Gene Summary

Gene:BBC3; BCL2 binding component 3
Aliases: JFY1, PUMA, JFY-1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the BCL-2 family of proteins. This family member belongs to the BH3-only pro-apoptotic subclass. The protein cooperates with direct activator proteins to induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. It can bind to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation. Because of its pro-apoptotic role, this gene is a potential drug target for cancer therapy and for tissue injury. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:bcl-2-binding component 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BBC3 (cancer-related)

Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Xu H
LIMCH1 suppress the growth of lung cancer by interacting with HUWE1 to sustain p53 stability.
Gene. 2019; 712:143963 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the expression of LIM and calponin-homology domains 1 (LIMCH1) in lung cancer and normal tissues, to determine the interaction between LIMCH1 and HUWE1 in regulating p53 stability.
METHODS: The expression of LIMCH1 was detected by the Oncomine and Cancer Genome Atlas databases. Expression of LIMCH1 mRNA was identified using qRT-PCR. In transfected human lung cancer cells, co-immunoprecipitation experiments were performed. The mechanism that HUWE1 sustained lung cancer malignancy was verified by western blotting. The proliferation of tranfected cells was assessed by CCK-8 assay and colony formation.
RESULTS: Bioinformatic data and e TCGA database suggested LIMCH1 mRNA levels in tumor tissues were down-regulated compared to tumor adjacent tissues. We found low expression of LIMCH1 mRNA in tumor sites and tumor cell line. Exogenous expression of LIMCH1 interacts with HUWE1 promotes expression of p53. Use of siRNA or shRNA against LIMCH1 resulted in decreased p53 protein levels. LIMCH1 deletion lead to enhance of p53 ubiquitination and protein expression of p53 and substrate p21, puma. Growth curve showed that LIMCH1 deletion significantly promoted the proliferation of A549 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: LIMCH1 was a negative regulator and indicated a new molecular mechanism for the pathogenesis of lung cancer via modulating HUWE1 and p53.

Macuer-Guzmán J, Bernal G, Jamett-Díaz F, et al.
Selective and Apoptotic Action of Ethanol Extract of Annona cherimola Seeds against Human Stomach Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cell Line AGS.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2019; 74(3):322-327 [PubMed] Related Publications
Annona cherimola is a tree belonging to the family Annonacea, whose fruit (cherimoya) is very desirable, but its seeds are considered waste. Present in these seeds are compounds that have been described as selective antiproliferative agents for cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of ethanol macerate extract (EMCHS) obtained from A. cherimola seeds against the human stomach gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line and the normal human gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1). The EMCHS extract presented an IC

Secme M, Kaygusuz O, Eroglu C, et al.
Potential Anticancer Activity of the Parasol Mushroom, Macrolepiota procera (Agaricomycetes), against the A549 Human Lung Cancer Cell Line.
Int J Med Mushrooms. 2018; 20(11):1075-1086 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mushrooms comprise an unlimited source of active compounds that have beneficial health effects without known negative side effects and can potentially be used as important therapeutic products against cancer, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. In this study we investigated the cytotoxic, antiproliferative, apoptotic, and anti-invasion effects of Macrolepiota procera, which is valued as an edible and medicinal mushroom, on A549 lung cancer cells. The cytotoxic effect of the M. procera extract was determined by using the XTT method. Total RNA was isolated from cells with TRI Reagent to determine the apoptotic effect of the extract, after which complementary DNA was synthesized. Expression profiles of the target genes were determined by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and protein changes were determined by using Western blotting. We used the TUNEL assay to evaluate the apoptotic effects of the M. procera extract. Effects of M. procera on cell invasion were investigated by using a Matrigel chamber assay. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the M. procera extract was determined to be 2 mg/mL against A549 lung cancer cells at 72 hours. According to our results, expression of Cyclin Dl, CDK4, CDK6, Bcl-2, Akt, and NOXA genes significantly decreased and that of Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, PTEN, PUMA, p21, and p53 increased in cells from the dose group compared with their expression in control cells. According to the results of the TUNEL assay, 28 ± 3.6% of cells were apoptotic in the dose group. The M. procera extract also reduced invasion in A549 cancer cells. The results suggest that M. procera has an antiproliferative effect in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

Ramírez-Rivera S, Bernal G
Music Is Capable of Inducing Changes in Gene Expression in Gastric Cancer Cells.
J Gastrointest Cancer. 2019; 50(1):175-180 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Music has recognized beneficial effects on cancer patients; however, very little is known about the molecular processes which produce these benefits. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of music on proliferation and gene expression in gastric cancer cells.
METHODS: AGS gastric cancer cells were exposed to metal and classical music, and subsequently cell proliferation and expression of genes associated with apoptosis and cell-cycle control were evaluated.
RESULTS: Proliferation of AGS cells increased when exposed to metal music, but not when exposed to classical music. Gene expression of caspase-3 and 8 and cyclin B1 increased in response to both musical genres; classical music repressed the expression of p53, and metal music repressed the expression of PUMA.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate music as a modulator of gene expression in a cancer cell line. Additional experiments are required to better understand the mechanisms of how different musical genres can induce changes in gene expression.

Khaw-On P, Pompimon W, Banjerdpongchai R
Apoptosis Induction via ATM Phosphorylation, Cell Cycle Arrest, and ER Stress by Goniothalamin and Chemodrugs Combined Effects on Breast Cancer-Derived MDA-MB-231 Cells.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:7049053 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Goniothalamin (GTN), a styryl-lactone, exhibits inhibitory effects on many kinds of cancer cells

Stella S, Massimino M, Tirrò E, et al.
B-ALL Relapses After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation Associated With a Shift from e1a2 to e14a2
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):431-435 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The Philadelphia chromosome is found in 30% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients, a distinct ALL subgroup where the BCR-ABL fusion gene is associated with poor prognosis. Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) often induces complete remission and these patients subsequently undergo an autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). However, 20% of subjects experience a relapse associated with the selection of point-mutations in the BCR-ABL kinase domain. We report the clinical evolution of a Philadelphia-positive ALL patient co-expressing the e1a2 and e14a2 BCR-ABL transcript at diagnosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiplex reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR was used to detect BCR-ABL transcripts and their levels were measured by quantitative Real Time PCR. Clonal sequencing and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were used to identify mutations.
RESULTS: Although the patient underwent ASCT following treatment with multiple TKIs, he relapsed twice. The first time he exhibited the e1a2 transcript and the second time he presented only the e14a2 variant. Mutation analysis, performed by clonal sequencing and NGS, detected two alterations after the first relapse and a single mutation at the time of the second relapse.
CONCLUSION: The observed shift from the e1a2 to the e14a2 variant and the selection of TKI-resistant clones heavily contributed to the fatal evolution of the disease.

Belluti S, Orteca G, Semeghini V, et al.
Potent Anti-Cancer Properties of Phthalimide-Based Curcumin Derivatives on Prostate Tumor Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 20(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer is commonly treated with chemotherapy, whose effect is less than satisfactory. This raised the need for novel agents for the treatment of prostate cancer. In the present study, five phthalimide-based curcumin derivatives were synthesized and completely characterized to assess improved stability, pharmacodynamics, and radical scavenging ability. To investigate the potential application in anti-cancer therapy, the anti-proliferative activity of the synthesized molecules was determined on aggressive prostate tumor cells. We demonstrated that the K3F21 derivative has increased potency compared to curcumin, in terms of GI50, anti-proliferative and anti-migrating activities. K3F21 inhibits anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of prostate cancer cells by altering the expression of key genes controlling cell proliferation, such as Cylins D1, B1 and B2, and apoptosis, among which Puma, Noxa, and Bcl-2 family members. Finally, the anti-cancer activity of K3F21 was demonstrated by the analysis of cancer-associated PI3K/AKT, ERK, and p38 signaling pathways.

Yang T, Zhang W, Wang L, et al.
Long intergenic noncoding RNA-p21 inhibits apoptosis by decreasing PUMA expression in non-small cell lung cancer.
J Int Med Res. 2019; 47(1):481-493 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important mediators in tumor progression. Long intergenic noncoding RNA-p21 (lincRNA-p21) participates in multiple biological processes. This study explored the role of lincRNA-p21 in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression and potential regulatory mechanisms.
METHODS: LincRNA-p21 expression in NSCLC tissues and cell lines (A549, H1299, H1650, and NCI-H2087) was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. LincRNA-p21 overexpressing and sh-lincRNA-p21 lentiviral were respectively transfected into H1299 and A549 cells. Flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Microarray analysis and RNA pull-down assay were used to predict the target genes of lincRNA-p21. Finally, PUMA siRNA and overexpressing PUMA were transfected into NSCLC cells, and the extent of cell apoptosis was measured. The protein expression levels of the relative genes were confirmed by western blot analysis.
RESULTS: LincRNA-p21 was significantly upregulated in NSCLC tissues and cells. The upregulation of lincRNA-p21 considerably inhibited cell apoptosis while the downregulation of lincRNA-p21 showed the opposite effect. PUMA was a direct target gene of lincRNA-p21 and was negatively correlated with lincRNA-p21 in NSCLC specimens. The anti-apoptotic effect of lincRNA-p21 can be effectively attenuated by the upregulation of PUMA.
CONCLUSION: LincRNA-p21 is aberrantly upregulated in NSCLC and inhibits cell apoptosis by decreasing PUMA expression.

Carrillo E, Ramírez-Rivera S, Bernal G, et al.
Water-soluble Ru(II)-anethole compounds with promising cytotoxicity toward the human gastric cancer cell line AGS.
Life Sci. 2019; 217:193-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Ruthenium-based compounds exhibit critical biochemical properties making them suitable for diverse pharmacological applications. The aim of this work was to study the anticancer effects of three ruthenium complexes on a human gastric cancer cell line.
MAIN METHODS: We synthetized three [Ru(η
KEY FINDINGS: Compound 3 exhibited the highest cytotoxicity (IC
SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggests that compound 3 may be an interesting anticancer molecule for the treatment of gastric cancer.

Massimino M, Tirrò E, Stella S, et al.
Effect of Combined Epigenetic Treatments and Ectopic NIS Expression on Undifferentiated Thyroid Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(12):6653-6662 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid (ATC) cancer cells are characterized by the acquisition of epigenetic abnormalities, leading to the silencing of both the sodium iodide co-transporter and the Coxsackie adenovirus receptor. As aberrant histone acetylation and DNA methylation represent epigenetic mechanisms involved in neoplastic transformation, our study investigated the anticancer properties of epigenetic modifiers in thyroid carcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity and gene expression modulation of histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors were evaluated in both PDTC and ATC.
RESULTS: Epigenetic treatments were cytotoxic to tumor thyrocytes and restored sodium iodide co-transporter and Coxsackie adenovirus receptor, expression as well as radioiodine uptake, in PDTC but not in ATC. However, ectopic expression sodium iodide co-transporter re-activated radioiodine incorporation in ATC.
CONCLUSION: The ability of epigenetic treatments to interfere with tumor proliferation and induce Coxsackie adenovirus receptor expression, coupled with the ability of ectopic sodium iodide co-transporter to restore radioiodine uptake, raise the possibility that these therapeutic approaches may provide clinical benefit to patients with thyroid carcinoma refractory to radioiodine treatment.

Matsunuma R, Chan DW, Kim BJ, et al.
DPYSL3 modulates mitosis, migration, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in claudin-low breast cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(51):E11978-E11987 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) proteogenomic analysis prioritized dihydropyrimidinase-like-3 (DPYSL3) as a multilevel (RNA/protein/phosphoprotein) expression outlier specific to the claudin-low (CLOW) subset of triple-negative breast cancers. A PubMed informatics tool indicated a paucity of data in the context of breast cancer, which further prioritized DPYSL3 for study. DPYSL3 knockdown in DPYSL3-positive ([Formula: see text]) CLOW cell lines demonstrated reduced proliferation, yet enhanced motility and increased expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, suggesting that DPYSL3 is a multifunctional signaling modulator. Slower proliferation in DPYSL3-negative ([Formula: see text]) CLOW cells was associated with accumulation of multinucleated cells, indicating a mitotic defect that was associated with a collapse of the vimentin microfilament network and increased vimentin phosphorylation. DPYSL3 also suppressed the expression of EMT regulators SNAIL and TWIST and opposed p21 activated kinase 2 (PAK2)-dependent migration. However, these EMT regulators in turn induce DPYSL3 expression, suggesting that DPYSL3 participates in negative feedback on EMT. In conclusion, DPYSL3 expression identifies CLOW tumors that will be sensitive to approaches that promote vimentin phosphorylation during mitosis and inhibitors of PAK signaling during migration and EMT.

Imanishi M, Yamamoto Y, Wang X, et al.
Augmented antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil by double knockdown of MDM4 and MDM2 in colon and gastric cancer cells.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(2):639-649 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inactivation of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene is essential during cancer development and progression. Mutations of TP53 are often missense and occur in various human cancers. In some fraction of wild-type (wt) TP53 tumors, p53 is inactivated by upregulated murine double minute homolog 2 (MDM2) and MDM4. We previously reported that simultaneous knockdown of MDM4 and MDM2 using synthetic DNA-modified siRNAs revived p53 activity and synergistically inhibited in vitro cell growth in cancer cells with wt TP53 and high MDM4 expression (wtTP53/highMDM4). In the present study, MDM4/MDM2 double knockdown with the siRNAs enhanced 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced p53 activation, arrested the cell cycle at G

Fedorova O, Petukhov A, Daks A, et al.
Orphan receptor NR4A3 is a novel target of p53 that contributes to apoptosis.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(12):2108-2122 [PubMed] Related Publications
Major tumor suppressor and transcription factor p53 coordinates expression of many genes hence affecting critical cellular functions including cell cycle, senescence, and apoptosis. The NR4A family of orphan receptors (NR4A1-3) belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors. They regulate genes involved in proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis. In this study, we report an identification of NR4A3 as a direct transcriptional target of p53. Using various techniques, we showed that p53 directly bound the promoter of NR4A3 gene and induced its transcription. Functionally, over-expression of NR4A3 attenuated proliferation of cancer cells and promoted apoptosis by augmenting the expression of pro-apoptotic genes, PUMA and Bax. Knockdown of NR4A3 reversed these phenotypes. Importantly, NR4A3 exhibited tumor suppressive functions both in p53-dependent and independent manner. In addition, NR4A3 physically interacted with an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein hence sequestering it from blunting apoptosis. These observations were corroborated by the bioinformatics analysis, which demonstrated a correlation between high levels of NR4A3 expression and better survival of breast and lung cancer patients. Collectively, our studies revealed a novel transcriptional target of p53, NR4A3, which triggers apoptosis and thus likely has a tumor suppressive role in breast and lung cancers.

Buondonno I, Gazzano E, Tavanti E, et al.
Endoplasmic reticulum-targeting doxorubicin: a new tool effective against doxorubicin-resistant osteosarcoma.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019; 76(3):609-625 [PubMed] Related Publications
Doxorubicin is one of the most effective drugs for the first-line treatment of high-grade osteosarcoma. Several studies have demonstrated that the major cause for doxorubicin resistance in osteosarcoma is the increased expression of the drug efflux transporter ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (Pgp). We recently identified a library of H

Rahman FU, Bhatti MZ, Ali A, et al.
Dimetallic Ru(II) arene complexes appended on bis-salicylaldimine induce cancer cell death and suppress invasion via p53-dependent signaling.
Eur J Med Chem. 2018; 157:1480-1490 [PubMed] Related Publications
A series of bis-salicylaldimine ligands bearing two ON-donor functions were reacted with dichloro(p-cymene)ruthenium(II) dimer in the presence of base (NaOAc) and a series of four dimetallic Ru(II) arene complexes (Ru(p-cymene))

Aşık E, Aslan TN, Güray NT, Volkan M
Cellular uptake and apoptotic potential of rhenium labeled magnetic protein cages in MDA-MB-231 cells.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018; 63:127-134 [PubMed] Related Publications

Jahanafrooz Z, Stallinger A, Anders I, et al.
Influence of silibinin and β-β-dimethylacrylshikonin on chordoma cells.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 49:32-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chordoma, slow growing bone tumours originating from remnants of the notochord, leave affected patients with a median survival of six years. The high recurrence rate of chordoma, together with limited treatment options and bad overall prognosis, make the development of new treatment options urgently necessary.
PURPOSE: In this study, the potential of two natural products, silibinin and β-β-dimethylacrylshikonin (DMAS), was tested on clival (MUG-CC1 and UM-Chor1) as well as sacral (MUG-Chor1 and U-CH2) chordoma cell lines. The treatment was administered both as single- and combined therapy.
METHODS: For investigation of cell viability, the Cell Titer 96 Aqueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay Kit was used. Apoptosis induction was studied by flow cytometry, (Annexin V/SYTOX Green, caspase-3) and RT-qPCR. Pathway analyses were performed by western blot.
RESULTS: Both drugs were found to reduce cell viability alone as well as in combination in a dose dependent manner, with DMAS being more efficient than silibinin. The mode of cell death was mainly apoptosis in DMAS treated samples, while the combination therapy led to apoptosis as well as late-apoptosis/necrosis. Silibinin therapy alone, although reducing cell viability, did not lead to significant apoptotic effects in the performed assays. Focussing on the molecular mechanism of DMAS induced apoptosis, it was found that major genes of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, like NOXA and PUMA were overexpressed. Additionally, western blot experiments showed a decrease of ERK/pERK, STAT3/pSTAT3 (Tyr705) and AKT/pAKT expression/activation levels under DMAS treatment.
CONCLUSION: DMAS is a promising new candidate for chordoma therapy, while silibinin or a combination of both is less favourable.

Schoch S, Sen V, Gajewski S, et al.
Activity profile of the cisplatin analogue PN149 in different tumor cell lines.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2018; 156:109-119 [PubMed] Related Publications
The efficacy of the anticancer drug cisplatin is restricted by tumor cell resistance and occurrence of severe side effects. One strategy to overcome these limitations is the development of new, improved platinum drugs. Previous investigations showed that platinum(IV)-nitroxyl complexes are able to circumvent cisplatin resistance in bladder cancer cells. In the present study the mode of action of the platinum(IV)-nitroxyl complex PN149 was investigated in the bladder cancer cell line RT112 and the renal cell carcinoma cell line A498 on the molecular and cellular level. Gene expression analysis showed that PN149 induced genes related to DNA damage response (RRM2B, GADD45A), cell cycle regulation (CDKN1A, PLK3, PPM1D) as well as those coding for the pro-apoptotic factors PUMA and Noxa. These findings on the transcriptional level were confirmed on the functional level revealing that PN149 treatment increased levels of p53 and resulted in cell cycle arrest and drug-induced cytotoxicity via induction of apoptosis. Regarding the expression of oxidative-stress sensitive genes, PN149 induced FTH1, GCLC, HMOX1 and TXNRD1 but relevant effects were restricted to RT112 cells treated with 50 µM. The pro-inflammatory IL-8 was induced by PN149 in RT112 but not A498 cells indicating a cell-type specific activation. Taken together, PN149 possessed promising activity in different tumor cell lines rendering it an interesting alternative to cisplatin in chemotherapy.

Jain R, Frederick JP, Huang EY, et al.
MicroRNAs Enable mRNA Therapeutics to Selectively Program Cancer Cells to Self-Destruct.
Nucleic Acid Ther. 2018; 28(5):285-296 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The advent of therapeutic mRNAs significantly increases the possibilities of protein-based biologics beyond those that can be synthesized by recombinant technologies (eg, monoclonal antibodies, extracellular enzymes, and cytokines). In addition to their application in the areas of vaccine development, immune-oncology, and protein replacement therapies, one exciting possibility is to use therapeutic mRNAs to program undesired, diseased cells to synthesize a toxic intracellular protein, causing cells to self-destruct. For this approach to work, however, methods are needed to limit toxic protein expression to the intended cell type. Here, we show that inclusion of microRNA target sites in therapeutic mRNAs encoding apoptotic proteins, Caspase or PUMA, can prevent their expression in healthy hepatocytes while triggering apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Wang J, Zhang YS, Thakur K, et al.
Licochalcone A from licorice root, an inhibitor of human hepatoma cell growth via induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2018; 120:407-417 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the anti-cancer activity of Licochalcone A (LCA), extracted from licorice root. LCA inhibited the proliferation of HepG

Rasheduzzaman M, Jeong JK, Park SY
Resveratrol sensitizes lung cancer cell to TRAIL by p53 independent and suppression of Akt/NF-κB signaling.
Life Sci. 2018; 208:208-220 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: TRAIL is a promising anticancer agent that has the potential to sensitize a wide variety of cancer or transformed cells by inducing apoptosis. However, resistance to TRAIL is a growing concern. Current manuscript aimed to employ combination treatment to investigate resveratrol induced TRAIL sensitization in NSCLC.
METHOD: A549 and HCC-15 cells were used in an experimental design. Cell viability was determined by morphological image, crystal violet staining and MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by LDH assay, Annexin V and DAPI staining. Autophagy and apoptosis indicator protein were examined by western blotting. TEM and puncta assay was carried out to evaluate the autophagy. MTP and ROS activity was evaluated by JC-1 and H
FINDINGS: Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound capable of activation of tumor suppressor p53 and its pro-apoptotic modulator PUMA. Herein, we showed the p53-independent apoptosis by decrease the expression of phosphorylated Akt-mediated suppression of NF-κB that is also substantiated with the downregulation of anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl in NSCLC, resulting in an attenuation of TRAIL resistance in combined treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis was induced in TRAIL-resistant lung cancer cells with a co-treatment of resveratrol and TRAIL assessed by the loss of MMP, ROS generations which resulting the translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, autophagy flux was not affected by resveratrol-induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC.
SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, targeting the NF-κB (p65) pathway via resveratrol attenuates TRAIL resistance and induces TRAIL-mediated apoptosis which could be the effective TRAIL-based cancer therapy regimen.

Kaverina NV, Kadagidze ZG, Borovjagin AV, et al.
Tamoxifen overrides autophagy inhibition in Beclin-1-deficient glioma cells and their resistance to adenovirus-mediated oncolysis via upregulation of PUMA and BAX.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(46):6069-6082 [PubMed] Related Publications
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process regulating cellular homeostasis via digestion of dysfunctional proteins and whole cellular organelles by mechanisms, involving their enclosure into double-membrane vacuoles that are subsequently fused to lysosomes. Glioma stem cells utilize autophagy as a main mechanism of cell survival and stress response. Most recently, we and others demonstrated induction of autophagy in gliomas in response to treatment with chemical drugs, such as temozolomide (TMZ) or oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads). As autophagy has been implicated in the mechanism of Ad-mediated cell killing, autophagy deficiency in some glioma tumors could be the reason for their resistance to oncolysis. Despite the observed connection, the exact relationship between autophagy-activating cell signaling and adenoviral infection remains unclear. Here, we report that inhibition of autophagy in target glioma cells induces their resistance to killing by oncolytic agent CRAd-S-5/3. Furthermore, we found that downregulation of autophagy inducer Beclin-1 inhibits replication-competent Ad-induced oncolysis of human glioma by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing premature senescence. To overcome the autophagy-deficient state of such glioma cells and restore their susceptibility to oncolytic Ad infection, we propose treating glioma tumors with an anticancer drug tamoxifen (TAM) as a means to induce apoptosis in Ad-targeted cancer cells via upregulation of BAX/PUMA genes. In agreement with the above hypothesis, our data suggest that TAM improves susceptibility of Beclin-1-deficient glioma cells to CRAd-S-5/3 oncolysis by means of activating autophagy and pro-apoptotic signaling pathways in the target cancer cells.

Sindhu R, Manonmani HK
l-asparaginase induces intrinsic mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and impedes tumor progression.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(4):2393-2399 [PubMed] Related Publications
l-asparagine essentially regulates growth and proliferation of cancer cells. l-asparaginase is an anti-cancer enzyme that deprives the cancer cells of l-asparagine. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of a novel l-asparaginase from Pseudomonas fluorescens on l-asparagine deprivation mediated anti-proliferation, apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and to evaluate inhibition of angiogenesis. We observed that, the presence of extracellular l-asparagine was essential for the growth of AGS cells. l-asparagine deprivation by l-asparaginase induced metabolic stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis by G0 phase cell-cycle arrest, modulated the mitochondrial membrane integrity, accelerated caspase-3 activation and instigated DNA damage. The RT-PCR analysis of pro-apoptosis genes: bak1, bax, bbc3, bik, pmaip1, bnip3l, apaf1, casp3, casp7 and casp9 were significantly higher (P < 0.05), while anti-apoptotic markers xiap, bid, mcl1, and death receptor genes tnf and tradd were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). Additionally, higher protein expressions of p53, caspase-3 and TEM analysis showing modulations in mitochondria confirmed intrinsic apoptosis pathway. The enzyme impeded tumor progression through inhibition of cell migration and vascular remodelling of endothelial cells. Our findings suggests that the action of l-asparaginase alters mitochondrial membrane permeability and auxiliary activates intrinsic apoptosis. Therefore, this mechanistic approach might be considered as a targeted enzymotherapy against gastric adenocarcinoma.

Ribas R, Pancholi S, Rani A, et al.
Targeting tumour re-wiring by triple blockade of mTORC1, epidermal growth factor, and oestrogen receptor signalling pathways in endocrine-resistant breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Endocrine therapies are the mainstay of treatment for oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER
METHODS: A panel of ER
RESULTS: Here, we show RAD001 and neratinib (pan-ERBB inhibitor) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in proliferation, irrespective of the ESR1 mutation status. The combination of either agent with endocrine therapy further reduced proliferation but the maximum effect was observed with a triple combination of RAD001, neratinib, and endocrine therapy. In the absence of oestrogen, RAD001 caused a reduction in ER-mediated transcription in the majority of the cell lines, which associated with a decrease in recruitment of ER to an oestrogen-response element on the TFF1 promoter. Contrastingly, neratinib increased both ER-mediated transactivation and ER recruitment, an effect reduced by the addition of RAD001. In-vivo analysis of an LTED model showed the triple combination of RAD001, neratinib, and fulvestrant was most effective at reducing tumour volume. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the addition of neratinib negated the epidermal growth factor (EGF)/EGF receptor feedback loops associated with RAD001.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the combination of therapies targeting ERBB2/3 and mTORC1 signalling, together with fulvestrant, in patients who relapse on endocrine therapy and retain a functional ER.

Keam SP, Gulati T, Gamell C, et al.
Biodosimetric transcriptional and proteomic changes are conserved in irradiated human tissue.
Radiat Environ Biophys. 2018; 57(3):241-249 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcriptional dosimetry is an emergent field of radiobiology aimed at developing robust methods for detecting and quantifying absorbed doses using radiation-induced fluctuations in gene expression. A combination of RNA sequencing, array-based and quantitative PCR transcriptomics in cellular, murine and various ex vivo human models has led to a comprehensive description of a fundamental set of genes with demonstrable dosimetric qualities. However, these are yet to be validated in human tissue due to the scarcity of in situ-irradiated source material. This represents a major hurdle to the continued development of transcriptional dosimetry. In this study, we present a novel evaluation of a previously reported set of dosimetric genes in human tissue exposed to a large therapeutic dose of radiation. To do this, we evaluated the quantitative changes of a set of dosimetric transcripts consisting of FDXR, BAX, BCL2, CDKN1A, DDB2, BBC3, GADD45A, GDF15, MDM2, SERPINE1, TNFRSF10B, PLK3, SESN2 and VWCE in guided pre- and post-radiation (2 weeks) prostate cancer biopsies from seven patients. We confirmed the prolonged dose-responsivity of most of these transcripts in in situ-irradiated tissue. BCL2, GDF15, and to some extent TNFRSF10B, were markedly unreliable single markers of radiation exposure. Nevertheless, as a full set, these genes reliably segregated non-irradiated and irradiated tissues and predicted radiation absorption on a patient-specific basis. We also confirmed changes in the translated protein product for a small subset of these dosimeters. This study provides the first confirmatory evidence of an existing dosimetric gene set in less-accessible tissues-ensuring peripheral responses reflect tissue-specific effects. Further work will be required to determine if these changes are conserved in different tissue types, post-radiation times and doses.

Isobe K, Kakimoto A, Mikami T, et al.
PD-L1 mRNA expression in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(1):331-338 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular mechanisms of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) mRNA expression and roles of apoptosis and biomarkers are poorly understood in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients. Thirty-three patients with recurrent postoperative EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma (exon 19 deletion in 16, L858R in 15, G719C in 2 patients) treated with gefitinib were studied. PD-L1 mRNA expression of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded paratumoral and intratumoral tissues was quantified by PCR. Correlations of PD-L1 mRNA expression with BIM, p53 upregulated modular of apoptosis (PUMA), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), EGFR, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were determined. Eleven of the 33 patients (33.3%) and 14/33 patients (42.4%) expressed intratumoral and paratumoral PD-L1 mRNA, respectively. Patients with intratumoral PD-L1 mRNA expression had significantly higher BIM and lower VEGFA expression compared with paratumoral PD-L1 mRNA patients (P=0.049, P=0.009). PD-L1 mRNA expression was not associated with the expression of PUMA, HER2, EGFR and MET but was positively correlated with BIM expression (r=0.41, P=0.017) and inversely correlated with VEGFA expression (r=-0.33, P=0.043). Patients with intratumoral PD-L1 mRNA expression had significantly shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) after gefitinib therapy compared with no PD-L1 expression (255 vs. 732 days, respectively; P=0.032). Thus, PD-L1 mRNA expression in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma was associated with BIM and VEGFA mRNA expression and with shorter PFS after gefitinib therapy.

Luo L, Gao W, Wang J, et al.
Study on the Mechanism of Cell Cycle Checkpoint Kinase 2 (CHEK2) Gene Dysfunction in Chemotherapeutic Drug Resistance of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:3176-3183 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of CHEK2 gene dysfunction in drug resistance of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS To perform our study, a stable CHEK2 wild type (CHEK2 WT) or CHEK2 Y390C mutation (CHEK2 Y390C) expressed MDA-MB-231 cell line was established. MTT assay, cell apoptosis assay and cell cycle assay were carried out to analyze the cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle respectively. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were applied for related protein and gene expression detection. RESULTS We found that the IC50 value of DDP (Cisplatin) to CHEK2 Y390C expressed MDA-MB-231 cells was significantly higher than that of the CHEK2 WT expressed cells and the control cells. After treatment with DDP for 48 h, cells expressing CHEK2 WT showed lower cell viability than that of the CHEK2 Y390C expressed cells and the control cells; compared with the CHEK2 Y390C expressed cells and the control cells, cells expressing CHEK2 WT showed significant G1/S arrest. Meanwhile, we found that compared with the CHEK2 Y390C expressed cells and the control cells, cell apoptosis was significantly increased in CHEK2 WT expressed cells. Moreover, our results suggested that cells expressing CHEK2 WT showed higher level of p-CDC25A, p-p53, p21, Bax, PUMA, and Noxa than that of the CHEK2 Y390C expressed cells and the control cells. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicated that CHEK2 Y390C mutation induced the drug resistance of TNBC cells to chemotherapeutic drugs through administrating cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via regulating p53 activation and CHEK2-p53 apoptosis pathway.

Jagadish N, Fatima R, Sharma A, et al.
Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) a promising therapeutic target of ovarian carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2018; 40(5):1010428318773652 [PubMed] Related Publications
SPAG9 is a novel tumor associated antigen, expressed in variety of malignancies. However, its role in ovarian cancer remains unexplored. SPAG9 expression was validated in ovarian cancer cells by real time PCR and Western blot. SPAG9 involvement in cell cycle, DNA damage, apoptosis, paclitaxel sensitivity and epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) was investigated employing RNA interference approach. Combinatorial effect of SPAG9 ablation and paclitaxel treatment was evaluated in in vitro. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis revealed SPAG9 expression in A10, SKOV-3 and Caov3 compared to normal ovarian epithelial cells. SPAG9 ablation resulted in reduced cellular proliferation, colony forming ability and enhanced cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. Effect of ablation of SPAG9 on cell cycle revealed S phase arrest and showed decreased expression of CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cyclin E and increased expression of tumor suppressor p21. Ablation of SPAG9 also resulted in increased apoptosis with increased expression of various pro- apoptotic molecules including BAD, BID, PUMA, caspase 3, caspase 7, caspase 8 and cytochrome C. Decreased expression of mesenchymal markers and increased expression of epithelial markers was found in SPAG9 ablated cells. Combinatorial effect of SPAG9 ablation and paclitaxel treatment was evaluated in in vitro assays which showed that ablation of SPAG9 resulted in increased paclitaxel sensitivity and caused enhanced cell death. In vivo ovarian cancer xenograft studies showed that ablation of SPAG9 resulted in significant reduction in tumor growth. Present study revealed therapeutic potential of SPAG9 in ovarian cancer.

Karakas B, Ozmay Y, Basaga H, et al.
Distinct apoptotic blocks mediate resistance to panHER inhibitors in HER2+ breast cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018; 1865(8):1073-1087 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the development of novel targeted therapies, de novo or acquired chemoresistance remains a significant factor for treatment failure in breast cancer therapeutics. Neratinib and dacomitinib are irreversible panHER inhibitors, which block their autophosphorylation and downstream signaling. Moreover, neratinib and dacomitinib have been shown to activate cell death in HER2-overexpressing cell lines. Here we showed that increased MCL1 and decreased BIM and PUMA mediated resistance to neratinib in ZR-75-30 and SKBR3 cells while increased BCL-XL and BCL-2 and decreased BIM and PUMA promoted neratinib resistance in BT474 cells. Cells were also cross-resistant to dacomitinib. BH3 profiles of HER2+ breast cancer cells efficiently predicted antiapoptotic protein dependence and development of resistance to panHER inhibitors. Reactivation of ERK1/2 was primarily responsible for acquired resistance in SKBR3 and ZR-75-30 cells. Adding specific ERK1/2 inhibitor SCH772984 to neratinib or dacomitinib led to increased apoptotic response in neratinib-resistant SKBR3 and ZR-75-30 cells, but we did not detect a similar response in neratinib-resistant BT474 cells. Accordingly, suppression of BCL-2/BCL-XL by ABT-737 was required in addition to ERK1/2 inhibition for neratinib- or dacomitinib-induced apoptosis in neratinib-resistant BT474 cells. Our results showed that different mitochondrial apoptotic blocks mediated acquired panHER inhibitor resistance in HER2+ breast cancer cell lines as well as highlighted the potential of BH3 profiling assay in prediction of panHER inhibitor resistance in breast cancer cells.

Grundy M, Jones T, Elmi L, et al.
Early changes in rpS6 phosphorylation and BH3 profiling predict response to chemotherapy in AML cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(5):e0196805 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Blasts from different patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) vary in the agent(s) to which they are most responsive. With a myriad of novel agents to evaluate, there is a lack of predictive biomarkers to precisely assign targeted therapies to individual patients. Primary AML cells often survive poorly in vitro, thus confounding conventional cytotoxicity assays. The purpose of this work was to assess the potential of two same-day functional predictive assays in AML cell lines to predict long-term response to chemotherapy. (i) Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is a downstream substrate of PI3K/akt/mTOR/ kinase and MAPK kinase pathways and its dephosphorylation is also triggered by DNA double strand breaks. Phospho-rpS6 is reliably measurable by flow cytometry and thus has the potential to function as a biomarker of responsiveness to several therapeutic agents. (ii) A cell's propensity for apoptosis can be interrogated via a functional assay termed "Dynamic BH3 Profiling" in which mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in drug-treated cells can be driven by pro-apoptotic BH3 domain peptides such as PUMA-BH3. The extent to which a particular cell is primed for apoptosis by the drug can be determined by measuring the amount of cytochrome C released on addition of BH3 peptide. We demonstrate that phospho-rpS6 expression and PUMA-BH3 peptide-induced cytochrome C release after 4 hours both predict long term chemoresponsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and DNA double strand break inducers in AML cell lines. We also describe changes in expression levels of the prosurvival BCL-2 family member Mcl-1 and the pro-apoptotic protein BIM after short term drug culture.

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