typing. The rationale behind such molecular reclassifications is that genetic alterations underlying cancer pathology predict response to therapy and may therefore offer a more precise view on cancer than histology. The use of individual actionable mutations to select cancers for treatment across histotypes is already being tested in the so-called basket trials with variable success rates. Here, we present a computational approach that facilitates the systematic analysis of the histological context dependency of mutational effects by integrating genomic and proteomic tumor profiles across cancers.
METHODS: To determine effects of oncogenic mutations on protein profiles, we used the energy distance, which compares the Euclidean distances of protein profiles in tumors with an oncogenic mutation (inner distance) to that in tumors without the mutation (outer distance) and performed Monte Carlo simulations for the significance analysis. Finally, the proteins were ranked by their contribution to profile differences to identify proteins characteristic of oncogenic mutation effects across cancers.
RESULTS: We apply our approach to four current proposals of molecular tumor classifications and major therapeutically relevant actionable genes. All 12 actionable genes evaluated show effects on the protein level in the corresponding tumor type and showed additional mutation-related protein profiles in 21 tumor types. Moreover, our analysis identifies consistent cross-cancer effects for 4 genes (FGFR1, ERRB2, IDH1, KRAS/NRAS) in 14 tumor types. We further use cell line drug response data to validate our findings.
CONCLUSIONS: This computational approach can be used to identify mutational signatures that have protein-level effects and can therefore contribute to preclinical in silico tests of the efficacy of molecular classifications as well as the druggability of individual mutations. It thus supports the identification of novel targeted therapies effective across cancers and guides efficient basket trial designs.

Liljedahl ER, Wahlberg K, Lidén C, et al.
Genetic variants of filaggrin are associated with occupational dermal exposure and blood DNA alterations in hairdressers.
Sci Total Environ. 2019; 653:45-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hairdressers are exposed to high levels of chemicals, including possible carcinogens. For dermal exposure, the skin protects against the uptake of chemicals and the protein filaggrin (encoded by FLG) has a key role in skin barrier function. This study investigated if variants of FLG previously linked to impaired skin barrier function, i.e. null mutations and copy number variation (CNV) alleles (CNV10), are associated with cancer-related DNA changes. Blood and questionnaire data were collected from hairdressers (n = 295) and controls (n = 92). Exposure to aromatic amines was measured as hemoglobin adducts by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. DNA from peripheral blood was used to test for FLG null mutations and CNV (10, 11, or 12 repeats), telomere length, and methylation of selected cancer-related genes. Hairdressers had a lower frequency of FLG null mutations (4.1 vs. 7.6%, P = 0.18) and CNV10 (43.2 vs. 56%, P = 0.0032) than controls. In hairdressers, CNV10 carriers had a decreased risk of high ortho-toluidine adducts in blood compared with non-carriers (odds ratio, OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.30-0.81). Further, telomere length was shorter for carriers of any FLG null allele (β = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.31 to -0.044) and CNV10 carriers (β = -0.054, 95% CI = -0.11 to -0.00051, linear regression adjusted for age, passive smoking, residence, and education) compared to non-carriers. Carriers of any FLG null allele showed higher methylation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A gene CDKN2A (OR = 6.26, CI = 1.13-34.7), but not of the other genes analyzed. These associations were not found among the controls. Our study showed that the frequency of FLG CNV10 was lower among hairdressers than controls, which may indicate a healthy worker selection. Moreover, FLG null and CNV10 were associated with cancer-related DNA changes in hairdressers, which may influence their risk of cancer.

Dorokhov YL, Sheshukova EV, Bialik TE, Komarova TV
Human Endogenous Formaldehyde as an Anticancer Metabolite: Its Oxidation Downregulation May Be a Means of Improving Therapy.
Bioessays. 2018; 40(12):e1800136 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant cells are characterized by an increased content of endogenous formaldehyde formed as a by-product of biosynthetic processes. Accumulation of formaldehyde in cancer cells is combined with activation of the processes of cellular formaldehyde clearance. These mechanisms include increased ALDH and suppressed ADH5/FDH activity, which oncologists consider poor and favorable prognostic markers, respectively. Here, the sources and regulation of formaldehyde metabolism in cancer cells are reviewed. The authors also analyze the participation of oncoproteins such as fibulins, FGFR1, HER2/neu, FBI-1, and MUC1-C in the control of genes related to formaldehyde metabolism, suggesting the existence of two mutually exclusive processes in cancer cells: 1) production and 2) oxidation and elimination of formaldehyde from the cell. The authors hypothesize that the study of the anticancer properties of disulfiram and alpha lipoic acid - which affect the balance of formaldehyde in the body - may serve as the basis of future anticancer therapy.

Chen L, Qi H, Zhang L, et al.
Effects of FGFR gene polymorphisms on response and toxicity of cyclophosphamide-epirubicin-docetaxel-based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1038 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The chemotherapy resistance and toxicity of chemotherapy are major problems in breast cancer treatment. However, candidate biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes and better prognosis remain lacking.
METHODS: In this study, we analyzed possible impact of 8 genetic variants of fibroblast growth factor receptor1-4 (FGFR1-4) on the treatment response and toxicities in 211 breast cancer patients. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells, and the genotypes were examined using the TaqMan Pre-Designed SNP Genotyping Assays.
RESULTS: The FGFR4 rs1966265 and FGFR2 rs2981578 contributed to clinical outcome of breast cancer treated with docetaxel-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide (CET)-based chemotherapy. For rs1966265, AA genotype had significant correlation with the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) when compared with GG and AG/GG genotype (P = 0.019 and P = 0.004, respectively). Moreover, A allele of FGFR2 rs2981578 had significant rates of response (P = 0.025). In addition, rs2420946 CC genotype was associated with higher frequency of toxicities compared with TT and CT/TT genotypes (P = 0.038 and P = 0.019, respectively). Also, rs2981578 AG genotype showed higher frequency of toxicities compared with GG genotype (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest these polymorphisms, especially rs1966265 and rs2981578, might be candidate pharmacogenomics factors to the response and prognosis prediction for individualized CET-based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

Kim SH, Ryu H, Ock CY, et al.
BGJ398, A Pan-FGFR Inhibitor, Overcomes Paclitaxel Resistance in Urothelial Carcinoma with FGFR1 Overexpression.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Paclitaxel (PTX) is commonly used to treat urothelial carcinoma (UC) after platinum-based chemotherapy has failed. However, single-agent taxane therapy is not sufficient to inhibit tumor progression and drug resistance in advanced UC. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by fibroblast growth factor receptor (

Ng TL, Yu H, Smith DE, et al.
Preselection of Lung Cancer Cases Using FGFR1 mRNA and Gene Copy Number for Treatment With Ponatinib.
Clin Lung Cancer. 2019; 20(1):e39-e51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Preclinically, high epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) messenger RNA (FGFR1-MRNA) and FGFR1 amplification (FGFR1-AMP) predicted sensitivity to fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer cell lines. KRAS mutations did not preclude sensitivity.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Metastatic EGFR- and ALK-negative lung cancers were screened for FGFR1-MRNA by in-situ hybridization (ISH) and FGFR1-AMP by silver in-situ hybridization (SISH). Patients with positive findings were offered ponatinib, a multi-kinase inhibitor of FGFR1-4. Differences in overall survival (OS) between cohorts were assessed by the log-rank test. Association of FGFR1 positivity with clinicopathologic features were assessed by Fisher exact test and Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test.
RESULTS: A total of 171 cases were prescreened: 9 (7.3%) of 123 SISH
CONCLUSION: Elevated FGFR1-MRNA is more common than FGFR1-AMP and associated with worse OS. Higher FGFR1 mRNA expression may be associated with a specific phenotype and is worthy of further exploration. Ponatinib's poor tolerance suggests further fibroblast growth factor receptor exploration in ISH

Youssef O, Knuuttila A, Piirilä P, et al.
Hotspot Mutations Detectable by Next-generation Sequencing in Exhaled Breath Condensates from Patients with Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(10):5627-5634 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic alterations occurring in lung cancer are the basis for defining molecular subtypes and essential for targeted therapies. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a form of non-invasive sample that, amongst components, contains DNA from pulmonary tissue. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was herein used to analyze mutations in EBC from patients with lung cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: EBC was collected from 26 patients with cancer and 20 healthy controls. Amplicon-based sequencing using Ion Ampliseq Colon and Lung Cancer gene panel v2 was applied.
RESULTS: The sequencing was successful in 17 patients and 20 controls. EBC from patients revealed 39 hotspot mutations occurring in: adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (DDR2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4), F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (FBXW7), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3), Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1), met proto-oncogene (MET), neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), ret proto-oncogene (RET), SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4), serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11), and tumor protein p53 (TP53) genes. EBC from controls revealed 35 hotspot mutations. The average mutant allele fraction was higher in patients than controls.
CONCLUSION: NGS can identify mutations in EBCs from patients with lung cancer. This could provide a promising non-invasive method for the assessment of gene mutations in lung cancer.

Yu TM, Morrison C, Gold EJ, et al.
Multiple Biomarker Testing Tissue Consumption and Completion Rates With Single-gene Tests and Investigational Use of Oncomine Dx Target Test for Advanced Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer: A Single-center Analysis.
Clin Lung Cancer. 2019; 20(1):20-29.e8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: First-line targeted therapies have been developed for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, small biopsy samples pose a challenge to testing all relevant biomarkers. The present study characterized clinician-ordered single-gene lung cancer testing and evaluated tissue stewardship and the ability to successfully determine mutation status with single-gene testing or investigational use of the Oncomine Dx Target Test.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinician-submitted orders for 3659 single-gene tests (EGFR, ALK, ROS1, BRAF, KRAS, ERBB2, MET, RET, FGFR1) across 1402 samples at a large US-based commercial reference laboratory and 169 investigational Oncomine Dx Target Tests were retrospectively evaluated. The testing success rates and tissue consumption were evaluated by sample type, test type, and number of single-gene tests per sample.
RESULTS: The large majority of lung tissue samples submitted for clinical testing were small (70.5% core needle biopsies; 10.0% fine needle aspirations). With single-gene testing, mutation status was successfully reported for ≥ 1 biomarker for 88.4% of the clinical samples. The success rates decreased and tissue consumption increased with testing of additional biomarkers. Investigational Oncomine Dx Target Tests were permitted 1 tissue slide each and demonstrated success rates similar to single-gene testing for ≥ 5 biomarkers on core needle biopsies, ≥ 4 biomarkers on fine needle aspirations, and ≥ 2 biomarkers on surgical resection specimens.
CONCLUSION: Tissue stewardship is important to enable successful completion of genetic testing and informed NSCLC treatment decisions. Preliminary assessment of the investigational Oncomine Dx Target Test suggests it could facilitate access to multiple biomarker testing using small tissue samples to support therapy decisions for patients with advanced NSCLC.

Mikhaylenko DS, Alekseev BY, Zaletaev DV, et al.
Structural Alterations in Human Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors in Carcinogenesis.
Biochemistry (Mosc). 2018; 83(8):930-943 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays an important role in human embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Carcinogenesis is accompanied by aberrant constitutive activation of FGF receptors (FGFRs) resulting from missense mutation in the FGFR1-4 genes, generation of chimeric oncogenes, FGFR1-4 gene amplification, alternative splicing shift toward formation of mesenchymal FGFR isoforms, and FGFR overexpression. Altogether, these alterations contribute to auto- and paracrine stimulation of cancer cells and neoangiogenesis. Certain missense mutations are found at a high rate in urinary bladder cancer and can be used for non-invasive cancer recurrence diagnostics by analyzing urine cell pellet DNA. Chimeric FGFR1/3 and amplified FGFR1/2 genes can predict cell response to the targeted therapy in various oncological diseases. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing has been used to analyze exomes of virtually all human tumors, which allowed to construct phylogenetic trees of clonal cancer evolution with special emphasis on driver mutations in FGFR1-4 genes. At present, FGFR blockers, such as multi-kinase inhibitors, specific FGFR inhibitors, and FGF ligand traps are being tested in clinical trials. In this review, we discuss current data on the functioning of the FGFR family proteins in both normal and cancer cells, mutations in the FGFR1-4 genes, and mechanisms underlying their oncogenic potential, which might be interesting to a broad range of scientists searching for specific tumor markers and targeted anti-cancer drugs.

Barritault M, Meyronet D, Ducray F
Molecular classification of adult gliomas: recent advances and future perspectives.
Curr Opin Oncol. 2018; 30(6):375-382 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent advances in the molecular classification of adult gliomas.
RECENT FINDINGS: According to the 2016 WHO classification, five main molecular subgroups of adult diffuse gliomas can be distinguished based on the 1p/19q codeletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and histone H3.3 mutation status. In the future, this classification may be further refined based on the integration of additional biomarkers, in particular CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion in IDH-mutant astrocytomas, TERT promoter mutations, EGFR amplification, chromosome 7 gain and chromosome 10 loss in IDH-wildtype astrocytomas, and FGFR1 mutations in midline gliomas. Histone H3.3 G34R/V defines a distinct subgroup of hemispheric IDH-wildtype high-grade gliomas occurring in young patients and FGFR gene fusions characterize a subgroup of IDH-wildtype glioblastomas that could benefit from specific treatment approaches. RNA sequencing may identify targetable gene fusions in circumscribed gliomas lacking classical BRAF alterations. In chordoid gliomas, recurrent PRKCA mutations could serve as a new diagnostic marker. Among comprehensive molecular analysis methods, DNA methylation profiling appears as a particularly powerful approach to identify new molecular subgroups of gliomas and to classify difficult cases.
SUMMARY: The classification of adult gliomas may be improved by the integration of additional biomarkers and/or by comprehensive molecular analysis, in particular DNA methylation profiling. The most relevant approach, however, remains to be established.

Ren S, Rivard CJ, Yu H, et al.
A miRNA Panel Predicts Sensitivity of FGFR Inhibitor in Lung Cancer Cell Lines.
Clin Lung Cancer. 2018; 19(5):450-456 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To test whether a microRNA (miRNA) panel may serve as an alternative biomarker of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor sensitivity in lung cancer.
METHODS: Histologically diverse lung cancer cell lines were submitted to assays for ponatinib and AZD4547 sensitivity. miRNAs, FGFR1 messenger RNA, gene copy number, and protein expression were detected by real-time quantitative PCR, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, and immunoblotting in 34 lung cancer cell lines.
RESULTS: Among 34 cell lines, 14 exhibited ponatinib sensitivity and 20 exhibited AZD4547 sensitivity (drug concentration causing 50% inhibition values < 100 nmol/L). A total of 39 of the 377-miRNA set were initially identified from the 4 paired ponatinib-sensitive or -insensitive cell lines to have at least an 8-fold differential expression and then were detected in all the 34 cell lines. A predictive panel of 3 miRNAs (let-7c, miRNA155, and miRNA218) was developed that had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.886 with a sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 77.3% to predict response to ponatinib. The miRNA panel performed similar to FGFR1 protein expression (AUC = 0.864) and messenger RNA expression (AUC = 0.939), and better than FGFR1 amplification (AUC = 0.696). Furthermore, we validated this panel using data for sensitivity to AZD4547 in the cell line cohort with an AUC of 0.931 and a sensitivity of 73.3% and specificity of 76.2%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The developed miRNA panel (let-7c, miRNA155, and miRNA218) may be useful in predicting response to FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, either ponatinib or AZD4547 in lung cancer cell lines, and warrants further validation in the clinical setting.

Ramos J, Das J, Felty Q, et al.
NRF1 motif sequence-enriched genes involved in ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve breast cancer signaling pathways.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 172(2):469-485 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) transcription factor has recently been shown to control breast cancer progression. However, mechanistic aspects by which NRF1 may contribute to susceptibility to different breast tumor subtypes are still not fully understood. Since transcriptional control of NRF1 seems to be dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, herein, we investigated the role of NRF1 in estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negative, but human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve) breast cancer. We found that both mRNA and protein levels of NRF1 and its transcriptional activity were significantly higher in ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve breast cancer samples compared to normal breast tissues. This was consistent with our observation of higher NRF1 protein expression in the experimental model of HER2+ breast cancer brain metastasis. To identify network-based pathways involved in the susceptibility to the ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve breast cancer subtype, the NRF1 transcriptional regulatory genome-wide landscape was analyzed using the approach consisting of a systematic integration of ChIP DNA-seq, RNA-Microarray, NRF1 protein-DNA motif binding, signal pathway analysis, and Bayesian machine learning. Our findings show that a high percentage of known HER2+ breast cancer susceptibility genes, including EGFR, IGFR, and E2F1, are under transcriptional control of NRF1. Promoters of several genes from the KEGG HER2+ breast cancer pathway and 11 signaling pathways linked to 6 hallmarks of cancer contain the NRF1 motif. By pathway analysis, key breast cancer hallmark genes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness, cell apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, chromosomal integrity, and DNA damage/repair were highly enriched with NRF1 motifs. In addition, we found using Bayesian network-based machine learning that 30 NRF1 motif-enriched genes including growth factor receptors-FGFR1, IGF1R; E2Fs transcription factor family-E2F1, E2F3; MAPK pathway-SHC2, GRB2, MAPK1; PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway-PIK3CD, PIK3R1, PIK3R3, RPS6KB2; WNT signaling pathway-WNT7B, DLV1, DLV2, GSK3B, NRF1, and DDB2, known for its role in DNA repair and involvement in early events associated with metastatic progression of breast cancer cells, were associated with HER2-amplified breast cancer. Machine learning search further revealed that the likelihood of HER2-positive breast cancer is almost 100% in a patient with the high NRF1 expression combined with expression patterns of high E2F3, GSK3B, and MAPK1, low or no change in E2F1 and FGFR1, and high or no change in PIK3R3. In summary, our findings suggest novel roles of NRF1 and its regulatory networks in susceptibility to the ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve aggressive breast cancer subtype. Clinical confirmation of our machine learned Bayesian networks will have significant impact on our understanding of the role of NRF1 as a valuable biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis as well as provide strong rationale for future studies to develop NRF1 signaling-based therapeutics to target HER2+ breast cancer.

Azarnezhad, Tabrizi, Javan, Mehdipour P
Detection of CCND1 , C-MYC , and FGFR1 amplification using modified SYBR Green qPCR and FISH in breast cancer
Turk J Med Sci. 2018; 48(4):759-767 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background/aim: The aims of this study were to detect CCND1 , C-MYC , and FGFR1 amplification using qPCR, confirmation with FISH, and to further assess their clinicopathological relevance.
Materials and methods: Thirty-five breast tumor samples were analyzed for amplification of the selected genes using modified SYBR Green qPCR. The accuracy of the qPCR was assessed by FISH as a gold-standard method.
Results: CCND1 , C-MYC , and FGFR1 amplifications were observed in 34.28%, 28.57%, and 17.14% of the 35 samples, respectively. qPCR results were significantly confirmed by FISH and qPCR and FISH showed excellent correlation (P = 0.000). CCND1 amplification with tumor stage (P = 0.044), positive metastatic status (P = 0.042), positive family history (P = 0.042), and C-MYC status (P = 0.005); C-MYC amplification with tumor size (P = 0.021), tumor grade (P = 0.018), tumor stage (P = 0.032), and FGFR1 status (P < 0.000); and FGFR1 amplification with tumor size (P = 0.041) and positive ER status (P = 0.042) were statistically associated.
Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the applied qPCR approach could precisely quantify the relative gene copy number. More studies with a larger sample size are suggested to confirm the clinicopathological value of CCND1 , C-MYC , and FGFR1 amplification.

Yang M, Yu X, Li X, et al.
TNFAIP3 is required for FGFR1 activation-promoted proliferation and tumorigenesis of premalignant DCIS.COM human mammary epithelial cells.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive breast cancer, many DCIS lesions may progress to invasive cancer and the genes and pathways responsible for its progression are largely unknown. FGFR1 plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation and carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study is to examine the roles of FGFR1 signaling in gene expression, cell proliferation, tumor growth and progression in a non-invasive DCIS model.
METHODS: DCIS.COM cells were transfected with an empty vector to generate DCIS-Ctrl cells. DCIS-iFGFR1 cells were transfected with an AP20187-inducible iFGFR1 vector to generate DCIS-iFGFR1 cells. iFGFR1 consists of the v-Src myristoylation membrane-targeting sequence, FGFR1 cytoplasmic domain and the AP20187-inducible FKBP12 dimerization domain, which simulates FGFR1 signaling. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to knockout ERK1, ERK2 or TNFAIP3 in DCIS-iFGFR1 cells. Established cell lines were treated with/without AP20187 and with/without FGFR1, MEK, or ERK1/2 inhibitor. The effects of these treatments were determined by Western blot, RNA-Seq, real-time RT-PCR, cell proliferation, mammosphere growth, xenograft tumor growth, and tumor histopathological assays.
RESULTS: Activation of iFGFR1 signaling in DCIS-iFGFR1 cells enhanced ERK1/2 activities, induced partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased cell proliferation. Activation of iFGFR1 signaling promoted DCIS growth and progression to invasive cancer derived from DCIS-iFGFR1 cells in mice. Activation of iFGFR1 signaling also altered expression levels of 946 genes involved in cell proliferation, migration, cancer pathways, and other molecular and cellular functions. TNFAIP3, a ubiquitin-editing enzyme, is upregulated by iFGFR1 signaling in a FGFR1 kinase activity and in an ERK2-dependent manner. Importantly, TNFAIP3 knockout not only inhibited the AP20187-induced proliferation and tumor growth of DCIS-iFGFR1 cells, but also further reduced baseline proliferation and tumor growth of DCIS-iFGFR1 cells without AP20187 treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Activation of iFGFR1 promotes ERK1/2 activity, EMT, cell proliferation, tumor growth, DCIS progression to invasive cancer, and altered the gene expression profile of DCIS-iFGFR1 cells. Activation of iFGFR1 upregulated TNFAIP3 in an ERK2-dependent manner and TNFAIP3 is required for iFGFR1 activation-promoted DCIS.COM cell proliferation, mammosphere growth, tumor growth and progression. These results suggest that TNFAIP3 may be a potential target for inhibiting DCIS growth and progression promoted by FGFR1 signaling.

Mariz BALA, Soares CD, Morais TML, et al.
Expression of FGF-2/FGFR-1 in normal mucosa, salivary gland, preneoplastic, and neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2018; 47(9):816-822 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a multifunctional cytokine expressed in several tissues and involved in a wide variety of biologic activities, with one low molecular weight (LMW) protein present in the cytosol, which is secreted, acting via its receptors (FGFRs), and four high molecular weight (HMW) proteins located in the nucleus. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family has four (FGFR1-4) transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors expressed on several cell types, and FGFR-1 has been indicated as a potential molecular target in several types of cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The FGF-2/FGFR-1 expression has been studied in the oral cavity, and it was associated with the wound repair process, the development of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, besides being related to oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and OSCC. Hence, we critically review the currently available data on FGF-2/FGFR-1 expression in the normal mucosa and lesions of the oral cavity.

Ergun S, Güney S, Temiz E, et al.
Significance of miR-15a-5p and CNKSR3 as Novel Prognostic Biomarkers in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2018; 18(12):1695-1701 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In recent years, targeted cancer treatment methods at various molecular levels have been developed for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), one of two major subtypes of lung cancer. miRNAbased clinical trials are currently the preferred targeted therapeutic strategy. Also, ceRNAs (competing endogenous RNA) would be the newest and the most effective approach to uncover novel interactions between mRNAs and miRNAs in NSCLC carcinogenesis. There are many factors influencing the efficiency of a miRNA to suppress or silence translation of the target mRNA. The most effective event is the presence of other RNAs showing ceRNA activity. These RNAs contain binding sites for specific miRNAs and enable miRNAs to bind these pseudo targets, instead of the original binding sites on the target mRNA. Therefore, the mRNA of the target gene is less affected by this miRNA, while the amount of miRNA remains the same in the media.
METHOD: For this project, we determined that five clinically important different oncogenes (PDL1, FGFR1, DDX3X, SLC1A5, FXR1 ) are involved in the pathogenesis of NSCLC. For this purpose, we transfected model NSCLC cell line, A549, with miRNAs (miR-150-5p, miR-15a-5p, miR-503-5p) targeting these oncogenes to investigate whether these oncogenes will be suppressed at the mRNA level and also how the suppression efficiency of these miRNA on the oncogenes will be affected by possible ceRNA (CNKSR3, POU2F1, HIPK2) activities.
RESULTS: miR-15a-5p was determined to have the most suppressive effect on the five genes and three potential ceRNAs (p<0.05). Furthermore, CNKSR3 was the ceRNA most affected by all three miRNAs (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: CNKSR3 was affected more than the oncogenes known to act on NSCLC and this might make it a stronger and novel marker for use in possible treatment regimens designed using miR-15a-5p silencing effect on oncogenes in NSCLC pathogenesis. According to the literature, this is the first study associating NSCLC with miR-15a-5p and CNKSR3.

Vasmatzis G, Wang X, Smadbeck JB, et al.
Chromoanasynthesis is a common mechanism that leads to ERBB2 amplifications in a cohort of early stage HER2
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):738 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: HER2 positive (HER2+) breast cancers involve chromosomal structural alterations that act as oncogenic driver events.
METHODS: We interrogated the genomic structure of 18 clinically-defined HER2+ breast tumors through integrated analysis of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, coupled with clinical information.
RESULTS: ERBB2 overexpression in 15 of these tumors was associated with ERBB2 amplification due to chromoanasynthesis with six of them containing single events and the other nine exhibiting multiple events. Two of the more complex cases had adverse clinical outcomes. Chromosomes 8 was commonly involved in the same chromoanasynthesis with 17. In ten cases where chromosome 8 was involved we observed NRG1 fusions (two cases), NRG1 amplification (one case), FGFR1 amplification and ADAM32 or ADAM5 fusions. ERBB3 over-expression was associated with NRG1 fusions and EGFR and ERBB3 expressions were anti-correlated. Of the remaining three cases, one had a small duplication fully encompassing ERBB2 and was accompanied with a pathogenic mutation.
CONCLUSION: Chromoanasynthesis involving chromosome 17 can lead to ERBB2 amplifications in HER2+ breast cancer. However, additional large genomic alterations contribute to a high level of genomic complexity, generating the hypothesis that worse outcome could be associated with multiple chromoanasynthetic events.

Wu J, Wang Y, Liu J, et al.
Effects of FGFR1 Gene Polymorphisms on the Risk of Breast Cancer and FGFR1 Protein Expression.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 47(6):2569-2578 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is widely considered to play an important role in mammary carcinogenesis. Some common variants in FGFR1 might be associated with its expression, and further affect breast cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FGFR1 on breast cancer susceptibility and FGFR1 protein expression.
METHODS: SNPs rs17182023, rs17175624 and rs10958704 in FGFR1 were genotyped in 747 breast cancer cases and 716 healthy controls by SNaPshot method. The associations between SNPs and breast cancer were examined by logistic regression. Immunohistochemistry(IHC) was used to detect FGFR1 protein expression, and the association of FGFR1 polymorphisms with its protein expression was analyzed by Pearson's chi-square test. Additionally, Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate the association between FGFR1 protein expression and breast cancer prognosis.
RESULTS: The minor allele of rs17182023 in FGFR1 was significantly associated with reduced breast cancer risk, with an odds ratio of 0.800 (95%CI = 0.684-0.935). No significant associations were detected between other SNPs and breast cancer. Moreover, rs17182023 was correlated to FGFR1 protein expression (P = 0.006), and patients with high FGFR1 protein expression tended to have poor outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: SNP rs17182023 was correlated to reduced breast cancer risk, and was associated with FGFR1 protein expression. High FGFR1 protein expression was an independent risk factor of breast cancer, and resulted in poor prognosis.

Shimizu D, Saito T, Ito S, et al.
Overexpression of
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2018 Jul-Aug; 15(4):313-320 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dissemination (PD) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality in gastric cancer (GC). We aimed to identify PD-associated genes and investigate their role in GC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified FGFR1 as a putative PD-associated gene using a bioinformatics approach. The biological significance of FGFR1 in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was evaluated according to the correlation with genes that participated in EMT and FGFR1 knockdown experiments. The associations between FGFR1 expression and the clinicopathological features were examined.
RESULTS: FGFR1 expression positively correlated with SNAI1, VIM and ZEB1 expression, and negatively correlated with CDH1 expression. Knockdown of FGFR1 suppressed the malignant phenotype of GC cells. High FGFR1 expression significantly correlated with the peritoneal lavage cytology and synchronous PD positivity as well as poor prognosis.
CONCLUSION: High FGFR1 expression was associated with PD via promotion of EMT and led to a poor prognosis of GC patients.

Paranjyothi MV, Kumaraswamy KL, Begum LF, et al.
Tooth agenesis: A susceptible indicator for colorectal cancer?
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018 Apr-Jun; 14(3):527-531 [PubMed] Related Publications
Context/Background: Tooth agenesis (excluding third molars) is a common congenital disorder that affects 2.2-10% of the general population. A number of different genes have been shown to be associated with cases of tooth agenesis including AXIN2, IRF6, FGFR1, MSX1, PAX9, and TGFA. Wingless/integration signaling gene, AXIN2, is linked to tooth agenesis and also to colorectal cancer (CRC).
Aims: To analyze the correlation between tooth agenesis and CRC.
Materials and Methods: The study included 50 individuals, who were divided into two groups. Group A: 25 individuals diagnosed with CRC and Group B: 25 individuals as a control group. The clinical details were recorded using preformed questionnaire, approved by ethical committee. Orthopantomogram was obtained for all the cases and controls.
Results: We observed that 16% of cases and 8% of controls reported having tooth agenesis and there was no statistical significance of difference between them (P = 0.384). Among the study group, 4% reported oligodontia and 12% cases reported hypodontia. In the control group 8% reported hypodontia, there was no incidence of oligodontia. Additional finding in the study group was that 24% cases had fissured tongue which was not seen in the control group.
Conclusion: Individuals with tooth agenesis might have an increased risk for CRC. A larger epidemiological study along with genetic mapping and gene sequencing is necessary to rule out the risk and relationship between tooth agenesis and CRC.

Pekmezci M, Villanueva-Meyer JE, Goode B, et al.
The genetic landscape of ganglioglioma.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ganglioglioma is the most common epilepsy-associated neoplasm that accounts for approximately 2% of all primary brain tumors. While a subset of gangliogliomas are known to harbor the activating p.V600E mutation in the BRAF oncogene, the genetic alterations responsible for the remainder are largely unknown, as is the spectrum of any additional cooperating gene mutations or copy number alterations. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing that provides comprehensive assessment of mutations, gene fusions, and copy number alterations on a cohort of 40 gangliogliomas. Thirty-six harbored mutations predicted to activate the MAP kinase signaling pathway, including 18 with BRAF p.V600E mutation, 5 with variant BRAF mutation (including 4 cases with novel in-frame insertions at p.R506 in the β3-αC loop of the kinase domain), 4 with BRAF fusion, 2 with KRAS mutation, 1 with RAF1 fusion, 1 with biallelic NF1 mutation, and 5 with FGFR1/2 alterations. Three gangliogliomas with BRAF p.V600E mutation had concurrent CDKN2A homozygous deletion and one additionally harbored a subclonal mutation in PTEN. Otherwise, no additional pathogenic mutations, fusions, amplifications, or deletions were identified in any of the other tumors. Amongst the 4 gangliogliomas without canonical MAP kinase pathway alterations identified, one epilepsy-associated tumor in the temporal lobe of a young child was found to harbor a novel ABL2-GAB2 gene fusion. The underlying genetic alterations did not show significant association with patient age or disease progression/recurrence in this cohort. Together, this study highlights that ganglioglioma is characterized by genetic alterations that activate the MAP kinase pathway, with only a small subset of cases that harbor additional pathogenic alterations such as CDKN2A deletion.

Loong HH, Raymond VM, Shiotsu Y, et al.
Clinical Application of Genomic Profiling With Circulating Tumor DNA for Management of Advanced Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer in Asia.
Clin Lung Cancer. 2018; 19(5):e601-e608 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genomic profiling of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a potential alternative to repeat invasive biopsy in patients with advanced cancer. We report the first real-world cohort of comprehensive genomic assessments of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Chinese population.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC whose physician requested ctDNA-based genomic profiling using the Guardant360 platform from January 2016 to June 2017. Guardant360 includes all 4 major types of genomic alterations (point mutations, insertion-deletion alterations, fusions, and amplifications) in 73 genes.
RESULTS: Genomic profiling was performed in 76 patients from Hong Kong during the 18-month study period (median age, 59.5 years; 41 men and 35 women). The histologic types included adenocarcinoma (n = 10), NSCLC, not otherwise specified (n = 58), and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 8). In the adenocarcinoma and NSCLC, not otherwise specified, combined group, 62 of the 68 patients (91%) had variants identified (range, 1-12; median, 3), of whom, 26 (42%) had ≥ 1 of the 7 National Comprehensive Cancer Network-recommended lung adenocarcinoma genomic targets. Concurrent detection of driver and resistance mutations were identified in 6 of 13 patients with EGFR driver mutations and in 3 of 5 patients with EML4-ALK fusions. All 8 patients with squamous cell carcinoma had multiple variants identified (range, 1-20; median, 6), including FGFR1 amplification and ERBB2 (HER2) amplification. PIK3CA amplification occurred in combination with either FGFR1 or ERBB2 (HER2) amplification or alone.
CONCLUSION: Genomic profiling using ctDNA analysis detected alterations in most patients with advanced-stage NSCLC, with targetable aberrations and resistance mechanisms identified. This approach has demonstrated its feasibility in Asia.

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