Gene Summary

Gene:FOSB; FosB proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit
Aliases: AP-1, G0S3, GOS3, GOSB
Summary:The Fos gene family consists of 4 members: FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, and FOSL2. These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein fosB
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FOSB (cancer-related)

Liu B, Zhang Y, Fan Y, et al.
Leucine-rich repeat neuronal protein-1 suppresses apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through regulation of Fas/FasL.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(7):2145-2155 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is a common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. As a result of the lack of reliable diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for GC, patient prognosis is still poor. Therefore, there is an urgent need for studies examining the underlying pathogenesis of GC in order to find effective biomarkers. LRRN1 (leucine-rich repeat neuronal protein-1) is a type I transmembrane protein that plays an important role in the process of nerve development and regeneration. However, its role in cancer, especially in GC, remains unclear. In the present study, we found that LRRN1 expression is upregulated in GC tissues and that high LRRN1 expression is associated with poor prognosis. siRNA and shRNA-mediated knockdowns of LRRN1 expression promoted GC cell apoptosis and activation of the Fas/FasL pathway. LRRN1 knockdown also resulted in upregulation of JUN, a subunit of the transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein-1). This suggests that LRRN1 suppresses GC cell apoptosis by downregulating AP-1, resulting in inhibition of the Fas/FasL pathway. These results confirm that LRRN1 plays a significant role in GC pathogenesis. Moreover, LRRN1 may be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for GC.

Yoo SM, Lee CJ, An HJ, et al.
RSK2-Mediated ELK3 Activation Enhances Cell Transformation and Breast Cancer Cell Growth by Regulation of c-fos Promoter Activity.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2), regulated by Ras/Raf/MEKs/ERKs, transmits upstream activation signals to downstream substrates including kinases and transcription and epigenetic factors. We observed that ELK members, including ELK1, 3, and 4, highly interacted with RSK2. We further observed that the RSK2-ELK3 interaction was mediated by N-terminal kinase and linker domains of RSK2, and the D and C domains of ELK3, resulting in the phosphorylation of ELK3. Importantly, RSK2-mediated ELK3 enhanced

Kang M, Park SH, Park SJ, et al.
p44/42 MAPK signaling is a prime target activated by phenylethyl resorcinol in its anti-melanogenic action.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 58:152877 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanin plays a crucial role in protecting human skin against exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, its overproduction induces hyperpigmentation disorders of the skin.
PURPOSE: To investigate effects of phenylethyl resorcinol as one resorcinol derivative on melanogenesis and its mechanisms using B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and human epidermal melanocytes.
METHODS: Effects of phenylethyl resorcinol on melanogenesis and its mechanism of action were examined using several in vitro assays (i.e., cell survival, melanin content, cellular tyrosinase activity, real-time PCR analysis, luciferase-reporter assay, Western blot analysis, and ELISAs for cyclic AMP (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)).
RESULTS: Phenylethyl resorcinol reduced both melanin content and tyrosinase activity in these cells. Phenylethyl resorcinol also suppressed tyrosinase activity in cell-free tyrosinase enzyme assay. Although phenylethyl resorcinol decreased mRNA levels of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-2, it did not affect mRNA levels of melanogenic gene microphthalmia-associated transcriptional factor (MITF) or TRP-1. Phenylethyl resorcinol had no effects on cAMP signaling or NF-κB signaling based on results of cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-luciferase reporter assay, cAMP production, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, Western blot assays for phosphorylated CRE-binding protein (CREB), NF-κB-luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot assays for phosphorylated NF-κB. However, phenylethyl resorcinol induced activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling. Specifically, phenylethyl resorcinol increased AP-1 reporter activity and increased phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK, but not p38 MAPK or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). MEK1/2 and Src, upstream molecules of p44/42 MAPK were also phosphorylated by phenylethyl resorcinol. In addition, phenylethyl resorcinol-induced decreases in melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and MITF protein levels were attenuated by PD98059, a p44/42 MAPK inhibitor.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the anti-melanogenic activity of phenylethyl resorcinol is mediated by activation of p44/42 MAPK, indicating that phenylethyl resorcinol may be a potential therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation skin disorders.

Xu W, Qian J, Zeng F, et al.
Protein kinase Ds promote tumor angiogenesis through mast cell recruitment and expression of angiogenic factors in prostate cancer microenvironment.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):114 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are being increasingly recognized as critical components in the tumor microenvironment. Protein Kinase D (PKD) is essential for the progression of prostate cancer, but its role in prostate cancer microenvironment remains poorly understood.
METHODS: The expression of PKD, mast cells and microvessel density were examined by IHC. The clinical significance was determined by statistical analyses. The biological function of PKD and the underlying mechanisms were investigated using in vitro and in vivo models.
RESULTS: PKD2/3 contributed to MCs recruitment and tumor angiogenesis in the prostate cancer microenvironment. Clinical data showed that increased activation of PKD at Ser744/748 in prostate cancer was correlated with mast cell infiltration and microvascular density. PKD2/3 silencing of prostate cancer cells markedly decreased MCs migration and tube formation of HUVEC cells. Moreover, PKD2/3 depletion not only reduced SCF, CCL5 and CCL11 expression in prostate cancer cells but also inhibited angiogenic factors in MCs. Conversely, exogenous SCF, CCL5 and CCL11 reversed the effect on MCs migration inhibited by PKD2/3 silencing. Mechanistically, PKD2/3 interacted with Erk1/2 and activated Erk1/2 or NF-κB signaling pathway, leading to AP-1 or NF-κB binding to the promoter of scf, ccl5 and ccl11. Finally, PKD-specific inhibitor significantly reduced tumor volume and tumor growth in mice bearing RM-1 prostate cancer cells, which was attributed to attenuation of mast cell recruitment and tumor angiogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a novel PKDs function that contributes to tumor angiogenesis and progression through mast cells recruitment in prostate cancer microenvironment.

Shimizu D, Masuda T, Sato K, et al.
CRMP5-associated GTPase (
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):99-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Certain chromosomal arms are clonally amplified in colorectal cancer (CRC) and may contain novel driver genes. The aim of this study was to identify a novel driver gene for colorectal cancer carcinogenesis on long arm of chromosome 7 and the clarify its biological function.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified ArfGAP with GTPase domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 3 (AGAP3) as a putative driver gene using the CRC dataset in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Biological functions of AGAP3 and CRMP5-associated GTPase (CRAG), a splicing variant of AGAP3, were explored by overexpression. AGAP3/CRAG expression in our cohort was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical significance of AGAP3/CRAG expression in TCGA dataset, Gene Expression Omnibus datasets and our clinical cohort was evaluated.
RESULTS: AGAP3 expression was significantly increased in CRC and colorectal adenoma compared to normal tissue. CRAG overexpression up-regulated c-Jun expression, and significantly increased cell proliferation and colony formation capability. AGAP3 expression did not have a concordant association with patient prognosis among datasets.
CONCLUSION: CRAG may contribute to development of CRC via activator protein 1 activation.

Baumhoer D, Amary F, Flanagan AM
An update of molecular pathology of bone tumors. Lessons learned from investigating samples by next generation sequencing.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(2):88-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
The last decade has seen the majority of primary bone tumor subtypes become defined by molecular genetic alteration. Examples include giant cell tumour of bone (H3F3A p.G34W), chondroblastoma (H3F3B p.K36M), mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (HEY1-NCOA2), chondromyxoid fibroma (GRM1 rearrangements), aneurysmal bone cyst (USP6 rearrangements), osteoblastoma/osteoid osteoma (FOS/FOSB rearrangements), and synovial chondromatosis (FN1-ACVR2A and ACVR2A-FN1). All such alterations are mutually exclusive. Many of these have been translated into clinical service using immunohistochemistry or FISH. 60% of central chondrosarcoma is characterised by either isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 or IDH2 mutations distinguishing them from other cartilaginous tumours. In contrast, recurrent alterations which are clinically helpful have not been found in high grade osteosarcoma. High throughput next generation sequencing has also proved valuable in identifying germ line alterations in a significant proportion of young patients with primary malignant bone tumors. These findings will play an increasing role in reaching a diagnosis and in patient management.

Bhardwaj R, Suzuki A, Leland P, et al.
Identification of a novel role of IL-13Rα2 in human Glioblastoma multiforme: interleukin-13 mediates signal transduction through AP-1 pathway.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):369 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previously, we have demonstrated that Interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13Rα2) is overexpressed in approximate 78% Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) samples. We have also demonstrated that IL-13Rα2 can serve as a target for cancer immunotherapy in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. However, the significance of overexpression of IL-13Rα2 in GBM and astrocytoma and signaling through these receptors is not known. IL-13 can signal through IL-13R via JAK/STAT and AP-1 pathways in certain cell lines including some tumor cell lines. Herein, we have investigated a role of IL-13/IL-13Rα2 axis in signaling through AP-1 transcription factors in human glioma samples in situ.
METHODS: We examined the activation of AP-1 family of transcription factors (c-Jun, Fra-1, Jun-D, c-Fos, and Jun-B) after treating U251, A172 (IL-13Rα2 +ve) and T98G (IL-13Rα2 -ve) glioma cell lines with IL-13 by RT-qPCR, and immunocytochemistry (ICC). We also performed colorimetric ELISA based assay to determine AP-1 transcription factor activation in glioma cell lines. Furthermore, we examined the expression of AP-1 transcription factors in situ in GBM and astrocytoma specimens by multiplex-immunohistochemistry (IHC). Student t test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis of the results.
RESULTS: We have demonstrated up-regulation of two AP-1 transcription factors (c-Jun and Fra-1) at mRNA and protein levels upon treatment with IL-13 in IL-13Rα2 positive but not in IL-13Rα2 negative glioma cell lines. Both transcription factors were also overexpressed in patient derived GBM specimens, however, in contrast to GBM cell lines, c-Fos is also overexpressed in patient derived specimens. Astrocytoma specimens showed lesser extent of immunostaining for IL-13Rα2 and three AP-1 factors compared to GBM specimens. By transcription factor activation assay, we demonstrated that AP-1 transcription factors (C-Jun and Fra-1) were activated upon treatment of IL-13Rα2 + GBM cell lines but not IL-13Rα2 - GBM cell line with IL-13. Our results demonstrate functional activity of AP-1 transcription factor in GBM cell lines in response to IL-13.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that IL-13/IL-13Rα2 axis can mediate signal transduction in situ via AP-1 pathway in GBM and astrocytoma and may serve as a new target for GBM immunotherapy.

Hotfilder M, Mallela N, Seggewiß J, et al.
Defining a Characteristic Gene Expression Set Responsible for Cancer Stem Cell-Like Features in a Sub-Population of Ewing Sarcoma Cells CADO-ES1.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
One of the still open questions in Ewing sarcoma, a rare bone tumor with weak therapeutic options, is to identify the tumor-driving cell (sub) population and to understand the specifics in the biological network of these cells. This basic scientific insight might foster the development of more specific therapeutic target patterns. The experimental approach is based on a side population (SP) of Ewing cells, based on the model cell line CADO-ES1. The SP is established by flow cytometry and defined by the idea that tumor stem-like cells can be identified by the time-course in clearing a given artificial dye. The SP was characterized by a higher colony forming activity, by a higher differentiation potential, by higher resistance to cytotoxic drugs, and by morphology. Several SP and non-SP cell fractions and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell reference were analyzed by short read sequencing of the full transcriptome. The double-differential analysis leads to an altered expression structure of SP cells centered around the AP-1 and APC/c complex. The SP cells share only a limited proportion of the full mesenchymal stem cell stemness set of genes. This is in line with the expectation that tumor stem-like cells share only a limited subset of stemness features which are relevant for tumor survival.

Tian YS, Chen KC, Zulkefli ND, et al.
Evaluation of the Inhibitory Effects of Genipin on the Fluoxetine-Induced Invasive and Metastatic Model in Human HepG2 Cells.
Molecules. 2018; 23(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually unrecognized before any pathological examination, resulting in time-taking treatment and poor prognosis. As a consequence, HCC patients usually show symptoms of depression. In order to suppress such psychiatric disorders and to facilitate better treatment outcome, antidepressants are prescribed. Up to present, information about the effect of antidepressants on HCC is still lacking. Therefore, we chose fluoxetine (FXT), one of the top five psychiatric prescriptions in the United States, together with the HepG2 cell model to explore its effect on HCC. Our study found that FXT (5 µM) increased the migratory distance of HepG2 cells by a factor of nearly 1.7 compared to control. In addition, our study also investigated the effect of genipin (GNP), which is an active compound from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit (family Rubiaceae), on the FXT-induced HepG2 cells. Our study found that 30 and 60 µM GNP reduced the migratory distance by 42% and 74% respectively, compared to FXT treatment alone. Furthermore, we also found that FXT upregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) genes, increased the protein expression of MMPs, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB), activator protein 1 (AP-1), phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (P-p38), phosphorylated protein kinase B (P-Akt), downregulated tissue inhibitor metalloproteinases (TIMPs) genes and decreased the TIMPs proteins expression whereas, GNP fully counteracted the action of FXT. Conclusively, this study has provided valuable information regarding the possible molecular mechanisms through which FXT affects the metastatic invasiveness of HepG2 cells and evidences to support that GNP counteracts such effect via the same molecular mechanisms.

Yang JW, Murray B, Barbier-Torres L, et al.
The mitochondrial chaperone Prohibitin 1 negatively regulates interleukin-8 in human liver cancers.
J Biol Chem. 2019; 294(6):1984-1996 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
Prohibitin 1 (PHB1) is a mitochondrial chaperone whose expression is dysregulated in cancer. In liver cancer, PHB1 acts as a tumor suppressor, but the mechanisms of tumor suppression are incompletely understood. Here we aimed to determine PHB1 target genes to better understand how PHB1 influences liver tumorigenesis. Using RNA-Seq analysis, we found interleukin-8 (IL-8) to be one of the most highly up-regulated genes following PHB1 silencing in HepG2 cells. Induction of IL-8 expression also occurred in multiple liver and nonliver cancer cell lines. We examined samples from 178 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and found that

Hattori N, Niwa T, Ishida T, et al.
Antibiotics suppress colon tumorigenesis through inhibition of aberrant DNA methylation in an azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium colitis model.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(1):147-156 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
Chronic inflammation is involved in the development of colon cancer by inducing mutations and aberrant DNA methylation in colon epithelial cells. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that colonic microbiota modulates the inflammation response in the host and influences colon tumorigenesis. However, the influence of colonic microbiota on aberrant DNA methylation remains unknown. Here, we show the effect of colonic microbes on DNA methylation and tumorigenicity using a mouse model of human ulcerative colitis. Mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) showed an increase in degree of colitis, as estimated by body weight, occult blood, and stool consistency/diarrhea at 2 weeks after treatment, but treatment with antibiotics markedly reduced the severity of the colitis. Although mucosal hyperplasia and increased inflammation-related genes were observed in the colonic epithelial cells of the AOM/DSS-treated mice, treatment with antibiotics abrogated these changes. In addition, treatment with antibiotics significantly decreased the number of mucosal nodules from 5.9 ± 5.3 to 0.2 ± 0.6 (P < .01) and area of occupancy from 50.1 ± 57.4 to 0.5 ± 1.4 mm

Kumar S, Sharawat SK
Epigenetic regulators of programmed death-ligand 1 expression in human cancers.
Transl Res. 2018; 202:129-145 [PubMed] Related Publications
The programmed cell death protein 1-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis has been successfully targeted in clinics and the use of immune check-point inhibitors have shown durable antitumor response in untreated or heavily treated advanced stage cancer. PD-L1 upregulation has been found to correlate with poor prognosis in multiple cancer types and expression of PD-L1 in intratumoral compartment has been suggested to influence immune response and act as a key determinant of checkpoint immunotherapy efficacy. Hence it becomes critical to understand the regulation of PD-L1 expression in cancer. Role of oncogenic signaling pathways and transcription factors such as PI3K-AKT, MEK-ERK, JAK-STAT, MYC, HIF-1α, AP-1 and NF-κB is well established in inducing PD-L1 expression. Even the structural variations resulting in the truncation of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of PD-L1 has been shown to upregulate PD-L1 expression in multiple cancer types. Since microRNAs carry out post-transcriptional gene silencing by binding to the 3' UTR of its target messenger RNA, truncation of PD-L1 3' UTR can result in alleviation of PD-L1 suppression mediated by microRNA, leading to its overexpression. Other epigenetic modifications, such as promoter DNA methylation and histone modifications can also play crucial role in regulating PD-L1 expression. Here, we review recent findings and evidence on epigenetic mechanisms that regulate PD-L1 expression and the biological and clinical implications of such regulation in cancer.

Anderson WJ, Hornick JL
Immunohistochemical correlates of recurrent genetic alterations in sarcomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(2):111-123 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accurate diagnosis of sarcomas relies on the integration of clinical, histopathological and molecular features. Our understanding of the latter has increased dramatically in recent years with the application of high-throughput sequencing. Concomitantly, the role of immunohistochemistry has expanded as genomic alterations have been exploited by the development of diagnostic markers that serve as surrogates for their detection. Herein, we review selected immunohistochemical markers that can infer the presence of diverse molecular events. These include gene fusions in vascular neoplasms (FOSB, CAMTA1 and TFE3), round cell sarcomas (BCOR, DUX4 and WT1), and fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (STAT6, ALK and Pan-TRK); amplifications in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (MDM2 and CDK4); and deletions in several aggressive neoplasms (SMARCB1 and SMARCA4). Protein correlates of single nucleotide variants (beta-catenin in desmoid fibromatosis) and epigenetic alterations (histone H3K27me3 in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor) and markers discovered through gene expression profiling (NKX2.2 and MUC4) are also discussed.

Somasundaram S, Forrest ME, Moinova H, et al.
The DNMT1-associated lincRNA DACOR1 reprograms genome-wide DNA methylation in colon cancer.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):127 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark in mammalian organisms that plays key roles in chromatin organization and gene expression. Although DNA methylation in gene promoters is generally associated with gene repression, recent studies demonstrate that DNA methylation in gene bodies and intergenic regions of the genome may result in distinct modes of gene regulation. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation in human health and disease remain to be fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated that a subset of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associates with the major DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 in human colon cancer cells, and the dysregulation of such lncRNAs contribute to aberrant DNA methylation patterns.
RESULTS: In the current study, we assessed the impact of a key DNMT1-associated lncRNA, DACOR1, on genome-wide DNA methylation using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS). Our findings demonstrated that induction of DACOR1 in colon cancer cells restores DNA methylation at thousands of CpG sites throughout the genome including promoters, gene bodies, and intergenic regions. Importantly, these sites overlap with regions of the genome that become hypomethylated in colon tumors. Furthermore, induction of DACOR1 results in repression of FOS and JUN and, consequently, reduced AP-1 transcription factor activity.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results demonstrate a key role of lncRNAs in regulating DNA methylation in human cells, and the dysregulation of such lncRNAs could emerge as a key mechanism by which DNA methylation patterns become altered in human tumors.

Godbole M, Togar T, Patel K, et al.
Up-regulation of the kinase gene
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(50):19263-19276 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
Preoperative progesterone intervention has been shown to confer a survival benefit to breast cancer patients independently of their progesterone receptor (PR) status. This observation raises the question how progesterone affects the outcome of PR-negative cancer. Here, using microarray and RNA-Seq-based gene expression profiling and ChIP-Seq analyses of breast cancer cells, we observed that the serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase gene (

Martinez-Soria N, McKenzie L, Draper J, et al.
The Oncogenic Transcription Factor RUNX1/ETO Corrupts Cell Cycle Regulation to Drive Leukemic Transformation.
Cancer Cell. 2018; 34(4):626-642.e8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
Oncogenic transcription factors such as the leukemic fusion protein RUNX1/ETO, which drives t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), constitute cancer-specific but highly challenging therapeutic targets. We used epigenomic profiling data for an RNAi screen to interrogate the transcriptional network maintaining t(8;21) AML. This strategy identified Cyclin D2 (CCND2) as a crucial transmitter of RUNX1/ETO-driven leukemic propagation. RUNX1/ETO cooperates with AP-1 to drive CCND2 expression. Knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of CCND2 by an approved drug significantly impairs leukemic expansion of patient-derived AML cells and engraftment in immunodeficient murine hosts. Our data demonstrate that RUNX1/ETO maintains leukemia by promoting cell cycle progression and identifies G1 CCND-CDK complexes as promising therapeutic targets for treatment of RUNX1/ETO-driven AML.

Wang Q, Shen Y, Ye B, et al.
Gene expression differences between thyroid carcinoma, thyroid adenoma and normal thyroid tissue.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3359-3369 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
To identify differences in gene expression profiles of infected cells between thyroid carcinoma (C), thyroid adenoma (A) and normal thyroid (N) epithelial cells, differentially expressed genes were identified using three pairwise comparisons with the GEO2R online tool. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were used to classify them at the functional level. The most significant cluster in the N vs. A pairwise comparison had four hub genes: Insulin-like growth factor 2, Von Willebrand factor (VWF), multimerin 1 (MMRN1) and complement factor D (CFD). In N vs. C, the most significant cluster had 19 genes: IGF2, early growth response 2, transcription factor 3, KIT proto‑oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase, SMAD family member 9, MLLT3 super elongation complex subunit, runt related transcription factor 1, CFD, actinin α 1, SWI/SNF related matrix associated actin dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily a member 4, JunD proto‑oncogene AP‑1 transcription factor subunit, serum response factor (SRF), FosB proto‑oncogene, AP‑1 transcription factor subunit, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), SRC proto‑oncogene, non‑receptor tyrosine kinase, MMRN1, SRY‑box 9, early growth response 3 and ETS variant 4. In A vs. C, the most significant cluster had 14 genes: BCL2-like 1, galectin 3, MCL1 BCL2 family apoptosis regulator, DNA damage inducible transcript 3, BCL2 apoptosis regulator, CTGF, matrix metallopeptidase 7, early growth response 1, kinase insert domain receptor, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1, apolipoprotein E, VWF, cyclin D1 and placental growth factor. Histological evidence was presented to confirm the makeup of the hubs prior to logistic regression analysis to differentiate benign and malignant neoplasms. The results of the present study may aid in the search for novel potential biomarkers for the differential diagnosis, prognosis and development of drug targets of thyroid neoplasm.

Jayasooriya RGPT, Dilshara MG, Karunarathne WAHM, et al.
Camptothecin enhances c-Myc-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and leads to autophagy by activating Ca
Food Chem Toxicol. 2018; 121:648-656 [PubMed] Related Publications
Camptothecin (CPT) from Camptotheca acuminate was discovered for anticancer drugs, which targets topoisomease I. However, whether CPT regulates c-Myc expression has not been understood in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. In this study, we found that CPT enhanced c-Myc expression and that the transient knockdown of c-Myc abrogated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which resulted in the accumulation of ER stress-regulating proteins, such as PERK, eIF2α, ATF4, and CHOP. Moreover, the transfection of eIF2α-targeted siRNA attenuated CPT-induced autophagy and decreased the levels of Beclin-1 and Atg7, which indicated that CPT upregulated ER stress-mediated autophagy. In addition, CPT phosphorylated AMPK in response to intracellular Ca

Liu S, Yao X, Zhang D, et al.
Analysis of Transcription Factor-Related Regulatory Networks Based on Bioinformatics Analysis and Validation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:1431396 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for a significant proportion of liver cancer, which has become the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. To investigate the potential mechanisms of invasion and progression of HCC, bioinformatics analysis and validation by qRT-PCR were performed. We found 237 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including EGR1, FOS, and FOSB, which were three cancer-related transcription factors. Subsequently, we constructed TF-gene network and miRNA-TF-mRNA network based on data obtained from mRNA and miRNA expression profiles for analysis of HCC. We found that 42 key genes from the TF-gene network including EGR1, FOS, and FOSB were most enriched in the p53 signaling pathway. The qRT-PCR data confirmed that mRNA levels of EGR1, FOS, and FOSB all were decreased in HCC tissues. In addition, we confirmed that the mRNA levels of CCNB1, CCNB2, and CHEK1, three key markers of the p53 signaling pathway, were all increased in HCC tissues by bioinformatics analysis and qRT-PCR validation. Therefore, we speculated that miR-181a-5p, which was upregulated in HCC tissues, could regulate FOS and EGR1 to promote the invasion and progression of HCC by p53 signaling pathway. Overall, the study provides support for the possible mechanisms of progression in HCC.

Gill MK, Christova T, Zhang YY, et al.
A feed forward loop enforces YAP/TAZ signaling during tumorigenesis.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3510 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
In most solid tumors, the Hippo pathway is inactivated through poorly understood mechanisms that result in the activation of the transcriptional regulators, YAP and TAZ. Here, we identify NUAK2 as a YAP/TAZ activator that directly inhibits LATS-mediated phosphorylation of YAP/TAZ and show that NUAK2 induction by YAP/TAZ and AP-1 is required for robust YAP/TAZ signaling. Pharmacological inhibition or loss of NUAK2 reduces the growth of cultured cancer cells and mammary tumors in mice. Moreover, in human patient samples, we show that NUAK2 expression is elevated in aggressive, high-grade bladder cancer and strongly correlates with a YAP/TAZ gene signature. These findings identify a positive feed forward loop in the Hippo pathway that establishes a key role for NUAK2 in enforcing the tumor-promoting activities of YAP/TAZ. Our results thus introduce a new opportunity for cancer therapeutics by delineating NUAK2 as a potential target for re-engaging the Hippo pathway.

Rohini M, Haritha Menon A, Selvamurugan N
Role of activating transcription factor 3 and its interacting proteins under physiological and pathological conditions.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 120(Pt A):310-317 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-responsive factor that belongs to the activator protein 1 (AP-1) family of transcription factors. ATF3 expression is stimulated by various factors such as hypoxia, cytokines, and chemotherapeutic and DNA damaging agents. Upon stimulation, ATF3 can form homodimers or heterodimers with other members of the AP-1 family to repress or activate transcription. Under physiological conditions, ATF3 expression is transient and plays a pivotal role in controlling the expression of cell-cycle regulators and tumor suppressor, DNA repair, and apoptosis genes. However, under pathological conditions such as those during breast cancer, a sustained and prolonged expression of ATF3 has been observed. In this review, the structure and function of ATF3, its posttranslational modifications (PTM), and its interacting proteins are discussed with a special emphasis on breast cancer metastasis.

Kim SJ, Pham TH, Bak Y, et al.
7-Methoxy-luteolin-8-C-β-6-deoxy-xylo-pyranos-3-uloside exactly (mLU8C-PU) isolated from Arthraxon hispidus inhibits migratory and invasive responses mediated via downregulation of MMP-9 and IL-8 expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Environ Toxicol. 2018; 33(11):1143-1152 [PubMed] Related Publications
7-Methoxy-luteolin-8-C-β-6-deoxy-xylo-pyranos-3-uloside (mLU8C-PU) is a glycosylflavone of luteolin isolated from Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.). Luteolin is known to exert anti-migratory and anti-invasive effects on tumor cells. However, there are no reports on the effects of mLU8C-PU on tumor invasiveness and associated signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-migratory and anti-invasive effects of mLU8C-PU in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We also investigated the effect of mLU8C-PU on invasion- related signal transducers, including protein kinase Cα (PKCα), c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB). TPA-induced membrane translocation of PKCα, phosphorylation of JNK, and the nuclear translocations of AP-1 and NF-κB were downregulated by mLU8C-PU in MCF-7 cells. In addition, mLU8C-PU also inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression. These results indicate that mLU8C-PU inhibits migratory and invasive responses in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by suppressing MMP-9 and IL-8 expression through mitigating TPA-induced PKCα, JNK activation, and the nuclear translocation of AP-1 and NF-κB. These results suggest that mLU8C-PU may be used as an anti-metastatic agent.

Zhu M, Huang C, Ma X, et al.
Phthalates promote prostate cancer cell proliferation through activation of ERK5 and p38.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018; 63:29-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in man. Studies have shown that phthalates may act as promoters in various types of cancer; however, the role of phthalates in prostate cancer has been rarely reported. The MAPK/AP-1 pathway is a vital regulator of cell proliferation in cancer. In this report we found that three typical phthalates, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), up-regulated cyclinD1 and PCNA, down-regulated P21, inducing proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, we found that phthalates increased the expression of p-ERK5 and p-p38, along with upregulation of AP-1 (p-c-fos and p-c-jun). In studies with ERK5 and a p38 inhibitor, our data showed that downregulation of p-ERK5 or p38 inhibited phthalate-triggered cell proliferation. Taken together, findings from this study suggest that phthalates activate MAPK/AP-1 pathway and may potentially promote cell proliferation in prostate cancer, thus providing new insight into the effects and the underlying mechanism of phthalates on prostate cancer.

Zhao P, Wang S, Jiang J, et al.
TIPE2 sensitizes osteosarcoma cells to cis-platin by down-regulating MDR1 via the TAK1- NF-κB and - AP-1 pathways.
Mol Immunol. 2018; 101:471-478 [PubMed] Related Publications
TIPE2 participates in multiple types of cancer development. However, its mechanism underlying chemoresistance in osteosarcoma has not been elucidated. Herein, we observed the expression of TIPE2 and MDR1 in cis-platin-resistant osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Compared to their matched sensitive cell lines and tissues, TIPE2 was downregulated while MDR1 expression was increased. Further investigation showed that overexpression of TIPE2 effectively inhibited MDR1 expression and greatly sensitized osteosarcoma cells to cis-platin, both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, TIPE2 inhibited the transcription of the MDR1 promoter by interfering with the TAK1-NF-κB and -AP-1 pathways. Overall, our results elucidated for the first time that TIPE2 sensitizes osteosarcoma cells to cis-platin through downregulation of MDR1 and may be a novel target in osteosarcoma therapy.

Senapati P, Dey S, Sudarshan D, et al.
Oncogene c-fos and mutant R175H p53 regulate expression of Nucleophosmin implicating cancer manifestation.
FEBS J. 2018; 285(18):3503-3524 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a nucleolar protein that is frequently overexpressed in various types of solid tumors. NPM1 is involved in several cellular processes that might contribute significantly to the increased proliferation potential of cancers. Previous reports suggest that NPM1 expression is highly increased in response to mitogenic and oncogenic signals, the mechanisms of which have not been elucidated extensively. Using constructs incorporating different fragments of the NPM1 promoter upstream to a Luciferase reporter gene, we have identified the minimal promoter of NPM1 and candidate transcription factors regulating NPM1 promoter activity by luciferase reporter assays. We have validated the roles of a few candidate factors at the transcriptional and protein level by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, and explored the mechanism of regulation of NPM1 expression using immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. We show here that the expression of NPM1 is regulated by transcription factor c-fos, a protein that is strongly activated by growth factor signals. In addition, mutant p53 (R175H) overexpression also enhances NPM1 expression possibly through c-myc and c-fos. Moreover, both c-fos and mutant p53 are overexpressed in oral tumor tissues that showed NPM1 overexpression. Collectively, our results suggest that c-fos and mutant p53 R175H positively regulate NPM1 expression, possibly in synergism, that might lead to oncogenic manifestation.

Chen B, Li Z, Feng Y, et al.
Myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) mediates doxorubicin-induced PERP transcription in colon cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(3):1732-1739 [PubMed] Related Publications
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a cytotoxic compound capable of instigating apoptosis in cancer cells. TP53 apoptosis effector (PERP) is a key mediator of apoptosis in multiple cell types. PERP transcription is activated by a range of pro-apoptotic stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of DOX-induced PERP transcription in colon cancer cells (SW480) by the transcriptional modulator myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A). We report that DOX treatment up-regulated MRTF-A expression paralleling PERP activation. DOX also promoted nuclear translocation of MRTF-A. On the contrary, MRTF-A depletion or inhibition attenuated DOX-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the MTT assay and caspase 3 cleavage. In accordance, MRTF-A depletion or inhibition dampened PERP transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that DOX treatment promoted the binding of MRTF-A on the PERP promoter. Mechanistically, MRTF-A was recruited to the PERP promoter by activator protein 1 (AP-1). AP-1 interacted and cooperated with MRTF-A to activate PERP transcription. AP-1 silencing weakened PERP trans-activation by DOX presumably by compromising MRTF-A recruitment to the PERP promoter. In conclusion, our data suggest that MRTF-A might be a key regulator of DOX-induced PERP transcription in colon cancer cells.

Lin JH, Tu SH, Chen LC, et al.
Oestrogen receptor-regulated glutathione S-transferase mu 3 expression attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, which confers tamoxifen resistance on breast cancer cells.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 172(1):45-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Glutathione S-transferase mu 3 (GSTM3) is an enzyme involving in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds by conjugation with glutathione. Higher GSTM3 mRNA levels were reported in patients with ERα-positive breast cancer who received only tamoxifen therapy after surgery. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the oncogenic characteristics of GSTM3 in breast cancer and the mechanism of tamoxifen resistance.
METHODS: GSTM3 expression in human breast tumour tissues (n = 227) was analysed by RT-PCR and quantitative PCR. Western blot, promoter activity assays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to investigate the mechanism of GSTM3 gene regulation. Hydrogen peroxide (H
RESULTS: GSTM3 mRNA was highly expressed in ER- and HER2-positive breast cancers. Moreover, patients who received adjuvant Herceptin had increased GSTM3 mRNA levels in tumour tissue. Oestrogen-activated GSTM3 gene expression through ERα-mediated recruitment of SP1, EP300, and AP-1 complexes. GSTM3-silenced MCF-7 cells were more sensitive to H
CONCLUSIONS: ROS production is one mechanism by which cancer drugs kill tumour cells, and according to our evidence, GSTM3 may play an important role in preventing breast cancer treatment-induced cellular cytotoxicity.

Jung Y, Ahn SH, Park H, et al.
MCP-1 and MIP-3α Secreted from Necrotic Cell-Treated Glioblastoma Cells Promote Migration/Infiltration of Microglia.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(3):1332-1346 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The defining characteristics of GBM are diffuse infiltration of tumor cells into normal brain parenchyma, rapid growth, a high degree of infiltration of microglia and macrophages, and the presence of necrosis. Microglia/macrophages are frequently found in gliomas and they extensively infiltrate GBM tissue, up to 30% of total tumor mass. However, little is known about the effect of necrotic cells (NCs) on microglia infiltration in GBM and the tumor-infiltrating microglia-induced factors in GBMs.
METHODS: In this study, to address whether necrosis or necrosis-exposed GBM cells affect the degree of microglia/macrophage infiltration, migration and invasion/infiltration assays were performed. Culture supernatants and nuclear extracts of CRT-MG cells treated or untreated with necrotic cells were analyzed using a chemokine array and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively.
RESULTS: The presence of NCs promoted the migration/infiltration of microglia, and GBM cell line CRT-MG cells exposed to NCs further enhanced the migration and infiltration of HMO6 microglial cells. Treatment with NCs induced mRNA and protein expression of chemokines such as Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3α (CCL20/MIP-3α) in CRT-MG cells. In particular, CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α were significantly increased in NC-treated CRT-MG cells. NCs induced DNA binding of the transcription factors Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB and Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) to the CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α promoters, leading to increased CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α mRNA and protein expression in CRT-MG cells.
CONCLUSION: These results provide evidence that NCs induce the expression of CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3α in glioblastoma cells through activation of NF-κB and AP-1 and facilitate the infiltration of microglia into tumor tissues.

Lee M, Kim KS, Fukushi A, et al.
Transcriptional Activation of Human GD3 Synthase (hST8Sia I) Gene in Curcumin-Induced Autophagy in A549 Human Lung Carcinoma Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound isolated from the plant

Mazzio EA, Lewis CA, Elhag R, Soliman KF
Effects of Sepantronium Bromide (YM-155) on the Whole Transcriptome of MDA-MB-231 Cells: Highlight on Impaired ATR/ATM Fanconi Anemia DNA Damage Response.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2018 Jul-Aug; 15(4):249-264 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
Sepantronium bromide (YM-155) is believed to elicit apoptosis and mitotic arrest in tumor cells by reducing (BIRC5, survivin) mRNA. In this study, we monitored changes in survivin mRNA and protein after treating MDA-MB-231 cells with YM-155 concurrent with evaluation of whole transcriptomic (WT) mRNA and long intergenic non-coding RNA at 2 time points: 8 h sub-lethal (83 ng/mL) and 20 h at the LC

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