Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: HINT1 (cancer-related)
Cava C, Castiglioni IIn silico perturbation of drug targets in pan-cancer analysis combining multiple networks and pathways.
Gene. 2019; 698:100-106 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The knowledge of cancer cell response to conventional therapies is crucial in order to choose the correct therapy of patients affected by cancer. The major problem is generally attributed to the lack of specific biological processes able to predict the therapy efficacy. Here, we optimized a computational method for the analysis of gene networks able to detect and quantify the effects of a drug in a pan-cancer study. Overall, our method, using several network topological measures has identified a cancer gene network with a key role in biological processes. The gene network, able to classify with a good performance cancer vs normal samples, was modulated in silico to evaluate the effects of new or approved drugs. This computational model could offer an interesting hint to decipher molecular mechanisms contributing to resistance or inefficacy of drugs.
Caiola E, Falcetta F, Giordano S, et al.Co-occurring KRAS mutation/LKB1 loss in non-small cell lung cancer cells results in enhanced metabolic activity susceptible to caloric restriction: an in vitro integrated multilevel approach.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):302 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease, with multiple different oncogenic mutations. Approximately 25-30% of NSCLC patients present KRAS mutations, which confer poor prognosis and high risk of tumor recurrence. About half of NSCLCs with activating KRAS lesions also have deletions or inactivating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase 11 (LKB1) gene. Loss of LKB1 on a KRAS-mutant background may represent a significant source of heterogeneity contributing to poor response to therapy.
METHODS: Here, we employed an integrated multilevel proteomics, metabolomics and functional in-vitro approach in NSCLC H1299 isogenic cells to define their metabolic state associated with the presence of different genetic background. Protein levels were obtained by label free and single reaction monitoring (SRM)-based proteomics. The metabolic state was studied coupling targeted and untargeted mass spectrometry (MS) strategy. In vitro metabolic dependencies were evaluated using 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG) treatment or glucose/glutamine nutrient limitation.
RESULTS: Here we demonstrate that co-occurring KRAS mutation/LKB1 loss in NSCLC cells allowed efficient exploitation of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, when compared to cells with each single oncologic genotype. The enhanced metabolic activity rendered the viability of cells with both genetic lesions susceptible towards nutrient limitation.
CONCLUSIONS: Co-occurrence of KRAS mutation and LKB1 loss in NSCLC cells induced an enhanced metabolic activity mirrored by a growth rate vulnerability under limited nutrient conditions relative to cells with the single oncogenetic lesions. Our results hint at the possibility that energy stress induced by calorie restriction regimens may sensitize NSCLCs with these co-occurring lesions to cytotoxic chemotherapy.
López-Trigo N, Aguín N, Castuera IP, et al.Association of CASP3 genetic polymorphisms rs1049216, rs2705897 and rs4647603 with the risk of prostate cancer in Galicia (NW Spain).
Gene. 2018; 679:126-132 [PubMed
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Malfunction of apoptosis plays a key role in carcinogenesis. Previous studies have reported that polymorphisms in caspase genes could lead to poor apoptotic signaling, thus facilitating the onset of several human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between three polymorphisms (rs1049216, rs2705897 and rs4647603) of the CASP3 gene and the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) in Galicia (NW Spain).The relationship between these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PCa in European populations has yet to be studied. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a case-control study on a total of 243 patients with PCa and 191 healthy individuals, genotyping all polymorphisms using the matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) method. Overall, none of the polymorphisms were clearly associated with the risk of PCa. Nevertheless, the results drawn from this study suggest that genetic variability in the CASP3 gene, in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors may influence the predisposition to develop PCa in the Galician population. Specifically, the results of study seem to hint at a higher risk of PCa in smokers of up to 20 pack-years (PY) and carriers of both the CASP3-rs1049216 GG genotype and the G allele (OR = 3.61, p = 0.044; OR = 1.71; p = 0.018). In addition, the GG and AG genotypes showed increased predisposition to PCa in overweight individuals (OR = 4.43, p = 0.040; OR = 2.00; p = 0.022). Finally, the CASP3-rs4647603 CT genotype and T allele were associated with a higher susceptibility to PCa in obese individuals (OR
Zhou J, Ge Y, Hu Y, et al.Circular RNAs as novel rising stars with huge potentials in development and disease.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 22(4):597-610 [PubMed
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Circular RNAs (circRNAs), which were discovered as a special class of endogenous non-coding RNAs, have recently shown huge capabilities as gene regulators in different species in a wide variety of organisms including viruses, plants, archaea and animals. These circRNAs mainly arise from exons or introns in different combinations by special selective splicing and are enriched in cytoplasm. Apart from that, circRNAs usually display patterns of cell-type, tissue-type and developmental-stage specific expression in eukaryotic transcriptome. These findings hint at the vital function of circRNAs in development and diseases. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular characteristics of circRNAs and discuss their proposed functions and mechanism-of-action in human diseases, animals as well as botanics.
Fathi Z, Syn NL, Zhou JG, Roudi RMolecular epidemiology of lung cancer in Iran: implications for drug development and cancer prevention.
J Hum Genet. 2018; 63(7):783-794 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epidemiological studies undertaken over the past decades reveal a gradual but progressive increase in the incidence and mortality attributable to lung cancer in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a sovereign state geographically situated at the crossroads of Central Eurasia and Western Asia. We identified references published in English and Persian through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Scientific Information Database (SID)-a specialized Iranian database, which indexes Iranian scientific journals-between inception and 15 September 2017. Of 1475 references identified through electronic searches, we reviewed the full text of 88 studies, and included 38 studies in the review. Potentially druggable NSCLC targets, which have been studied in Iran include EGFR, ALK, ERBB2, and KIT; but no studies were found, which examined the impact of MET, ROS1, BRAF, PIK3CA, and FGFR1 aberrations. We were able to identify some literature on DNA repair genes and xenobiotic metabolism, including TP53, TP63, ERCC2, XRCC2, SIRT1, PTEN, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTT1, and GSTM1. We also found an increasing amount of research performed in relation to the tumor microenvironment and immune contexture, including CTLA4, MAGE, FOXP3, IFN-γ, and various interleukins, chemokines, and transcription factors; but did not identify any publication concerning the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 in lung cancer. Our survey of research performed in Iran has revealed a dearth of studies in topics, which are otherwise highly pursued in developed countries, but nevertheless, has begun to hint at a distinct biology of lung cancer in this part of the world.
Liu GW, Liu YH, Jiang GS, Ren WDThe reversal effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 on drug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma cells and its mechanism.
Hum Cell. 2018; 31(3):189-198 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Recent studies hint that Ginsenoside is involved in cancer prevention and treatment. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 on drug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells and its mechanism. The resistance reversion effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 in CRC cells was analyzed using CCK-8 assay. After treating with Ginsenoside Rh2, the cell cycle distribution and cellular apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry, cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay, the expression of drug-resistance genes and proteins were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. Ginsenoside Rh2 could enhance the cytotoxicity of 5-FU in drug-resistant CRC cells (LoVo/5-FU and HCT-8/5-FU). Treatment with Ginsenoside Rh2 could result in an increase of cell numbers in G0/G1 phase accompanied with a decrease in S-phase, and induced cellular apoptosis in drug-resistant CRC cells. In addition, the migration process and EMT process of drug-resistant CRC cells were suppressed by treatment of Ginsenoside Rh2. Compared to control group, expression of drug-resistance genes, such as MRP1, MDR1, LRP and GST, were negatively correlated to Ginsenoside Rh2. All these results indicated that Ginsenoside Rh2 could effectively reverse drug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma cell and its mechanism involved the prevention of cellular proliferation and migration, the promotion of cellular apoptosis and the alteration of drug-resistance genes, which suggested that Ginsenoside Rh2 may act as a promising candidate for drug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma chemotherapy.
Purpose Guidelines are limited for genetic testing for prostate cancer (PCA). The goal of this conference was to develop an expert consensus-driven working framework for comprehensive genetic evaluation of inherited PCA in the multigene testing era addressing genetic counseling, testing, and genetically informed management. Methods An expert consensus conference was convened including key stakeholders to address genetic counseling and testing, PCA screening, and management informed by evidence review. Results Consensus was strong that patients should engage in shared decision making for genetic testing. There was strong consensus to test HOXB13 for suspected hereditary PCA, BRCA1/2 for suspected hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, and DNA mismatch repair genes for suspected Lynch syndrome. There was strong consensus to factor BRCA2 mutations into PCA screening discussions. BRCA2 achieved moderate consensus for factoring into early-stage management discussion, with stronger consensus in high-risk/advanced and metastatic setting. Agreement was moderate to test all men with metastatic castration-resistant PCA, regardless of family history, with stronger agreement to test BRCA1/2 and moderate agreement to test ATM to inform prognosis and targeted therapy. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive, multidisciplinary consensus statement to address a genetic evaluation framework for inherited PCA in the multigene testing era. Future research should focus on developing a working definition of familial PCA for clinical genetic testing, expanding understanding of genetic contribution to aggressive PCA, exploring clinical use of genetic testing for PCA management, genetic testing of African American males, and addressing the value framework of genetic evaluation and testing men at risk for PCA-a clinically heterogeneous disease.
AIM: Metastasis of tumor cells occurs through lymphatic vessels, blood vessels and transcoelomic spreading. Growing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies has indicated that tumor lymphangiogenesis facilitates metastasis. However, the regulation of lymphangiogenesis in colon cancer remains unclear. The aims of this study were to identify key miRNAs in colon cancer lymphangiogenesis and to investigate its target and mechanism.
METHODS: miRNA microarray analysis was conducted to identify miRNAs in human lymphatic endothelial cells (HLECs) that were regulated by co-cultured human colon cancer cells. Gain- and loss-of-function studies were performed to determine the function of miR-27a, a top hint, on lymphangiogenesis and migration in HLECs. Furthermore, bioinformatics prediction and experimental validation were performed to identify miR-27a target genes in lymphangiogenesis.
RESULTS: We found that expression of miR-27a in HLECs was induced by co-culturing with colon cancer cells. Over-expression of miR-27a in HLECs enhanced lymphatic tube formation and migration, whereas inhibition of miR-27a reduced lymphatic tube formation and migration. Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-27a directly targeted SMAD4, a pivotal component of the TGF-β pathway. In addition, gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments showed that SMAD4 negatively regulated the length of lymphatic vessels formed by HLECs and migration.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated that colon cancer cell induced the expression of miR-27a in HLECs, which promoted lymphangiogenesis by targeting SMAD4. Our finding implicated miR-27a as a potential target for new anticancer therapies in colon cancer.
Analysis of spatial and temporal genetic heterogeneity in human cancers has revealed that somatic cancer evolution in most cancers is not a simple linear process composed of a few sequential steps of mutation acquisitions and clonal expansions. Parallel evolution has been observed in many early human cancers resulting in genetic heterogeneity as well as multilineage progression. Moreover, aneuploidy as well as structural chromosomal aberrations seems to be acquired in a non-linear, punctuated mode where most aberrations occur at early stages of somatic cancer evolution. At later stages, the cancer genomes seem to get stabilized and acquire only few additional rearrangements. While parallel evolution suggests positive selection of driver mutations at early stages of somatic cancer evolution, stabilization of structural aberrations at later stages suggests that negative selection takes effect when cancer cells progressively lose their tolerance towards additional mutation acquisition. Mixing of genetically heterogeneous subclones in cancer samples reduces sensitivity of mutation detection. Moreover, driver mutations present only in a fraction of cancer cells are more likely to be mistaken for passenger mutations. Therefore, genetic heterogeneity may be considered a limitation negatively affecting detection sensitivity of driver mutations. On the other hand, identification of subclones and subclone lineages in human cancers may lead to a more profound understanding of the selective forces which shape somatic cancer evolution in human cancers. Identification of parallel evolution by analyzing spatial heterogeneity may hint to driver mutations which might represent additional therapeutic targets besides driver mutations present in a monoclonal state. Likewise, stabilization of cancer genomes which can be identified by analyzing temporal genetic heterogeneity might hint to genes and pathways which have become essential for survival of cancer cell lineages at later stages of cancer evolution. These genes and pathways might also constitute patient specific therapeutic targets.
Sathyanarayanan A, Chandrasekaran KS, Karunagaran DmicroRNA-145 downregulates SIP1-expression but differentially regulates proliferation, migration, invasion and Wnt signaling in SW480 and SW620 cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(2):2022-2035 [PubMed
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microRNA-145 (miR-145) has been shown to act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer but its role in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is unclear. Ectopic expression of miR-145 suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion in SW480 but surprisingly enhanced these traits in its metastatic counterpart, SW620 cells, while, antimiR-145 reversed the effects of miR-145 in both of these human colorectal cancer cells. In SW480 and SW620 cells, SMAD-interacting protein 1 (SIP1), was identified as a target of miR-145, and its expression was suppressed both at mRNA and protein levels, and siRNA-SIP1 mimicked the effects of miR-145. Further, re-introduction of SIP1 alone or its co-expression with miR-145, rescued SW480 and SW620 cells from the effects of miR-145, indicating that the distinct functions of miR-145 might be mediated, in part, through SIP1. Since Wnt signaling plays an essential role in EMT in CRC progression, the effects of miR-145 on the expression of Wnt signaling intermediates and EMT markers were studied. Re-expression of miR-145 was found to downregulate the expression of CTNNB1, TCF4, CCND1, VIM, and SNAI, but, upregulated CDH1 expression in SW480 cells. On the other hand, miR-145 exhibited an oncogenic potential in SW620 cells by actuating Wnt signaling and the expression of EMT-relevant markers. These results strongly hint that the paradoxical functions of miR-145 in the regulation of proliferation, migration and invasion might be mediated through downregulation of SIP1, and differential tuning of Wnt signaling and EMT-mediators.
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and noncoding (nc)RNAs (such as microRNAs, long ncRNAs, and others) cooperate within a post-transcriptional network to regulate the expression of genes required for many aspects of cancer behavior including its sensitivity to chemotherapy. Here, using an RBP-centric approach, we explore the current knowledge surrounding contributers to post-transcriptional gene regulation (PTGR) in ovarian cancer and identify commonalities that hint at the existence of an evolutionarily conserved core PTGR network. This network regulates survival and chemotherapy resistance in the contemporary context of the cancer cell. There is emerging evidence that cancers become dependent on PTGR factors for their survival. Further understanding of this network may identify innovative therapeutic targets as well as yield crucial insights into the hard-wiring of many malignancies, including ovarian cancer. WIREs RNA 2018, 9:e1432. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1432 This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Protein-RNA Interactions: Functional Implications Translation > Translation Mechanisms RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease.
Lambein K, Van Bockstal M, Vandemaele L, et al.Comparison of HER2 amplification status among breast cancer subgroups offers new insights in pathways of breast cancer progression.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 471(5):575-587 [PubMed
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Although the prognostic and predictive significance of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in invasive breast cancer is well established, its role in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains unclear. Reports on combined evaluation of both HER2 protein expression and HER2 amplification status in pure DCIS and DCIS adjacent to invasive ductal carcinoma (i.e., admixed DCIS) are scarce. In this study, immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to assess HER2 status in 72 cases of pure DCIS, 73 cases of DCIS admixed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and 60 cases of pure IDC. HER2 copy number-based amplification was present in 49% of pure DCIS, 16% of admixed DCIS, 18% of admixed IDC, and 8% of pure IDC. Amplified pure DCIS with clusters of HER2 signals showed a significantly lower HER2 copy number than amplified admixed DCIS with clusters. Whereas pure DCIS and admixed DCIS presented significant differences, the in situ and invasive component of admixed tumors showed striking similarities regarding mean HER2 and chromosome 17 centromere (CEP17) copy number, grade, and estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. The discrepant prevalence of HER2 amplification among breast cancer subgroups indirectly suggests that HER2 may not play a crucial role in the transition of in situ to invasive breast cancer. The similarities in HER2 amplification status between the in situ and invasive component of admixed tumors hint at a common biological pathway for both components. Our data support the theory that pure DCIS, pure IDC, and admixed lesions have a common progenitor, but can progress as separate lineages.
Bonanno L, De Paoli A, Zulato E, et al.LKB1 Expression Correlates with Increased Survival in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy and Bevacizumab.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(13):3316-3324 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Anesthetics are unavoidable to colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who underwent surgical treatment. Thus, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the intravenous anesthetics in CRC metastasis are still unclear. In this study, the effects of intravenous anesthetics, such as propofol, etomidate and dexmedetomidine, on cell migration were determined. The migration of CRC cells was inhibited by propofol in vitro, but not in vivo. Etomidate, however, promoted the migration of CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated the promotive effect of propofol and etomidate on the migration of CRC cells through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Dexmedetomidine alone or in combination with propofol or etomidate had minor effect on the migration of CRC cells. These findings indicate that propofol inhibites CRC cell migration in vitro. Etomidate playes a role for prompting CRC metastasis progression by activating (PI3K)/AKT signaling and inducing EMT. It provides an important hint for the clinical application of these anesthetics.
BACKGROUND: Adenomatous polyps are the most common precursor to colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. We sought to learn more about early events of carcinogenesis by investigating shifts in the gut microbiota of patients with adenomas.
METHODS: We analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequences from the fecal microbiota of patients with adenomas (n = 233) and without (n = 547).
RESULTS: Multiple taxa were significantly more abundant in patients with adenomas, including Bilophila, Desulfovibrio, proinflammatory bacteria in the genus Mogibacterium, and multiple Bacteroidetes species. Patients without adenomas had greater abundances of Veillonella, Firmicutes (Order Clostridia), and Actinobacteria (family Bifidobacteriales). Our findings were consistent with previously reported shifts in the gut microbiota of colorectal cancer patients. Importantly, the altered adenoma profile is predicted to increase primary and secondary bile acid production, as well as starch, sucrose, lipid, and phenylpropanoid metabolism.
CONCLUSIONS: These data hint that increased sugar, protein, and lipid metabolism along with increased bile acid production could promote a colonic environment that supports the growth of bile-tolerant microbes such as Bilophilia and Desulfovibrio In turn, these microbes may produce genotoxic or inflammatory metabolites such as H
IMPACT: This study suggests a plausible biological mechanism to explain the links between shifts in the microbiota and colorectal cancer. This represents a first step toward resolving the complex interactions that shape the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colorectal cancer and may facilitate personalized therapeutics focused on the microbiota. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 85-94. ©2016 AACR.
Prevention is an essential component of cancer eradication. Next-generation sequencing of cancer genomes and epigenomes has defined large numbers of driver mutations and molecular subgroups, leading to therapeutic advances. By comparison, there is a relative paucity of such knowledge in premalignant neoplasia, which inherently limits the potential to develop precision prevention strategies. Studies on the interplay between germ-line and somatic events have elucidated genetic processes underlying premalignant progression and preventive targets. Emerging data hint at the immune system's ability to intercept premalignancy and prevent cancer. Genetically engineered mouse models have identified mechanisms by which genetic drivers and other somatic alterations recruit inflammatory cells and induce changes in normal cells to create and interact with the premalignant tumor microenvironment to promote oncogenesis and immune evasion. These studies are currently limited to only a few lesion types and patients. In this Perspective, we advocate a large-scale collaborative effort to systematically map the biology of premalignancy and the surrounding cellular response. By bringing together scientists from diverse disciplines (e.g., biochemistry, omics, and computational biology; microbiology, immunology, and medical genetics; engineering, imaging, and synthetic chemistry; and implementation science), we can drive a concerted effort focused on cancer vaccines to reprogram the immune response to prevent, detect, and reject premalignancy. Lynch syndrome, clonal hematopoiesis, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia which also serve as models for inherited syndromes, blood, and viral premalignancies, are ideal scenarios in which to launch this initiative.
Wu XS, Bao TH, Ke Y, et al.Hint1 suppresses migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro by modulating girdin activity.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14711-14719 [PubMed
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Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint1) is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. Its role in cancer cell migration has not been previously speculated. In the current study, we examined the expression of Hint1 in metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and further elucidated the effect of Hint1 expression on girdin expression and phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 and on the migration of HCC cells in vitro. Expression of Hint1 and girdin in primary HCC tissues and metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes was determined by RT-PCR assays. HepG2 cells were transfected with plasmid vectors overexpressing Hint1 or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Hint1, girdin, Hint1 plus girdin, or the scrambled RNA. Migration and invasion of HCC cells were examined by wound and Transwell assays. Protein expression was detected by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. RT-PCR assays revealed that the messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels of Hint1 were markedly lower than those of primary HCC tissues and non-metastatic lymph nodes (P < 0.01). By contrast, the mRNA transcript levels of girdin were significantly higher than non-metastatic lymph nodes (P < 0.05). Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of HINT1 resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA transcript levels of girdin in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05). Wound assays and Transwell assays showed that Hint1 knockdown by siRNA significantly enhanced the migration and invasion of HepG2 cells compared to HepG2 cells transfected with scrambled siRNA. Hint1 knockdown also led to significantly increased phosphorylation of girdin and AKT in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05), which, however, was effectively aborted by girdin knockdown by siRNA (P < 0.05). Hint1 is downregulated in metastatic lymph nodes and is implicated in migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro by modulating girdin and AKT expression and phosphorylation. The Hint1-girdin-AKT signaling axis should be further dissected for its role in HCC migration and invasion and may be therapeutically targeted to suppress tumor growth and metastasis.
Despite the advancement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in lung cancer therapy, it remains unclear whether EGFR mutation status in familial lung cancers is different from that of sporadic cases. In this multicenter retrospective study, we compared both the EGFR mutation frequency and patterns between familial and sporadic cases. The results explored that family history of lung cancer is an independent predictor for higher EGFR mutation rate in 1713 lung adenocarcinoma patients (Odd ratio 1.68, 95% CI 1.06-2.67, P = 0.028). However, the distribution of EGFR mutation subtypes was similar to that of sporadic cases. Part of our study involved 40 lung cancer families with at least 2 tumor tissues available within each single family (n = 88) and there was no familial aggregation pattern in EGFR mutation subtypes. There were two families harboring the YAP1 R331W germline risk allele and EGFR mutation statuses among YAP1 family members also varied. These phenomena may hint at the direction of future research into lung carcinogenesis and EGFR mutagenesis.
Guzmán EA, Xu Q, Pitts TP, et al.Leiodermatolide, a novel marine natural product, has potent cytotoxic and antimitotic activity against cancer cells, appears to affect microtubule dynamics, and exhibits antitumor activity.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 139(9):2116-26 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, has a negative prognosis because metastasis occurs before symptoms manifest. Leiodermatolide, a polyketide macrolide with antimitotic activity isolated from a deep water sponge of the genus Leiodermatium, exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity toward the pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, PANC-1, BxPC-3, and MIA PaCa-2, and potent cytotoxicity against skin, breast and colon cancer cell lines. Induction of apoptosis by leiodermatolide was confirmed in the AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. Leiodermatolide induces cell cycle arrest but has no effects on in vitro polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin alone, while it enhances polymerization of tubulin containing microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). Observations through confocal microscopy show that leiodermatolide, at low concentrations, causes minimal effects on polymerization or depolymerization of the microtubule network in interphase cells, but disruption of spindle formation in mitotic cells. At higher concentrations, depolymerization of the microtubule network is observed. Visualization of the growing microtubule in HeLa cells expressing GFP-tagged plus end binding protein EB-1 showed that leiodermatolide stopped the polymerization of tubulin. These results suggest that leiodermatolide may affect tubulin dynamics without directly interacting with tubulin and hint at a unique mechanism of action. In a mouse model of metastatic pancreatic cancer, leiodermatolide exhibited significant tumor reduction when compared to gemcitabine and controls. The antitumor activities of leiodermatolide, as well as the proven utility of antimitotic compounds against cancer, make leiodermatolide an interesting compound with potential chemotherapeutic effects that may merit further research.
The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), also known as GPR30, is a novel estrogen receptor mediating estrogen receptor signaling in multiple cell types. The progress of estrogen-related cancer is promoted by GPER-1 activation through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathways. However, this promoting effect of GPER-1 is nonclassic estrogen receptor (ER) dependent manner. In addition, clinical evidences revealed that GPER-1 is associated with estrogen resistance in estrogen-related cancer patients. These give a hint that GPER-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the estrogen-related cancers. However, preclinical studies also found that GPER-1 activation of its special agonist G-1 inhibits cancer cell proliferation. This review aims to summarize the characteristics and complex functions of GPER-1 in cancers.
The traditional model by which an individual was identified as harboring a hereditary susceptibility to cancer was to test for a mutation in a single gene or a finite number of genes associated with a particular syndrome (e.g., BRCA1 and BRCA2 for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer or mismatch repair genes for Lynch syndrome). The decision regarding which gene or genes to test for was based on a review of the patient's personal medical history and their family history. With advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technology, offering simultaneous testing for multiple genes associated with a hereditary susceptibility to cancer is now possible. These panels typically include high-penetrance genes, but they also often include moderate- and low-penetrance genes. A number of the genes included in these panels have not been fully characterized either in terms of their cancer risks or their management options. Another way some patients are unexpectedly identified as carrying a germline mutation in a cancer susceptibility gene is at the time they undergo molecular profiling of their tumor, which typically has been carried out to guide treatment choices for their cancer. This article first focuses on the issues that need to be considered when deciding between recommending more targeted testing of a single or a small number of genes associated with a particular syndrome (single/limited gene testing) versus performing a multigene panel. This article also reviews the issues regarding germline risk that occur within the setting of ordering molecular profiling of tumors.
Regulation of gene expression is one of several roles proposed for the stress-induced nucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A). We have examined this directly by a comparative RNA-Seq analysis of KBM-7 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and KBM-7 cells in which the NUDT2 Ap4A hydrolase gene had been disrupted (NuKO cells), causing a 175-fold increase in intracellular Ap4A. 6,288 differentially expressed genes were identified with P < 0.05. Of these, 980 were up-regulated and 705 down-regulated in NuKO cells with a fold-change ≥ 2. Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA®) was used to assign these genes to known canonical pathways and functional networks. Pathways associated with interferon responses, pattern recognition receptors and inflammation scored highly in the down-regulated set of genes while functions associated with MHC class II antigens were prominent among the up-regulated genes, which otherwise showed little organization into major functional gene sets. Tryptophan catabolism was also strongly down-regulated as were numerous genes known to be involved in tumor promotion in other systems, with roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Conversely, some pro-apoptotic genes were up-regulated. Major upstream factors predicted by IPA® for gene down-regulation included NFκB, STAT1/2, IRF3/4 and SP1 but no major factors controlling gene up-regulation were identified. Potential mechanisms for gene regulation mediated by Ap4A and/or NUDT2 disruption include binding of Ap4A to the HINT1 co-repressor, autocrine activation of purinoceptors by Ap4A, chromatin remodeling, effects of NUDT2 loss on transcript stability, and inhibition of ATP-dependent regulatory factors such as protein kinases by Ap4A. Existing evidence favors the last of these as the most probable mechanism. Regardless, our results suggest that the NUDT2 protein could be a novel cancer chemotherapeutic target, with its inhibition potentially exerting strong anti-tumor effects via multiple pathways involving metastasis, invasion, immunosuppression and apoptosis.
Tonduti D, Orcesi S, Jenkinson EM, et al.Clinical, radiological and possible pathological overlap of cystic leukoencephalopathy without megalencephaly and Aicardi-Goutières syndrome.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2016; 20(4):604-10 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Cystic leukoencephalopathy without megalencephaly is a disorder related in some cases to RNASET2 mutations and characterized by bilateral anterior temporal subcortical cysts and multifocal lobar white matter lesions with sparing of central white matter structures. This phenotype significantly overlaps with the sequelae of in utero cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, including the presence of intracranial calcification in some cases. Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is another inherited leukodystrophy with cerebral calcification mimicking congenital infection. Clinical, radiological and biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of AGS have been established, although the breadth of phenotype associated with mutations in the AGS-related genes is much greater than previously envisaged.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe the clinical, biochemical and radiological findings of five patients demonstrating a phenotype reminiscent of AGS.
RESULTS: All patients were found to carry biallelic mutations of RNASET2.
CONCLUSIONS: Our patients illustrate the clinical and radiological overlap that can be seen between RNASET2-related leukodystrophy and AGS in some cases. Our data highlight the need to include both disorders in the same differential diagnosis, and hint at possible shared pathomechanisms related to auto-inflammation which are worthy of further investigation.
Yang M, Xu X, Cai J, et al.NSCLC harboring EGFR exon-20 insertions after the regulatory C-helix of kinase domain responds poorly to known EGFR inhibitors.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 139(1):171-6 [PubMed
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Anecdote clinical observations hint that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with exon-20 insertions might respond poorly to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), contrasting to those with classic mutations. Lack of patient-derived experimental models has been a major hurdle for the discovery of new treatment for the diseases. We established two NSCLC-PDXs harboring two different exon-20 insertions, LU0387-adenocarcinoma (ADC) with a nine-base insertion at 2319 (H773-V774insNPH) and LU3075-squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with a nine-base insertion at 2316 (P772-H773insDNP). Both insertions immediately follow the regulatory C-helix of the kinase domain. Contrary to the generally good responses to EGFR inhibitors observed in PDXs with classic mutations, both exon-20 insertions are largely resistant to cetuximab and TKIs in vivo, suggesting fundamental difference from the classic EGFR mutations, consistent with the poor response rate to TKI seen in anecdotal clinic reports. It is worth noting that although responses are generally poor, they differ between the two exon-20 mutants depending on the type of TKI. In vitro drug sensitivity assays using established primary cell lines from our two PDXs largely confirmed the in vivo data. Our data from patient-derived experimental models confirmed that exon-20 insertions in domain immediately following the C-helix confer poor response to all known EGFR inhibitors, and suggested that these models can be utilized to facilitate the discovery of new therapies targeting NSCLC harboring exon-20 insertions.
Sfakianakis S, Bei ES, Zervakis M, Kafetzopoulos DA network-based approach to enrich gene signatures for the prediction of breast cancer metastases.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015; 2015:6497-500 [PubMed
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Despite the multiplicity of the gene expression analysis studies for the identification of genomics based origins of cancerous diseases, the presented gene signatures have generally little overlap. The genes do not function in isolation and therefore a more holistic approach that takes into account the interactions among them is needed. In this study we present a stepwise refinement methodology where starting from some initial set of biomarkers we expand and enrich this set taking into account existing biological information. In particular, we start with a 27 gene signature previously identified as indicative of the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients. We use the manually curated HINT database of protein-protein interactions as the background biological network to locate the network-based similarity of the input genes and how they connect to each other. The result is an enriched connected set of genes that is subsequently expanded to form an even bigger network based on the ability of the surrounding genes to strongly correlate with the phenotypes of a training set of breast cancer patient cases. The induced network is then used as a new gene signature for the classification of breast brain metastases in an independent dataset. The results are encouraging for the validity of this method.
Shi Z, Wu X, Ke Y, Wang LHint1 Up-Regulates IκBα by Targeting the β-TrCP Subunit of SCF E3 Ligase in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.
Dig Dis Sci. 2016; 61(3):785-94 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is increasing evidence that histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) is a novel tumor suppressor. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which HINT1 promotes the stability of inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) in the cytoplasm of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, which was observed in our previous study (Wang et al. in Int J Cancer 124:1526-1534, 2009).
METHODS: We examined HINT1 and IκBα expression in HCC cell lines and determined the effect of HINT1 overexpression and knockdown on IκBα protein and mRNA expression in these cell lines. Then, ubiquitination assays were performed to investigate the effects of HINT1 expression plasmid transfection on IκBα ubiquitination. Next, the interaction between HINT1 and β-TrCP was investigated in immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays.
RESULTS: Our data showed that increased HINT1 expression in HepG2 and SMMC7702 cells markedly increased IκBα protein levels, while decreased HINT1 expression markedly decreased them. Overexpression or knockdown of HINT1 did not alter the transcription of IκBα, but HINT1 inhibited proteasomal IκBα degradation and reduced its ubiquitination levels. This inhibition might occur because HINT1 is a component of the SCF(β-TrCP) E3 ligase, which is responsible for IκBα ubiquitination and degradation.
CONCLUSION: This study provides new evidence that HINT1 is a regulator of IκBα through SCF(β-TrCP) E3 ligase. These findings help to clarify the mechanism underlying the anticancer effects of HINT1.
Bi J, Li P, Li C, et al.The SDF-1/CXCR4 chemokine axis in uveal melanoma cell proliferation and migration.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(3):4175-82 [PubMed
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The stromal-cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)/chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) chemokine axis plays a key role in tumor migration. Here, we analyzed the axis in uveal melanoma (UM) proliferation and migration and investigated the effect of a chemical inhibitor of CXCR4, AMD3100, on UM. We found that CXCR4 was expressed in all five UM cell lines tested as well as the retinal pigment epithelium cell line ARPE-19 cells, while CXCR7 was only detected in OM290 and VUP cell lines. SDF-1 promotes the proliferation and migration of OCM-1 and OCM431 cell lines, while AMD3100 weakens this function. Taken together, our results show that the SDF-1/CXCR4 chemokine axis plays a key role in UM cell proliferation and migration and that AMD3100 can alleviate this function, which may offer a hint for UM treatment.
PURPOSE: We compared the gene expression profile of peripheral blood CD34(+) cells and granulocytes in subjects with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), with the accent on signaling pathways affected by BCR-ABL oncogene.
METHODS: The microarray analyses have been performed in circulating CD34(+) cells and granulocytes from peripheral blood of 7 subjects with CML and 7 healthy donors. All studied BCR-ABL positive CML patients were in chronic phase, with a mean value of 2012±SD of CD34(+)cells/μl in peripheral blood.
RESULTS: The gene expression profile was more prominent in CML CD34(+) cells (3553 genes) compared to granulocytes (2701 genes). The 41 and 39 genes were significantly upregulated in CML CD34(+) cells (HINT1, TXN, SERBP1) and granulocytes, respectively. BCR-ABL oncogene activated PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling through significant upregulation of PTPN11, CDK4/6, and MYC and reduction of E2F1, KRAS, and NFKBIA gene expression in CD34(+) cells. Among genes linked to the inhibition of cellular proliferation by BCR-ABL inhibitor Imatinib, the FOS and STAT1 demonstrated significantly decreased expression in CML.
CONCLUSION: The presence of BCR-ABL fusion gene doubled the expression quantity of genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, proliferation and apoptosis of CD34(+) cells. These results determined the modified genes in PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling of CML subjects.
Whole genome sequencing of human tumours has revealed distinct patterns of mutation that hint at the causative origins of cancer. Experimental investigations of the mutations and mutation spectra induced by environmental mutagens have traditionally focused on single genes. With the advent of faster cheaper sequencing platforms, it is now possible to assess mutation spectra in experimental models across the whole genome. As a proof of principle, we have examined the whole genome mutation profiles of mouse embryo fibroblasts immortalised following exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ultraviolet light (UV) and aristolochic acid (AA). The results reveal that each mutagen induces a characteristic mutation signature: predominantly G→T mutations for BaP, C→T and CC→TT for UV and A→T for AA. The data are not only consistent with existing knowledge but also provide additional information at higher levels of genomic organisation. The approach holds promise for identifying agents responsible for mutations in human tumours and for shedding light on the aetiology of human cancer.
Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence of heritable melanoma risk genes is an important component of disease occurrence. Susceptibility for some families is due to mutation in one of the known high penetrance melanoma predisposition genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, POT1, ACD, TERF2IP and TERT. However, despite such mutations being implicated in a combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely polygenic component to susceptibility, and a unique level of personal melanoma risk influenced by multiple low-risk alleles and genetic modifiers. In addition to conferring a risk of cutaneous melanoma, some 'melanoma' predisposition genes have been linked to other cancers, with cancer clustering observed in melanoma families at rates greater than expected by chance. The most extensively documented association is between CDKN2A germ line mutations and pancreatic cancer, and a cancer syndrome including cutaneous melanoma, uveal melanoma and mesothelioma has been proposed for BAP1 germ line mutations. Other medium to high penetrance melanoma predisposition genes have been associated with renal cell carcinoma (MITF, BAP1) and glioma (POT1). These associations between melanoma and other cancers hint at the possibility of common pathways for oncogenesis, and better knowledge of these pathways may improve understanding of the genetic basis underpinning familial melanoma. It is likely that 'melanoma' risk genes will impact on mutation screening and genetic counselling not only for melanoma but also a range of other cancers.