Gene Summary

Gene:RCVRN; recoverin
Aliases: RCV1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the recoverin family of neuronal calcium sensors. The encoded protein contains three calcium-binding EF-hand domains and may prolong the termination of the phototransduction cascade in the retina by blocking the phosphorylation of photo-activated rhodopsin. Recoverin may be the antigen responsible for cancer-associated retinopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RCVRN (cancer-related)

Yan X, Li F, Dozmorov I, et al.
External Qi of Yan Xin Qigong induces cell death and gene expression alterations promoting apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation, migration and glucose metabolism in small-cell lung cancer cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2012; 363(1-2):245-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant carcinoma with poor long-term survival. Effective treatment remains highly demanded. In the present study, we demonstrated that External Qi of Yan Xin Qigong (YXQ-EQ) exerted potent cytotoxic effect towards SCLC cell line NCI-H82 via induction of apoptosis. Global gene expression profiling identified 39 genes whose expression was altered by YXQ-EQ in NCI-82 cells. Among them, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time qPCR analyses confirmed that the gene expression levels of apoptotic proteins death-associated protein kinase 2 and cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector b were upregulated, whereas that of oncoproteins DEK and MYCL1, cell migration-promoting proteins CD24 and integrin-alpha 9, and glycolytic enzyme aldolase A were downregulated. These findings suggest that YXQ-EQ may exert anticancer effect through modulating gene expression in a way that facilitates cancer cell apoptosis while represses proliferation, metastasis, and glucose metabolism.

Matsuo S, Ohguro H, Ohguro I, Nakazawa M
Clinicopathological roles of aberrantly expressed recoverin in malignant tumor cells.
Ophthalmic Res. 2010; 43(3):139-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) is an ocular manifestation of a paraneoplastic syndrome whereby immunological reactions toward recoverin, a retina-specific calcium binding protein, and other retinal antigens aberrantly expressed in tumor cells are elicited. As a consequence, photoreceptor cell degeneration is induced. To elucidate the pathological role of the aberrantly expressed recoverin, we studied the recoverin expression levels in various malignant tumors and the effects of the expressed recoverin on the sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs.
METHODS: Recoverin expression levels were determined by immunohistochemistry with anti-human recoverin monoclonal antibody on multiple tissue arrays obtained from several lung, stomach, colon and other cancers. In the presence of several anti-cancer drugs, including anti-tumor antibiotics, plant alkaloids and anti-metabolites, cytotoxicity assay was performed using recoverin-positive or recoverin-negative A549 cells originating from human lung adenocarcinoma.
RESULTS: Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that recoverin immunoreactivities were detected at approximately 10-40% of malignant tumor tissues. Cytotoxic effects by anti-cancer drugs were higher in recoverin-positive A549 cells as compared to recoverin-negative cells.
CONCLUSION: The present data may correlate with the previous observation that recoverin-expressing cancer cells induced tumor immunity and a favorable prognosis for primary cancer in CAR patients.

Veena MS, Qin M, Andersson A, et al.
CAR mediates efficient tumor engraftment of mesenchymal type lung cancer cells.
Lab Invest. 2009; 89(8):875-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
The coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a developmentally regulated intercellular adhesion molecule that was previously observed to be required for efficient tumor formation. To confirm that observation, we compared the tumorigenicity of clonally derived test and control cell subsets that were genetically modified for CAR. Silencing CAR in lung cancer cells with high constitutive expression reduced engraftment efficiency. Conversely, overexpressing CAR in lung cancer cells with low constitutive expression did not affect tumor formation or growth kinetics. A blocking antibody to the extracellular domain of CAR inhibited tumor engraftment, implicating that domain as being important to this process. However, differences in adhesion properties attributable to this domain (barrier function and aggregation) could not be distinguished in the test groups in vitro, and the mechanisms underlying CAR's contribution to tumor engraftment remain elusive. Because high CAR cells displayed a spindle-shaped morphology at baseline, we considered whether this expression was an accompaniment of other mesenchymal features in these lung cancer cells. Molecular correlates of CAR were compared in model epithelial and mesenchymal type lung cancer cells. CAR expression is associated with an absence of E-cadherin, diminished expression of alpha- and gamma-catenin, and increased Zeb1, Snail, and vimentin expression in lung cancer cells. In contrast, epithelial type (NCI-H292, Calu3) lung cancer cells show comparatively low CAR expression. These data suggest that if the mesenchymal cell phenotype is an accurate measure of an undifferentiated and invasive state, then CAR expression may be more closely aligned with this phenotype of lung cancer cells.

Testino G, Cornaggia M, Ferrando V
Low- and high-grade non-invasive gastric neoplasia (formerly dysplasia): cytological differentiation (gastro-entero-pancreatic antigens) in association with p53 pattern expression.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2007 Jan-Feb; 54(73):1-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In order to better define the evolutive potentiality of non-invasive neoplasia (formerly dysplasia) a study of the cytological differentiation and of the behavior of p53 in relation to the clinical progress has been performed.
METHODOLOGY: Gastro-entero-pancreatic antigens, p53 and Ki-67 expression were evaluated in 120 cases of epithelial gastric dysplasia: 70 cases of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and 50 cases of high-grade dysplasia (HGD). For the cytological study four antigens were studied: two of them gastric (pepsinogen C, gastric foveolar M1), one enteric (CAR-5) and one pancreatic (DU-PAN-2). Routinely processed tissue sections of a colon carcinoma known to contain mutant p53 were used as positive controls for p53 immunohistochemistry. For Ki-67 immunohistochemistry, routinely processed tissue sections of normal lymph node and tonsil were used as staining controls.
RESULTS: The study of the coexpression of the gastro-entero-pancreatic antigens showed how all cases of non-invasive neoplasia associated with or progressed to gastric carcinoma (GC) were characterized by entero-pancreatic markers and, in particular, in case of LGD p53 expression positivity was evidenced in 66.6% of cases. Ki-67 hyperproliferation is present in 100% of cases.
CONCLUSIONS: The cytological study, only if confirmed by wider casuistries, could represent further information in order to better define the follow-up and the therapeutical decisions in case of non-invasive gastric neoplasia therefore, the immunophenotypic study in association with p53 could lead to more personalized therapeutical choices.

Ni S, Gaggar A, Di Paolo N, et al.
Evaluation of adenovirus vectors containing serotype 35 fibers for tumor targeting.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2006; 13(12):1072-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is growing evidence from in vitro studies that subgroup B adenoviruses (Ad) can overcome the limitations in safety and tumor transduction efficiency seen with commonly used subgroup C serotype 5-based vectors. In this study, we confirm that the expression level of the B-group Ad receptor, CD46, correlates with the grade of malignancy of cervical cancer in situ. We also demonstrate the in vivo properties of Ad5-based vectors that contain the B-group Ad serotype 35 fiber (Ad5/35) in transgenic mice that express CD46 in a pattern and at a level similar to humans. Upon intravenous and intraperitoneal injection, an Ad5/35 vector did not efficiently transduce normal tissue, but was able to target metastatic or intraperitoneal tumors that express CD46 at levels comparable to human tumors. When an oncolytic Ad5/35-based vector was employed, in both tumor models antitumor effects were observed. Furthermore, injection of Ad5/35 vectors into CD46 transgenic mice caused less innate toxicity than Ad5 vectors. Our data demonstrate that Ad vectors that target CD46 offer advantages over Ad5-based vectors for treatment of cancer.

Jankowska R, Witkowska D, Porebska I, et al.
Serum antibodies to retinal antigens in lung cancer and sarcoidosis.
Pathobiology. 2004; 71(6):323-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Autoantibodies to various neuronal proteins frequently accompany lung cancer and their appearance may precede cancer symptoms. In this study we examined which retinal antigens (RAs) are recognized by sera of patients with lung cancer and whether the occurrence of serum antibodies to particular RAs is characteristic for cancer in comparison with a noncancer lung disease.
METHODS: Sera of 72 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 29 with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), 27 with sarcoidosis (S), and sera of 32 healthy donors were examined in immunoblotting using retinal extracts and purified RAs as antigens.
RESULTS: 69.0% of SCLC, 45.8% of NSCLC, and 44.4% of S sera displayed anti-RAs reactivity. Significantly less (p < 0.05; chi(2) test) percent of healthy control sera reacted with RAs. Lung cancer sera recognized mainly 46-, 56-, and 36-kD and to a smaller extent also 96-, 72-, 43-, and 26-kD proteins. Most of them were recognized with about 2-fold lower frequencies by S and control sera. Only lung cancer sera contained very high-titer antibodies to 46- and 26-kD RAs, identified as alpha-enolase and recoverin, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Antibodies to RAs occur more frequently and in higher titers in lung cancer (especially SCLC) than in sarcoidosis or control sera. Although antibodies to retinal alpha-enolase, recoverin and other RAs are present mainly or exclusively in lung cancer sera, none of them seems to be a specific marker of a particular disease.

Sudarshan S, Holman DH, Hyer ML, et al.
In vitro efficacy of Fas ligand gene therapy for the treatment of bladder cancer.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2005; 12(1):12-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous investigations have revealed that bladder cancer cells are generally resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis by conventional Fas agonists. However, the ability of these cell lines to undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis may have been underappreciated. As a result, we investigated the in vitro efficacy of Fas ligand gene therapy for bladder cancer. Three human bladder cancer lines (T24, J82, and 5637) were treated with the conventional Fas agonist CH-11, a monoclonal antibody to the Fas receptor. Cells were also treated with a replication-deficient adenovirus containing a modified murine Fas ligand gene fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), AdGFPFasL. A virus containing the GFP gene alone was used to control for viral toxicity (AdGFP). Cell death was quantified using a tetrazolium-based (MTS) assay. Cells were also evaluated by Western blotting to evaluate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, caspase 8, and caspase 9 cleavage and by flow cytometry to determine the presence of coxsackie/adenovirus receptor (CAR). These studies confirmed bladder cancer resistance to cell death by the anti-Fas monoclonal antibody CH-11. This resistance was overcome with AdGFPFasL at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1000 achieving over 80% cell death in all cell lines. Furthermore, greater than 80% cell death was evident in 5637 cells treated with low-dose AdGFPFasL (MOI=10). 5637 cells expressed significantly higher levels of surface CAR than J82 or T24 cells (P<.05). AdGFPFasL is cytotoxic to bladder cancer cells that would otherwise be considered Fas resistant, supporting its in vivo potential. Enhanced sensitivity to AdGFPFasL may be in part due to increased cell surface CAR levels.

Kalinichenko VV, Major ML, Wang X, et al.
Foxm1b transcription factor is essential for development of hepatocellular carcinomas and is negatively regulated by the p19ARF tumor suppressor.
Genes Dev. 2004; 18(7):830-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Here, we provide evidence that the Forkhead Box (Fox) m1b (Foxm1b or Foxm1) transcription factor is essential for the development of HCC. Conditionally deleted Foxm1b mouse hepatocytes fail to proliferate and are highly resistant to developing HCC in response to a Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)/Phenobarbital (PB) liver tumor-induction protocol. The mechanism of resistance to HCC development is associated with nuclear accumulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1) protein and reduced expression of the Cdk1-activator Cdc25B phosphatase. We showed that the Foxm1b transcription factor is a novel inhibitory target of the p19(ARF) tumor suppressor. Furthermore, we demonstrated that conditional overexpression of Foxm1b protein in osteosarcoma U2OS cells greatly enhances anchorage-independent growth of cell colonies on soft agar. A p19(ARF) 26-44 peptide containing nine D-Arg to enhance cellular uptake of the peptide was sufficient to significantly reduce both Foxm1b transcriptional activity and Foxm1b-induced growth of U2OS cell colonies on soft agar. These results suggest that this (D-Arg)(9)-p19(ARF) 26-44 peptide is a potential therapeutic inhibitor of Foxm1b function during cellular transformation. Our studies demonstrate that the Foxm1b transcription factor is required for proliferative expansion during tumor progression and constitutes a potential new target for therapy of human HCC tumors.

Nettelbeck DM, Rivera AA, Kupsch J, et al.
Retargeting of adenoviral infection to melanoma: combining genetic ablation of native tropism with a recombinant bispecific single-chain diabody (scDb) adapter that binds to fiber knob and HMWMAA.
Int J Cancer. 2004; 108(1):136-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene therapy is an emerging and promising modality for the treatment of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms for which conventional therapies are inadequate. Various therapeutic genes have shown promise for tumor cell killing. However, successful gene therapy depends on the development of efficient and targeted gene transfer vectors. Here we describe a novel strategy for targeting of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to melanoma cells. This strategy combines genetic ablation of native adenoviral tropism with redirected viral binding to melanoma cells via a bispecific adapter molecule, a bacterially expressed single-chain diabody, scDb MelAd, that binds to both the adenoviral fiber protein and to the high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMWMAA). This antigen is widely and specifically expressed on the surface of melanoma cells and its expression is associated with tumor development and progression. Our results showed specific and strong binding of the anti-HMWMAA scFv RAFT3 and the bispecific adapter scDb MelAd to melanoma cells. In adenoviral infection experiments, we demonstrated i) substantially (>50-fold) reduced infectivity of capsid mutant adenoviruses, ii) restored (up to 367-fold increase), CAR-independent and HMWMAA-mediated infectivity of these mutant viruses by scDb MelAd specifically in melanoma cells, and iii) higher levels of transgene expression in melanoma cells by fiber mutant virus complexed with scDbMelAd, relative to a vector with wild-type fibers. We confirmed the utility of this targeting strategy with human primary melanoma cells that represent clinically relevant substrates. These experiments established that the retargeting strategy mediates up to 54-fold increased adenoviral gene transfer to CAR-negative melanoma cells compared to the vector with native tropism. Hence, the HMWMAA-targeted adenoviral vector lacking native tropism exhibits both enhanced specificity and augmented infectivity of gene transfer to melanoma cells, suggesting that it is feasible to use this vector to improve gene therapy for malignant melanoma.

Fueyo J, Alemany R, Gomez-Manzano C, et al.
Preclinical characterization of the antiglioma activity of a tropism-enhanced adenovirus targeted to the retinoblastoma pathway.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95(9):652-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oncolytic adenoviruses are promising therapies for the treatment of gliomas. However, untargeted viral replication and the paucity of coxsackie-adenovirus receptors (CARs) on tumor cells are major stumbling blocks for adenovirus-based treatment. We studied the antiglioma activity of the tumor-selective Delta-24 adenovirus, which encompasses an early 1 A adenoviral (E1A) deletion in the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein-binding region, and of the Delta-24-RGD adenovirus. Delta-24-RGD has an RGD-4C peptide motif inserted into the adenoviral fiber, which allows the adenovirus to anchor directly to integrins.
METHODS: CAR and integrin expression were examined by flow cytometry in six glioma cell lines and in normal human astrocytes (NHAs). Adenoviral vectors containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (AdGFP and AdGFP-RGD) were used to infect glioma cell lines with high or low CAR expression. Viability of glioma cells infected with different adenoviruses was assessed by trypan blue staining. Adenovirus replication was quantified with the infection-dose replication assay. Athymic mice carrying glioma xenografts received intratumoral injections of Delta-24-RGD or Delta-24 and were followed for survival, which was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Half the glioma cell lines expressed low levels of CAR (defined as <50% of cells expressing detectable CAR); all lines expressed integrins in more than 50% of cells. Infection of U-87 MG cells (a low-CAR-expressing line) with AdGFP-RGD resulted in approximately six times more GFP-positive cells than infection with AdGFP. Delta-24-RGD was more cytopathic to both low- and high-CAR-expressing glioma lines than Delta-24, and it replicated more efficiently in both cell lines. In the xenografted mice, intratumoral injection of Delta-24-RGD was associated with longer survival than intratumoral injection of Delta-24 (P<.001, log-rank test). Furthermore, 60% of Delta-24-RGD-treated mice but only 15% of Delta-24-treated mice survived more than 4 months (difference = 45%, 95% CI = 21% to 68%).
CONCLUSIONS: The antitumor activity of Delta-24-RGD suggests that it has the potential to be an effective agent in the treatment of gliomas.

Brüning A, Runnebaum IB
CAR is a cell-cell adhesion protein in human cancer cells and is expressionally modulated by dexamethasone, TNFalpha, and TGFbeta.
Gene Ther. 2003; 10(3):198-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
The coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) has become of interest for gene therapy due to its crucial function in adenoviral cell entry. In clinical trials with adenoviral vectors, dexamethasone is applied to reduce side effects such as inflammatory reactions or emesis. By using a beta-galactosidase-expressing adenovirus (AdGal), we observed that dexamethasone treatment resulted in decreased adenoviral gene transfer into human cancer cells. Expression of CAR and integrin alpha5beta1 was transcriptionally downregulated by dexamethasone as shown for HeLa cervical cancer cells and U87MG glioblastoma cells. TNFalpha increased CAR expression in HeLa and ovarian cancer cells but decreased CAR expression in U87MG cells. In all tested cancer cell lines, TNFalpha induced a significant increase in the expression of adenovirus-binding integrins alpha5beta1, alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5. Pretreatment with TNFalpha increased AdGal gene transfer into cancer cells and enhanced the cytotoxic effect of a p53-expressing adenovirus. In contrast, TGFbeta reduced CAR expression level and adenoviral gene transfer into OV-UL-2 ovarian cancer cells. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis revealed localization of CAR at cell-cell adhesions in several human cancer cell lines and disruption of cell-cell contacts increased adenoviral gene transfer into human cancer cells. In clinical cancer gene therapy, efficiency of adenoviral gene delivery could be altered by cell adhesion, TNFalpha, TGFbeta, and dexamethasone.

Turturro F, Arnold MD, Frist AY, Seth P
Effects of adenovirus-mediated expression of p27Kip1, p21Waf1 and p16INK4A in cell lines derived from t(2;5) anaplastic large cell lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2002; 43(6):1323-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the response of SUDHL-1 and L428 cells, derived from t(2;5)-anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and Hodgkin's disease (HD), respectively, to recombinant adenoviruses expressing cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p27Kip1 (Adp27), p21Waf1 (Adp21) and p16INK4A (Adp16). Cell cycle analysis of SUDHL-1 cells after 24 h of infection with 200 multiplicity of infection (MOI) of Adp27, Adp21, and Adp16, showed very high levels of cell debris in the subG1 area. The magnitude of cell debris-events was Adp27/Adp21 > Adp16. Cell cycle analysis of L428 cells revealed absence of cell debris and increased G2 phase in all the groups of cells tested as compared to the controls (mock and AdNull). A minimal increase in G1 phase was also evident in cells infected with Adp27 (52%) compared to uninfected cells (43%), AdNull (45%) and to cells infected with Adp21 (37%) and Adp16 (31%). The presence of significant levels of Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) on the cell surface of L428 cells excluded the cell membrane-barrier as responsible for the differences in cell observed in response to the recombinant adenovirus-mediated CDKIs expression as compared to SUDHL-1. We also showed that the recombinant adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity measured as apoptosis was MOI- and vector-dependent in SUDHL-1 cells at lower MOI (100). In conclusion, the therapeutic effect induced by recombinant adenoviruses expressing p27Kip1, p21Waf1 and p16INK4A is cell-dependent in cells derived from selected lymphoid malignancies. Biochemical cellular differences more than cell surface barriers seem to be responsible for differences in response to recombinant adenovirus-mediated expression of cytotoxic genes. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of recombinant adenoviruses expressing p27Kip1, p21Waf1 and p16INK4A may be further explored as a tool for gene therapy of t(2;5)-derived ALCL.

Wiechmann AF
Recoverin in cultured human retinoblastoma cells: enhanced expression during morphological differentiation.
J Neurochem. 1996; 67(1):105-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recoverin is a calcium-binding protein expressed in retinal photoreceptors. It appears to delay the termination of the phototransduction cascade by blocking the phosphorylation of photoexcited rhodopsin. The goal of this study was to determine if recoverin mRNA and protein are expressed in cultured human Y79 retinoblastoma cells, so that this cell line could be used as a model to study the mechanism of recoverin gene expression in the retina. A cDNA encoding human recoverin was PCR cloned and used for prokaryotic expression of recoverin protein. Polyclonal antibodies raised against pure recombinant recoverin were used for western blotting and immunocytochemistry of Y79 cells grown as attachment cultures in the presence of the differentiating agents dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) or butyrate. Northern blot analysis was performed on mRNA extracted from Y79 cells that were also treated with the differentiating agents. In Y79 cell monolayer cultures, recoverin was immunolocalized to the cell cytoplasm, and immunoreactivity was increased dramatically by the addition of 2 mM butyrate to the culture medium. Butyrate treatment also caused an increase in the development of neurite-like cellular processes. Addition of 4 mM dbcAMP resulted in a moderate increase in both recoverin immunoreactivity and number of cellular processes. Western and northern blots of butyrate and dbcAMP-treated Y79 cell cultures demonstrated an increase in recoverin protein and RNA expression, respectively, comparable with that observed with immunocytochemistry. These data suggest that, under the influence of the differentiating agent butyrate, Y79 cells exhibit an increase in expression of the photoreceptor protein recoverin and a concomitant morphological differentiation toward a neuronal phenotype.

Yamaji Y, Matsubara S, Yamadori I, et al.
Characterization of a small-cell-lung-carcinoma cell line from a patient with cancer-associated retinopathy.
Int J Cancer. 1996; 65(5):671-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We examined the biologic properties of a small-cell-lung-carcinoma (SCLC) cell line (designated MN-1112) established from a patient with SCLC who showed paraneoplastic retinopathy syndrome. Morphologic and immunocytochemical analyses showed that MN-1112 cells possess features of the classic type of SCLC. MN-1112 cells grew in suspension forming relatively large clumps of cells with a doubling time of 72 hr. By light-microscope examination, the cells were relatively small and had scanty cytoplasm. The cells produced NSE, ACTH and CK (BB isozyme); they also expressed recoverin, a novel photoreceptor protein, detected by Northern-blot and Western-immunoblot analysis using human-recoverin-specific DNA probe and anti-bovine-recoverin polyclonal antibody. This report shows that human recoverin is expressed in cultured SCLC cells. Our results support the hypothesis that, in cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) patients, auto-immune antibody targeting for ectopic recoverin in SCLC is initially produced and cross-reacts with the retinal protein, resulting in the retinal degeneration that occurs in CAR patients.

Solcia E, Fiocca R, Luinetti O, et al.
Intestinal and diffuse gastric cancers arise in a different background of Helicobacter pylori gastritis through different gene involvement.
Am J Surg Pathol. 1996; 20 Suppl 1:S8-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Investigation of extensively sampled nontumor gastric mucosa from 205 early gastric cancers showed Helicobacter pylori colonization in 85% of cases, including 100% of diffuse and 78% (83% in 97 cases with Swiss rolls) of glandular or mixed cancers. Intestinal metaplasia, including its type III variant, was prominent in the mucosa associated with glandular and mixed (but not diffuse) early cancers. Both glandular (usually called "intestinal") and diffuse-type cancers showed admixtures of intestinal and gastric tumor cell phenotypes. Both p53 gene mutations and p53 protein immunostaining were essentially restricted to glandular or mixed cancers and associated dysplastic lesions. Their appearance in the advanced stage of diffuse cancer was partly due to a change of the histologic pattern from glandular to diffuse during progression of some tumors. Loss of laminin, beta I integrin, or zonula adherens junctions was a common finding in both early and advanced diffuse cancer. It is concluded that two main pathways operate in gastric carcinogenesis, both starting from H. pylori gastritis and both leading to phenotypically variable, often mixed gastric/intestinal tumor growth. However, only one of the two pathways involves intestinal metaplasia, its type III variant, p53 gene alteration, and dysplasia to end in glandular cancer. In the other pathway, diffuse cancer apparently arises directly from hyperplastic, sometimes atypical necks of mostly nonmetaplastic gastric glands, through primary involvement of genes affecting cell-cell and cell-matrix junctional proteins.

McGinnis JF, Austin B, Klisak I, et al.
Chromosomal assignment of the human gene for the cancer-associated retinopathy protein (recoverin) to chromosome 17p13.1.
J Neurosci Res. 1995; 40(2):165-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gene for the mouse recoverin protein (23 kDa photoreceptor-specific protein, S-modulin, or the Cancer-Associated Retinopathy protein) was recently assigned to mouse chromosome 11, closely linked to trp53. In this paper, the human gene for recoverin was localized to human chromosome 17 by Southern analysis of restriction digests of the DNA from mouse/human somatic cell hybrids. Using a 7 kb subclone of the human recoverin gene, a positive fluorescence in situ hybridization signal was demonstrated near the terminus of the short arm of chromosome 17 at position p13.1. The mapping of recoverin to this region of human chromosome 17, which contains a number of cancer-related loci, suggests a possible mechanism by which cancer-associated retinopathy occurs in humans.

Thirkill CE, Tait RC, Tyler NK, et al.
The cancer-associated retinopathy antigen is a recoverin-like protein.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992; 33(10):2768-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) is a rare form of retinal degeneration that occurs in association with certain forms of cancer. CAR patients typically possess high titers of autoantibodies against a specific photoreceptor protein--the 23 kD retinal CAR antigen. The mechanisms involved in the vision loss experienced by CAR patients are not understood, but serologic studies indicate the process could include a series of autoimmune reactions directed at specific components of the retina. Because the retinal CAR antigen is the principal ocular autoantigen involved in the antibody response of CAR patients, characterizing it would contribute to the understanding of putative autoimmune involvement. Serum antibodies from CAR patients have been used to isolate the gene encoding the CAR antigen from a cDNA library of human retina. Nucleotide sequence analysis suggests that the CAR antigen shows approximately 90% homology to the published amino acid sequence of bovine recoverin.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. RCVRN, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/RCVRN.htm Accessed:

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