Gene Summary

Gene:FBXO11; F-box protein 11
Aliases: UBR6, VIT1, FBX11, PRMT9, IDDFBA, UG063H01
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbxs class. It can function as an arginine methyltransferase that symmetrically dimethylates arginine residues, and it acts as an adaptor protein to mediate the neddylation of p53, which leads to the suppression of p53 function. This gene is known to be down-regulated in melanocytes from patients with vitiligo, a skin disorder that results in depigmentation. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with chronic otitis media with effusion and recurrent otitis media (COME/ROM), a hearing loss disorder, and the knockout of the homologous mouse gene results in the deaf mouse mutant Jeff (Jf), a single gene model of otitis media. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:F-box only protein 11
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (13)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cell Survival
  • GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Xenograft Models
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Gene Deletion
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Transcription Factors
  • Mutation
  • Splenic Neoplasms
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Proliferation
  • MALT Lymphoma
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Histones
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • MIRN621 microRNA, human
  • MicroRNAs
  • Chromosome 2
  • Whole Genome Sequencing
  • Melanoma
  • Up-Regulation
  • p53 Protein
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Signal Transduction
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Epigenetics
  • MIRN421 microRNA, human
  • Breast Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • FBXO11
  • Ubiquitination
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Young Adult
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • F-Box Proteins
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FBXO11 (cancer-related)

Tu C, Zeng Z, Qi P, et al.
Identification of genomic alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived Epstein-Barr virus by whole-genome sequencing.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(12):1517-1528 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common tumor in southern China with marked ethnic and geographic distributions and concomitant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. However, the molecular basis of NPC remains largely unknown, and the role of EBV genomic variations in the pathogenesis of NPC is unclear. Whole-genome sequencing of a collection of 12 EBV-positive paired NPC tumor/peripheral blood samples from Hunan Province was performed, and the FBXO11 gene was subjected to further functional analyses. We identified 69 missense mutations in signaling pathways typically altered in cancer, including NF-κB and Wnt/Hedgehog/Notch. Additionally, 122 variations were identified in non-coding regions. Among these, a subset of genes was confirmed as dysregulated in NPC by mining the NPC cDNA microarray database. The randomly selected gene, FBXO11, could promote the malignant progression of NPC in vitro. Full-length EBV genomes from 8 of the 12 patients with NPC were also successfully assembled, and latent EBV infection is a primary cause of NPC. The various subtypes of EBV detected exhibited clear correlations with its geographical distribution. This study has explored novel biological markers and tumorigenic pathways with substantial potential to enhance therapeutic strategies for NPC.

Kim YJ, Hwang KC, Kim SW, Lee YC
Potential miRNA-target interactions for the screening of gastric carcinoma development in gastric adenoma/dysplasia.
Int J Med Sci. 2018; 15(6):610-616 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although miRNA markers have been identified for the pathological development of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC), the underlying molecule mechanism are still not fully understood. Moreover, some gastric adenoma/dysplasia may progress to GAC. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles in normal and paired low-/high-grade dysplasia were analyzed using Affymetrix Gene-Chip miRNA arrays. Of the total 2578 mature miRNA probe sets, ~1600 showed positive signals when the between normal and paired low-/high-grade dysplasia were compared. To verify the miRNA expression, qRT-PCR analysis was performed to quantify the expression of altered miRNAs between normal and paired low-/high-grade dysplasia. The analysis revealed that hsa-miR-421, hsa-miR-29b-1-5p, and hsa-miR-27b-5p were overexpressed in gastric low-/high-grade dysplasia and that based on these miRNA-target interactions, FBXO11 and CREBZF could be considered convincing markers for gastric cancer (GC) progression. Thus, we identified three miRNAs (hsa-miR-421, hsa-miR-29b-1-5p, and hsa-miR-27b-5p) with two mRNAs (FBXO11 and CREBZF) that might play an important role in the GC development from premalignant adenomas. Furthermore, these two target mRNAs and three miRNAs were predicted to be potential biomarkers for the progression of GC by miRNA-target interaction analysis.

Jiang H, Zhou Z, Jin S, et al.
PRMT9 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma invasion and metastasis via activating PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(5):1414-1427 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT) catalyze protein arginine methylation and play an important role in many biological processes. Aberrant PRMT expression in tumor cells has been documented in several common cancer types; however, its precise contribution to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell invasion and metastasis is not fully understood. In this study, we identified a new oncogene, PRMT9, whose overexpression strongly promotes HCC invasion and metastasis. PRMT9 expression was detected more frequently in HCC tissues than in adjacent noncancerous tissues. PRMT9 overexpression was significantly correlated with hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) status, vascular invasion, poor tumor differentiation and advanced TNM stage. Patients with higher PRMT9 expression had a shorter survival time and higher recurrence rate. PRMT9 expression was an independent and significant risk factor for survival after curative resection. Functional studies demonstrated that PRMT9 increased HCC cell invasion and lung metastasis. Knocking down PRMT9 with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibited HCC cell invasion. Further investigations found that PRMT9 increased cell migration and invasion through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by regulating Snail expression via activation of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling pathway. In clinical HCC samples, PRMT9 expression was positively associated with Snail expression and was negatively associated with E-cadherin expression. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that PRMT9 is an oncogene that plays an important role in HCC invasion and metastasis through EMT by regulating Snail expression via activation of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling pathway. Thus, PRMT9 may serve as a candidate prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target.

Ma Y, Deng F, Li P, et al.
The tumor suppressive miR-26a regulation of FBXO11 inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 101:648-655 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating researches identify microRNA-26a (miR-26a) as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). F-box protein 11 (FBXO11), a predicted target gene of miR-26a, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a type II methyltransferase, and functions as a key regulator of tumor initiation and progression. This study was aimed to investigate the regulatory role of miR-26a in FBXO11 expression and explored the clinical significance as well as functional role of FBXO11 in HCC. The expression levels of miR-26a were prominently downregulated in HCC tissues compared to matched tumor-adjacent tissues. MiR-26a inversely regulated FBXO11 abundance in HCC cells. Hereby, miR-26a could directly target 3'UTR of FBXO11 mRNA to suppress its expression. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (GSE54236 and GSE45436) and our data demonstrated that the expression of FBXO11 was up-regulated in HCC tissues. The level of FBXO11 mRNA was inversely correlated with miR-26a expression in HCC specimens. High FBXO11 expression was positively correlated with large tumor size, venous infiltration and advanced tumor stage of HCC patients. Clinical prognostic analysis illustrated that high FBXO11 expression predicted a poor survival of HCC patients. In vitro, FBXO11 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of HCC cells. Additionally, miR-26a overexpression showed a consistent effect with FBXO11 knockdown on these malignant behaviors of HCC cells. Notably, FBXO11 restoration reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-26a on HCC cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion. In summary, these results indicated that miR-26a regulation of FBXO11 exhibited an oncogenic role in HCC. Inhibition of FBXO11 might serve as a therapeutic target for HCC.

Sun C, Tao Y, Gao Y, et al.
F-box protein 11 promotes the growth and metastasis of gastric cancer via PI3K/AKT pathway-mediated EMT.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 98:416-423 [PubMed] Related Publications
F-box protein 11 (FBXO11) has both the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and the methyltrasferase activity, and regulates metastasis, apoptosis and chemosensitivity in human cancer. However, the clinical significance and biological function of FBXO11 in gastric cancer (GC) are rarely known. Here, we demonstrated up-regulated expression of FBXO11 in GC tissues in comparison with that in tumor-adjacent tissues. Clinical analysis based on our specimens and the TCGA database revealed that FBXO11 overexpression was associated with large tumor size, lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage. Notably, GC patients with high FBXO11 expression showed a significant shorter overall survival. Cell proliferation and mobility were measured by CCK-8 and Transwell assays. FBXO11 silencing by transfection with two specific shRNAs attenuated proliferation, migration and invasion of MGC-803 cells. In accordance, FBXO11 overexpression promoted these cellular processes in SGC-7901 cells. Mechanistically, FBXO11 obviously facilitated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process as suggested by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence data. Moreover, we found that FBXO11 promoted the activation of AKT pathway with increased phosphorylated AKT level in SGC-7901 cells. LY294002 and Wortmannin, phosphotidylinsitol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, blocked FBXO11 induced EMT, proliferation, migration and invasion of SGC-7901 cells. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which played a crucial role in regulating PI3K/AKT pathway, was negatively modulated by FBXO11 in GC cells. Taken together, our findings contribute to current understanding of the functions of FBXO11 and suggest a mechanism by which FBXO11 plays an oncogenic role in the development of GC possibly by inhibiting PTEN and subsequently promoting PI3K/AKT pathway activation.

Salo-Mullen EE, Lynn PB, Wang L, et al.
Contiguous gene deletion of chromosome 2p16.3-p21 as a cause of Lynch syndrome.
Fam Cancer. 2018; 17(1):71-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition caused by pathogenic mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Although commonly associated with clinical features such as intellectual disability and congenital anomalies, contiguous gene deletions may also result in cancer predisposition syndromes. We report on a 52-year-old male with Lynch syndrome caused by deletion of chromosome 2p16.3-p21. The patient had intellectual disability and presented with a prostatic adenocarcinoma with an incidentally identified synchronous sigmoid adenocarcinoma that exhibited deficient MMR with an absence of MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression. Family history was unrevealing. Physical exam revealed short stature, brachycephaly with a narrow forehead and short philtrum, brachydactyly of the hands, palmar transverse crease, broad and small feet with hyperpigmentation of the soles. The patient underwent total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis for a pT3N1 sigmoid adenocarcinoma. Germline genetic testing of the MSH2, MSH6, and EPCAM genes revealed full gene deletions. SNP-array based DNA copy number analysis identified a deletion of 4.8 Mb at 2p16.3-p21. In addition to the three Lynch syndrome associated genes, the deleted chromosomal section encompassed genes including NRXN1, CRIPT, CALM2, FBXO11, LHCGR, MCFD2, TTC7A, EPAS1, PRKCE, and 15 others. Contiguous gene deletions have been described in other inherited cancer predisposition syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis. Our report and review of the literature suggests that contiguous gene deletion within the 2p16-p21 chromosomal region is a rare cause of Lynch syndrome, but presents with distinct phenotypic features, highlighting the need for recognition and awareness of this syndromic entity.

Ngollo M, Lebert A, Daures M, et al.
Global analysis of H3K27me3 as an epigenetic marker in prostate cancer progression.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):261 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: H3K27me3 histone marks shape the inhibition of gene transcription. In prostate cancer, the deregulation of H3K27me3 marks might play a role in prostate tumor progression.
METHODS: We investigated genome-wide H3K27me3 histone methylation profile using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and 2X400K promoter microarrays to identify differentially-enriched regions in biopsy samples from prostate cancer patients. H3K27me3 marks were assessed in 34 prostate tumors: 11 with Gleason score > 7 (GS > 7), 10 with Gleason score ≤ 7 (GS ≤ 7), and 13 morphologically normal prostate samples.
RESULTS: Here, H3K27me3 profiling identified an average of 386 enriched-genes on promoter regions in healthy control group versus 545 genes in GS ≤ 7 and 748 genes in GS > 7 group. We then ran a factorial discriminant analysis (FDA) and compared the enriched genes in prostate-tumor biopsies and normal biopsies using ANOVA to identify significantly differentially-enriched genes. The analysis identified ALG5, EXOSC8, CBX1, GRID2, GRIN3B, ING3, MYO1D, NPHP3-AS1, MSH6, FBXO11, SND1, SPATS2, TENM4 and TRA2A genes. These genes are possibly associated with prostate cancer. Notably, the H3K27me3 histone mark emerged as a novel regulatory mechanism in poor-prognosis prostate cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point to epigenetic mark H3K27me3 as an important event in prostate carcinogenesis and progression. The results reported here provide new molecular insights into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer.

Nagel S, Pommerenke C, Meyer C, et al.
Identification of a tumor suppressor network in T-cell leukemia.
[PubMed] Related Publications
To identify novel cancer-related genes targeted by copy number alterations, we performed genomic profiling of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines. In 3/8, we identified a shared deletion at chromosomal position 2p16.3-p21. Within the minimally deleted region, we recognized several candidate tumor suppressor (TS) genes, including FBXO11 and FOXN2. An additional deletion at chromosome 14q23.2-q32.11 included FOXN3, highlighting this class of FOX genes as potential TS. Quantitative expression analyses of FBXO11, FOXN2, and FOXN3 confirmed reduced transcript levels in the identified cell lines. Moreover, reduced expression of these genes was also observed in about 7% of T-ALL patients, showing their clinical relevance in this malignancy. Bioinformatic analyses revealed concurrent reduction of FOXN2 and/or FOXN3 together with homeobox gene ZHX1. Consistently, experiments demonstrated that both FOXN2 and FOXN3 directly activated transcription of ZHX1. Taken together, we identified novel TS genes forming a regulatory network in T-cell development and leukemogenesis.

Zhang H, Guo X, Feng X, et al.
MiRNA-543 promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation and glycolysis by partially suppressing PRMT9 and stabilizing HIF-1α protein.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(2):2342-2355 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor, occurring frequently in adolescents and possessing a high malignant severity. MicroRNAs play critical roles during OS development. Thus, elucidation of the involvement of specific microRNAs in the development of OS may provide novel therapeutic targets for OS treatment. Here, we showed that in the OS specimens from patients, the levels of miR-543 were significantly increased whereas the levels of PRMT9 were significantly decreased, compared to the paired normal bone tissue. Moreover, miR-543 and PRMT9 inversely correlated in the OS cell lines. Bioinformatics analyses predicted that miR-543 may target the 3'-UTR of PRMT9 mRNA to inhibit its translation, which was confirmed by luciferase-reporter assay. MiR-543 promoted OS cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-543 inhibited PRMT9-enhanced cell oxidative phosphorylation, while miR-543 depletion promoted PRMT9-increased HIF-1α instability and inhibited glycolysis in OS cells. Clinically, miR-543 expression was negatively correlated with PRMT9 expression in OS tissues. Together, our data provide important evidence for glycolysis in OS development, and suggest that targeting glycolytic pathway through miR-543/PRMT9/HIF-1α axis may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to eradicate OS cells.

Zhu S, Xu Y, Song M, et al.
PRDM16 is associated with evasion of apoptosis by prostatic cancer cells according to RNA interference screening.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(4):3357-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone methylation, which is regulated by histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and histone demethylases (HDMs), has been indicated to be involved in a variety of diseases, particularly in cancer, including androgen‑independent prostate cancer (PCa). However, the functions of HMTs and HDTs in cancer have largely remained elusive. The present study, utilized an RNA interference screening using a lentiviral small hairpin (sh)RNA library to systematically elucidate the function of HMTs and HDTs in PCa cell growth and viability. Nine HMTs and HDTs, namely FBXO11, PRDM10, JMJD8, MLL, SETD4, JMJD7, PRMT2, MEN1 and PRDM16, were identified to affect DU145 cell viability, as indicated by an MTS assay subsequent to knockdown of the specific genes using shRNA pools. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis of apoptosis‑associated proteins indicated that PRDM16 has an anti‑apoptotic role in PCa cells. In addition, the spliced form, sPRDM16/MEL1S, was detected to be overexpressed in PCa cell lines. In conclusion, the present study indicated an important oncogenic role of sPRDM16/MEL1S in PCa and suggested that PRDM16 may represent a novel therapeutic target.

Díaz VM, de Herreros AG
F-box proteins: Keeping the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in check.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2016; 36:71-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
F-box proteins are the key recognition subunit of multimeric E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes that participate in the proteasome degradation of specific substrates. In the last years, a discrete number of F-box proteins have been shown to regulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process defined by a rapid change of cell phenotype, the loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a more invasive phenotype. Specific EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs), such as Snail, Slug, Twist and Zeb, control EMT induction both during development and in cancer. These EMT-TFs are short-lived proteins that are targeted to the proteasome system by specific F-box proteins, keeping them at low levels. F-box proteins also indirectly regulate the EMT process by controlling EMT inducers, such as Notch, c-Myc or mTOR. Here we summarize the role that these F-box proteins (Fbxw1, Fbxw7, Fbxl14, Fbxl5, Fbxo11 and Fbxo45) play in controlling EMT during development and cancer progression, a process dependent on post-translational modifications that govern their interaction with target proteins.

Melnik BC
MiR-21: an environmental driver of malignant melanoma?
J Transl Med. 2015; 13:202 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Since the mid-1950's, melanoma incidence has been rising steadily in industrialized Caucasian populations, thereby pointing to the pivotal involvement of environmental factors in melanomagenesis. Recent evidence underlines the crucial role of microRNA (miR) signaling in cancer initiation and progression. Increased miR-21 expression has been observed during the transition from a benign melanocytic lesion to malignant melanoma, exhibiting highest expression of miR-21. Notably, common BRAF and NRAS mutations in cutaneous melanoma are associated with increased miR-21 expression. MiR-21 is an oncomiR that affects critical target genes of malignant melanoma, resulting in sustained proliferation (PTEN, PI3K, Sprouty, PDCD4, FOXO1, TIPE2, p53, cyclin D1), evasion from apoptosis (FOXO1, FBXO11, APAF1, TIMP3, TIPE2), genetic instability (MSH2, FBXO11, hTERT), increased oxidative stress (FOXO1), angiogenesis (PTEN, HIF1α, TIMP3), invasion and metastasis (APAF1, PTEN, PDCD4, TIMP3). The purpose of this review is to provide translational evidence for major environmental and individual factors that increase the risk of melanoma, such as UV irradiation, chemical noxes, air pollution, smoking, chronic inflammation, Western nutrition, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and higher age, which are associated with increased miR-21 signaling. Exosomal miR-21 induced by extrinsic and intrinsic stimuli may be superimposed on mutation-induced miR-21 pathways of melanoma cells. Thus, oncogenic miR-21 signaling may be the converging point of intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli driving melanomagenesis. Future strategies of melanoma treatment and prevention should thus aim at reducing the burden of miR-21 signal transduction.

Pfeffer SR, Yang CH, Pfeffer LM
The Role of miR-21 in Cancer.
Drug Dev Res. 2015; 76(6):270-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous noncoding RNAs that suppress gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In the past decade, miRNAs have been extensively studied in a number of different human cancers. MiRNAs have been identified to act both as oncogenes and as tumor suppressors. In addition, miRNAs are associated with the intrinsic resistance of cancer to various forms of therapy, and they are implicated in both tumor progression and metastasis. The characterization of the specific alterations in the patterns of miRNA expression in cancer has great potential for identifying biomarkers for early cancer detection, as well as for potential therapeutic intervention in cancer treatment. In this chapter, we describe the ever-expanding role of miR-21 and its target genes in different cancers, and provide insight into how this oncogenic miRNA regulates cancer cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis by suppressing the expression of tumor suppressors.

Xue J, Chi Y, Chen Y, et al.
MiRNA-621 sensitizes breast cancer to chemotherapy by suppressing FBXO11 and enhancing p53 activity.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(4):448-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to have critical roles in regulating cancer cell proliferation, survival and sensitivity to chemotherapy. The potential application of using miRNAs to predict therapeutic response to cancer treatment holds high promise, but miRNAs with predictive value remain to be identified and underlying mechanisms have not been completely understood. Here, we show a strong correlation between miR-621 expression and chemosensitivity to paclitaxel plus carboplatin (PTX/CBP) regimen, an effective neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients. High level of miR-621 predicts better response to PTX/CBP regimen neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, who also tend to achieve pathological complete response. Ectopic overexpression of miR-621 promoted apoptosis and increased chemosensitivity to PTX and CBP both in cultured breast cancer cells and in xenograft tumor model. We further show that FBXO11 is a direct functional target of miR-621 and miR-621 level is negatively correlated with FBXO11 expression in breast cancer patients. Ectopic expression of FBXO11 attenuated increased apoptosis in breast cancer cells overexpressing miR-621 upon PTX or CBP treatment. Consistently, high FBXO11 expression significantly correlated with poor survival in breast cancer patients. Mechanistically, we found in breast cancer cells FBXO11 interacts with p53 and promotes its neddylation, which suppressed the p53 transactivity. Accordingly, miR-621-dependent FBXO11 suppression enhanced p53 activity and increased apoptosis in breast cancer cells exposed to chemotherapeutics. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-621 enhances chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells to PTX/CBP chemotherapy by suppressing FBXO11-dependent inhibition of p53. miR-621 may serve as a predictive biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment.

Yang CH, Pfeffer SR, Sims M, et al.
The oncogenic microRNA-21 inhibits the tumor suppressive activity of FBXO11 to promote tumorigenesis.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(10):6037-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The microRNA miR-21 is overexpressed in most human cancers and accumulating evidence indicates that it functions as an oncogene. Since miRNAs suppress the expression of their target genes, we hypothesized that some miR-21 targets may act as tumor suppressors, and thus their expression would be anticipated to be reduced by the high miR-21 levels observed in various human cancers. By microarray analysis and quantitative PCR we identified and validated FBXO11 (a member of the F-box subfamily lacking a distinct unifying domain) as a miR-21 target gene. FBXO11 is a component of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box ubiquitin ligase complex that targets proteins for ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. By loss of function and gain of function studies, we show that FBXO11 acts as a tumor suppressor, promotes apoptosis and mediates the degradation of the oncogenic protein BCL6. The critical role that FBXO11 plays in miR-21-mediated tumorigenesis was demonstrated by a rescue experiment, in which silencing FBXO11 in miR-21KD cancer cells restored their high tumorigenicity. Expression of miR-21 and FBXO11 are inversely correlated in tumor tissue, and their expression correlates with patient survival and tumor grade. High FBXO11 expression correlates with better patient survival and lower tumor grade consistent with its tumor suppressor activity. In contrast high miR-21 expression, which correlates with poor patient survival and higher tumor grade, is consistent with its oncogenic activity. Our results identify FBXO11 as a novel miR-21 target gene, and demonstrate that the oncogenic miRNA miR-21 decreases the expression of FBXO11, which normally acts as a tumor suppressor, and thereby promotes tumorigenesis.

Fouz N, Amid A, Hashim YZ
Gene expression analysis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with recombinant bromelain.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2014; 173(7):1618-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
The contributing molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of breast cancer need to be better characterized. The principle of our study was to better understand the genetic mechanism of oncogenesis for human breast cancer and to discover new possible tumor markers for use in clinical practice. We used complimentary DNA (cDNA) microarrays to compare gene expression profiles of treated Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) with recombinant bromelain and untreated MCF-7. SpringGene analysis was carried out of differential expression followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), to understand the underlying consequence in developing disease and disorders. We identified 1,102 known genes differentially expressed to a significant degree (p<0.001) changed between the treatment. Within this gene set, 20 genes were significantly changed between treated cells and the control cells with cutoff fold change of more than 1.5. These genes are RNA-binding motif, single-stranded interacting protein 1 (RBMS1), ribosomal protein L29 (RPL29), glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2), C15orf32, Akt3, B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1), C6orf62, C7orf60, kinesin-associated protein 3 (KIFAP3), FBXO11, AT-rich interactive domain 4A (ARID4A), COPS2, TBPL1|SLC2A12, TMEM59, SNORD46, glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 2 (GLTSCR2), and LRRFIP. Our observation on gene expression indicated that recombinant bromelain produces a unique signature affecting different pathways, specific for each congener. The microarray results give a molecular mechanistic insight and functional effects, following recombinant bromelain treatment. The extent of changes in genes is related to and involved significantly in gap junction signaling, amyloid processing, cell cycle regulation by BTG family proteins, and breast cancer regulation by stathmin1 that play major roles.

Parry M, Rose-Zerilli MJ, Gibson J, et al.
Whole exome sequencing identifies novel recurrently mutated genes in patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83244 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) remains largely unknown. Recent high-throughput sequencing studies have identified recurrent mutations in key pathways, most notably NOTCH2 mutations in >25% of patients. These studies are based on small, heterogeneous discovery cohorts, and therefore only captured a fraction of the lesions present in the SMZL genome. To identify further novel pathogenic mutations within related biochemical pathways, we applied whole exome sequencing (WES) and copy number (CN) analysis to a biologically and clinically homogeneous cohort of seven SMZL patients with 7q abnormalities and IGHV1-2*04 gene usage. We identified 173 somatic non-silent variants, affecting 160 distinct genes. In additional to providing independent validation of the presence of mutation in several previously reported genes (NOTCH2, TNFAIP3, MAP3K14, MLL2 and SPEN), our study defined eight additional recurrently mutated genes in SMZL; these genes are CREBBP, CBFA2T3, AMOTL1, FAT4, FBXO11, PLA2G4D, TRRAP and USH2A. By integrating our WES and CN data we identified three mutated putative candidate genes targeted by 7q deletions (CUL1, EZH2 and FLNC), with FLNC positioned within the well-characterized 7q minimally deleted region. Taken together, this work expands the reported directory of recurrently mutated cancer genes in this disease, thereby expanding our understanding of SMZL pathogenesis. Ultimately, this work will help to establish a stratified approach to care including the possibility of targeted therapy.

Mann KM, Ward JM, Yew CC, et al.
Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis reveals cooperating mutations and pathways in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(16):5934-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly cancers affecting the Western world. Because the disease is highly metastatic and difficult to diagnosis until late stages, the 5-y survival rate is around 5%. The identification of molecular cancer drivers is critical for furthering our understanding of the disease and development of improved diagnostic tools and therapeutics. We have conducted a mutagenic screen using Sleeping Beauty (SB) in mice to identify new candidate cancer genes in pancreatic cancer. By combining SB with an oncogenic Kras allele, we observed highly metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Using two independent statistical methods to identify loci commonly mutated by SB in these tumors, we identified 681 loci that comprise 543 candidate cancer genes (CCGs); 75 of these CCGs, including Mll3 and Ptk2, have known mutations in human pancreatic cancer. We identified point mutations in human pancreatic patient samples for another 11 CCGs, including Acvr2a and Map2k4. Importantly, 10% of the CCGs are involved in chromatin remodeling, including Arid4b, Kdm6a, and Nsd3, and all SB tumors have at least one mutated gene involved in this process; 20 CCGs, including Ctnnd1, Fbxo11, and Vgll4, are also significantly associated with poor patient survival. SB mutagenesis provides a rich resource of mutations in potential cancer drivers for cross-comparative analyses with ongoing sequencing efforts in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Duan S, Cermak L, Pagan JK, et al.
FBXO11 targets BCL6 for degradation and is inactivated in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
Nature. 2012; 481(7379):90-3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BCL6 is the product of a proto-oncogene implicated in the pathogenesis of human B-cell lymphomas. By binding specific DNA sequences, BCL6 controls the transcription of a variety of genes involved in B-cell development, differentiation and activation. BCL6 is overexpressed in the majority of patients with aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoma in adulthood, and transgenic mice constitutively expressing BCL6 in B cells develop DLBCLs similar to the human disease. In many DLBCL patients, BCL6 overexpression is achieved through translocation (~40%) or hypermutation of its promoter (~15%). However, many other DLBCLs overexpress BCL6 through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that BCL6 is targeted for ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation by a SKP1–CUL1–F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex that contains the orphan F-box protein FBXO11 (refs 5, 6). The gene encoding FBXO11 was found to be deleted or mutated in multiple DLBCL cell lines, and this inactivation of FBXO11 correlated with increased levels and stability of BCL6. Similarly, FBXO11 was either deleted or mutated in primary DLBCLs. Notably, tumour-derived FBXO11 mutants displayed an impaired ability to induce BCL6 degradation. Reconstitution of FBXO11 expression in FBXO11-deleted DLBCL cells promoted BCL6 ubiquitylation and degradation, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell death. FBXO11-deleted DLBCL cells generated tumours in immunodeficient mice, and the tumorigenicity was suppressed by FBXO11 reconstitution. We reveal a molecular mechanism controlling BCL6 stability and propose that mutations and deletions in FBXO11 contribute to lymphomagenesis through BCL6 stabilization. The deletions/mutations found in DLBCLs are largely monoallelic, indicating that FBXO11 is a haplo-insufficient tumour suppressor gene.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. FBXO11, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/FBXO11.htm Accessed:

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