Gene Summary

Gene:MME; membrane metalloendopeptidase
Aliases: NEP, SFE, CD10, CALLA, CMT2T, SCA43
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein and a common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen that is an important cell surface marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). The encoded protein is present on leukemic cells of pre-B phenotype, which represent 85% of cases of ALL. This protein is not restricted to leukemic cells, however, and is found on a variety of normal tissues. The protein is a neutral endopeptidase that cleaves peptides at the amino side of hydrophobic residues and inactivates several peptide hormones including glucagon, enkephalins, substance P, neurotensin, oxytocin, and bradykinin. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • rab GTP-Binding Proteins
  • RT-PCR
  • Mesothelioma
  • DNA Methylation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Papillomavirus Infections
  • Genes, Neoplasm
  • Gene Expression
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Zinc Finger Protein GLI1
  • Neprilysin
  • Chromosome 3
  • Cell Survival
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • EPHB4
  • Tissue Fixation
  • Protein Interaction Maps
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Western Blotting
  • Computational Biology
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Tosyl Compounds
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • MME
  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Vincristine
  • Mutation
  • CpG Islands
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Xenograft Models
  • Apoptosis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Thapsigargin
  • Up-Regulation
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MME (cancer-related)

Kumagai-Togashi A, Uozaki H, Kikuchi Y, et al.
Tumorous CD10 Is More Strongly Related to the Progression of Urothelial Carcinoma than Stromal CD10.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(2):635-640 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: CD10 function in urothelial carcinoma (UC) remains controversial. We previously reported that miR-21 in UC may be a prognostic marker for cancer progression. The aim of this study was to examine the clinicopathological significance of CD10 expression in UC and its relationship with miR-21 expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for CD10 was performed on 232 UCs. CD10 expression in TCs and stroma was evaluated respectively, and its association with carcinogenesis and survival was analyzed.
RESULTS: High tumorous CD10 was significantly associated with higher tumor stage, histological grade and vessel infiltration, and poorer prognosis, whereas stromal CD10 was significantly associated with younger age, higher tumor stage, and vessel infiltration. On multivariable analysis, CD10 expression in TCs, miR-21 expression in TCs and TS, and tumor stage were independent prognostic factors.
CONCLUSION: Tumorous CD10 is more strongly related to progression of UC than stromal CD10 and is an independent factor for UC prognosis.

LaMonte GM, Orjuela-Sanchez P, Calla J, et al.
Dual RNA-seq identifies human mucosal immunity protein Mucin-13 as a hallmark of Plasmodium exoerythrocytic infection.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):488 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The exoerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium infection is a critical window for prophylactic intervention. Using genome-wide dual RNA sequencing of flow-sorted infected and uninfected hepatoma cells we show that the human mucosal immunity gene, mucin-13 (MUC13), is strongly upregulated during Plasmodium exoerythrocytic hepatic-stage infection. We confirm MUC13 transcript increases in hepatoma cell lines and primary hepatocytes. In immunofluorescence assays, host MUC13 protein expression distinguishes infected cells from adjacent uninfected cells and shows similar colocalization with parasite biomarkers such as UIS4 and HSP70. We further show that localization patterns are species independent, marking both P. berghei and P. vivax infected cells, and that MUC13 can be used to identify compounds that inhibit parasite replication in hepatocytes. This data provides insights into host-parasite interactions in Plasmodium infection, and demonstrates that a component of host mucosal immunity is reprogrammed during the progression of infection.

Guazzelli A, Meysami P, Bakker E, et al.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is a cancer with poor prognosis and resistance to standard treatments. Recent reports have highlighted the role of the

Su H, Wang X, Song J, et al.
MicroRNA-539 inhibits the progression of Wilms' Tumor through downregulation of JAG1 and Notch1/3.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(1):125-133 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated that miR-539 play an important role in the carcinogenesis of some cancers. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of miR-539 in the pathogenesis of Wilms' Tumor (WT).
METHODS: The expression level of miR-539 was measured by qRT-PCR in 42 WT tissues and SK-NEP-1 cell line. Protein expression of genes (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin, Notch 1, Notch 3 and JAG1) was assessed by Western blot. The function of miR-539 was investigated in SK-NEP-1 cells by MTT and Transwell assays. The relationship between miR-539 and JAG1 was verified by a dual luciferase assay in SK-NEP-1 cells.
RESULTS: The expression level of miR-539 was significantly decreased in WT tissues. Downregulation of miR-539 was closely related to NWTS-5 stage, lymph node metastasis and histological type of WT patients. Furthermore, low miR-539 expression was associated with a shorter overall survival rate in WT patients. In vitro, overexpression of miR-539 suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion of SK-NEP-1 cells. In addition, JAG1 was a direct target of miR-539. MiR-539 inhibited the development of WT by inhibiting JAG1-Notch1/3 expressing and blocking EMT.
CONCLUSION: MiR-539 inhibited the progression of WT through downregulation of JAG1 and Notch1/3.

Murakami T, Akazawa Y, Yatagai N, et al.
Molecular characterization of sessile serrated adenoma/polyps with dysplasia/carcinoma based on immunohistochemistry, next-generation sequencing, and microsatellite instability testing: a case series study.
Diagn Pathol. 2018; 13(1):88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are considered early precursor lesions in the serrated neoplasia pathway. Recent studies have shown associations of SSA/Ps with lost MLH1 expression, a CpG island methylator phenotype, and BRAF mutations. However, the molecular biological features of SSA/Ps with early neoplastic progression have not yet been fully elucidated, owing to the rarity of cases of SSA/P with advanced histology such as cytologic dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular biological features of SSA/Ps with dysplasia/carcinoma, representing relatively early stages of the serrated neoplasia pathway.
METHODS: We performed immunostaining for β-catenin, MLH1, and mucins (e.g., MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and CD10); targeted next-generation sequencing; and microsatellite instability (MSI) testing in 8 SSA/P lesions comprised of 4 SSA/Ps with high-grade dysplasia and 4 SSA/Ps with submucosal carcinoma.
RESULTS: Lost MLH1 expression was found in 5 cases. All lesions studied were positive for nuclear β-catenin expression. Regarding phenotypic mucin expression, all lesions were positive for MUC2, but negative for CD10. MUC5AC and MUC6 positivity was observed in 7 cases. Genetically, the most frequently mutated gene was BRAF (7 cases), and other mutations were detected in FBXW7 (3 cases); TP53 (2 cases), and KIT, PTEN, SMAD4, and SMARCB1 (1 case each). Furthermore, 4 of 8 lesions were MSI-high and the remaining 4 lesions were microsatellite-stable (MSS). Interestingly, all 4 MSI-high lesions displayed MLH1 loss, 3 of which harbored a FBXW7 mutation, but not a TP53 mutation. However, 2 MSS lesions harbored a TP53 mutation, although none harbored a FBXW7 mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: SSA/Ps with dysplasia/carcinoma frequently harbored BRAF mutations. Activation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway may facilitate the development of dysplasia in SSA/Ps and progression to carcinoma. Furthermore, our results suggested that these lesions might be associated with both MSI-high and MSS colorectal cancer, which might be distinguished by distinct molecular biological features such as lost MLH1 expression, FBXW7 mutations, and TP53 mutations.

Nielsen MFB, Mortensen MB, Detlefsen S
Typing of pancreatic cancer-associated fibroblasts identifies different subpopulations.
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(41):4663-4678 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To determine whether it is possible to identify different immune phenotypic subpopulations of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in pancreatic cancer (PC).
METHODS: We defined four different stromal compartments in surgical specimens with PC: The juxtatumoural, peripheral, lobular and septal stroma. Tissue microarrays were produced containing all pre-defined PC compartments, and the expression of 37 fibroblast (FB) and 8 extracellular matrix (ECM) markers was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence (IF), double-IF, and/or
RESULTS: CD10, CD271, cytoglobin, DOG1, miR-21, nestin, and tenascin C exhibited significant differences in expression profiles between the juxtatumoural and peripheral compartments. The expression of CD10, cytoglobin, DOG1, nestin, and miR-21 was moderate/strong in juxtatumoural CAFs (j-CAFs) and barely perceptible/weak in peripheral CAFs (p-CAFs). The upregulation of
CONCLUSION: Different immune phenotypic CAF subpopulations can be identified in PC, using markers such as cytoglobin, CD271, and miR-21. Future studies should determine whether CAF subpopulations have different functional properties.

Jester R, Znoyko I, Garnovskaya M, et al.
Expression of renal cell markers and detection of 3p loss links endolymphatic sac tumor to renal cell carcinoma and warrants careful evaluation to avoid diagnostic pitfalls.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm arising in the temporal petrous region thought to originate from endolymphatic sac epithelium. It may arise sporadically or in association with Von-Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL). The ELST prevalence in VHL ranges from 3 to 16% and may be the initial presentation of the disease. Onset is usually in the 3rd to 5th decade with hearing loss and an indolent course. ELSTs present as locally destructive lesions with characteristic computed tomography imaging features. Histologically, they show papillary, cystic or glandular architectures. Immunohistochemically, they express keratin, EMA, and variably S100 and GFAP. Currently it is recommended that, given its rarity, ELST needs to be differentiated from other entities with similar morphologic patterns, particularly other VHL-associated neoplasms such as metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Nineteen ELST cases were studied. Immunohistochemistry (18/19) and single nucleotide polymorphism microarray testing was performed (12/19). Comparison with the immunophenotype and copy number profile in RCC is discussed. Patients presented with characteristic bone destructive lesions in the petrous temporal bones. Pathology of tumors showed characteristic ELST morphology with immunoexpression of CK7, GFAP, S100, PAX-8, PAX-2, CA-9 in the tumor cells. Immunostaines for RCC, CD10, CK20, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, and transthyretin were negative in the tumor cells. Molecular testing showed loss of 3p and 9q in 66% (8/12) and 58% (7/12) cases, respectively. Immunoreactivity for renal markers in ELST is an important diagnostic caveat and has not been previously reported. In fact, renal markers are currently recommended in order to rule out metastatic RCC although PAX gene complex and CA-9 have been implicated in the development of the inner ear. Importantly copy number assessment of ELST has not been previously reported. Loss of 3p (including the VHL locus) in ELST suggests similar mechanistic origins as ccRCC.

Brassesco MS, Pezuk JA, Cortez MA, et al.
TLE1 as an indicator of adverse prognosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2018; 74:42-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of cancer in children, and despite the high rate of cure (over 80%) it still has a big impact on morbidity and mortality. The Transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1), a transcriptional corepressor, has been described as dysregulated and recently emerged as a tumor marker in several cancer types, including hematologic malignancies.
METHODS: In the present study TLE1 gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR. A total of 60 consecutive pathological ALL samples and 8 normal bone marrow samples were included. Associations between TLE1 levels and clinicopathological features were estimated using Mann-Whitney tests.
RESULTS: TLE1 mRNA levels were significantly diminished in ALL samples when compared to normal counterparts (fold change -1.45, p-value 0.039). Lower TLE1 expression levels were associated with poorer prognostic features such as age at diagnosis (<1 or >9 years-old), absence of the Common Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Antigen (CALLA) and high white cell count. Considering immunophenotype, decreased expression of TLE1 was only evident for T-cell ALL, what was validated using gene expression profiling data available in public repositories. No associations with event or overall survival were observed. However, TLE1 expression was statistically different between patients who achieved complete clinical remission (CCR) from those that relapsed or died.
CONCLUSION: These data are of particular interest and give support for a plausible role of TLE1 as a tumor suppressor in T-cell ALL. Moreover, the prognostic value of this corepressor may assist ALL treatment stratification and suggest the need of alternative regimens.

He C, Zhang H, Wang B, et al.
SDF-1/CXCR4 axis promotes the growth and sphere formation of hypoxic breast cancer SP cells by c-Jun/ABCG2 pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 505(2):593-599 [PubMed] Related Publications
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) confers to the major phenotypes of side population (SP) cells, the cancer stem-like cells. In this study, the SP cells displayed a distinctly higher ABCG2 expression level, sphere formation efficiency (SFE) and growth rate even under hypoxia condition. CXCR4 overexpression by pcDNA-CXCR4 transfection robustly increased ABCG2 expression, and promoted SFE and growth of hypoxic SP cells, while CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 could suppress the promotion. Additionally, we found that CXCR4 promoted the expression of c-Jun, a major gene in the oncogenic JNK/c-Jun pathway. Our data on electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays both showed that c-Jun directly bound with the ABCG2 promoter sequence. Moreover, overexpression of JNK/c-Jun promoted ABCG2 expression, SFE, and growth of hypoxic SP cells and the promotion could be rescued by c-Jun inhibitor SP600125. In conclusion, CXCR4 increases the growth and SFE of breast cancer SP cells under hypoxia through c-Jun-mediated transcriptional activation of ABCG2.

He H, Trpkov K, Martinek P, et al.
"High-grade oncocytic renal tumor": morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 14 cases.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(6):725-738 [PubMed] Related Publications
The spectrum of the renal oncocytic tumors has been expanded in recent years to include several novel and emerging entities. We describe a cohort of novel, hitherto unrecognized and morphologically distinct high-grade oncocytic tumors (HOT), currently diagnosed as "unclassified" in the WHO classification. We identified 14 HOT by searching multiple institutional archives. Morphologic, immunohistochemical (IHC), molecular genetic, and molecular karyotyping studies were performed to investigate these tumors. The patients included 3 men and 11 women, with age range from 25 to 73 years (median 50, mean 49 years). Tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 7.0 cm in the greatest dimension (median 3, mean 3.4 cm). The tumors were all pT1 stage. Microscopically, they showed nested to solid growth, and focal tubulocystic architecture. The neoplastic cells were uniform with voluminous oncocytic cytoplasm. Prominent intracytoplasmic vacuoles were frequently seen, but no irregular (raisinoid) nuclei or perinuclear halos were present. All tumors demonstrated prominent nucleoli (WHO/ISUP grade 3 equivalent). Nine of 14 cases were positive for CD117 and cytokeratin (CK) 7 was either negative or only focally positive in of 6/14 cases. All tumors were positive for AE1-AE3, CK18, PAX 8, antimitochondrial antigen, and SDHB. Cathepsin K was positive in 13/14 cases and CD10 was positive in 12/13 cases. All cases were negative for TFE3, HMB45, Melan-A. No TFEB and TFE3 genes rearrangement was found in analyzable cases. By array CGH, complete chromosomal losses or gains were not found in any of the cases, and 3/9 cases showed absence of any abnormalities. Chromosomal losses were detected on chromosome 19 (4/9), 3 with losses of the short arm (p) and 1 with losses of both arms (p and q). Loss of chromosome 1 was found in 3/9 cases; gain of 5q was found in 1/9 cases. On molecular karyotyping, 3/3 evaluated cases showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 16p11.2-11.1 and 2/3 cases showed LOH at 7q31.31. Copy number (CN) losses were found at 7q11.21 (3/3), Xp11.21 (3/3), Xp11.22-11.21 (3/3), and Xq24-25 (2/3). CN gains were found at 13q34 (2/3). Ten patients with available follow up information were alive and without disease progression, after a mean follow-up of 28 months (1 to 112 months). HOT is a tumor with unique morphology and its IHC profile appears mostly consistent. HOT should be considered as an emerging renal entity because it does not meet the diagnostic criteria for other recognized eosinophilic renal tumors, such as oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), TFE3 and TFEB RCC, SDH-deficient RCC, and eosinophilic solid and cystic RCC.

Georgakopoulos N, Diamantopoulos P, Micci F, et al.
An Adult Patient with Early Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with t(12;17)(p13;q21)/ZNF384-TAF15.
In Vivo. 2018 Sep-Oct; 32(5):1241-1245 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This is a case report of a 46-year-old man diagnosed with early pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), bearing the translocation t(12;17)(p13;q21) as the sole chromosomal abnormality. This is a rare chromosomal abnormality that has been reported in approximately 25 cases worldwide. FISH analysis revealed a rearrangement of ZNF384 (12p13) and TAF15 (17q12) genes, which is usually associated with a pre-B ALL phenotype with co-expression of the myeloid markers CD13 and/or CD33. ZNF384 encodes a zinc finger protein, which acts as a transcription factor, regulating the expression of several matrix metalloproteinases and TAF15 belongs to the FET (FUS, EWS, and TAF15) family, consisting of RNA and DNA-binding proteins. Unlike most of the cases where CD10 expression was absent or weak, in our case CD10 was highly expressed. The prognostic significance of ZNF384/TAF15 fusion is not very clear since several reports support a generally good prognosis, while others support a poor clinical outcome. Our patient was treated with the German multicenter ALL (GMALL) protocol for B-ALL, but experienced a fulminant gram-negative sepsis and eventually died during induction therapy.

Nagant C, Casula D, Janssens A, et al.
Easy discrimination of hematogones from lymphoblasts in B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients using CD81/CD58 expression ratio.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2018; 40(6):734-739 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The discrimination of leukemia lymphoblasts (LB) in diagnosis and follow-up of B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) may be difficult due to the presence of hematogones (HG). The aim of this study was to compare lymphoblasts of BCP-ALL and HG for the expression of the most discriminating antigens.
METHODS: A total of 82 bone marrow samples (39 BCP-ALL and 43 patients with HG) were analyzed using MFC. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) was measured for ten markers commonly used in hematology laboratories: CD45, CD19, CD10, CD34, CD38, CD20, CD22, CD58, CD81, and CD123. Statistical comparison of the MFI between LB and HG was performed. The presence on LB of aberrant expression of myeloid and/or T-cell markers was also investigated.
RESULTS: Qualitative pattern expression of antigens showed overexpression on LB of CD58, CD22, CD34, CD10 and underexpression of CD81, CD45, CD38 when compared to HG. Expression of CD123 was positive in 34% of BCP-ALL LB and always absent on HG. Aberrant antigen expression (myeloid and/or T-cell marker) including CD123 was observed in 58% of BCP-ALL patients. The use of a MFI antigen ratio of the most discriminating markers (CD81/CD58) (analysis of variance, P < 0.005) increased the distinction of LB versus HG with a high specificity and sensitivity as demonstrated by the use of ROC curve analysis (AUC of CD81/CD58: 0.995).
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate in this study that routine use of the MFI antigen ratio (CD81/CD58) in addition to the MFC evaluation using WHO classical criteria appears to be an efficient approach to discriminate LB from HG.

Michalova K, Steiner P, Alaghehbandan R, et al.
Papillary renal cell carcinoma with cytologic and molecular genetic features overlapping with renal oncocytoma: Analysis of 10 cases.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2018; 35:1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We present a series of papillary renal cell carcinomas (PRCC) reminiscent of so-called "oncocytic variant of papillary renal cell carcinoma" (OPRCC), included in the 2016 WHO classification as a potential type 3 PRCC. OPRCC is a poorly understood entity, cytologically characterized by oncocytic cells with non-overlapping low grade nuclei. OPRCC is not genotypically distinct and the studies concerning this variant have shown an inconsistent genetic profile. The tumors presented herein demonstrated predominantly papillary/tubulopapillary architecture and differed from OPRCC by pseudostratification and grade 2-3 nuclei (Fuhrman/ISUP). Because there is a morphologic overlap between renal oncocytoma (RO) and PRCC in the cases included in this study, the most frequently affected chromosomes in RO and PRCC were analyzed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 147 PRCC composed of oncocytic cells were retrieved from our registry in order to select a group of morphologically uniform tumors. 10 cases with predominantly papillary, tubulopapillary or solid architectural patterns were identified. For immunohistochemical analysis, the following antibodies were used: vimentin, antimitochondrial antigene (MIA), AMACR, PAX8, CK7, CK20, AE1-3, CAM5.2, OSCAR, Cathepsin K, HMB45, SDHB, CD10, and CD117. Enumeration changes of locus 1p36, chromosomes 7, 14, 17, X, Y and rearrangement of CCND1 were examined by FISH. For further study, only tumors showing karyotype similar to that of RO were selected. The tumors exhibiting either trisomy of chromosomes 7, 17 or gain of Y, thus abnormalities characteristic for PRCC, were excluded.
RESULTS: There were 5 males and 5 females, with patient age ranging from 56 to 79 years (mean 66.8 years). The tumor size ranged from 2 to 10 cm (mean 5.1 cm). Follow-up was available for 8/10 patients (mean 5.2 years); one patient died of the disease, while 7 of 8 are alive and well. Immunohistochemically, all cases were reactive for AMACR, vimentin, PAX8, OSCAR, CAM5.2, and MIA. SDHB was retained in all cases. 9/10 cases were positive for CD10, 7/10 cases reacted with CK7, 4/10 with Cathepsin K, and 2/10 with AE1-3. None of the cases were positive for CD117, HMB45 and CK20. All 10 cases were analyzable by FISH and showed chromosomal abnormalities similar to that usually seen in RO (i.e. loss of 1p36 gene loci, loss of chromosome Y, rearrangement of CCND1 and numerical changes of chromosome 14).
CONCLUSIONS: We analyzed a series of renal tumors combining the features of PRCC/OPRCC and RO, that included pseudostratification and mostly high grade oncocytic cells lining papillary/tubulopapillary structures, karyotype characterized by loss of 1p36, loss of chromosome Y, rearrangement of CCND1 gene and numerical changes of chromosome 14. Despite the chromosomal numerical abnormalities typical of RO, we classified these tumors as part of the spectrum of PRCC because of their predominant papillary/tubulopapillary architecture, immunoprofile that included reactivity for AMACR, vimentin and lack of reactivity for CD117, all of which is incompatible with the diagnosis of RO. This study expands the morphological spectrum of PRCC by adding a cohort of diagnostically challenging cases, which may be potentially aggressive.

Liu Z, Meng J, Li X, et al.
Identification of Hub Genes and Key Pathways Associated with Two Subtypes of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Based on Gene Expression Profiling via Integrated Bioinformatics.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:3574534 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is a significant difference in prognosis between the germinal center B-cell (GCB) and activated B-cell (ABC) subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the signaling pathways and driver genes involved in these disparate subtypes are ambiguous. This study integrated three cohort profile datasets, including 250 GCB samples and 250 ABC samples, to elucidate potential candidate hub genes and key pathways involved in these two subtypes. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. After Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and sub-PPI network analyses were conducted using the STRING database and Cytoscape software. Subsequently, the Oncomine database and the cBioportal online tool were employed to verify the alterations and differential expression of the 8 hub genes (MME, CD44, IRF4, STAT3, IL2RA, ETV6, CCND2, and CFLAR). Gene set enrichment analysis was also employed to identify the intersection of the key pathways (JAK-STAT, FOXO, and NF-

Leblebici C, Bambul Sığırcı B, Kelten Talu C, et al.
CD10, TDAG51, CK20, AR, INSM1, and Nestin Expression in the Differential Diagnosis of Trichoblastoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2019; 27(1):19-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Trichoblastoma (TB) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are 2 different neoplasms composed of basaloid cells and have overlapping histopathological features. We compared the immunoexpression of CD10, T-cell death-associated gene 51 (TDAG51), cytokeratin 20 (CK20), androgen receptor (AR), insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1), and nestin for the differential diagnosis of these tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed a total of 27 BCC and 27 TB cases, including 4 TB lesions in nevus sebaceous and 3 malignant TB lesions for CD10, TDAG51, CK20, AR, INSM1, and nestin expression.
RESULTS: Staining for CK20, TDAG51, INSM1, and stromal CD10 was significantly more common in TB cases than in BCC cases ( P < .001). Epithelial CD10 and AR staining was significantly more common in BCC cases than in TB cases ( P < .001). The difference between the groups for nestin staining was not significant ( P > .05). Stromal CD10 staining was the most sensitive marker (96.3%) and INSM1 the least sensitive (55.6%) marker for TB. TDAG51 showed 100% specificity for TB. A larger number of CK20 positive cells was found in the cases associated with nevus sebaceous than in the other TBs.
CONCLUSION: All the selected markers except nestin were useful for the differential diagnosis between TB and BCC. CD10 and TDAG51 were more useful than the other markers. The use of CK20 could be preferred in nevus sebaceous lesions. INSM1 was less effective in highlighting Merkel cells within the lesion than CK20.

Huang W, Medeiros LJ, Lin P, et al.
MYC/BCL2/BCL6 triple hit lymphoma: a study of 40 patients with a comparison to MYC/BCL2 and MYC/BCL6 double hit lymphomas.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(9):1470-1478 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements (triple hit lymphoma) are uncommon. We studied the clinicopathologic features of 40 patients with triple hit lymphoma and compared them to 157 patients with MYC/BCL2 double hit lymphoma and 13 patients with MYC/BCL6 double hit lymphoma. The triple hit lymphoma group included 25 men and 15 women with a median age of 61 years (range, 34-85). Nine patients had a history of B-cell lymphoma. Histologically, 23 (58%) cases were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 17 cases had features of B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma. Most cases of triple hit lymphoma were positive for CD10 (100%), BCL2 (95%), BCL6 (82%), MYC (74%), and 71% with MYC and BCL2 coexpression. P53 was overexpressed in 29% of triple hit lymphoma cases. The clinicopathological features of triple hit lymphoma patients were similar to patients with MYC/BCL2 and MYC/BCL6 double hit lymphoma, except that triple hit lymphoma cases were more often CD10 positive compared with MYC/BCL6 double hit lymphoma (p < 0.05). Induction chemotherapy used was similar for patients with triple hit lymphoma and double hit lymphoma and overall survival in triple hit lymphoma patients was 17.6 months, similar to the overall survival of patients with double hit lymphoma (p = 0.67). Patients with triple hit lymphoma showing P53 overexpression had significantly worse overall survival compared with those without P53 overexpression (p = 0.04). On the other hand, double expressor status and prior history of B-cell lymphoma did not correlate with overall survival. In conclusion, most patients with triple hit lymphoma have an aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis and these tumors have a germinal center B-cell immunophenotype, similar to patients with double hit lymphomas. P53 expression is a poor prognostic factor in patients with triple hit lymphoma.

Alayed K, Schweitzer K, Awadallah A, et al.
A multicolour flow cytometric assay for c-MYC protein in B-cell lymphoma.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(10):906-915 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Develop an objective assay to detect c-MYC protein expression using multiparametric flow cytometry (FCM) as an alternative to immunohistochemistry (IHC).
METHODS: 57 patient samples and 11 cell line samples were evaluated. Cell suspensions were obtained and c-MYC staining was performed in combination with CD45 and CD19 and, in some samples, CD10. The percentage of c-MYC+ cells by FCM was correlated with the percentage determined by IHC. The relationship between c-MYC protein expression and the presence of a
RESULTS: c-MYC expression by FCM and IHC demonstrated a high degree of correlation in a training set of 33 patient cases, r=0.92, 11 cell line samples, r=0.81 and in a validation set of 24 aggressive and high-grade B-cell lymphomas, r=0.85.
CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a reliable multicolour FCM assay to detect c-MYC expression suitable for clinical laboratories that should be helpful to accurately quantify c-MYC expression in B-cell lymphomas.

Reinke S, Richter J, Fend F, et al.
Round-robin test for the cell-of-origin classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-a feasibility study using full slide staining.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(3):341-349 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is subdivided by gene expression analysis (GEP) into two molecular subtypes named germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) after their putative cell-of-origin (COO). Determination of the COO is considered mandatory in any new-diagnosed DLBCL, not otherwise specified according to the updated WHO classification. Despite the fact that pathologists are free to choose the method for COO classification, immunohistochemical (IHC) assays are most widely used. However, to the best of our knowledge, no round-robin test to evaluate the interlaboratory variability has been published so far. Eight hematopathology laboratories participated in an interlaboratory test for COO classification of 10 DLBCL tumors using the IHC classifier comprising the expression of CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 (so-called Hans classifier). The results were compared with GEP for COO signature and, in a subset, with results obtained by image analysis. In 7/10 cases (70%), at least seven laboratories assigned a given case to the same COO subtype (one center assessed one sample as not analyzable), which was in agreement with the COO subtype determined by GEP. The results in 3/10 cases (30%) revealed discrepancies between centers and/or between IHC and GEP subtype. Whereas the CD10 staining results were highly reproducible, staining for MUM1 was inconsistent in 50% and for BCL6 in 40% of cases. Image analysis of 16 slides stained for BCL6 (N = 8) and MUM1 (N = 8) of the two cases with the highest disagreement in COO classification were in line with the score of the pathologists in 14/16 stainings analyzed (87.5%). This study describes the first round-robin test for COO subtyping in DLBCL using IHC and demonstrates that COO classification using the Hans classifier yields consistent results among experienced hematopathologists, even when variable staining protocols are used. Data from this small feasibility study need to be validated in larger cohorts.

Michalova K, Michal M, Sedivcova M, et al.
Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the testis: Comprehensive mutational analysis of 6 testicular and 8 pancreatic SPNs.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2018; 35:42-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recently, we came with the theory of a possible relationship between a group of testicular and pancreatic tumors. We used one case of a pancreatic analogue solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the testis composed partially of areas reminiscent of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas and partially of structures identical to primary signet ring stromal tumor of the testis (PSRSTT) as a connecting link between these two entities. After demonstrating that PSRSTT and pancreatic analogue SPN of the testis share the same immunoprofile and genetic features characteristic for pancreatic SPN, we came to the conclusion that pancreatic analogue SPN of the testis and PSRSTT represent a morphological spectrum of a single entity and that both are related to the pancreatic SPN.
DESIGN: The aim of this study is to present a series of 6 cases of testicular tumors, which lacked the signet ring cell component and were thus morphologically very similar to the SPN of the pancreas. The goal of this study is to compare the genetic background of these testicular tumors that are obviously related to the PSRSTT/pancreatic analogue SPN of the testis with the series of 8 pancreatic SPN.
RESULTS: The mutational analysis revealed an oncogenic somatic mutation in the exon 3 of the CTNNB1 (β-catenin) gene in all analyzable (5/6) testicular and all pancreatic (8/8) tumors. The immunoprofile (positivity with β-catenin, CD10, vimentin, NSE, CD56, and negativity with inhibin, calretinin, chromogranin) was identical in all testicular and pancreatic tumors.
CONCLUSION: This study expanded the morphological spectrum of the PSRSTT/pancreatic analogue SPN of the testis by adding 6 cases without the signet ring cell component. Considering the obvious analogy of PSRSTT/pancreatic analogue SPN of the testis/SPN of the testis and their relationship to the pancreatic SPN we propose the collective term "solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the testis" for these tumors. The mutational profile of the SPN of the testis and pancreas was the same in both groups of tumors which we consider as a final proof that SPN of the testis is identical to the SPN of the pancreas.

Gong QX, Wang Z, Liu C, et al.
CD30 expression and its correlation with MYC and BCL2 in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(9):795-801 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: CD30+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has emerged as a new immunophenotypic variant of
METHODS: A total of 241 patients with
RESULTS: Using a >0% threshold, CD30 expression was detected in approximately 10% patient with
CONCLUSION: CD30+ DLBCL may be a subset of

Raposo TP, Comes MS, Idowu A, et al.
CD10 inhibits cell motility but expression is associated with advanced stage disease in colorectal cancer.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2018; 104(3):190-198 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: CD10 is a cell membrane-bound endopeptidase which is expressed in normal small bowel but not in normal colon. It is aberrantly expressed in a small proportion of colorectal cancers (CRC) and this has been associated with liver metastasis and poor prognosis. We sought to investigate the mechanism of CD10 activity and its association with clinicopathological features.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: CD10 was stably knocked down by lentiviral shRNA transduction in the CRC cell lines SW480 and SW620 which are derived from a primary tumour and its corresponding metastasis respectively. Expression of epithelial - mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers was tested as well as the effect of knockdown on cell viability, migration and invasion assays. In addition, immunohistochemical expression of CD10 in primary colorectal tumours (N = 84) in a tissue microarray was digitally quantified and analysed for associations with clinicopathological variables.
RESULTS: Knockdown of CD10 did not alter cell viability in SW480, but migration and invasion levels increased (P < 0.001 for each) and this was associated with a cadherin switch. In SW620, CD10 knockdown caused a reduction in cell viability after 72 h (P = 0.0018) but it had no effect on cell migration and invasion. Expression of epithelial CD10 in primary tumours was associated with presence of lymph node invasion (P = 0.001) and advanced Duke's stage (P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the function of CD10 may change during tumour evolution. It may inhibit cell motility in early-stage disease whilst promoting cell viability in late-stage disease. It has a complex role and further studies are needed to elucidate the suitability of CD10 as a prognostic marker or therapeutic target.

Horn H, Kohler C, Witzig R, et al.
Gene expression profiling reveals a close relationship between follicular lymphoma grade 3A and 3B, but distinct profiles of follicular lymphoma grade 1 and 2.
Haematologica. 2018; 103(7):1182-1190 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A linear progression model of follicular lymphomas (FL) FL1, FL2 and FL3A has been favored, since FL3A often co-exist with an FL1/2 component. FL3B, in contrast, is thought to be more closely related to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and both are often simultaneously present in one tumor (DLBCL/FL3B). To obtain more detailed insights into follicular lymphoma progression, a comprehensive analysis of a well-defined set of FL1/2 (n=22), FL3A (n=16), FL3B (n=6), DLBCL/FL3B (n=9), and germinal center B-cell-type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=45) was undertaken using gene expression profiling, immunohistochemical stainings and genetic analyses by fluorescence

Chien MH, Ho YC, Yang SF, et al.
Niclosamide, an oral antihelmintic drug, exhibits antimetastatic activity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through downregulating twist-mediated CD10 expression.
Environ Toxicol. 2018; 33(6):659-669 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world, especially, in eastern Asia, and its prognosis is poor once metastasis occurs. Niclosamide, a US Food and Drug Administration-approved antihelmintic drug, was shown to inhibit the growth of various cancers including HCC, but the effect of niclosamide on cell motility and the underlying mechanism have not yet been completely defined. The present study demonstrated that niclosamide, at 0-40 nM, concentration-dependently inhibited wound closure and the migratory/invasive capacities of human Huh7 and SK-Hep-1 HCC cells without exhibiting cytotoxicity. A protease array analysis showed that CD10 was dramatically downregulated in Huh7 cells after niclosamide treatment. Western blot and flow cytometric assays further demonstrated that CD10 expression was concentration-dependently downregulated in Huh7 and SK-Hep-1 cells after niclosamide treatment. Mechanistic investigations found that niclosamide suppressed Twist-mediated CD10 transactivation. Moreover, knockdown of CD10 expression by CD10 small interfering RNA in HCC cells suppressed cell migratory/invasive abilities and overexpression of CD10 relieved the migration inhibition induced by niclosamide. Taken together, our results indicated that niclosamide could be a potential agent for inhibiting metastasis of HCC, and CD10 is an important target of niclosamide for suppressing the motility of HCC cells.

Zhang Y, Tao L, Yin C, et al.
Ovarian microcystic stromal tumor with undetermined potential: case study with molecular analysis and literature review.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 78:171-176 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian microcystic stromal tumor is a relatively rare tumor type. This tumor is characterized by a unique microcyst structure, and essentially all tumors show benign biological behavior. Here, we report a case with a primary ovarian microcystic stromal tumor that experienced recurrence. Pathological findings showed that the original tumor, relapsed tumor in the ovary, and the recurrent tumor in the iliac fossa presented similar histologic features. The tumor mainly consisted of microcysts, solid cellular regions, and a fibrous stroma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for β-catenin, CD10, vimentin, and WT-1. Mutational analysis revealed a missense mutation (c.1590C>T; pG530E) in exon 15 of the APC gene and another missense mutation (c.740G>A; pA247V) in exon 1 of the KRAS gene. We also reviewed other published cases to evaluate the prognosis and treatment. This is the first report to describe a microcystic stromal tumor of the ovary presenting with undetermined biological potential.

Sakakibara A, Inagaki Y, Imaoka E, et al.
Autopsy case report of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma with neoplastic PD-L1 expression.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2018; 58(1):32-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare and clinically distinctive entity characterized by the almost exclusive growth of large cells within the lumen of blood vessels in particular capillaries. Reports of this peculiar disease, do not commonly address the PD-L1 expression on IVLBCL tumor cells. Here, we describe a 51-year-old Japanese woman who presented with rapidly progressive cognitive decline and higher brain dysfunction. CT scan and MRI revealed multiple ischemic foci in the cerebral hemispheres, ground-glass opacity in the lungs, and splenomegaly. Random skin biopsy for IVLBCL diagnosis yielded negative results. The patient experienced a rapidly deteriorating clinical course with no treatment, and died from the disease after 3 months of hospitalization. Post-mortem examination revealed systemic intravascular plugging of lymphoma cells, without mass lesions in the central nervous system or in visceral organs such as the lungs, liver, pituitary gland, ovaries, and uterus. The tumor cells were positive for CD10, CD20, BCL2, BCL6, and MUM1, but not other lineage-specific markers. Notably, the tumor cells showed strong PD-L1 expression. Our case was diagnosed as IVLBCL with neoplastic PD-L1 expression. These findings suggest that PD-L1 is associated with immune evasion of IVLBCL and may play a role in the pathogenesis and peculiar biological behavior of this unique disease. Additionally, PD-L1 may represent a possible therapeutic target for immune check-point inhibitors.

Glazyrin A, Patel C, Kujtan L, Madhusudhana S
Two for One: B-Cell Lymphomas with Features of Marginal and Follicular Lymphomas.
Acta Haematol. 2018; 139(2):84-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade follicular lymphomas are genetically characterized by the translocation t(14; 18)(q32;q21) with BCL2 gene rearrangements. Marginal zone lymphomas are often associated with translocations or transcriptional deregulations of the MALT gene. We report 2 cases of lymphomas which harbor both the t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation and MALT gene upregulation. Patients presented with numerous circulating atypical lymphocytes. Lymph node biopsy in both cases on HE staining demonstrated vague nodularity readily highlighted by CD10, CD23, or BCL6. Staining with CD20 and BCL2 demonstrated monotonous diffuse effacement of normal architecture with tumor cells without obvious follicular structures. Morphologically, tumor cells were consistent with centrocytes. Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated a combined peritrabecular and interstitial distribution of the tumor cells. These cases present substantial difficulties for diagnosis and classification. Clinical and morphological features were mostly consistent with follicular lymphoma, with a few features more often seen in marginal zone lymphomas (leukemic presentation, no CD10 in circulating cells, interstitial location of tumor cells in bone marrow); therefore, these cases were finally classified as follicular lymphoma grade I. Both patients were treated with standard chemotherapy regimens for follicular and nongastric MALT lymphomas with a good response to date.

Su S, Chen J, Yao H, et al.
Cell. 2018; 172(4):841-856.e16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are abundant and heterogeneous stromal cells in tumor microenvironment that are critically involved in cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate that two cell-surface molecules, CD10 and GPR77, specifically define a CAF subset correlated with chemoresistance and poor survival in multiple cohorts of breast and lung cancer patients. CD10

Agaimy A, Moskalev EA, Weisser W, et al.
Low-grade Endometrioid Stromal Sarcoma of the Paratestis: A Novel Report With Molecular Confirmation of JAZF1/SUZ12 Translocation.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(5):695-700 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumors with Müllerian-like serous or mucinous phenotypes originating in the testis and its adnexa are rare neoplasms that have been increasingly recognized in recent years. Cystadenomas with or without ovarian-type stroma, borderline tumors, and adenocarcinomas are the main documented types. Although a handful cases of putative endometrioid adenocarcinomas have been reported, to our knowledge no case of endometrial stromal-type neoplasm has ever been reported in the literature. A 59-year-old man presented with a 2 cm left intrascrotal mass that was found on sonographic examination to arise from the epididymal tail with prominent vascularization. He was otherwise healthy without significant clinical history, endocrinopathy, or external hormone therapy. His testicular tumor markers (beta-HCG, AFP) were normal. Histologic examination of the resection showed a multinodular tumor closely associated with the epididymis and composed of monotonous rounded to ovoid cells with scanty cytoplasm and prominent spiral-like arterioles and capillaries. Mitotic activity was high. No other tumor component was seen. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong and diffuse expression of vimentin, CD10, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Molecular examination (performed on paraffin-embedded tumor tissue using a 517 gene fusion next-generation sequencing assay) showed a JAZF1/SUZ12 translocation, which was then confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These findings are consistent with a low-grade endometrioid stromal sarcoma originating in the paratestis. This report represents a novel addition to the growing spectrum of Müllerian-analog testicular adnexal neoplasms.

Rymkiewicz G, Grygalewicz B, Chechlinska M, et al.
A comprehensive flow-cytometry-based immunophenotypic characterization of Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(5):732-743 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously described a subset of MYC translocation-negative aggressive B-cell lymphomas resembling Burkitt lymphoma, characterized by proximal gains and distal losses in chromosome 11. In the 2016 WHO classification, these MYC-negative lymphomas were recognized as a new provisional entity, 'Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration'. Here we present an immunophenotype analysis of Burkitt-like lymphomas with 11q aberration. Cells were acquired by fine needle aspiration biopsy from 10 young adult patients, 80% of whom presented recurrence-free 5-year survival. Twenty-three MYC-positive Burkitt lymphomas, including three carrying both MYC rearrangement and 11q aberration, served as controls. By immunohistochemistry, all Burkitt-like lymphomas with 11q aberration were CD20+/CD10+/BCL6+/BCL2-/MUM1-/MYC+/EBV-, usually LMO2+/CD44-/CD43- and sometimes CD56+, and showed high proliferation rate. By flow cytometry, Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration immunophenotypically resembled MYC-positive Burkitt lymphoma, except for significantly (adjusted P<0.001) more frequent CD38

Freedman A
Follicular lymphoma: 2018 update on diagnosis and management.
Am J Hematol. 2018; 93(2):296-305 [PubMed] Related Publications
DISEASE OVERVIEW: Follicular lymphoma is generally an indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorder of transformed follicular center B cells. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is characterized by diffuse lymphadenopathy, bone marrow involvement, splenomegaly and less commonly other extranodal sites of involvement. In general, cytopenias can occur but constitutional symptoms of fever, nightsweats, and weight loss are uncommon.
DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is based on histology of preferably a biopsy of a lymph node. Immunohistochemical staining is positive in virtually all cases for cell surface CD19, CD20, CD10, and monoclonal immunoglobulin, as well as cytoplasmic expression of bcl-2 protein. The overwhelming majority of cases have the characteristic t(14;18) translocation involving the IgH/bcl-2 genes.
RISK STRATIFICATION: The Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index prognostic model for FL uses five independent predictors of inferior survival: age >60 years, hemoglobin <12 g/dL, serum LDH > normal, Ann Arbor stage III/IV, number of involved nodal areas > 4. The presence of 0, 1, 2, and ≥ 3 adverse factors defines low, intermediate, and high-risk disease. With the use of more modern therapies, outcomes have improved.
RISK-ADAPTED THERAPY: Observation continues to be adequate for asymptomatic patients with low bulk disease and no cytopenias, with no survival advantage for early treatment with either chemotherapy or rituximab alone. For patients needing therapy, most patients are treated with chemotherapy plus rituximab, which has improved response rates, duration of response and overall survival. Randomized studies have shown additional benefit for maintenance rituximab both following chemotherapy-rituximab and single agent rituximab. Experimental therapies as well as stem cell transplantation (SCT) are considered for recurrent disease.

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