|Gene:||FOSL2; FOS like 2, AP-1 transcription factor subunit|
|Aliases: || FRA2 |
|Summary:||The Fos gene family consists of 4 members: FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, and FOSL2. These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]|
|Databases:||OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Protein:||fos-related antigen 2|
|Source:||NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019|
What does this gene/protein do?
|Pathways:||What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?|
Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: FOSL2 (cancer-related)
Liposarcomas (LPSs) are a group of malignant mesenchymal tumors showing adipocytic differentiation. Here, to gain insight into the enhancer dysregulation and transcriptional addiction in this disease, we chart super-enhancer structures in both LPS tissues and cell lines. We identify a bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein-cooperated FUS-DDIT3 function in myxoid LPS and a BET protein-dependent core transcriptional regulatory circuitry consisting of FOSL2, MYC, and RUNX1 in de-differentiated LPS. Additionally, SNAI2 is identified as a crucial downstream target that enforces both proliferative and metastatic potentials to de-differentiated LPS cells. Genetic depletion of BET genes, core transcriptional factors, or SNAI2 mitigates consistently LPS malignancy. We also reveal a compelling susceptibility of LPS cells to BET protein degrader ARV-825. BET protein depletion confers additional advantages to circumvent acquired resistance to Trabectedin, a chemotherapy drug for LPS. Moreover, this study provides a framework for discovering and targeting of core oncogenic transcriptional programs in human cancers.
Gao L, Guo YN, Zeng JH, et al.The expression, significance and function of cancer susceptibility candidate 9 in lung squamous cell carcinoma: A bioinformatics and in vitro investigation.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(5):1651-1664 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cancer susceptibility candidate 9 (CASC9) gene has been reported to exert an oncogenic effect in several types of cancer. However, its role in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is unknown. Therefore, the present study examined the expression of CASC9 in LUSC and non‑cancer tissues by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays and by data mining of high‑throughput public databases, including The Cancer Genome Atlas, the Gene Expression Omnibus, ArrayExpress and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. In vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CASC9 on the viability and the proliferation of LUSC cells. Furthermore, consulting the alteration status of CASC9 in LUSC from cBioPortal, functional enrichment analysis of co‑expressed genes, prediction of potential transcription factors, and inspection of adjacent protein‑coding genes were conducted to explore the potential molecular mechanism of CASC9 in LUSC. The results revealed that CASC9 was overexpressed in LUSC tissue, and significantly associated with the malignant progression of LUSC. In vitro experiments demonstrated that CASC9 knockdown by RNA interference attenuated the viability and proliferation of LUSC cells. Multiple copies of CASC9 gene were detected in 4 of 179 available sequenced LUSC cases. A functional enrichment analysis of 200 co‑expressed genes indicated that these genes were significantly associated with terms, including 'cell‑cell junction organization', 'desmosome organization', 'epidermis development', 'Hippo signaling pathway', 'pathogenic Escherichia coli infection' and 'PID HIF1 TF pathway'. Three genes, Fos‑related antigen 2 (FOSL2), SWI/SNF complex subunit SMARCC2, and transcription factor COE1 (EBF1), were predicted by lncRNAMap to be associated with CASC9. Among these, the expression of FOSL2 and EBF1 was positively and negatively correlated with the expression of CASC9, respectively. Two adjacent protein‑coding genes, cysteine‑rich secretory protein LCCL domain‑containing 1 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4‑γ, were also positively correlated with CASC9 expression. In conclusion, the present data suggest that CASC9 serves as an oncogene in LUSC and may be a promising target for alternative therapeutic options for patients with this condition.
Šekoranja D, Boštjančič E, Salapura V, et al.Primary aneurysmal bone cyst with a novel SPARC-USP6 translocation identified by next-generation sequencing.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 228-229:12-16 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign but locally aggressive, mostly pediatric neoplasm, with characteristic USP6 gene rearrangement that distinguishes it from a secondary ABC and other primary bone tumors. With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, several hitherto unknown USP6 fusion partners have been identified in ABC. Accordingly, we present a case of an 18-year-old male with a solid sub-periosteal primary ABC in the diaphysis of the left femur. Using an NGS-based assay, we identified SPARC-USP6 fusion, which has not previously been described in ABC. Including our case, the list of currently known USP6 fusion partners in primary ABC include: CDH11, CNBP, COL1A1, CTNNB1, EIF1, FOSL2, OMD, PAFAH1B1, RUNX2, SEC31A, SPARC, STAT3 and THRAP3.
Luo L, Chi H, Ling JMiR-124-3p suppresses glioma aggressiveness via targeting of Fra-2.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(11):1825-1834 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Malignant glioma is the most common and deadly primary brain tumor in adults. However, the mechanisms underlying the malignancy of glioma remain unclear. In the present study, we found that Fos-related antigen-2 (Fra-2) was overexpressed in most glioma cells, and knockdown of Fra-2 prevented cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Mechanistically, Fra-2 silencing led to a significant reduction in cell-cycle drivers (Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E1), one invasion-associated gene (MMP9), the mesenchymal marker (Vimentin), and induction of the epithelial marker (E-cadherin). Further study confirmed that miR-124-3p decreased the expression of Fra-2 via directly targeting the 3'-UTR, and transfection with miR-124-3p in glioma cells inhibited expression of the above cell-cycle and EMT promoters. Phenotypic experiments also showed that overexpression of Fra-2 weakened the inhibitory effects of miR-124-3p on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. In addition, Fra-2 knockdown impaired the malignant phenotypes enhanced by miR-124-3p inhibition, which suggested a crucial role for the miR-124-3p/Fra-2 pathway in glioma development. Consistently, high expression of Fra-2 was closely associated with low miR-124-3p level and indicated a poor prognosis in patients with glioma. In conclusion, this study indicates the existence of an aberrant miR-124-3p/Fra-2 pathway that results in glioma aggressiveness, which suggests novel therapeutic opportunities for this fatal disease.
Sun L, Guo Z, Sun J, et al.MiR-133a acts as an anti-oncogene in Hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting FOSL2 through TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:168-176 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most common maligant cancers in the world, is difficult to diagnose in the early time. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, perform vital functions in cellular differentiation, metabolism and physiological processes. MiR-133a acts as a tumor suppressor in breast, lung and gastric cancer, while the molecular circadian mechanism has not been clear in HCC. In the present study, we certified that the expression of miR-133a decreased in HCC tissues and cell lines and that miR-133a inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Fos-related antigen 2 (FOSL2), also named FRA-2, was predicted to be a downstream target of miR-133a based on bioinformatic analysis and the prediction was verified by Western Blot, qRT-PCR and luciferase reporter assay. In addition, there was a negative correlation between miR-133a and FOSL2 expression in HCC samples. Furthermore, we verified that overexpression of miR-133a suppressed biological behaviour of HCC through TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway. In brief, miR-133a may be a potential prognostic biomarker and may thus be a new therapy in HCC.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of primary malignant bone tumor and mainly occurs in children and adolescent. Because of its early migration and invasion, OS has a poor prognosis. It has been reported that mircoRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in the occurrence and development of multiple tumors. In this study, we identified the aberrant-expression of miR-143-3p in osteosarcoma and examined the role of miR-143-3p in OS development. Further, we searched the miR-143-3p target gene and verified its accuracy by luciferase experiments. Finally, we explored the relationship between miR-143-3p and FOS-Like antigen 2 (FOSL2). Our data indicated that miR-143-3p expression was substantially lower in OS tissues and cell-line compared with normal tissues, and was lower in patients with poor prognosis. In addition miR-143-3p inhibited OS cell proliferation and metastasis while promoting apoptosis. We next showed that FOSL2 was directly targeted by miR-143-3p and could reverse the inhibition caused by miR-143-3p. Finally, we found FOSL2 expression in OS cells was significantly higher compared with normal cells and negatively correlated with miR-143-3p. Thus, miR-143-3p directly and negatively targets FOSL2 to affect OS characteristics. This provides a new target for the treatment of OS and deserves further study.
The present study aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). RNA‑sequencing profiles GSM629264 and GSM629265, from the GSE25599 data set, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and processed by quality evaluation. GSM629264 and GSM629265 were from HCC and adjacent non‑cancerous tissues, respectively. TopHat software was used for alignment analysis, followed by the detection of novel splicing sites. In addition, the Cufflinks software package was used to analyze gene expressions, and the Cuffdiff program was used to screen for differently expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed splicing variants. Gene ontology functional enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses of DEGs were also performed. Transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate DEGs were identified, and a protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. The hub node in the PPI network was obtained, and the TFs and miRNAs that regulated the hub node were further predicted. The quality of the sequencing data met the standards for analysis, and the clean reads were ~65%. Most sequencing reads mapped into coding sequence exons (CDS_exons), whereas other reads mapped into exon 3' untranslated regions (UTR_Exons), 5'UTR_Exons and Introns. Upregulated and downregulated DEGs between HCC and adjacent non‑cancerous tissues were screened. Genes of differentially expressed splicing variants were identified, including vesicle‑associated membrane protein 4, phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class C, protein disulfide isomerase family A member 4 and growth arrest specific 5. Screened DEGs were enriched in the complement pathway. In the PPI network, ubiquitin C (UBC) was the hub node. UBC was predicted to be regulated by several TFs, including specificity protein 1 (SP1), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), proto‑oncogene c‑JUN (JUN), FOS‑like antigen 2 (FOSL2) and SWI/SNF‑related, matrix‑associated, actin‑dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 4 (SMARCA4), and several miRNAs, including miR‑30 and miR‑181. Results from the present study demonstrated that UBC, SP1, FOS, JUN, FOSL2, SMARCA4, miR‑30 and miR‑181 may participate in the development of HCC.
Bogoch Y, Friedlander-Malik G, Lupu L, et al.Augmented expression of RUNX1 deregulates the global gene expression of U87 glioblastoma multiforme cells and inhibits tumor growth in mice.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(4):1010428317698357 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. A mesenchymal phenotype was associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in glioblastoma multiforme patients. Recently, the transcription factor RUNX1 was suggested as a driver of the glioblastoma multiforme mesenchymal gene expression signature; however, its independent role in this process is yet to be described. Here, we assessed the role of RUNX1 in U87 glioblastoma multiforme cells in correspondence to its mediated transcriptome and genome-wide occupancy pattern. Overexpression of RUNX1 led to diminished tumor growth in nude and severe combined immunodeficiency mouse xenograft tumor model. At the molecular level, RUNX1 occupied thousands of genomic regions and regulated the expression of hundreds of target genes, both directly and indirectly. RUNX1 occupied genomic regions that corresponded to genes that were shown to play a role in brain tumor progression and angiogenesis and upon overexpression led to a substantial down-regulation of their expression level. When overexpressed in U87 glioblastoma multiforme cells, RUNX1 down-regulated key pathways in glioblastoma multiforme progression including epithelial to mesenchymal transition, MTORC1 signaling, hypoxia-induced signaling, and TNFa signaling via NFkB. Moreover, master regulators of the glioblastoma multiforme mesenchymal phenotype including CEBPb, ZNF238, and FOSL2 were directly regulated by RUNX1. The data suggest a central role for RUNX1 as master regulator of gene expression in the U87 glioblastoma multiforme cell line and mark RUNX1 as a potential target for novel future therapies for glioblastoma multiforme.
Many reports suggest that the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) might provide a novel therapeutical target for many diseases, even of human cancers; however, there are no reports on the role of miR-597 in human cancers. In the present study, by detecting mRNA expression with qRT-PCR, compared with the adjacent normal tissues we found that miR-597 was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues. By using the MTT assay, the cell wound-healing assay and the cell invasion assay, we demonstrated that miR-597 mimics were able to suppress breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, with flow cytometry, we found that mir-597 influenced the growth of breast cancer cells through regulating the G1-S phase transition. Furthermore, we identified one binding site for miR-597 at the 3'UTR of the FOSL2 gene, using bioinformatics methods and the luciferase reporter assay, it was confirmed that FOSL2 was a direct target of miR-597. Moreover, overexpression of FOSL2 in MDA-MB‑231 and SK-BR-3 cells can block the vast majority of the miR-597 roles, suggesting that miR-597 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells by the downregulation of FOSL2. Additionally, we also found a negative correlation between the expression of FOSL2 and miR-597 in the tumor samples. This new regulatory mechanism in breast cancer may provide another method for diagnosis and therapy.
FOSL1 (FOS like antigen 1) is one kind of proto-oncogene, and may play a vital role in carcinogenesis of multiple cancers. However, studies about the relationship between SNPs in FOSL1 and gastric cancer are still lacking. Thus, we investigated the association of seven SNPs in FOSL1 with gastric cancer using case-control design in a two-stage strategy (Screening stage: 1,140 gastric cancer cases and 1,547 controls; Replication stage: 1,006 cases and 2,273 controls). We found that rs1892901 was significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in additive model (adjusted OR = 1.25, 95%CI: 1.06-1.47, P = 0.008) in first stage. Following replication results revealed that the relationship between rs1892901 and gastric cancer risk was consistent with our primary results. In silico analysis showed that rs1892901 might alter multiple regulatory motifs, disturb protein binding, and affect the expression of FOSL1 and other important gastric cancer-related genes such as EGR1, CHD, EP300, FOS, JUN and FOSL2. Our findings indicated that functional SNP rs1892901 in FOSL1 might affect the expression of FOSL1, and ultimately increase the risk of gastric cancer. Further functional studies and large-scale population studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
BACKGROUND: Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) family (cJun, JunB, JunD, cFos, FosB, Fra1, and Fra2) plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation of many genes that are associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, metastasis, and survival. Many oncogenic signaling pathways converge at the AP-1 transcription complex. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional regulatory cytokine that regulates many aspects of cellular function, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, adhesion, angiogenesis, immune surveillance, and survival.
METHODS: This study investigated, the role of FOS proteins in TGF-β signaling in prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Steady state expression levels of FOS mRNA and proteins were determined using RT-PCR and western blotting analyses. DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells were exposed to TGF-β1 at varying time and dosage, RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses were used to determine TGF-β1 effect on FOS mRNA and protein expression levels as well as FosB subcellular localization. Transient silencing of FosB protein was used to determine its role in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.
RESULTS: Our data show that FOS mRNA and proteins were differentially expressed in human prostate epithelial (RWPE-1) and prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, and PC3). TGF-β1 induced the expression of FosB at both the mRNA and protein levels in DU145 and PC3 cells, whereas cFos and Fra1 were unaffected. Immunofluorescence analysis showed an increase in the accumulation of FosB protein in the nucleus of PC3 cells after treatment with exogenous TGF-β1. Selective knockdown of endogenous FosB by specific siRNA did not have any effect on cell proliferation in PC3 and DU145 cells. However, basal and TGF-β1- and EGF-induced cell migration was significantly reduced in DU145 and PC3 cells lacking endogenous FosB. TGF-β1- and EGF-induced cell invasion were also significantly decreased after FosB knockdown in PC3 cells.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that FosB is required for migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells. We also conclude that TGF-β1 effect on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion may be mediated through the induction of FosB. Prostate 77:72-81, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Papoudou-Bai A, Hatzimichael E, Barbouti A, Kanavaros PExpression patterns of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) family members in lymphoid neoplasms.
Clin Exp Med. 2017; 17(3):291-304 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a dimeric transcription factor composed of proteins belonging to the Jun (c-Jun, JunB and JunD), Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra1 and Fra2) and activating transcription factor protein families. AP-1 is involved in various cellular events including differentiation, proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Deregulated expression of AP-1 transcription factors is implicated in the pathogenesis of various lymphomas such as classical Hodgkin lymphomas, anaplastic large cell lymphomas, diffuse large B cell lymphomas and adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma. The main purpose of this review is the analysis of the expression patterns of AP-1 transcription factors in order to gain insight into the histophysiology of lymphoid tissues and the pathology of lymphoid malignancies.
Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is most aggressive head and neck cancer often associated with HR-HPV infection. The role of AP-1 which is an essential regulator of HPV oncogene expression and tumorigenesis is not reported in tongue cancer. One hundred tongue tissue biopsies comprising precancer, cancer and adjacent controls including two tongue cancer cell lines were employed to study the role of HPV infection and AP-1 family proteins. An exclusive prevalence (28%) of HR-HPV type 16 was observed mainly in well differentiated tongue carcinomas (78.5%). A higher expression and DNA binding activity of AP-1 was observed in tongue tumors and cancer cell lines with c-Fos and Fra-2 as the major binding partners forming the functional AP-1 complex but c-Jun participated only in HPV negative and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Knocking down of Fra-2 responsible for aggressive tongue tumorigenesis led to significant reduction in c-Fos, c-Jun, MMP-9 and HPVE6/E7 expression but Fra-1 and p53 were upregulated. The binding and expression of c-Fos/Fra-2 increased as a function of severity of tongue lesions, yet selective participation of c-Jun appears to promote poor differentiation and aggressive tumorigenesis only in HPV negative cases while HPV infection leads to well differentiation and better prognosis preferably in nonsmokers.
BACKGROUND: The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor is believed to be important in tumorigenesis and altered AP-1 activity was associated with cell transformation. We aimed to assess the potential role of AP-1 family members as novel biomarkers in breast cancer.
METHODS: We studied the expression of AP-1 members at the mRNA level in 72 primary breast tumors and 37 adjacent non-tumor tissues and evaluated its correlation with clinicopathological parameters including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu status. Expression levels of Ubiquitin C (UBC) were used for normalization. Protein expression of AP-1 members was assessed using Western blot analysis in a subset of tumors. We used student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, logistic regression and Pearson's correlation coefficient for statistical analyses.
RESULTS: We found significant differences in the expression of AP-1 family members between tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues for all AP-1 family members except Fos B. Fra-1, Fra-2, Jun-B and Jun-D mRNA levels were significantly higher in tumors compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001), whilst c-Fos and c-Jun mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumors compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001). In addition, Jun-B overexpression had outstanding discrimination ability to differentiate tumor tissues from adjacent non-tumor tissues as determined by ROC curve analysis. Moreover, Fra-1 was significantly overexpressed in the tumors biochemically classified as ERα negative (p = 0.012) and PR negative (p = 0.037). Interestingly, Fra-1 expression was significantly higher in triple-negative tumors compared with luminal carcinomas (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Expression levels of Fra-1 and Jun-B might be possible biomarkers for prognosis of breast cancer.
Higuchi T, Nakayama T, Arao T, et al.SOX4 is a direct target gene of FRA-2 and induces expression of HDAC8 in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Blood. 2013; 121(18):3640-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Previously, we have shown that an AP-1 family member, FRA-2, is constitutively expressed in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and, together with JUND, upregulates CCR4 and promotes ATL cell growth. Among the identified potential target genes of FRA-2/JUND was SOX4. Here, we examine the expression and function of SOX4 in ATL. SOX4 was indeed consistently expressed in primary ATL cells. FRA-2/JUND efficiently activated the SOX4 promoter via an AP-1 site. Knockdown of SOX4 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) strongly suppressed cell growth of ATL cell lines. Microarray analyses revealed that SOX4 knockdown reduced the expression of genes such as germinal center kinase related (GCKR), NAK-associated protein 1 (NAP1), and histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). We confirmed consistent expression of GCKR, NAP1, and HDAC8 in primary ATL cells. We also showed direct activation of the HDAC8 promoter by SOX4. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of GCKR, NAP1, and HDAC8 each significantly suppressed cell growth of ATL cell lines. Taken together, we have revealed an important oncogenic cascade involving FRA-2/JUND and SOX4 in ATL, which leads to the expression of genes such as GCKR, NAP1, and HDAC8.
Zhou L, Graves M, MacDonald G, et al.Microenvironmental regulation of BRCA1 gene expression by c-Jun and Fra2 in premalignant human ovarian surface epithelial cells.
Mol Cancer Res. 2013; 11(3):272-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Reduced BRCA1 gene expression is common in the sporadic form of ovarian carcinoma. The spread of this highly lethal cancer often begins when tumor cell clusters are shed into the fluid of the abdominopelvic cavity such that they can float freely before seeding distant sites on the peritoneal walls and organs. Thus, the microenvironment that tumor cells find themselves in changes dramatically during these early shedding and floating stages of transperitoneal metastasis. To mimic this microenvironmental change in vitro, we released premalignant human ovarian surface epithelial cells from the substratum and forced them to cluster in suspension. Under these conditions, steady state levels of BRCA1 mRNA and protein fell significantly and the transcriptional activation state of the BRCA1 promoter was suppressed. Analysis of the promoter indicated that the previously identified "CRE" element located within the "positive regulatory region" (PRR) contributed to this suppression. More specifically, we show that the suppression was mediated, at least in part, by a suspension culture-driven decrease in the levels of two members of the AP1 transcription factor complex, c-Jun and Fra2, that bind to the CRE element. Therefore, a microenvironmental change that is manifested during the initial stages of ovarian carcinoma dissemination may, potentially, help suppress BRCA1 expression in sporadic tumors and thus promote their progression.
Shin SY, Choi C, Lee HG, et al.Transcriptional regulation of the interleukin-11 gene by oncogenic Ras.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(12):2467-76 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Interleukin-11 (IL-11), which belongs to a class of IL6-type cytokines, plays an important role in inflammation, motility and invasion in cancer. The ras mutation is frequently found in human cancer, but little is known regarding the transcriptional activation of the IL-11 gene by the Ras signal pathway in tumour cells. In this study, we investigated the role of Ras in the regulation of IL-11 using two different cell model systems: mouse NIH3T3 cells over-expressing oncogenic Ras with a tet-on system and Capan-1 human pancreatic carcinoma cells harbouring a K-ras mutation. We found that IL-11 expression was up-regulated at the transcriptional level by oncogenic Ras. Activation of the AP-1 response element, located between -153 and -30 in the 5'-regulatory region of the IL-11 gene, was necessary for oncogenic Ras-induced IL-11 promoter activation. AP-1 proteins, including Fra-1 and Fra-2, were up-regulated through the Raf/MEK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways by oncogenic Ras. Knockdown of Fra-1 by siRNA in NIH3T3 or Capan-1 cells strongly attenuated oncogenic Ras-induced IL-11 expression. Additionally, inhibition of JNK, p38 and Stat3 abrogated oncogenic Ras-induced IL-11 expression. These results suggest that both the PI3K and Raf pathways are necessary for the expression of IL-11 in oncogenic Ras-mutated cells, and that JNK, p38 and Stat3 also contribute to oncogenic Ras-induced IL-11 expression.
Dippel V, Milde-Langosch K, Wicklein D, et al.Influence of L1-CAM expression of breast cancer cells on adhesion to endothelial cells.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013; 139(1):107-21 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Expression of the adhesion molecule L1-CAM (L1) has been shown to correlate with early recurrence in breast cancer. Here, we investigated whether L1-CAM expression of breast cancer cells might influence adherence to human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) and thus promote metastasis.
METHODS: MDA-MB231-Fra2 breast cancer cells that express high levels of L1-CAM (L1(high) cells) were stably transfected to generate clones with strong L1-CAM downregulation. Adhesion to activated HPMEC was studied in dynamic cell flow and static assays. Potential binding partners on endothelial cells were identified by blocking experiments and adhesion assays after coating of the flow channels with recombinant proteins.
RESULTS: Adhesion of L1(high) cells to activated HPMEC was significantly higher compared to L1l(ow) clones under flow conditions. Blocking experiments and adhesion assays with recombinant proteins identified activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) or L1 itself, but not ICAM-1, as potential binding partners on endothelial cells. E-selectin blocking antibodies strongly diminished the adherence of breast cancer cells irrespective of their L1-CAM expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments indicate that L1-CAM expression on breast cancer cells can promote adherence to activated endothelial cells by binding to endothelial L1-CAM or ALCAM. This mechanism might lead to increased metastasis and a poor prognosis in L1-CAM-positive carcinomas in vivo. Therefore, L1-CAM might be a suitable therapeutic target in breast cancers with a high L1-CAM expression.
BACKGROUND: Correct segmentation is critical to many applications within automated microscopy image analysis. Despite the availability of advanced segmentation algorithms, variations in cell morphology, sample preparation, and acquisition settings often lead to segmentation errors. This manuscript introduces a ranked-retrieval approach using logistic regression to automate selection of accurately segmented nuclei from a set of candidate segmentations. The methodology is validated on an application of spatial gene repositioning in breast cancer cell nuclei. Gene repositioning is analyzed in patient tissue sections by labeling sequences with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), followed by measurement of the relative position of each gene from the nuclear center to the nuclear periphery. This technique requires hundreds of well-segmented nuclei per sample to achieve statistical significance. Although the tissue samples in this study contain a surplus of available nuclei, automatic identification of the well-segmented subset remains a challenging task.
RESULTS: Logistic regression was applied to features extracted from candidate segmented nuclei, including nuclear shape, texture, context, and gene copy number, in order to rank objects according to the likelihood of being an accurately segmented nucleus. The method was demonstrated on a tissue microarray dataset of 43 breast cancer patients, comprising approximately 40,000 imaged nuclei in which the HES5 and FRA2 genes were labeled with FISH probes. Three trained reviewers independently classified nuclei into three classes of segmentation accuracy. In man vs. machine studies, the automated method outperformed the inter-observer agreement between reviewers, as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Robustness of gene position measurements to boundary inaccuracies was demonstrated by comparing 1086 manually and automatically segmented nuclei. Pearson correlation coefficients between the gene position measurements were above 0.9 (p < 0.05). A preliminary experiment was conducted to validate the ranked retrieval in a test to detect cancer. Independent manual measurement of gene positions agreed with automatic results in 21 out of 26 statistical comparisons against a pooled normal (benign) gene position distribution.
CONCLUSIONS: Accurate segmentation is necessary to automate quantitative image analysis for applications such as gene repositioning. However, due to heterogeneity within images and across different applications, no segmentation algorithm provides a satisfactory solution. Automated assessment of segmentations by ranked retrieval is capable of reducing or even eliminating the need to select segmented objects by hand and represents a significant improvement over binary classification. The method can be extended to other high-throughput applications requiring accurate detection of cells or nuclei across a range of biomedical applications.
Nakayama T, Higuchi T, Oiso N, et al.Expression and function of FRA2/JUND in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(4):1367-73 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are known to frequently express CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4). Previously, we investigated the transcriptional control of CCR4 expression in ATLL and have found that an activating protein 1 (AP1) family member, FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS)-related antigen 2 (FRA2), is consistently expressed at high levels in ATLL and, together with v-JUN avian sarcoma virus 17 oncogene homolog D (JUND), up-regulates the expression of CCR4 as well as that of several proto-oncogenes such as v-MYB myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB), murine double minute 2 homolog (MDM2), and B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6). Here, we examined the expression of these genes in clinical samples of CTCLs. We detected the transcripts of FRA2, JUND, CCR4, MYB, MDM2, and BCL6 at high levels in CTCL skin lesions. Except for BCL6, we confirmed protein expression of FRA2, JUND, CCR4, MYB, and MDM2 in CTCL skin lesions. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of FRA2 or JUND suppressed cell growth and the expression of CCR4, MYB, MDM2, and BCL6 in CTCL cell lines. Our results, thus, demonstrate the presence of a common oncogenic cascade initiated by FRA2/JUND in CCR4-expressing mature T-cell malignancies such as ATLL and CTCLs.
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project has generated gene expression data that divides glioblastoma (GBM) into four transcriptional classes: proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal. Because transcriptional class is only partially explained by underlying genomic alterations, we hypothesize that the tumor microenvironment may also have an impact. In this study, we focused on necrosis and angiogenesis because their presence is both prognostically and biologically significant. These features were quantified in digitized histological images of TCGA GBM frozen section slides that were immediately adjacent to samples used for molecular analysis. Correlating these features with transcriptional data, we found that the mesenchymal transcriptional class was significantly enriched with GBM samples that contained a high degree of necrosis. Furthermore, among 2422 genes that correlated with the degree of necrosis in GBMs, transcription factors known to drive the mesenchymal expression class were most closely related, including C/EBP-β, C/EBP-δ, STAT3, FOSL2, bHLHE40, and RUNX1. Non-mesenchymal GBMs in the TCGA data set were found to become more transcriptionally similar to the mesenchymal class with increasing levels of necrosis. In addition, high expression levels of the master mesenchymal factors C/EBP-β, C/EBP-δ, and STAT3 were associated with a poor prognosis. Strong, specific expression of C/EBP-β and C/EBP-δ by hypoxic, perinecrotic cells in GBM likely account for their tight association with necrosis and may be related to their poor prognosis.
Fu L, Balasubramanian M, Shan J, et al.Auto-activation of c-JUN gene by amino acid deprivation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells reveals a novel c-JUN-mediated signaling pathway.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(42):36724-38 [PubMed
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Mammalian cells respond to protein or amino acid (AA) limitation by activating a number of signaling pathways, collectively referred to as the AA response (AAR), that modulate a range of cellular functions, including transcriptional induction of target genes. This study demonstrates that in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, expression of c-JUN, JUN-B, c-FOS, and FOS-B was induced by the AAR, whereas JUN-D, FRA-1, and FRA-2 were not. Of the four activated FOS/JUN members, c-JUN made the largest contribution to the induction of several known AAR target genes. For several human liver, prostate, and ovarian cell lines, the AAR-induced increase in c-JUN expression was greater in transformed cells compared with nontransformed counterparts, an effect independent of cell growth rate. Thus far, the best characterized AA-responsive genes are all transcriptionally activated by ATF4, but the AAR-dependent induction of c-JUN transcription was ATF4-independent. The increased expression of c-JUN was dependent on ATF2 and on activation of the MEK-ERK and JNK arms of the MAPK signaling pathways. Formation of c-JUN-ATF2-activated heterodimers was increased after AA limitation, and c-JUN or ATF2 knockdown suppressed the induction of c-JUN and other AAR target genes. AA deprivation triggers a feed-forward process that involves phosphorylation of existing c-JUN protein by JNK and subsequent auto-activation of the c-JUN gene by recruitment of c-JUN and ATF2 to two AP-1 sites within the proximal promoter. The results document the novel observation that AP-1 sequences within the c-JUN gene can function as transcriptional amino acid-response elements.
Singh R, Cadeddu RP, Fröbel J, et al.The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Sulindac sulfide and Diclofenac induce apoptosis and differentiation in human acute myeloid leukemia cells through an AP-1 dependent pathway.
Apoptosis. 2011; 16(9):889-901 [PubMed
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Acute myeloid leukemia is a heterogeneous disease with varying genetic and molecular pathologies. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been proven to possess significant anti-proliferative potential in various cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Hence, treatment with these agents can be utilized to study disease specific anti-proliferative pathways. In this study, a total number of 42 bone marrow derived CD34(+) selected de novo AML patient samples and the AML cell lines THP-1 and HL-60 were treated with the NSAIDs Sulindac sulfide and Diclofenac. We analyzed viability, apoptosis, differentiation and addressed the molecular mechanisms involved. We found a consistent induction of apoptosis and to some extent an increased myeloid differentiation capacity in NSAID treated AML cells. Comprehensive protein and gene expression profiling of Diclofenac treated AML cells revealed transcriptional activation of GADD45α and its downstream MAPK/JNK pathway as well as increased protein levels of the caspase-3 precursor. This pointed towards a role of the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in NSAID mediated apoptosis that we found indeed to be dependent on JNK activity as addition of a specific JNK-inhibitor abrogated apoptosis. Furthermore, the AP-1 transcription factor family members' c-Jun, JunB and Fra-2 were transcriptionally activated in NSAID treated AML cells and re-expression of these transcription factors led to activation of GADD45α with induction of apoptosis. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that NSAIDs induce apoptosis in AML through a novel pathway involving increased expression of AP-1 heterodimers, which by itself is sufficient to induce GADD45α expression with consecutive activation of JNK and induction of apoptosis.
Sanjmyatav J, Steiner T, Wunderlich H, et al.A specific gene expression signature characterizes metastatic potential in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
J Urol. 2011; 186(1):289-94 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The discovery of metastasis markers in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is of critical importance to define individual metastatic risk and select patients for new targeted therapies. We identified potential biomarkers for metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma by gene expression analysis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed transcriptional profiling of 16 primary metastatic and 18 nonmetastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas with PIQOR™ microarrays. Differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Genes discriminating between metastatic and nonmetastatic tumors were identified at q <0.001 by significance analysis of microarrays. The metastatic signature contained 127 transcripts. In metastatic samples a greater than 4-fold decrease in expression was detected for the genes CD151 and IKBA (t/F statistic p <0.0001) while the genes MMP16, B7-H1, BCL2L2 and FRA2 showed greater than 4-fold increase of expression in metastatic primary tumors (p <0.0001). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed significant differences in expression among all metastatic tumors, including synchronously and metachronously metastasized tumors, and nonmetastatic tumors for FRA2 (p = 0.032) and CD151 (p = 0.005). In addition, the genes B7-H1 (p = 0.040), FRA2 (p = 0.035), CD151 (p = 0.004) and BCL2L2 (p = 0.035) showed significantly higher expression in early metastasized than in nonmetastatic tumor samples. Different B7-H1 (p = 0.002) and BCL2L2 (p = 0.007) expression levels were found in samples with late metastasis compared to those in synchronously metastasized tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: We determined a metastatic signature of clear cell renal cell carcinoma by microarray analysis. Our data provide the possibility of defining the metastatic potential of primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma based on a select number of genes even in a localized situation.
The activation of AP-1 is a hallmark of cell transformation by tyrosine kinases. In this study, we characterize the role of AP-1 proteins in the transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) by v-Src. In normal CEF, the expression of a dominant negative mutant of c-Jun (TAM67) induced senescence. In contrast, three distinct phenotypes were observed when TAM67 was expressed in v-Src-transformed CEF. While senescent cells were also present, the inhibition of AP-1 caused apoptosis in a fraction of the v-Src-transformed cells. In addition, cells containing lipid-rich vesicles accumulated, suggesting that a subpopulation of the v-Src-transformed cells underwent differentiation in response to the inhibition of AP-1. JunD and Fra-2 were the main components of this factor, while c-Jun accounted for a minor fraction of AP-1 in v-Src-transformed CEF. The downregulation of c-Jun expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) induced senescence in normal and v-Src-transformed cells. In contrast, a high incidence of apoptosis was caused by the downregulation of JunD, suggesting that it is required for the survival of v-Src-transformed CEF. Levels of the p53 tumor suppressor were elevated under conditions of JunD inhibition. Repression of p53 by shRNA enhanced the survival and anchorage-independent proliferation of v-Src-transformed CEF with JunD/AP-1 inhibition. The inhibition of Fra-2 had no visible phenotype in normal CEF but caused the appearance of lipid-rich vesicles in v-Src-transformed CEF. Therefore, AP-1 facilitated transformation by acting as a survival factor, by inhibiting premature entry into senescence, and by blocking the differentiation of v-Src-transformed CEF.
Li Z, Sasaki Y, Mezawa M, et al.cAMP and fibroblast growth factor 2 regulate bone sialoprotein gene expression in human prostate cancer cells.
Gene. 2011; 471(1-2):1-12 [PubMed
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Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a noncollagenous protein of the extracellular matrix in mineralized connective tissues that has been implicated in the nucleation of hydroxyapatite. Forskolin (FSK), an activator of adenylate cyclase, increased the intracellular cAMP level, which stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a potent mitogen in many cell types, including osteoblasts. In human prostate cancer DU145 cells, FSK (1 μM) and FGF2 (10 ng/ml) increased BSP and Runx2 mRNA and protein levels at 3 and 12h, respectively. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs of the human BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Treatment of DU145 cells with FSK (1 μM) and FGF2 (10 ng/ml) increased the luciferase activities of constructs between -60LUC to -927LUC and -108LUC to -927LUC, including the human BSP gene promoter. Effects of FSK and FGF2 abrogated in constructs included 2bp mutations in the two cAMP response elements (CRE1 and CRE2). Luciferase activities induced by FSK and FGF2 were blocked by protein kinase A and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Gel mobility shift analyses showed that FSK and FGF2 increased the binding of CRE1 and CRE2. CRE1-protein complexes were supershifted by phospho-CREB1 and c-Fos antibodies, and disrupted by CREB1, c-Jun, JunD, Fra2, p300, Runx2, Dlx5 and Smad1 antibodies. CRE2-protein complexes were disrupted by CREB1, phospho-CREB1, c-Fos, c-Jun, JunD, Fra2, p300, Runx2, Dlx5 and Smad1 antibodies. These studies demonstrate that FSK and FGF2 stimulate BSP transcription in DU145 human prostate cancer cells by targeting the CRE1 and CRE2 elements in the human BSP gene promoter.
Cell transformation by the v-rel oncogene is mediated by the aberrant expression of genes that are normally tightly regulated by other Rel/NF-kappaB family members. Although a number of genes inappropriately activated or suppressed by v-Rel have been identified, their contributions to the v-Rel transformation process have been poorly characterized. Here, we examine the role of individual AP-1 proteins in v-Rel-mediated transformation. v-Rel-transformed cells exhibit elevated RNA and protein expression of c-Fos, c-Jun and ATF2 and sustained repression of Fra-2. c-Fos and c-Jun are essential in both the initiation and maintenance of v-Rel-mediated transformation, whereas Fra-2 is dispensable. By employing a c-Jun dimerization mutant, we further identified Fos/Jun heterodimers as major contributors to the v-Rel transformation process. The inability of c-Rel to induce the expression of c-Fos and c-Jun contributes to its weaker oncogenic potential relative to v-Rel. Our studies also demonstrate that v-Rel may induce AP-1 members by directly upregulating gene expression (c-fos and ATF2) and by activating pathways that stimulate AP-1 activity. Although elevated expression of ATF2 is also required for v-Rel-mediated transformation, its ectopic overexpression is inhibitory. Investigating the mode of ATF2 regulation revealed a positive feedback mechanism whereby ATF2 induces p38 MAPK phosphorylation to further induce its own activity. In addition, these studies identified Ha-Ras as an effector of v-Rel-mediated transformation and reveal a novel role for ATF2 in the inhibition of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Overall, these studies reveal distinct and complex roles of AP-1 proteins in Rel/NF-kappaB oncogenesis.
Li Z, Wang Z, Yang L, et al.Fibroblast growth factor 2 regulates bone sialoprotein gene transcription in human breast cancer cells.
J Oral Sci. 2010; 52(1):125-32 [PubMed
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Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a major non-collagenous, extracellular matrix glycoprotein associated with mineralized tissues. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is recognized as a potent mitogen for a variety of mesenchymal cells. FGF2 produced by osteoblasts accumulates in the bone matrix and acts as an autocrine/paracrine regulator of osteoblasts. We previously reported that FGF2 regulates BSP gene transcription through the FGF2 response element (FRE) and activator protein 1 (AP1) binding site overlapping with the glucocorticoid response element in the rat BSP gene promoter. In the present study, FGF2 (10 ng/ml) increased BSP and Runx2 mRNA levels at 6 h in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs of the human BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Treatment of MCF7 cells with FGF2 (10 ng/ml) increased the luciferase activity of the constructs between -84LUC and -927LUC. Gel mobility shift analyses showed that FGF2 increased the binding of AP1 and CRE2. The CRE2- and AP1-protein complexes were disrupted by antibodies against CREB1, c-Fos, c-Jun, Fra2, p300 and Runx2. These studies demonstrate that FGF2 stimulates BSP transcription in MCF7 human breast cancer cells by targeting the AP1 and CRE2 elements in the human BSP gene promoter.
Schröder C, Schumacher U, Müller V, et al.The transcription factor Fra-2 promotes mammary tumour progression by changing the adhesive properties of breast cancer cells.
Eur J Cancer. 2010; 46(9):1650-60 [PubMed
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The transcription factor Fra-2 (Fos-related antigen-2) has been implicated in invasion of breast cancer cells, but there is only sparse information about its role in clinical tumours. In the present study, we analysed Fra-2 mRNA expression in a cohort of 167 patients, and found significant correlations between high Fra-2 expression and nodal involvement or reduced disease-free survival. To get more information about the underlying mechanisms, we generated stably transfected MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells with increased Fra-2 expression. Compared with the controls, these clones did not differ in proliferation and motility, but had higher invasive potential. By global gene expression analysis and subsequent validation of selected genes, we identified a number of proteins involved in cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions that were up- or down-regulated in Fra-2 overexpressing cells, e.g. connexin 43, ICAM-1, L1-CAM, integrin beta 2, integrin beta 4, and integrin alpha 6. The association of Fra-2 overexpression and high ICAM-1 or L1-CAM levels could also be demonstrated in our clinical cohort of mammary tumours. In both MDA-MB231 and MCF7 cells, we found an increased attachment of Fra-2 transfectants to components of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we could show a striking increase in the number of rolling cells in flow-through assays using E-selectin coated capillaries, which might indicate a higher capacity of extravasation. In conclusion, our data obtained on breast cancer cell lines and clinical tissue samples suggest that overexpression of Fra-2 promotes breast cancer progression and metastasis by deregulation of genes involved in cell-cell and cell-ECM contacts.
Mishra A, Bharti AC, Saluja D, Das BCTransactivation and expression patterns of Jun and Fos/AP-1 super-family proteins in human oral cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 126(4):819-29 [PubMed
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Transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) super-family is known to modulate expression of array of genes during development of many cancers and considered as an important target for modern therapeutics. But the role of AP-1 during development of human oral cancers is still poorly understood. Because oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in India and south-east Asia, we studied the activation and expression pattern of AP-1 family of proteins and mRNA in different stages of oral carcinogenesis. Gel-shift assay, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and northern blotting have been used to assess the binding activity and expression pattern of AP-1 family (c-Jun, JunB, JunD, c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2) proteins and mRNA transcripts in a total of 100 fresh oral tissue specimens comprising precancer (n = 40), cancer (n = 50) and healthy control (n = 10). Constitutive activation of AP-1 with concomitant upregulated expression of majority of AP-1 family of proteins and mRNA was observed in cancer cases. Interestingly, almost all precancerous cases showed JunD homodimers, whereas c-Fos/JunD was the most prevalent complex found in cancer tissues. The overexpression of EGFR mRNA, p50:p50/NF-kappaB homodimer formation, together with overexpression of pERK and c-Fos proteins in this study suggests an interesting cross talk between AP-1 and NF-kappaB pathways in oral cancers. Thus, this study demonstrates differential expression and activation of AP-1 super-family proteins in relation to severity of lesion and their crucial role in human oral carcinogenesis.