Gene Summary

Gene:NAT1; N-acetyltransferase 1
Aliases: AAC1, MNAT, NATI, NAT-1
Summary:This gene is one of two arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) genes in the human genome, and is orthologous to the mouse and rat Nat2 genes. The enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to various arylamine and hydrazine substrates. This enzyme helps metabolize drugs and other xenobiotics, and functions in folate catabolism. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Breast Cancer
  • Chromosome 8
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • NAT1
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Postmenopause
  • Transcription
  • DNA Adducts
  • Carcinogens
  • Alleles
  • Genotype
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Small Molecule Libraries
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Acetylation
  • Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Acetyltransferases
  • Diet
  • Isoenzymes
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genetic Variation
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
  • Risk Factors
  • Lung Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • Phenotype
  • Meat
  • Odds Ratio
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Xanthines
  • Case-Control Studies
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NAT1 (cancer-related)

Savci-Heijink CD, Halfwerk H, Hooijer GKJ, et al.
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition status of primary breast carcinomas and its correlation with metastatic behavior.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 174(3):649-659 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as an important step in the development of distant metastases. We therefore wished to study EMT status of primary breast carcinomas from patients who during follow-up developed distant metastases.
METHODS: mRNA expression profiles of primary breast carcinoma samples (n = 151) from patients who developed metastatic disease were analyzed and EMT status was designated using a previously described EMT-core signature. EMT status of the primary tumor was correlated to clinicopathological characteristics, molecular subtypes, metastasis pattern, chemotherapy response and survival outcomes. In addition, using immunohistochemistry, the expression levels of several proteins implicated in EMT were studied (CDH1, CDH2, NAT1, SNAI2, TWIST1, VIM, and ZEB1) compared with the designated EMT status and survival.
RESULTS: Utilizing the 130-gene-EMT-core signature, 66.2% of the primary tumors in the current study was assessed as EMT-activated. In contrast to our expectations, analyses revealed that 84.6% of Luminal A tumors, 65.1% of Luminal B tumors, and 55.6% of HER2-like had an activated EMT status, compared to only 25% of the basal-type tumors (p < 0.001). EMT status was not correlated to the pattern of metastatic disease, metastasis-specific survival, and overall survival. Similarly, there was not a significant association between EMT status of the primary tumor and chemotherapy response in the metastatic setting. Immunostaining for NAT1 and TWIST1 correlated with the EMT status (p 0.003 and p 0.047, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed that NAT1 and TWIST1 staining was significantly associated with EMT status regardless of the estrogen receptor status of the tumors (p values: 0.020 and 0.027, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The EMT status of breast cancers, as defined by the presence of a core EMT gene expression signature is associated with non-basal-type tumors, but not with the pattern of distant metastasis. Of several potential immunohistochemical EMT markers, only NAT1 and TWIST1 expression levels were associated with the gene expression-based EMT status.

Gerashchenko TS, Denisov EV, Novikov NM, et al.
Different morphological structures of breast tumors demonstrate individual drug resistance gene expression profiles.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(3):228-234 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To identify gene expression profiles involved in drug resistance of different morphological structures (tubular, alveolar, solid, trabecular, and discrete) presented in breast cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with luminal breast cancer have been included. A laser microdissection-assisted microarrays and qRT-PCR were used to perform whole-transcriptome profiling of different morphological structures, to select differentially expressed drug response genes, and to validate their expression.
RESULTS: We found 27 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05) encoding drug uptake (SLC1A3, SLC23A2, etc.) and efflux (ABCC1, ABCG1, etc.) transporters, drug targets (TOP2A, TYMS, and Tubb3), and proteins that are involved in drug detoxification (NAT1 and ALDH1B1), cell cycle progression (CCND1, AKT1, etc.), apoptosis (CASP3, TXN2, etc.), and DNA repair (BRCA1 and USP11). Each type of structures showed an individual gene expression profile related to resistance and sensitivity to anticancer drugs. However, most of the genes (19/27; p < 0.05) were expressed in alveolar structures. Functional enrichment analysis showed that drug resistance is significantly associated with alveolar structures. Other structures demonstrated the similar number (10-13 out of 27) of expressed genes; however, the spectrum of resistance and sensitivity to different anticancer drugs varied.
CONCLUSION: Different morphological structures of breast cancer show individual expression of drug resistance genes.

Minchin RF, Butcher NJ
Trimodal distribution of arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 mRNA in breast cancer tumors: association with overall survival and drug resistance.
BMC Genomics. 2018; 19(1):513 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a drug metabolizing enzyme that has been associated with cancer cell proliferation in vitro and with survival in vivo. NAT1 expression has been associated with the estrogen receptor and it has been proposed as a prognostic marker for estrogen receptor positive cancers. However, little is known about the distribution of NAT1 mRNA across an entire patient population or its effects on outcomes. To address this, gene expression data from breast cancer patient cohorts were investigated to identify sub-populations based on the level of NAT1 expression. Patient survival and drug response was examined to determine whether NAT1 mRNA levels influenced any of these parameters.
RESULTS: NAT1 expression showed a trimodal distribution in breast cancer samples (n = 1980) but not in tumor tissue from ovarian, prostate, cervical or colorectal cancers. In breast cancer, NAT1 mRNA in each sub-population correlated with a separate set of genes suggesting different mechanisms of NAT1 gene regulation. Kaplan-Meier plots showed significantly better survival in patients with highest NAT1 mRNA compared to those with intermediate or low expression. While NAT1 expression was elevated in estrogen receptor-positive patients, it did not appear to be dependent on estrogen receptor expression. Overall survival was analyzed in patients receiving no treatment, hormone therapy or chemotherapy. NAT1 expression correlated strongly with survival in the first 5 years in those patients receiving chemotherapy but did not influence survival in the other two groups. This suggests that low NAT1 expression is associated with chemo-resistance. The sensitivity of NAT1 mRNA levels as a single parameter to identify non-responders to chemotherapy was 0.58 at a log(2) < 6.5.
CONCLUSIONS: NAT1 mRNA can be used to segregate breast cancer patients into sub-populations that demonstrate different overall survival. Moreover, low NAT1 expression shows a distinct poor response to chemotherapy. Analysis of NAT1 expression may be useful for identifying specific individuals who would benefit from alternative therapy or drug combinations. However, additional information is required to increase the sensitivity of identifying non-responders.

Áyen Á, Jiménez Martínez Y, Marchal JA, Boulaiz H
Recent Progress in Gene Therapy for Ovarian Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy in developed countries. This is due to the lack of specific symptoms that hinder early diagnosis and to the high relapse rate after treatment with radical surgery and chemotherapy. Hence, novel therapeutic modalities to improve clinical outcomes in ovarian malignancy are needed. Progress in gene therapy has allowed the development of several strategies against ovarian cancer. Most are focused on the design of improved vectors to enhance gene delivery on the one hand, and, on the other hand, on the development of new therapeutic tools based on the restoration or destruction of a deregulated gene, the use of suicide genes, genetic immunopotentiation, the inhibition of tumour angiogenesis, the alteration of pharmacological resistance, and oncolytic virotherapy. In the present manuscript, we review the recent advances made in gene therapy for ovarian cancer, highlighting the latest clinical trials experience, the current challenges and future perspectives.

Carlisle SM, Trainor PJ, Doll MA, et al.
Knockout of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells leads to increased reserve capacity, maximum mitochondrial capacity, and glycolytic reserve capacity.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(11):1458-1466 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme found in almost all tissues. NAT1 can also hydrolyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the absence of an arylamine substrate. Expression of NAT1 varies between individuals and is elevated in several cancers including estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. To date, however, the exact mechanism by which NAT1 expression affects mitochondrial bioenergetics in breast cancer cells has not been described. To further evaluate the role of NAT1 in energy metabolism MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with parental, increased, and knockout levels of NAT1 activity were compared for bioenergetics profile. Basal oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) were measured followed by programmed sequential injection of Oligomycin (ATP synthase inhibitor), FCCP (ETC uncoupler), Antimycin A (Complex III inhibitor), and Rotenone (Complex I inhibitor) to evaluate mitochondrial bioenergetics. Compared to the cell lines with parental NAT1 activity, NAT1 knockout MDA-MB-231 cell lines exhibited significant differences in bioenergetics profile, while those with increased NAT1 did not. Significant increases in reserve capacity, maximum mitochondrial capacity, and glycolytic reserve capacity were observed in NAT1 knockout MDA-MB-231 cell lines compared to those with parental and increased NAT1 activity. These data indicate that NAT1 knockout in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells may enhance adaptation to stress by increasing plasticity in response to energy demand.

Carlisle SM, Hein DW
Retrospective analysis of estrogen receptor 1 and N‑acetyltransferase gene expression in normal breast tissue, primary breast tumors, and established breast cancer cell lines.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):694-702 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The expression levels of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), arylamine N‑acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1), and arylamine N‑acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) are implicated in breast cancer; however, their co-expression profiles in normal breast tissue, primary breast tumors and established breast cancer cell lines are undefined. NAT1 expression is widely reported to be associated with ESR1 expression and is frequently investigated in breast cancer etiology. Furthermore, the NAT2 phenotype has been reported to modify breast cancer risk in molecular epidemiological association studies. Understanding the relationships between the expression levels of these genes is essential to understand their role in breast cancer etiology and treatment. In the present study, NAT1, NAT2 and ESR1 expression data were accessed from repositories of RNA‑Seq data covering 57 breast cancer cell lines, 1,043 primary breast tumors and 99 normal breast tissues. The relationships between gene expression, and between NAT1 activity and RNA expression in breast cancer cell lines were evaluated using non-parametric statistical analyses. Differences in gene expression in each dataset, as well as gene expression differences in normal breast tissue compared to primary breast tumors, and stratification by estrogen receptor status were determined. NAT1 and NAT2 mRNA expression were detected in normal and primary breast tumor tissues; NAT1 expression was much higher than NAT2. NAT1 and ESR1 expression were strongly associated, whereas NAT2 and ESR1 expression were not. Although NAT1 and NAT2 expression were associated, the magnitude was moderate. NAT1, NAT2, and ESR1 expression were increased in primary breast tumor tissue compared with normal breast tissue; however, the magnitude and significance of the differences were lower for NAT2. Analysis of NAT1, NAT2, and ESR1 expression in normal and primary breast tissues and breast cancer cell lines suggested that NAT1 and NAT2 expression are regulated by distinctive mechanisms, whereas NAT1 and ESR1 expression may have overlapping regulation. Defining these relationships is important for future investigations into breast cancer prevention.

Jiménez G, Hackenberg M, Catalina P, et al.
Mesenchymal stem cell's secretome promotes selective enrichment of cancer stem-like cells with specific cytogenetic profile.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 429:78-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis and cancer recurrence, however the involvement of microenvironment is crucial. Here, we have analyzed how human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived conditioned medium (CM) affect colon and melanoma CSCs enrichment and maintenance. Our results strongly suggest that the secretome of CM-MSCs selects and maintains subpopulations with high expression of CSCs markers and ALDH1 activity, low proliferation rates with G1 phase arrest, and notably retain in vivo these properties. Cytogenetic analyses indicated that CM-cultured cells contain alterations in chromosome 17 (17q25). Subsequent SKY-FISH analyses suggested that genes located in 17q25 might be involved in stem-cell maintenance. The characterization of secreted proteins present in CM-MSCs revealed that four cytokines and seven growth factors are directly linked to the CSCs enrichment reported in this study. Further analyses revealed that the combination of just IL6 and HGF is enough to provide cancer cells with better stemness properties. In conclusion, this study demonstrates how specific chromosomal alterations present in CSCs subpopulations might represent an advantage for their in vitro maintenance and in vivo stemness properties.

Pál I, Illés Á, Gergely L, et al.
The Impact of Drug Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms on Therapeutic Response and Survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients.
Isr Med Assoc J. 2018; 20(4):217-221 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for 30% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and 80% of agressive lymphomas. Besides the traditional International Prognostic Index (IPI), some other factors may also influence the prognosis of DLBCL patients.
OBJECTIVES: To study how the genetic polymorphisms in the metabolic pathway influence the event-free and overall survivals and therapeutic responses in DLBCL.
METHODS: The study was comprised of 51 patients (32 men, 19 women). The average age was 53.1 years. DLBCL was diagnosed between 2011 and 2016 and the average follow-up time was 3.78 years. These patients received 1-8 cycles (an average of 6.2 cycles) of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristin, prednisolon (R-CHOP) immunochemotherapy. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTP1, NAT1, and NAT2 genes.
RESULTS: Our results showed that the polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTP1, and NAT1 genes did not influence the prognosis of DLBCL patients significantly. In terms of the NAT2 gene, GG homozygous patients showed slightly better therapeutic response and survival results compared to those bearing an A allele; however, the differences were not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results could not confirm that genetic polymorphism in metabolic pathways has any predictive role in DLBCL.

Zhang X, Carlisle SM, Doll MA, et al.
High N-Acetyltransferase 1 Expression Is Associated with Estrogen Receptor Expression in Breast Tumors, but Is not Under Direct Regulation by Estradiol, 5
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018; 365(1):84-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is an enzyme that metabolizes carcinogens, which suggests a potential role in breast carcinogenesis. High

Stepp MW, Doll MA, Carlisle SM, et al.
Genetic and small molecule inhibition of arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 reduces anchorage-independent growth in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(4):549-558 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) expression is reported to affect proliferation, invasiveness, and growth of cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were engineered such that NAT1 expression was elevated or suppressed, or treated with a small molecule inhibitor of NAT1. The MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines were engineered with a scrambled shRNA, a NAT1 specific shRNA or a NAT1 overexpression cassette stably integrated into a single flippase recognition target (FRT) site facilitating incorporation of these different genetic elements into the same genomic location. NAT1-specific shRNA reduced NAT1 activity in vitro by 39%, increased endogenous acetyl coenzyme A levels by 35%, and reduced anchorage-independent growth (sevenfold) without significant effects on cell morphology, growth rates, anchorage-dependent colony formation, or invasiveness compared to the scrambled shRNA cell line. Despite 12-fold overexpression of NAT1 activity in the NAT1 overexpression cassette transfected MDA-MB-231 cell line, doubling time, anchorage-dependent cell growth, anchorage-independent cell growth, and relative invasiveness were not changed significantly when compared to the scrambled shRNA cell line. A small molecule (5E)-[5-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodobenzylidene)-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (5-HDST) was 25-fold more selective towards the inhibition of recombinant human NAT1 than N-acetyltransferase 2. Incubation of MDA-MB-231 cell line with 5-HDST resulted in 60% reduction in NAT1 activity and significant decreases in cell growth, anchorage-dependent growth, and anchorage-independent growth. In summary, inhibition of NAT1 activity by either shRNA or 5-HDST reduced anchorage-independent growth in the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. These findings suggest that human NAT1 could serve as a target for the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer.

Hernández-González O, Ortiz-Zamudio JJ, Rodríguez-Pinal CJ, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of arylamine N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2 and the likelihood of developing pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2018; 59(8):1968-1975 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the main causes of death in children and is associated with both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Genes encoding the arylamine N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) isoenzymes are highly polymorphic among populations. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction from the genomic DNA of 225 healthy subjects and 57 children with ALL diagnoses. Significant associations were found between the development of ALL and the presence of the haplotypes NAT1*3 (Odds ratio [OR], 2.1), NAT1*4 (OR, 1.92), NAT2*6B (OR, 3.30), NAT2*6J (OR, 3.25) and NAT2*7A (OR, 2.45) and the NAT1 rapid (OR, 6.69) and NAT2 slow phenotypes (OR, 2.95). Our results indicate that haplotypes that provide rapid NAT1 and slow NAT2 acetylating phenotypes may influence the development of ALL in children.

Hein DW, Zhang X, Doll MA
Role of N-acetyltransferase 2 acetylation polymorphism in 4, 4'-methylene bis (2-chloroaniline) biotransformation.
Toxicol Lett. 2018; 283:100-105 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2) catalyze the acetylation of arylamine carcinogens. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NAT2 coding exon present in NAT2 haplotypes encode allozymes with reduced N-acetyltransferase activity towards the N-acetylation of arylamine carcinogens and the O-acetylation of their N-hydroxylated metabolites. NAT2 acetylator phenotype modifies urinary bladder cancer risk following exposures to arylamine carcinogens such as 4-aminobiphenyl. 4, 4'-methylene bis (2-chloroaniline) (MOCA) is a Group 1 carcinogen for which a role of the NAT2 acetylation polymorphism on cancer risk is unknown. We investigated the role of NAT2 and the genetic acetylation polymorphism on both MOCA N-acetylation and N-hydroxy-MOCA O-acetylation. MOCA N-acetylation exhibited a robust gene dose response in rabbit liver cytosol and in cryopreserved human hepatocytes derived from individuals of rapid, intermediate and slow acetylator NAT2 genotype. MOCA exhibited about 4-fold higher affinity for recombinant human NAT2 than NAT1. Recombinant human NAT2*4 (reference) and 15 variant recombinant human NAT2 allozymes catalyzed both the N-acetylation of MOCA and the O-acetylation of N-hydroxy-MOCA. Human NAT2 5, NAT2 6, NAT2 7 and NAT2 14 allozymes catalyzed MOCA N-acetylation and N-hydroxy-O-acetylation at rates much lower than the reference NAT2 4 allozyme. In conclusion, our results show that NAT2 acetylator genotype has an important role in MOCA metabolism and suggest that risk assessments related to MOCA exposures consider accounting for NAT2 acetylator phenotype in the analysis.

Feki-Tounsi M, Khlifi R, Louati I, et al.
Polymorphisms in XRCC1, ERCC2, and ERCC3 DNA repair genes, CYP1A1 xenobiotic metabolism gene, and tobacco are associated with bladder cancer susceptibility in Tunisian population.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017; 24(28):22476-22484 [PubMed] Related Publications
Other than the established environmental risk factors associated with bladder cancer (BC), little is known about the genetic variations determining the individual susceptibility of this complex disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of BC with environmental agents and polymorphisms in XRCC1, ERCC2, and ERCC3 DNA repair genes and CYP1A1, CYP2D6, NAT1, and NAT2 xenobiotic metabolism genes through a hospital-based case-control study in Tunisia. The selection of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs25487, rs 13181, rs415407, rs446421, rs1058172, rs4921880, and rs1208) was performed using the dbSNP database. DNA genotyping was determined by PCR-RFLP after DNA extraction from whole blood. The risks of BC associated with every polymorphism as well as the studied environmental factors were estimated by multivariate-adjusted logistic regression using R software. In addition, gene-gene interactions were analyzed using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) methods. Results showed that tobacco smoking and chewing parameters were significantly associated with BC risk. Single-gene variant analysis showed significant associations of the TT genotype of CYP1A1 and the rare GG genotype of ERCC2 with bladder cancer susceptibility (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.22-1.40, P < 0.0001). According to GMDR analysis, our findings indicated a significant association between BC and gene-gene interaction among the CYP1A1, ERCC3, and XRCC1. The present results suggest a potential role of XRCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, and CYP1A1 besides tobacco intake in susceptibility to BC.

Kamiza AB, You JF, Wang WC, et al.
Polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing genes and colorectal cancer risk in patients with lynch syndrome: A retrospective cohort study in Taiwan.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2018; 59(1):69-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) are crucial for metabolism and clearance of xenobiotics. This study investigated whether CYP, GST, and NAT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with Lynch syndrome. The interaction between these SNPs and cigarette smoking or meat consumption was also explored. We identified 270 patients with Lynch syndrome from the Taiwan Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Consortium. A weighted Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs). The GSTA1 rs3957356 TT (HR = 5.36, 95% CI = 2.39-12.0) and CYP1B1 rs1056836 CC (HR = 7.24, 95% CI = 3.51-14.9) were significantly associated with CRC risk when compared to wild-type CC and GG genotypes, respectively. However, the CYP1A1 rs4646903 CC genotype significantly reduced the risk of CRC (HR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.12-0.89) when compared to TT genotype. Moreover, significant interactions were observed between NAT1 acetylation and CYP1B1 rs1056827 and meat consumption.Our results suggest that xenobiotic-metabolizing SNPs are not only associated with CRC risk in patients with Lynch syndrome in Taiwan but also interact with meat consumption to modify the disease risk. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:69-78, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Silvestri V, Zelli V, Valentini V, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing and targeted gene sequencing provide insights into the role of PALB2 as a male breast cancer susceptibility gene.
Cancer. 2017; 123(2):210-218 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease whose etiology appears to be largely associated with genetic factors. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations account for about 10% of all MBC cases. Thus, a fraction of MBC cases are expected to be due to genetic factors not yet identified. To further explain the genetic susceptibility for MBC, whole-exome sequencing (WES) and targeted gene sequencing were applied to high-risk, BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MBC cases.
METHODS: Germ-line DNA of 1 male and 2 female BRCA1/2 mutation-negative breast cancer (BC) cases from a pedigree showing a first-degree family history of MBC was analyzed with WES. Targeted gene sequencing for the validation of WES results was performed for 48 high-risk, BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MBC cases from an Italian multicenter study of MBC. A case-control series of 433 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MBC and female breast cancer (FBC) cases and 849 male and female controls was included in the study.
RESULTS: WES in the family identified the partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2) c.419delA truncating mutation carried by the proband, her father, and her paternal uncle (all affected with BC) and the N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) c.97C>T nonsense mutation carried by the proband's maternal aunt. Targeted PALB2 sequencing detected the c.1984A>T nonsense mutation in 1 of the 48 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MBC cases. NAT1 c.97C>T was not found in the case-control series.
CONCLUSIONS: These results add strength to the evidence showing that PALB2 is involved in BC risk for both sexes and indicate that consideration should be given to clinical testing of PALB2 for BRCA1/2 mutation-negative families with multiple MBC and FBC cases. Cancer 2017;123:210-218. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

Savci-Heijink CD, Halfwerk H, Koster J, van de Vijver MJ
A novel gene expression signature for bone metastasis in breast carcinomas.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 156(2):249-59 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Metastatic cancer remains the leading cause of death for patients with breast cancer. To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of distant metastases to specific sites is therefore important and of potential clinical value. From 157 primary breast tumours of the patients with known metastatic disease, gene expression profiling data were generated and correlated to metastatic behaviour including site-specific metastasis, metastasis pattern and survival outcomes. We analysed gene expression signatures specifically associated with the development of bone metastases. As a validation cohort, we used a published dataset of 376 breast carcinomas for which gene expression data and site-specific metastasis information were available. 80.5 % of luminal-type tumours developed bone metastasis as opposed to 41.7 % of basal and 55.6 % of HER2-like tumours. A novel 15-gene signature identified 82.4 % of the tumours with bone metastasis, 85.2 % of the tumours which had bone metastasis as first site of metastasis and 100 % of the ones with bone metastasis only (p 9.99e-09), in the training set. In the independent dataset, 81.2 % of the positive tested tumours had known metastatic disease to the bone (p 4.28e-10). This 15-gene signature showed much better correlation with the development of bone metastases than previously identified signatures and was predictive in both ER-positive as well as in ER-negative tumours. Multivariate analyses revealed that together with the molecular subtype, our 15-gene expression signature was significantly correlated to bone metastasis status (p <0.001, 95 % CI 3.86-48.02 in the training set; p 0.001, 95 % CI 1.54-5.00 in the independent set). The 15 genes, APOPEC3B, ATL2, BBS1, C6orf61, C6orf167, MMS22L, KCNS1, MFAP3L, NIP7, NUP155, PALM2, PH-4, PGD5, SFT2D2 and STEAP3, encoded mainly membrane-bound molecules with molecular function of protein binding. The expression levels of the up-regulated genes (NAT1, BBS1 and PH-4) were also found to be correlated to epithelial to mesenchymal transition status of the tumour. We have identified a novel 15-gene expression signature associated with the development of bone metastases in breast cancer patients. This bone metastasis signature is the first to be identified using a supervised classification approach in a large series of patients and will help forward research in this area towards clinical applications.

An Y, Li H, Wang KJ, et al.
Meta-analysis of the relationship between slow acetylation of N-acetyl transferase 2 and the risk of bladder cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):16896-904 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of bladder cancer is closely associated with exposure to aromatic amines, that can cause cancer only after metabolic activation regulated by N-acetyl transferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2). Many studies have indicated that slow acetylation of NAT2 increases the risk of bladder cancer. The major risk factor is tobacco smoke; however, some studies have failed to prove this. This study attempted to explore the correlation between NAT2 slow acetylation and bladder cancer risk through a meta-analysis of published case-control studies. Studies detecting NAT2 gene status in bladder cancer patients and healthy controls were retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane, EMchrane, CBM, and CNKI. We retrieved the data of cited articles and publications to identify and compare NAT2 gene in bladder cancer patients and healthy controls. The variables within and between the studies were also considered. The META module in the Stata v.6.0 software was used for data analysis. Twenty independent studies were enrolled in our meta-analysis according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Individual differences in the bladder cancer susceptibility were, in part, attributed to the effect of carcinogens. The merged odds ratio of the effect of slow acetylation on bladder cancer was 1.31 (95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.55). In conclusion, NAT2 slow acetylation state was associated with bladder cancer risk, and was shown to modestly increase the risk of bladder cancer.

De Carolis S, Bertoni S, Nati M, et al.
Carbonic Anhydrase 9 mRNA/microRNA34a Interplay in Hypoxic Human Mammospheres.
J Cell Physiol. 2016; 231(7):1534-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
The hypoxic environment is a crucial component of the cancer stem cell niche and it is capable of eliciting stem cell features in cancer cells. We previously reported that SNAI2 up-regulates the expression of Carbonic Anhydrase iso-enzyme 9 (CA9) in hypoxic MCF7 cells. Here we show that SNAI2 down-regulates miR34a expression in hypoxic MCF7 cell-derived mammospheres. Next, we report on the capability of miR34a to decrease CA9 mRNA stability and CA9 protein expression. We also convey that the over-expression of cloned CA9-mRNA-3'UTR increases the mRNA half-life and protein levels of two miR34a targets JAGGED1 and NOTCH3. The data here reported shows that the SNAI2-dependent down-regulation of miR34a substantially contributes to the post-transcriptional up-regulation of CA9, and that CA9-mRNA-3'UTR acts as an endogenous microRNA sponge. We conclude that CA9/miR34 interplay shares in the hypoxic regulation of mammospheres and therefore, may play a relevant role in the hypoxic breast cancer stem cell niche.

Montazeri Z, Theodoratou E, Nyiraneza C, et al.
Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies in colorectal adenomas.
Int J Epidemiol. 2016; 45(1):186-205 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Low penetrance genetic variants, primarily single nucleotide polymorphisms, have substantial influence on colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. Most CRCs develop from colorectal adenomas (CRA). Here we report the first comprehensive field synopsis that catalogues all genetic association studies on CRA, with a parallel online database [].
METHODS: We performed a systematic review, reviewing 9750 titles, and then extracted data from 130 publications reporting on 181 polymorphisms in 74 genes. We conducted meta-analyses to derive summary effect estimates for 37 polymorphisms in 26 genes. We applied the Venice criteria and Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP) to assess the levels of the credibility of associations.
RESULTS: We considered the association with the rs6983267 variant at 8q24 as 'highly credible', reaching genome-wide statistical significance in at least one meta-analysis model. We identified 'less credible' associations (higher heterogeneity, lower statistical power, BFDP > 0.02) with a further four variants of four independent genes: MTHFR c.677C>T p.A222V (rs1801133), TP53 c.215C>G p.R72P (rs1042522), NQO1 c.559C>T p.P187S (rs1800566), and NAT1 alleles imputed as fast acetylator genotypes. For the remaining 32 variants of 22 genes for which positive associations with CRA risk have been previously reported, the meta-analyses revealed no credible evidence to support these as true associations.
CONCLUSIONS: The limited number of credible associations between low penetrance genetic variants and CRA reflects the lower volume of evidence and associated lack of statistical power to detect associations of the magnitude typically observed for genetic variants and chronic diseases. The CRA gene database provides context for CRA genetic association data and will help inform future research directions.

Gehring MP, Kipper F, Nicoletti NF, et al.
P2X7 receptor as predictor gene for glioma radiosensitivity and median survival.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015; 68:92-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is considered the most lethal intracranial tumor and the median survival time is approximately 14 months. Although some glioma cells present radioresistance, radiotherapy has been the mainstay of therapy for patients with malignant glioma. The activation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is responsible for ATP-induced death in various cell types. In this study, we analyzed the importance of ATP-P2X7R pathway in the radiotherapy response P2X7R silenced cell lines, in vivo and human tumor samples. Both glioma cell lines used in this study present a functional P2X7R and the P2X7R silencing reduced P2X7R pore activity by ethidium bromide uptake. Gamma radiation (2Gy) treatment reduced cell number in a P2X7R-dependent way, since both P2X7R antagonist and P2X7R silencing blocked the cell cytotoxicity caused by irradiation after 24h. The activation of P2X7R is time-dependent, as EtBr uptake significantly increased after 24h of irradiation. The radiotherapy plus ATP incubation significantly increased annexin V incorporation, compared with radiotherapy alone, suggesting that ATP acts synergistically with radiotherapy. Of note, GL261 P2X7R silenced-bearing mice failed in respond to radiotherapy (8Gy) and GL261 WT-bearing mice, that constitutively express P2X7R, presented a significant reduction in tumor volume after radiotherapy, showing in vivo that functional P2X7R expression is essential for an efficient radiotherapy response in gliomas. We also showed that a high P2X7R expression is a good prognostic factor for glioma radiosensitivity and survival probability in humans. Our data revealed the relevance of P2X7R expression in glioma cells to a successful radiotherapy response, and shed new light on this receptor as a useful predictor of the sensitivity of cancer patients to radiotherapy and median survival.

Liu F, Ji F, Ji Y, et al.
In-depth analysis of the critical genes and pathways in colorectal cancer.
Int J Mol Med. 2015; 36(4):923-30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The present study aimed to investigate the molecular targets for colorectal cancer (CRC). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened between CRC and matched adjacent noncancerous samples. GENETIC_ASSOIATION_DB_DISEASE analysis was performed to identify CRC genes from the identified DEGs using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, followed by Gene Οntology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis for the CRC genes. A protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed for the CRC genes, followed by determination and analysis of the hub genes, in terms of the protein domains and spatial structure. In total, 35 CRC genes were determined, including 19 upregulated and 16 downregulated genes. Downregulated N‑acetyltransferase (NAT)1 and NAT2 were enriched in the caffeine metabolism pathway. The downregulated and upregulated genes were enriched in a number of GO terms and pathways, respectively. Cyclin D1 (CCND1) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were identified as the hub genes in the PPI network. The C‑terminal and N‑terminal domains were similar in PCNA, but different in CCND1. The results suggested PCNA, CCND1, NAT1 and NAT2 for use as biomarkers to enable early diagnosis and monitoring of CRC. These results form a basis for developing therapies, which target the unique protein domains of PCNA and CCND1.

Andres SA, Bickett KE, Alatoum MA, et al.
Interaction between smoking history and gene expression levels impacts survival of breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 152(3):545-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
In contrast to studies focused on cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer occurrence, this study explored the influence of smoking on breast cancer recurrence and progression. The goal was to evaluate the interaction between smoking history and gene expression levels on recurrence and overall survival of breast cancer patients. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted for 48 cigarette smokers, 50 non-smokers, and the total population separately to determine which gene expressions and gene expression/cigarette usage interaction terms were significant in predicting overall and disease-free survival in breast cancer patients. Using methods similar to Andres et al. (BMC Cancer 13:326, 2013a; Horm Cancer 4:208-221, 2013b), multivariable analyses revealed CENPN, CETN1, CYP1A1, IRF2, LECT2, and NCOA1 to be important predictors for both breast carcinoma recurrence and mortality among smokers. Additionally, COMT was important for recurrence, and NAT1 and RIPK1 were important for mortality. In contrast, only IRF2, CETN1, and CYP1A1 were significant for disease recurrence and mortality among non-smokers, with NAT2 additionally significant for survival. Analysis of interaction between smoking status and gene expression values using the combined samples revealed significant interactions between smoking status and CYP1A1, LECT2, and CETN1. Signatures consisting of 7-8 genes were highly predictive for breast cancer recurrence and overall survival among smokers, with median C-index values of 0.8 and 0.73 for overall survival and recurrence, respectively. In contrast, median C-index values for non-smokers was only 0.59. Hence, significant interactions between gene expression and smoking status can play a key role in predicting breast cancer patient outcomes.

Matejcic M, Vogelsang M, Wang Y, et al.
NAT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms and environmental exposure as risk factors for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:150 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and red meat consumption are some of the known risk factors associated with the development of oesophageal cancer. N-acetytransferases (NAT1 and NAT2) play a key role in metabolism of carcinogenic arylamines present in tobacco smoke and overcooked red meat. We hypothesized that NAT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms may influence the risk of oesophageal cancer upon exposure to environmental carcinogens.
METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NAT1 and NAT2 genes were investigated by genotyping 732 cases and 768 healthy individuals from two South African populations to deduce the acetylator phenotype (slow, intermediate or rapid) from the combination of the genotyped SNPs.
RESULTS: The 341 CC genotype (rs1801280) was significantly associated with a reduced risk for oesophageal cancer in the Mixed Ancestry population (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.11-0.87). The NAT2 slow/intermediate acetylator status significantly increased the risk among cigarette smokers in the Black population (OR = 2.76; 95% CI 1.69-4.52), as well as among alcohol drinkers in the Mixed Ancestry population (OR = 2.77; 95% CI 1.38-5.58). Similarly, the NAT1 slow/intermediate acetylator status was a risk factor for tobacco smokers in the Black population (OR = 3.41; 95% CI 1.95-5.96) and for alcohol drinkers in the Mixed Ancestry population (OR = 3.41; 95% CI 1.70-6.81). In a case-only analysis, frequent red meat consumption was associated with a significantly increased cancer risk for NAT2 slow/intermediate acetylators in the Mixed Ancestry population (OR = 3.55; 95% CI 1.29-9.82; P = 0.019), whereas daily white meat intake was associated with an increased risk among NAT1 slow/intermediate acetylators in the Black population (OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.09-3.04; P = 0.023).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that N-acetylation polymorphisms may modify the association between environmental risk factors and oesophageal cancer risk and that N-acetyltransferases may play a key role in detoxification of carcinogens. Prevention strategies in lifestyle and dietary habits may reduce the incidence of oesophageal cancer in high-risk populations.

Cocco P, Zucca M, Sanna S, et al.
N-acetyltransferase polymorphisms are associated with risk of lymphoma subtypes.
Hematol Oncol. 2016; 34(2):79-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genes encoding for arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) have been investigated with alternate findings in relation to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We tested functional haplotype-based NAT1 and NAT2 gene polymorphisms in relation to risk of lymphoma overall and its major B cell subtypes, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We used allele specific primers and multiplex PCR to detect NAT1 and NAT2 haplotypes in 248 patients with incident lymphoma and 208 population controls. We inferred the NAT1 rapid and slow acetylator and the NAT2 rapid, intermediate or slow acetylator phenotype, based on published functional data on the respective genotypes. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for lymphoma, B-NHL, DLBCL, FL, CLL, and other B-NHL combined associated with the inferred rapid NAT1 acetylator and with the intermediate and slow NAT2 acetylator phenotypes were estimated with unconditional and polytomous logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, gender and education. NAT1 rapid acetylators showed a 2.8-fold excess risk (95% CI 1.5-5.2) for lymphoma (all subtypes combined). Risk was highest for CLL and FL, with significant heterogeneity detected across subtypes. Risk also increased with decreasing NAT2 acetylating capacity with no heterogeneity detected across B cell lymphoma subtypes. Risks did not vary by gender. Although poor statistical power was a major limitation in our study, larger studies and pooled analyses are warranted to test whether NAT1 and NAT2 gene polymorphisms might modulate risk of specific lymphoma subtypes through the varying metabolic activity of their products. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tiang JM, Butcher NJ, Minchin RF
Effects of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase I knockdown in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines.
Cancer Med. 2015; 4(4):565-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Expression of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase I (NAT1) has been associated with various cancer subtypes and inhibition of this enzyme with small molecule inhibitors or siRNA affects cell growth and survival. Here, we have investigated the role of NAT1 in the invasiveness of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. We knocked down NAT1 using a lentivirus-based shRNA approach and observed marked changes in cell morphology in the triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436, and BT-549. Most notable was a reduction in the number and size of the filopodia protrusions on the surface of the cells. The loss of filopodia could be rescued by the reintroduction of NAT1 into the knockdown cells. NAT1 expression was localized to the lamellipodia and extended into the filopodia protrusions. In vitro invasion through Geltrex was significantly inhibited in both the MDA cell lines but not in the BT-549 cells. The expression of Snail increased when NAT1 was knocked down, while other genes associated with mesenchymal to epithelial transition (vimentin, cytokeratin-18, and Twist) did not show any changes. By contrast, both N-cadherin and β-catenin were significantly reduced. When MDA-MB-231 cells expressing shRNA were injected in vivo into BALB/c nu/nu nude mice, a significant reduction in the number of colonies that formed in the lungs was observed. Taken together, the results show that NAT1 can alter the invasion and metastatic properties of some triple-negative breast cancer cells but not all. The study suggests that NAT1 may be a novel therapeutic target in a subset of breast cancers.

Endo Y, Yamashita H, Takahashi S, et al.
Immunohistochemical determination of the miR-1290 target arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:990 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There are many molecular differences between estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. Recent analyses have shown that the former can be divided into two subtypes, luminal A and luminal B. These differ in response to endocrine therapy and chemotherapy, and in prognosis. In a previous study, we found that microRNA (miR)-1290 that was significantly down-regulated in luminal A tumors and its potential target arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1). The aim of the present study was to determine whether NAT1 is a bona fide target of miR-1290, and to investigate the impact of NAT1 on breast cancer prognosis.
METHODS: Luciferase reporter assays were employed to validate NAT1 as a putative miR-1290 target gene. Expression of NAT1, ERα, progesterone receptor (PgR) and HER2 was analyzed in 394 breast cancer samples by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: NAT1 was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-1290. Levels of expression of NAT1 were positively correlated with those of ERα (P < 0.0001) and PgR (P < 0.0001), but negatively correlated with both tumor grade and size (P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the presence of NAT1 was significantly associated with increased overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0416) in these patients. Similarly, significant associations of NAT1 with disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.0048) and OS (P = 0.0055) in those patients who received adjuvant endocrine therapy with tamoxifen (n = 176) were found. Moreover, NAT1 was also significantly associated with increased DFS (P = 0.0025) and OS (P = 0.0007) in the subset of lymph node-positive patients (n = 147). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed significant associations between levels of NAT1 and DFS (P = 0.0005 and 0.019, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: We report that miR-1290 directly targets the NAT1 3'-UTR and that NAT1 protein expression is correlated with improved OS of breast cancer patients. NAT1 is a possible prognostic biomarker for lymph node-positive breast cancer. Thus, miR-1290 and its target NAT1 are associated with important characteristics of breast cancer.

Li L, Sarver AL, Khatri R, et al.
Sequential expression of miR-182 and miR-503 cooperatively targets FBXW7, contributing to the malignant transformation of colon adenoma to adenocarcinoma.
J Pathol. 2014; 234(4):488-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic changes in colon cancer are known to parallel the tissue abnormalities associated with the disease, namely adenoma and adenocarcinoma. The role of microRNA dysregulation in dysplastic progression, however, is not well understood. Here, we show that miR-182 and miR-503 undergo sequential up-regulation and drive the progression of colon adenoma to adenocarcinoma by cooperatively down-regulating the tumour suppressor FBXW7. We identified that increased expression of miR-182 is a feature of adenomas. A subsequent increase in miR-503 expression works cooperatively with miR-182 to induce transformation of an adenoma to adenocarcinoma. We show that introducing miR-503 into AAC1 cells, which are derived from a benign adenoma, confers tumourigenic potential. We also demonstrated that blocking both miR-182 and miR-503 in HCT116 colon cancer cells resulted in increased FBXW7 expression and significantly reduced tumour size in xenograft models. We confirmed relevance of these results in patients by examining the expression levels of miR-182 and miR-503 in over 200 colon cancer patients with 12 year survival outcome data. Decreased patient survival was correlated with elevated expression of both miRNAs, suggesting that elevated levels of both miR-182 and miR-503 define a novel prognostic biomarker for colon cancer patients. In conclusion, we show that a sequential expression of miR-182 and miR-503 in benign adenoma cooperatively regulates the tumour suppressor FBXW7, contributing to the malignant transformation of colon adenoma to adenocarcinoma and miR-182 and miR-503 may prove to be novel therapeutic targets. Array data are available at:

Sieuwerts AM, Lyng MB, Meijer-van Gelder ME, et al.
Evaluation of the ability of adjuvant tamoxifen-benefit gene signatures to predict outcome of hormone-naive estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen in the advanced setting.
Mol Oncol. 2014; 8(8):1679-89 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
To identify molecular markers indicative of response to tamoxifen and easily implemented in the routine setting, we recently reported three gene signatures that could stratify post-menopausal tamoxifen-treated, estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients according to outcome in the adjuvant setting. Here, we evaluated the predictive potential of the total of 14 genes included in the 3 gene signatures using 2 hormone-naïve Dutch ER+ cohorts of a total of 285 recurrent breast cancer patients treated with first-line tamoxifen. mRNA levels were measured by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the length of progression-free survival (PFS) was used as the primary endpoint. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to select for differentially expressed genes between tumors of patients who showed or did not show progressive disease within 6 months after start of tamoxifen treatment. Cox univariate and multivariate regression analysis for PFS were used to further assess their (independent) predictive potential. Five (BCAR3, BCL2, ESR1, IGF1R, and NCOA1) of the 14 genes analyzed showed significantly higher mRNA levels in tumors of patients who showed no disease progression within 6 months. Only BCAR3, BCL2 and NAT1 were significantly associated with a favorable PFS in multivariate analysis that included the traditional predictive factors: age, dominant relapse site, disease-free interval, ER and progesterone receptor (PGR), and adjuvant chemotherapy. This study shows that BCAR3, BCL2 and NAT1 in particular exhibit predictive promise regarding the efficacy of tamoxifen treatment in recurrent disease, in addition to the previously shown favorable outcome in the adjuvant setting.

Cotterchio M, Mirea L, Ozcelik H, Kreiger N
Active cigarette smoking, variants in carcinogen metabolism genes and breast cancer risk among pre- and postmenopausal women in Ontario, Canada.
Breast J. 2014 Sep-Oct; 20(5):468-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with various diseases including many cancers; however, evidence regarding breast cancer risk remains inconclusive with some studies reporting no association, and others an increased risk with long duration and early initiation of smoking. Genetic variation in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes may modify these associations. Breast cancer cases were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) during 2003-2004 and population controls through random digit dialing methods. All subjects completed self-administered questionnaires. Subsequently, saliva samples were obtained from cases (N = 1,776) and controls (N = 1,839) for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for active smoking variables, and interactions were assessed between smoking and 36 carcinogen-metabolizing candidate gene variants. No statistically significant association was found between active smoking and breast cancer risk among all women nor when stratified by menopausal status; however, nonsignificant increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was observed among current smokers and women smoking before first pregnancy. Several statistically significant interactions were observed between smoking and genetic variants (CYP1A2 1548C>T, CYP1A1 3801T>C, CYP1B1 4326G>C, NAT1 c.-85-1014T>A, UGT1A7 W208R 622T>C, SOD2 c.47T>C, GSTT1 deletion). However, in analyses stratified by these genotypes, smoking ORs had wide confidence intervals (and with few exceptions included 1.0) making interpretations difficult. Active smoking was not associated with breast cancer risk, although several significant interactions were observed between smoking, carcinogen-metabolizing genetic variants, and breast cancer risk.

Andres SA, Smolenkova IA, Wittliff JL
Gender-associated expression of tumor markers and a small gene set in breast carcinoma.
Breast. 2014; 23(3):226-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast carcinomas in both genders share pathological features, although differences in incidence, prognosis and survival are reported. Expression of 33 genes was investigated in male and female breast carcinomas in association with ER, PR, HER-2/neu and EGF-receptor. Among 98 male breast cancers, 82 were ER+ and 78 were PR+. ER and PR protein levels were greater in males compared to females, although no differences were observed in ESR1 and PGR expression. A difference was observed in binding affinities of PR but not ER between genders. No differences were observed in HER-2/neu, EGFR protein, or patient age. Expression of NAT1, TBC1D9, IL6ST, RABEP1, PLK1 and LRBA was elevated in carcinomas of males compared to those of females, in which ER status appeared to be related to expression. Over-expression of protein products of these genes represents novel molecular targets for development of gender-specific therapeutics and companion diagnostics.

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