Gene Summary

Gene:LRP1B; LDL receptor related protein 1B
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family. These receptors play a wide variety of roles in normal cell function and development due to their interactions with multiple ligands. Disruption of this gene has been reported in several types of cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Genome, Human
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • DNA Copy Number Variations
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cohort Studies
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Signal Transduction
  • DNA Methylation
  • Base Sequence
  • Promoter Regions
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • CpG Islands
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Chromosome 2
  • Gene Dosage
  • Young Adult
  • Breast Cancer
  • Receptors, LDL
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Phosphoprotein Phosphatases
  • Gene Expression
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Mutation
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Silencing
  • Lung Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • LRP1B
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Urothelium
  • Epigenetics
  • Gene Deletion
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LRP1B (cancer-related)

Zhao X, Lei Y, Li G, et al.
Integrative analysis of cancer driver genes in prostate adenocarcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(4):2707-2715 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Large‑scale genomics studies have identified recurrently mutated genes in the ETS gene family, including fusions and copy number variations (CNVs), which are involved in the development of prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD). However, the aetiology of PRAD remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, 333 driver genes were identified using four computational tools: OncodriveFM, OncodriveCLUST, iCAGES and DrGaP. In addition, 32 driver pathways were identified using DrGaP. SPOP, TP53, SPTA1, AHNAK, HMCN1, ATM, FOXA1, CSMD3, LRP1B and FREM2 were the 10 most recurrently mutated genes in PRAD. ITGAL, TAGAP, SIGLEC10, RAC2 and ITGA4 were the five hub genes in the yellow module that were associated with the number of positive lymph nodes. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the 20 driver genes with the most frequent CNVs revealed three clusters of patients with PRAD. Cluster 3 tumours exhibited significantly higher numbers of positive lymph nodes, higher Gleason scores, more advanced cancer stages and poorer prognosis than cluster 1 and 2 tumours. A total of 48 genes were significantly associated with the number of positive lymph nodes, Gleason scores and pathologic stage in patients with PRAD. The identified set of cancer genes and pathways sheds light on the tumorigenesis of PRAD and creates avenues for the development of prognostic biomarkers and driver gene‑targeted therapies in PRAD.

Rahane CS, Kutzner A, Heese K
A cancer tissue-specific FAM72 expression profile defines a novel glioblastoma multiform (GBM) gene-mutation signature.
J Neurooncol. 2019; 141(1):57-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is a neural stem cell (NSC)-derived malignant brain tumor with complex genetic alterations challenging clinical treatments. FAM72 is a NSC-specific protein comprised of four paralogous genes (FAM72 A-D) in the human genome, but its functional tumorigenic significance is unclear.
METHODS: We conducted an in-depth expression and somatic mutation data analysis of FAM72 (A-D) in GBM using the comprehensive human clinical cancer study database cBioPortal [including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)].
RESULTS: We established a FAM72 transcription profile across TCGA correlated with the expression of the proliferative marker MKI67 and a tissue-specific gene-mutation signature represented by pivotal genes involved in driving the cell cycle. FAM72 paralogs are overexpressed in cancer cells, specifically correlating with the mitotic cell cycle genes ASPM, KIF14, KIF23, CENPE, CENPE, CEP55, SGO1, and BUB1, thereby contributing to centrosome and mitotic spindle formation. FAM72 expression correlation identifies a novel GBM-specific gene set (SCN9A, MXRA5, ADAM29, KDR, LRP1B, and PIK3C2G) in the de novo pathway of primary GBM predestined as viable targets for therapeutics.
CONCLUSION: Our newly identified primary GBM-specific gene-mutation signature, along with FAM72, could thus provide a new basis for prognostic biomarkers for diagnostics of GBM and could serve as potential therapeutic targets.

Corre J, Cleynen A, Robiou du Pont S, et al.
Multiple myeloma clonal evolution in homogeneously treated patients.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(12):2636-2647 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clonal evolution drives tumor progression, chemoresistance and relapse in cancer. Little is known about clonal selection induced by therapeutic pressure in multiple myeloma. To address this issue, we performed large targeted sequencing of bone marrow plasma cells in 43 multiple myeloma patients at diagnosis and at relapse from exactly the same intensive treatment. The most frequently mutated genes at diagnosis were KRAS (35%), NRAS (28%), DIS3 (16%), BRAF, and LRP1B (12% each). At relapse, the mutational burden was unchanged. Many of the mutations were present at the subclonal level at both time points, including driver ones. According to patients and mutations, we observed different scenarios: selection of a very rare subclone present at diagnosis, appearance, or disappearance of mutations, but also stability. Our data highlight that chemoresistance and relapse could be induced by newly acquired mutations in myeloma drivers but also by (sub)clonal mutations preexisting to the treatment. Importantly, no specific mutation or rearrangement was observed at relapse, demonstrating that intensive treatment has a nonspecific effect on clonal selection in multiple myeloma. Finally, we identified 22 cases of biallelic event, including a double event deletion 17p/TP53mut.

Konukiewitz B, Jesinghaus M, Steiger K, et al.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas reveal a closer relationship to ductal adenocarcinomas than to neuroendocrine tumors G3.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 77:70-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare aggressive tumor commonly harboring TP53 and RB1 alterations and lacking neuroendocrine-related genetic changes such as mutations in MEN1 and ATRX/DAXX. Little is known about its genetic profile with regard to that of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We therefore conducted a detailed genetic study in 12 pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas of large cell (n = 9) and small cell type (n = 3) using massive parallel sequencing applying a 409-gene panel on an Ion Torrent system. The genetic data were compared with known data of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and correlated with exocrine lineage marker expression. A similar analysis was performed in 11 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors G3. Neuroendocrine carcinomas harbored 63 somatic mutations in 45 different genes, affecting most commonly TP53 (8/12 cases), KRAS (5/12 cases), and RB1 (loss of expression with or without deletion in 4/12 cases). Five carcinomas had both TP53 and KRAS mutations. Neuroendocrine tumors G3 only shared singular mutations in 5 different genes with neuroendocrine carcinomas, including TP53, CDKN2A, ARID1A, LRP1B, and APC, affecting 5 different cases. Most KRAS-positive neuroendocrine carcinomas also expressed MUC1 (4/5) and carcinoembryonic antigen (3/5) as markers of ductal differentiation. Our data indicate that almost half of the pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas are genetically and phenotypically related to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and might therefore respond to chemotherapies targeting the latter carcinomas.

Wolff RK, Hoffman MD, Wolff EC, et al.
Mutation analysis of adenomas and carcinomas of the colon: Early and late drivers.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(7):366-376 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for about 8% of all new cancer cases diagnosed in the US. We used whole exome sequence data from triplet samples (colon carcinoma, colon adenoma, and normal tissue) from 18 individuals to assess gene mutation rates. Of the 2 204 genes that were mutated, APC, TTN, TP53, KRAS, OBSCN, SOX9, PCDH17, SIGLEC10, MYH6, and BRD9 were consistent with genes being an early driver of carcinogenesis, in that they were mutated in multiple adenomas and multiple carcinomas. Fifty-two genes were mutated in ≥12.5% of microsatellite stable (MSS) carcinomas but not in any of the adenomas, in line with the profile of a late driver event involved in tumor progression. Thirty-eight genes were sequenced in a larger independent set of 148 carcinoma/normal tissue pairs to obtain more precise mutation frequencies. Eight of the genes, APC, TP53, ATM, CSMD3, LRP1B, RYR2, BIRC6, and MUC17, contained mutations in >20% of the carcinomas. Interestingly, mutations in four genes in addition to APC that are associated with dysregulation of Wnt signaling, were all classified as early driver events. Most of the genes that are commonly associated with colon cancer, including APC, TP53, and KRAS, were all classified as being early driver genes being mutated in both adenomas and carcinomas. Classifying genes as potential early and late driver events points to candidate genes that may help dissect pathways involved in both tumor initiation and progression.

Wang Y, Guo L, Feng L, et al.
Single nucleotide variant profiles of viable single circulating tumour cells reveal CTC behaviours in breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(5):2147-2159 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Circulating tumour cell (CTC) behaviours are distinct from those of bulk tissues. Thus, treatments to eliminate CTCs differ from the regimens followed to reduce the primary tumour and its metastases. Accordingly, comprehensively deciphering the single nucleotide variant (SNV) profiles in CTCs, which partially determine CTC behaviours, is a priority. Using viable CTCs isolated with the oHSV1‑hTERT‑GFP virus coupled with fluorescence‑activated cell sorting (FACS), the whole genome was amplified using the multiple annealing and looping‑based amplification cycle (MALBAC) method. CTC behaviours were evaluated using the SNVs found to be recurrently mutated in different cells (termed CTC‑shared SNVs). Analysis of the sequencing data of 11 CTCs from 8 patients demonstrated that SNVs accumulated sporadically among CTCs and their matched primary tumours (22 co‑occurring mutated genes were identified in the exomes of CTCs and their matched primary tissues and metastases), and 394 SNVs were shared by at least two CTCs. Mutated APC and LRP1B genes co‑occurred in CTC‑shared and bulk‑tissue SNVs. Additionally, the breast‑originating identity of the CTC‑shared SNVs was verified, and they demonstrated the following CTC behaviours: i) intravasation competency; ii) increased migration or motility; iii) enhanced cell‑cell interactions; iv) variation in energy metabolism; v) an activated platelet or coagulation system; and vi) dysfunctional mitosis. These results demonstrated that it is feasible to capture and amplify the genomes of single CTCs using the described pipeline. CTC‑shared SNVs are a potential signature for identifying the origin of the primary tumour in a liquid biopsy. Furthermore, CTCs demonstrated some behaviours that are unique from those of bulk tissues. Therefore, therapies to eradicate these precursors of metastasis may differ from the existing traditional regimens.

Leonard MK, McCorkle JR, Snyder DE, et al.
Identification of a gene expression signature associated with the metastasis suppressor function of NME1: prognostic value in human melanoma.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(3):327-338 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although NME1 is well known for its ability to suppress metastasis of melanoma, the molecular mechanisms underlying this activity are not completely understood. Herein, we utilized a bioinformatics approach to systematically identify genes whose expression is correlated with the metastasis suppressor function of NME1. This was accomplished through a search for genes that were regulated by NME1, but not by NME1 variants lacking metastasis suppressor activity. This approach identified a number of novel genes, such as ALDOC, CXCL11, LRP1b, and XAGE1 as well as known targets such as NETO2, which were collectively designated as an NME1-Regulated Metastasis Suppressor Signature (MSS). The MSS was associated with prolonged overall survival in a large cohort of melanoma patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The median overall survival of melanoma patients with elevated expression of the MSS genes was >5.6 years longer compared with that of patients with lower expression of the MSS genes. These data demonstrate that NMEl represents a powerful tool for identifying genes whose expression is associated with metastasis and survival of melanoma patients, suggesting their potential applications as prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in advanced forms of this lethal cancer.

Ali SM, Yao M, Yao J, et al.
Comprehensive genomic profiling of different subtypes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma reveals similarities and differences to guide targeted therapy.
Cancer. 2017; 123(18):3628-3637 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To date, no targeted therapy has been approved for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and this underscores the need for an in-depth understanding of clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs).
METHODS: Comprehensive genomic profiling was performed for 190 NPC patients, including 20 patients with nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma (NPAC), 62 patients with nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (NPSCC), and 108 patients with nasopharyngeal undifferentiated carcinoma (NPUC). The associations of genes and pathways with subtypes, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, and the tumor mutation burden (TMB) were statistically evaluated.
RESULTS: Although the overall rates of genomic alterations were similar, the 3 NPC subtypes exhibited different mutational landscapes. Notably, mutations in a proven-treatable target gene, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), were significantly associated with NPUC but not with NPAC or NPSCC. The top 5 ranked CRGAs included CDKN2A (29%), IDH2 (16%), SMARCB1 (7%), PIK3CA (6%), and NF1 (5%) in NPUC; CDKN2A (27%), PIK3CA (23%), FBXW7 (11%), PTEN (11%), and EGFR (8%) in NPSCC; and CDKN2A (20%), KRAS (15%), CCND1 (10%), MAP3K1 (10%), and NOTCH1 (10%) in NPAC. The incidence of EBV infections significantly correlated with the subtypes and with TP53, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B. The TMB status correlated with the subtypes and with LRP1B, FBXW7, and PIK3CA mutations as well as DNA repair, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that different NPC subtypes harbor different CRGAs. Both EBV infections and the TMB are associated with the NPC subtypes as well as the alterations of individual genes and pathways. The high frequency of IDH2 mutations in NPUC may facilitate potential targeted therapy and will ultimately point to new therapeutic strategies. Cancer 2017;123:3628-37. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

Chang J, Tan W, Ling Z, et al.
Genomic analysis of oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma identifies alcohol drinking-related mutation signature and genomic alterations.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8:15290 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Approximately half of the world's 500,000 new oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases each year occur in China. Here, we show whole-genome sequencing of DNA and RNA in 94 Chinese individuals with ESCC. We identify six mutational signatures (E1-E6), and Signature E4 is unique in ESCC linked to alcohol intake and genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. We discover significantly recurrent mutations in 20 protein-coding genes, 4 long non-coding RNAs and 10 untranslational regions. Functional analyses show six genes that have recurrent copy-number variants in three squamous-cell carcinomas (oesophageal, head and neck and lung) significantly promote cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The most frequently affected genes by structural variation are LRP1B and TTC28. The aberrant cell cycle and PI3K-AKT pathways seem critical in ESCC. These results establish a comprehensive genomic landscape of ESCC and provide potential targets for precision treatment and prevention of the cancer.

Wang Z, Sun P, Gao C, et al.
Down-regulation of LRP1B in colon cancer promoted the growth and migration of cancer cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2017; 357(1):1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant activation of beta-catenin/TCF signaling is one of the hallmarks of colon cancer. It is of great interest to study the mechanism for the regulation of beta-catenin/TCF signaling. In this study, it was found that LRP1B was down-regulated in colon cancer tissues and inhibited the growth, migration and metastasis of colon cancer cells. The molecular mechanism study revealed that LRP1B interacted with DVL2, inhibited the interaction between DVL2 and Axin, and negatively regulated beta-catenin/TCF signaling. Taken together, our study demonstrated the suppressive roles of LRP1B in the progression of colon cancer, implicating that restoring the function of LRP1B would be a promising strategy for the treatment of colon cancer.

Lee S, Lee J, Sim SH, et al.
Comprehensive somatic genome alterations of urachal carcinoma.
J Med Genet. 2017; 54(8):572-578 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Urachal cancer is a rare cancer that develops in the urachus. Because of its rarity, standard treatment therapies for urachal cancer are not established, and chemotherapeutic regimens for bladder cancer have been unsuccessful for patients with urachal cancer. Hence, we aim to understand a systematic molecular characterisation of urachal cancer.
METHODS: We identified somatic single-nucleotide variations (SNVs)/indels and somatic copy number aberrations (SCNAs) in the 17 patients by using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and OncoScan platform (Affymetrix) as follows: tumour-normal paired sequencing (WES, n=10), tumour-only sequencing (WES, n=1; targeted deep sequencing, n=16), and OncoScan (n=17).
RESULTS: Our analyses identified 27 genes with somatic SNVs and indels, as well as six genes (APC, COL5A1, KIF26B, LRP1B, SMAD4 and TP53) that were recurrent in at least two patients. By analysing the SCNAs, we found that the extent of chromosomal amplification was highly associated with the patient's cancer stage. Interestingly, 35% (6/17) of the patients had focal DNA amplifications in fibroblast growth factor receptor family genes. The integration of somatic SNVs, indels and SCNAs revealed significant alterations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: Our genome-wide analysis of urachal cancer suggests that molecular characteristics may be important for the treatment of urachal cancer.

Maru Y, Tanaka N, Ohira M, et al.
Identification of novel mutations in Japanese ovarian clear cell carcinoma patients using optimized targeted NGS for clinical diagnosis.
Gynecol Oncol. 2017; 144(2):377-383 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is an aggressive ovarian cancer with a higher frequency in Japan and often becomes chemorefractory disease. Reliable genetic diagnosis is essential to affirm the success of precision medicine for OCCC treatment. The aim of this study is, therefore, to identify novel mutations in OCCCs and develop a feasible clinical next generation sequencing (NGS) approach using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) rather than preferable but not always available fresh frozen (FF) samples.
METHODS: We optimized and evaluated exome analyses of 409 cancer-related genes using FFPE and FF DNA and analyzed NGS data to identify somatic mutations in Japanese OCCCs.
RESULTS: Sufficient and good quality DNAs from FFPE samples were extracted from 18 (FIGO Stage I: 12) out of 29 pairs of matched normal and OCCC for NGS (63%). The fine quality of extracted DNAs depended on the length of storage period (<2years storage). We also identified 45 somatic mutations in 34 genes including unreported variants from those FFPE DNA, in which somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene was the most common (28%) as previously reported. Seven genes (PIK3CA, ARID1A, CTNNB1, CSMD3, LPHN3, LRP1B, and TP53) were mutated in at least two independent OCCCs. FF samples from 3 out of those 18 OCCCs were available and 13 out of 14 FFPE somatic mutations were confirmed.
CONCLUSIONS: We successfully identified novel genetic alterations in Japanese OCCCs and demonstrated a feasible clinical diagnostic procedure using targeted NGS for OCCC FFPE samples.

Gao G, Johnson SH, Vasmatzis G, et al.
Common fragile sites (CFS) and extremely large CFS genes are targets for human papillomavirus integrations and chromosome rearrangements in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(1):59-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Common fragile sites (CFS) are chromosome regions that are prone to form gaps or breaks in response to DNA replication stress. They are often found as hotspots for sister chromatid exchanges, deletions, and amplifications in different cancers. Many of the CFS regions are found to span genes whose genomic sequence is greater than 1 Mb, some of which have been demonstrated to function as important tumor suppressors. CFS regions are also hotspots for human papillomavirus (HPV) integrations in cervical cancer. We used mate-pair sequencing to examine HPV integration events and chromosomal structural variations in 34 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). We used endpoint PCR and Sanger sequencing to validate each HPV integration event and found HPV integrations preferentially occurred within CFS regions similar to what is observed in cervical cancer. We also found that many of the chromosomal alterations detected also occurred at or near the cytogenetic location of CFSs. Several large genes were also found to be recurrent targets of rearrangements, independent of HPV integrations, including CSMD1 (2.1Mb), LRP1B (1.9Mb), and LARGE1 (0.7Mb). Sanger sequencing revealed that the nucleotide sequences near to identified junction sites contained repetitive and AT-rich sequences that were shown to have the potential to form stem-loop DNA secondary structures that might stall DNA replication fork progression during replication stress. This could then cause increased instability in these regions which could lead to cancer development in human cells. Our findings suggest that CFSs and some specific large genes appear to play important roles in OPSCC. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Beer AG, Zenzmaier C, Schreinlechner M, et al.
Expression of a recombinant full-length LRP1B receptor in human non-small cell lung cancer cells confirms the postulated growth-suppressing function of this large LDL receptor family member.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(42):68721-68733 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B), a member of the LDL receptor family, is frequently inactivated in multiple malignancies including lung cancer. LRP1B is therefore considered as a putative tumor suppressor. Due to its large size (4599 amino acids), until now only minireceptors or receptor fragments have been successfully cloned. To assess the effect of LRP1B on the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells, we constructed and expressed a transfection vector containing the 13.800 bp full-length murine Lrp1b cDNA using a PCR-based cloning strategy. Expression of LRP1B was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using primers specific for human LRP1B or mouse Lrp1b. Effective expression of the full length receptor was demonstrated by the appearance of a single 600 kDa band on Western Blots of HEK 293 cells. Overexpression of Lrp1b in non-small cell lung cancer cells with low or absent endogenous LRP1B expression significantly reduced cellular proliferation compared to empty vector-transfected control cells. Conversely, in Calu-1 cells, which express higher endogenous levels of the receptor, siRNA-mediated LRP1B knockdown significantly enhanced cellular proliferation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that, consistent with the postulated tumor suppressor function, overexpression of full-length Lrp1b leads to impaired cellular proliferation, while LRP1B knockdown has the opposite effect. The recombinant Lrp1b construct represents a valuable tool to unravel the largely unknown physiological role of LRP1B and its potential functions in cancer pathogenesis.

Gomez-Rueda H, Palacios-Corona R, Gutiérrez-Hermosillo H, Trevino V
A robust biomarker of differential correlations improves the diagnosis of cytologically indeterminate thyroid cancers.
Int J Mol Med. 2016; 37(5):1355-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
The fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules and subsequent cytological analysis is unable to determine the diagnosis in 15 to 30% of thyroid cancer cases; patients with indeterminate cytological results undergo diagnostic surgery which is potentially unnecessary. Current gene expression biomarkers based on well-determined cytology are complex and their accuracy is inconsistent across public datasets. In the present study, we identified a robust biomarker using the differences in gene expression values specifically from cytologically indeterminate thyroid tumors and a powerful multivariate search tool coupled with a nearest centroid classifier. The biomarker is based on differences in the expression of the following genes: CCND1, CLDN16, CPE, LRP1B, MAGI3, MAPK6, MATN2, MPPED2, PFKFB2, PTPRE, PYGL, SEMA3D, SERGEF, SLC4A4 and TIMP1. This 15-gene biomarker exhibited superior accuracy independently of the cytology in six datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) thyroid dataset. In addition, this biomarker exhibited differences in the correlation coefficients between benign and malignant samples that indicate its discriminatory power, and these 15 genes have been previously related to cancer in the literature. Thus, this 15-gene biomarker provides advantages in clinical practice for the effective diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

Takeda H, Rust AG, Ward JM, et al.
Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis identifies genes that cooperate with mutant Smad4 in gastric cancer development.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(14):E2057-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations in SMAD4 predispose to the development of gastrointestinal cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. To identify genes driving gastric cancer (GC) development, we performed a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis screen in the stomach of Smad4(+/-) mutant mice. This screen identified 59 candidate GC trunk drivers and a much larger number of candidate GC progression genes. Strikingly, 22 SB-identified trunk drivers are known or candidate cancer genes, whereas four SB-identified trunk drivers, including PTEN, SMAD4, RNF43, and NF1, are known human GC trunk drivers. Similar to human GC, pathway analyses identified WNT, TGF-β, and PI3K-PTEN signaling, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, adherens junctions, and RNA degradation in addition to genes involved in chromatin modification and organization as highly deregulated pathways in GC. Comparative oncogenomic filtering of the complete list of SB-identified genes showed that they are highly enriched for genes mutated in human GC and identified many candidate human GC genes. Finally, by comparing our complete list of SB-identified genes against the list of mutated genes identified in five large-scale human GC sequencing studies, we identified LDL receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B) as a previously unidentified human candidate GC tumor suppressor gene. In LRP1B, 129 mutations were found in 462 human GC samples sequenced, and LRP1B is one of the top 10 most deleted genes identified in a panel of 3,312 human cancers. SB mutagenesis has, thus, helped to catalog the cooperative molecular mechanisms driving SMAD4-induced GC growth and discover genes with potential clinical importance in human GC.

Jahn SW, Kashofer K, Thüringer A, et al.
Mutation Profiling of Usual Ductal Hyperplasia of the Breast Reveals Activating Mutations Predominantly at Different Levels of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway.
Am J Pathol. 2016; 186(1):15-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) of the breast is generally regarded as a nonneoplastic proliferation, albeit loss of heterozygosity has long been reported in a part of these lesions. To gain deeper insights into the molecular drivers of these lesions, an extended mutation profiling was performed. The coding regions of 409 cancer-related genes were investigated by next-generation sequencing in 16 cases of UDH, nine unassociated with neoplasia (classic) and seven arising within papillomas. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation was investigated by phosphorylated AKT, mTOR, and S6 immunohistochemistry. Of 16 lesions, 10 (63%) were mutated; 56% of classic lesions were unassociated with neoplasia, and 71% of lesions arose in papillomas. Fourteen missense mutations were detected: PIK3CA [6 (43%) of 14], AKT1 [2 (14%) of 14], as well as GNAS, MTOR, PIK3R1, LPHN3, LRP1B, and IGF2R [each 1 (7%) of 14]. Phosphorylated mTOR was seen in 83% and phosphorylated S6 in 86% of evaluable lesions (phospho-AKT staining was technically uninterpretable). In conclusion, UDH displays mutations of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR axis at different levels, with PIK3R1, MTOR, and GNAS mutations not previously described. Specifically, oncogenic G-protein activation represents a yet unrecognized route to proliferation in UDH. On the basis of evidence of activating mutations, loss of heterozygosity, and a mass forming proliferation, we propose that UDH is most appropriately viewed as an early neoplastic intraductal proliferation.

Tabouret E, Labussière M, Alentorn A, et al.
LRP1B deletion is associated with poor outcome for glioblastoma patients.
J Neurol Sci. 2015; 358(1-2):440-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Deletion of the tumor suppressor gene LRP1B has been reported in glioblastoma, the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Our objective was to analyze frequency and prognostic impact of LRP1B deletion and expression levels.
METHODS: We retrospectively included all the primary IDH1/2 wild-type GBM patients with available clinical follow-up, DNA and RNA from our database. Deletions were analyzed by SNP-array. LRP1B mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: 178 patients were included with a median age of 62.36 years. LRP1B deletions were observed for 10.1% of patients (complete: 2.8%, partial: 7.3%). LRP1B deletions were associated with poor progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.004) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.001). By multivariate analysis, LRP1B deletions remained significant for both PFS (p=0.003, hazard ratio (HR): 2.261) and OS (p=0.001, HR: 2.609). LRP1B was down expressed with a mean relative expression of 46% comparatively to normal tissue. No association between LRP1B mRNA and patient outcome was observed. No correlation was found between the deletions and the mRNA down-expression. These results were validated using GBM TCGA data.
CONCLUSION: LRP1B presents with frequent molecular alterations which impact patient outcome, highlighting the potential interest of this gene for glioblastoma patients.

Cotterchio M, Lowcock E, Bider-Canfield Z, et al.
Association between Variants in Atopy-Related Immunologic Candidate Genes and Pancreatic Cancer Risk.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0125273 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many epidemiology studies report that atopic conditions such as allergies are associated with reduced pancreas cancer risk. The reason for this relationship is not yet understood. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the association between variants in atopy-related candidate genes and pancreatic cancer risk.
METHODS: A population-based case-control study of pancreas cancer cases diagnosed during 2011-2012 (via Ontario Cancer Registry), and controls recruited using random digit dialing utilized DNA from 179 cases and 566 controls. Following an exhaustive literature review, SNPs in 180 candidate genes were pre-screened using dbGaP pancreas cancer GWAS data; 147 SNPs in 56 allergy-related immunologic genes were retained and genotyped. Logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odd ratio (AOR) for each variant and false discovery rate was used to adjust Wald p-values for multiple testing. Subsequently, a risk allele score was derived based on statistically significant variants.
RESULTS: 18 SNPs in 14 candidate genes (CSF2, DENND1B, DPP10, FLG, IL13, IL13RA2, LRP1B, NOD1, NPSR1, ORMDL3, RORA, STAT4, TLR6, TRA) were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, two LRP1B SNPs remained statistically significant; for example, LRP1B rs1449477 (AA vs. CC: AOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.22-0.62; p (adjusted)=0.04). Furthermore, the risk allele score was associated with a significant reduction in pancreas cancer risk (p=0.0007).
CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings suggest certain atopy-related variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk. Further studies are needed to replicate this, and to elucidate the biology behind the growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggesting allergies may reduce pancreatic cancer risk.

Shapiro SG, Raghunath S, Williams C, et al.
Canine urothelial carcinoma: genomically aberrant and comparatively relevant.
Chromosome Res. 2015; 23(2):311-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Urothelial carcinoma (UC), also referred to as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), is the most common bladder malignancy in both human and canine populations. In human UC, numerous studies have demonstrated the prevalence of chromosomal imbalances. Although the histopathology of the disease is similar in both species, studies evaluating the genomic profile of canine UC are lacking, limiting the discovery of key comparative molecular markers associated with driving UC pathogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated 31 primary canine UC biopsies by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH). Results highlighted the presence of three highly recurrent numerical aberrations: gain of dog chromosome (CFA) 13 and 36 and loss of CFA 19. Regional gains of CFA 13 and 36 were present in 97 % and 84 % of cases, respectively, and losses on CFA 19 were present in 77 % of cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and custom Agilent SureFISH probes, was performed to detect and quantify these regions in paraffin-embedded biopsy sections and urine-derived urothelial cells. The data indicate that these three aberrations are potentially diagnostic of UC. Comparison of our canine oaCGH data with that of 285 human cases identified a series of shared copy number aberrations. Using an informatics approach to interrogate the frequency of copy number aberrations across both species, we identified those that had the highest joint probability of association with UC. The most significant joint region contained the gene PABPC1, which should be considered further for its role in UC progression. In addition, cross-species filtering of genome-wide copy number data highlighted several genes as high-profile candidates for further analysis, including CDKN2A, S100A8/9, and LRP1B. We propose that these common aberrations are indicative of an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of pathogenesis and harbor genes key to urothelial neoplasia, warranting investigation for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications.

Hu Z, Zhu D, Wang W, et al.
Genome-wide profiling of HPV integration in cervical cancer identifies clustered genomic hot spots and a potential microhomology-mediated integration mechanism.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(2):158-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) integration is a key genetic event in cervical carcinogenesis. By conducting whole-genome sequencing and high-throughput viral integration detection, we identified 3,667 HPV integration breakpoints in 26 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, 104 cervical carcinomas and five cell lines. Beyond recalculating frequencies for the previously reported frequent integration sites POU5F1B (9.7%), FHIT (8.7%), KLF12 (7.8%), KLF5 (6.8%), LRP1B (5.8%) and LEPREL1 (4.9%), we discovered new hot spots HMGA2 (7.8%), DLG2 (4.9%) and SEMA3D (4.9%). Protein expression from FHIT and LRP1B was downregulated when HPV integrated in their introns. Protein expression from MYC and HMGA2 was elevated when HPV integrated into flanking regions. Moreover, microhomologous sequence between the human and HPV genomes was significantly enriched near integration breakpoints, indicating that fusion between viral and human DNA may have occurred by microhomology-mediated DNA repair pathways. Our data provide insights into HPV integration-driven cervical carcinogenesis.

Ross JS, Wang K, Rand JV, et al.
Next-generation sequencing of adrenocortical carcinoma reveals new routes to targeted therapies.
J Clin Pathol. 2014; 67(11):968-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) carries a poor prognosis and current systemic cytotoxic therapies result in only modest improvement in overall survival. In this retrospective study, we performed a comprehensive genomic profiling of 29 consecutive ACC samples to identify potential targets of therapy not currently searched for in routine clinical practice.
METHODS: DNA from 29 ACC was sequenced to high, uniform coverage (Illumina HiSeq) and analysed for genomic alterations (GAs).
RESULTS: At least one GA was found in 22 (76%) ACC (mean 2.6 alterations per ACC). The most frequent GAs were in TP53 (34%), NF1 (14%), CDKN2A (14%), MEN1 (14%), CTNNB1 (10%) and ATM (10%). APC, CCND2, CDK4, DAXX, DNMT3A, KDM5C, LRP1B, MSH2 and RB1 were each altered in two cases (7%) and EGFR, ERBB4, KRAS, MDM2, NRAS, PDGFRB, PIK3CA, PTEN and PTCH1 were each altered in a single case (3%). In 17 (59%) of ACC, at least one GA was associated with an available therapeutic or a mechanism-based clinical trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Next-generation sequencing can discover targets of therapy for relapsed and metastatic ACC and shows promise to improve outcomes for this aggressive form of cancer.

Lynn M, Shah N, Conroy J, et al.
A study of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma copy number alterations by single nucleotide polymorphism analysis.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2014; 22(3):213-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common pediatric soft tissue malignancy arises in 2 major histologic forms: embryonal and alveolar. Classically, the alveolar subtype is characterized by a chromosomal translocation t(2;13)(q35;q14) or t(1;13)(p36;q14) fusing the PAX3 or PAX7 gene, respectively, to the FOXO1 gene, although fusion-negative cases of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) occur; these share considerably more with the genomic profiles and biological behavior of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma than with fusion-positive ARMS. The current understanding of any additional genetic aberrations in fusion-positive ARMS is limited. In this study, we evaluated tumor-specific copy number alterations in a cohort of fusion-positive ARMSs using high-resolution technology. The results presented here include previously described changes as well as completely novel findings of copy number alterations in BCR and DICER. The study furthermore highlights associations between fusion type and genotype, as well as outcomes and genotype. Rearrangement of PAX7 is strongly associated with copy number alteration of Glypican 5 (GPC5) and moderately with amplification of IGF1R. There is a moderate association between death from/relapse of disease and, on the one hand, amplification of 12q13.3 (DDIT3; Gli1), and on the other hand, copy number alteration of Wnt6 or LRP1B. Gains of both LRP1B and Gli1 in turn are strongly associated with MycN amplification.

Arnesen T, Glomnes N, Strømsøy S, et al.
Outcome after surgery for primary hyperaldosteronism may depend on KCNJ5 tumor mutation status: a population-based study from Western Norway.
Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2013; 398(6):869-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a frequent cause (about 10 %) of hypertension. Some cases of PA were recently found to be caused by mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5. Our objective was to determine the mutation status of KCNJ5 and seven additional candidate genes for tumorigenesis: YY1, FZD4, ARHGAP9, ZFP37, KDM5C, LRP1B, and PDE9A and, furthermore, the surgical outcome of PA patients who underwent surgery in Western Norway.
METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with aldosterone-producing adrenal tumors (20 patients with single adenoma, 8 patients with unilateral multiple adenomas or hyperplasia) who underwent surgery were included in this study. All patients were operated on by uncomplicated laparoscopic total adrenalectomy. Genomic DNA was isolated from tumor and non-tumor adrenocortical tissue, and DNA sequencing revealed the mutation status.
RESULTS: Ten out of 28 (36 %) patients with PA displayed tumor mutations in KCNJ5 (p. G151R and L168R) while none were found in the corresponding non-tumor samples. No mutations were found in the other seven candidate genes screened. The presence of KCNJ5 mutations was associated with lower blood pressure and a higher chance for cure by surgery when compared to patients harboring the KCNJ5 wild type.
CONCLUSIONS: KCNJ5 mutations are associated with a better surgical outcome. Preoperative identification of the mutation status might have impact on surgical strategy (total vs. subtotal adrenalectomy).

Qu Y, Dang S, Hou P
Gene methylation in gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 424:53-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

Ni S, Hu J, Duan Y, et al.
Down expression of LRP1B promotes cell migration via RhoA/Cdc42 pathway and actin cytoskeleton remodeling in renal cell cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2013; 104(7):817-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B) is known as a putative tumor suppressor. The decreased expression of LRP1B has been involved in multiple primary cancers in several studies. However, its expression and function in the carcinogenesis of renal cell cancer (RCC) remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of LRP1B in RCC by in situ hybridization (ISH) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our results indicated that LRP1B was frequently downexpressed in human RCC tissue and cell lines, which involved both epigenetic events (DNA methylation and histone deacetylation) and N-terminal deletion of LRP1B. Moreover, we testified that knockdown of LRP1B by shRNA significantly promoted anchorage-independent growth, cell migration and invasion in HEK293 cells and renal cancer cells 127 in vitro. We further found that silencing of LRP1B altered the expression of focal adhesion complex-associated proteins, and Cdc42/RhoA activities, which regulate the cytoskeleton dynamics. Taken together, these results strongly support that LRP1B may function as a tumor suppressor against renal cell cancer, and may regulate cell motility via RhoA/Cdc42 pathway and actin cytoskeleton reorganization in RCC.

Ding D, Lou X, Hua D, et al.
Recurrent targeted genes of hepatitis B virus in the liver cancer genomes identified by a next-generation sequencing-based approach.
PLoS Genet. 2012; 8(12):e1003065 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Integration of the viral DNA into host chromosomes was found in most of the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Here we devised a massive anchored parallel sequencing (MAPS) method using next-generation sequencing to isolate and sequence HBV integrants. Applying MAPS to 40 pairs of HBV-related HCC tissues (cancer and adjacent tissues), we identified 296 HBV integration events corresponding to 286 unique integration sites (UISs) with precise HBV-Human DNA junctions. HBV integration favored chromosome 17 and preferentially integrated into human transcript units. HBV targeted genes were enriched in GO terms: cAMP metabolic processes, T cell differentiation and activation, TGF beta receptor pathway, ncRNA catabolic process, and dsRNA fragmentation and cellular response to dsRNA. The HBV targeted genes include 7 genes (PTPRJ, CNTN6, IL12B, MYOM1, FNDC3B, LRFN2, FN1) containing IPR003961 (Fibronectin, type III domain), 7 genes (NRG3, MASP2, NELL1, LRP1B, ADAM21, NRXN1, FN1) containing IPR013032 (EGF-like region, conserved site), and three genes (PDE7A, PDE4B, PDE11A) containing IPR002073 (3', 5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase). Enriched pathways include hsa04512 (ECM-receptor interaction), hsa04510 (Focal adhesion), and hsa04012 (ErbB signaling pathway). Fewer integration events were found in cancers compared to cancer-adjacent tissues, suggesting a clonal expansion model in HCC development. Finally, we identified 8 genes that were recurrent target genes by HBV integration including fibronectin 1 (FN1) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT1), two known recurrent target genes, and additional novel target genes such as SMAD family member 5 (SMAD5), phosphatase and actin regulator 4 (PHACTR4), and RNA binding protein fox-1 homolog (C. elegans) 1 (RBFOX1). Integrating analysis with recently published whole-genome sequencing analysis, we identified 14 additional recurrent HBV target genes, greatly expanding the HBV recurrent target list. This global survey of HBV integration events, together with recently published whole-genome sequencing analyses, furthered our understanding of the HBV-related HCC.

Craig DW, O'Shaughnessy JA, Kiefer JA, et al.
Genome and transcriptome sequencing in prospective metastatic triple-negative breast cancer uncovers therapeutic vulnerabilities.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2013; 12(1):104-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the absence of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER-2. Thirty percent of patients recur after first-line treatment, and metastatic TNBC (mTNBC) has a poor prognosis with median survival of one year. Here, we present initial analyses of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing data from 14 prospective mTNBC. We have cataloged the collection of somatic genomic alterations in these advanced tumors, particularly those that may inform targeted therapies. Genes mutated in multiple tumors included TP53, LRP1B, HERC1, CDH5, RB1, and NF1. Notable genes involved in focal structural events were CTNNA1, PTEN, FBXW7, BRCA2, WT1, FGFR1, KRAS, HRAS, ARAF, BRAF, and PGCP. Homozygous deletion of CTNNA1 was detected in 2 of 6 African Americans. RNA sequencing revealed consistent overexpression of the FOXM1 gene when tumor gene expression was compared with nonmalignant breast samples. Using an outlier analysis of gene expression comparing one cancer with all the others, we detected expression patterns unique to each patient's tumor. Integrative DNA/RNA analysis provided evidence for deregulation of mutated genes, including the monoallelic expression of TP53 mutations. Finally, molecular alterations in several cancers supported targeted therapeutic intervention on clinical trials with known inhibitors, particularly for alterations in the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. In conclusion, whole genome and transcriptome profiling of mTNBC have provided insights into somatic events occurring in this difficult to treat cancer. These genomic data have guided patients to investigational treatment trials and provide hypotheses for future trials in this irremediable cancer.

Cowin PA, George J, Fereday S, et al.
LRP1B deletion in high-grade serous ovarian cancers is associated with acquired chemotherapy resistance to liposomal doxorubicin.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(16):4060-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-grade serous cancer (HGSC), the most common subtype of ovarian cancer, often becomes resistant to chemotherapy, leading to poor patient outcomes. Intratumoral heterogeneity occurs in nearly all solid cancers, including ovarian cancer, contributing to the development of resistance mechanisms. In this study, we examined the spatial and temporal genomic variation in HGSC using high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Multiple metastatic lesions from individual patients were analyzed along with 22 paired pretreatment and posttreatment samples. We documented regions of differential DNA copy number between multiple tumor biopsies that correlated with altered expression of genes involved in cell polarity and adhesion. In the paired primary and relapse cohort, we observed a greater degree of genomic change in tumors from patients that were initially sensitive to chemotherapy and had longer progression-free interval compared with tumors from patients that were resistant to primary chemotherapy. Notably, deletion or downregulation of the lipid transporter LRP1B emerged as a significant correlate of acquired resistance in our analysis. Functional studies showed that reducing LRP1B expression was sufficient to reduce the sensitivity of HGSC cell lines to liposomal doxorubicin, but not to doxorubicin, whereas LRP1B overexpression was sufficient to increase sensitivity to liposomal doxorubicin. Together, our findings underscore the large degree of variation in DNA copy number in spatially and temporally separated tumors in HGSC patients, and they define LRP1B as a potential contributor to the emergence of chemotherapy resistance in these patients.

Nikolaev SI, Rimoldi D, Iseli C, et al.
Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic MAP2K1 and MAP2K2 mutations in melanoma.
Nat Genet. 2011; 44(2):133-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We performed exome sequencing to detect somatic mutations in protein-coding regions in seven melanoma cell lines and donor-matched germline cells. All melanoma samples had high numbers of somatic mutations, which showed the hallmark of UV-induced DNA repair. Such a hallmark was absent in tumor sample-specific mutations in two metastases derived from the same individual. Two melanomas with non-canonical BRAF mutations harbored gain-of-function MAP2K1 and MAP2K2 (MEK1 and MEK2, respectively) mutations, resulting in constitutive ERK phosphorylation and higher resistance to MEK inhibitors. Screening a larger cohort of individuals with melanoma revealed the presence of recurring somatic MAP2K1 and MAP2K2 mutations, which occurred at an overall frequency of 8%. Furthermore, missense and nonsense somatic mutations were frequently found in three candidate melanoma genes, FAT4, LRP1B and DSC1.

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