Gene Summary

Gene:AREG; amphiregulin
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the epidermal growth factor family. It is an autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for astrocytes, Schwann cells and fibroblasts. It is related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). The protein interacts with the EGF/TGF-alpha receptor to promote the growth of normal epithelial cells, and it inhibits the growth of certain aggressive carcinoma cell lines. It also functions in mammary gland, oocyte and bone tissue development. This gene is associated with a psoriasis-like skin phenotype, and is also associated with other pathological disorders, including various types of cancers and inflammatory conditions. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (10)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • ErbB Receptors
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Up-Regulation
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Growth Substances
  • Ligands
  • drug, Cetuximab (Erbitux)
  • TGFA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Sequence Homology
  • Glycoproteins
  • Epiregulin
  • Twist-Related Protein 1
  • Messenger RNA
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Amphiregulin
  • Survival Rate
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Soft Tissue Cancers
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Mutation
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Epidermal Growth Factor
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • EGF Family of Proteins
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
  • Warts
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Cancer RNA
  • Chromosome 4
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Liver Cancer
  • X-Ray Microtomography
  • FGFR1
  • Breast Cancer
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: AREG (cancer-related)

Pak S, Kim W, Kim Y, et al.
Dihydrotestosterone promotes kidney cancer cell proliferation by activating the STAT5 pathway via androgen and glucocorticoid receptors.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(9):2293-2301 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Androgen receptors (ARs) are expressed on a variety of cell types, and AR signaling plays an important role in tumor development and progression in several cancers. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the proliferation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in relation to AR status.
METHODS: Steroid hormone receptor expression was evaluated using RT-PCR and Western blotting. The effect of DHT on cell proliferation and STAT5 phosphorylation was evaluated in RCC cell lines (Caki-2, A498, and SN12C) and primary RCC cells using cell viability assays and Western blotting. ARs and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) were knocked down with small interfering RNAs before assessing changes in cell proliferation and STAT5 activation.
RESULTS: DHT treatment promoted cell proliferation and increased STAT5 phosphorylation regardless of AR status. The AR antagonist bicalutamide reduced kidney cancer cell proliferation, regardless of AR status. AR and GR knockdown blocked STAT5 activation and reduced cell proliferation in all RCC cell lines. In patient-derived primary cells, DHT enhanced cell proliferation and this effect was diminished by treatment with the AR antagonists bicalutamide and enzalutamide and the GR antagonist mifepristone.
CONCLUSION: DHT promotes cell proliferation through STAT5 activation in RCC cells, regardless of AR status. DHT appears to utilize the AR and GR pathways to activate STAT5, and the inhibition of AR and GR showed antitumor activity in RCC cells. These data suggest that targeting AR and GR may be a promising new approach to the treatment of RCC.

Tomasovic-Loncaric C, Fucic A, Andabak A, et al.
Androgen Receptor as a Biomarker of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression Risk.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4285-4289 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a cancer with poor prognosis due to therapy resistance, locoregional recurrences, and distant metastases. There is on increased interest in profiling the androgen receptor (AR) in cancer biology. The aim of this study was to compare AR and Ki-67 levels in the neoplastic epithelium and stroma between non-metastatic and metastatic stages of OSCC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tissue specimens of 101 non-metastatic and 95 metastatic OSCC patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: More than 20% of AR-positive cytoplasmic staining of OSCC epithelium was significantly associated with nuclear AR levels in the epithelium and increased AR levels in the stroma. In metastatic OSCC patients, Ki-67 was significantly higher than in non-metastatic OSCC patients.
CONCLUSION: More than 20% of AR-positive cytoplasmic staining in neoplastic OSSC epithelium is a significant predictor of OSCC progression risk.

Lopes MB, Casimiro S, Vinga S
Twiner: correlation-based regularization for identifying common cancer gene signatures.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2019; 20(1):356 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast and prostate cancers are typical examples of hormone-dependent cancers, showing remarkable similarities at the hormone-related signaling pathways level, and exhibiting a high tropism to bone. While the identification of genes playing a specific role in each cancer type brings invaluable insights for gene therapy research by targeting disease-specific cell functions not accounted so far, identifying a common gene signature to breast and prostate cancers could unravel new targets to tackle shared hormone-dependent disease features, like bone relapse. This would potentially allow the development of new targeted therapies directed to genes regulating both cancer types, with a consequent positive impact in cancer management and health economics.
RESULTS: We address the challenge of extracting gene signatures from transcriptomic data of prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD) and breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) samples, particularly estrogen positive (ER+), and androgen positive (AR+) triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), using sparse logistic regression. The introduction of gene network information based on the distances between BRCA and PRAD correlation matrices is investigated, through the proposed twin networks recovery (twiner) penalty, as a strategy to ensure similarly correlated gene features in two diseases to be less penalized during the feature selection procedure.
CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis led to the identification of genes that show a similar correlation pattern in BRCA and PRAD transcriptomic data, and are selected as key players in the classification of breast and prostate samples into ER+ BRCA/AR+ TNBC/PRAD tumor and normal tissues, and also associated with survival time distributions. The results obtained are supported by the literature and are expected to unveil the similarities between the diseases, disclose common disease biomarkers, and help in the definition of new strategies for more effective therapies.

Luo J, Wang K, Yeh S, et al.
LncRNA-p21 alters the antiandrogen enzalutamide-induced prostate cancer neuroendocrine differentiation via modulating the EZH2/STAT3 signaling.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2571 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
While the antiandrogen enzalutamide (Enz) extends the castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients' survival an extra 4.8 months, it might also result in some adverse effects via inducing the neuroendocrine differentiation (NED). Here we found that lncRNA-p21 is highly expressed in the NEPC patients derived xenograft tissues (NEPC-PDX). Results from cell lines and human clinical sample surveys also revealed that lncRNA-p21 expression is up-regulated in NEPC and Enz treatment could increase the lncRNA-p21 to induce the NED. Mechanism dissection revealed that Enz could promote the lncRNA-p21 transcription via altering the androgen receptor (AR) binding to different androgen-response-elements, which switch the EZH2 function from histone-methyltransferase to non-histone methyltransferase, consequently methylating the STAT3 to promote the NED. Preclinical studies using the PDX mouse model proved that EZH2 inhibitor could block the Enz-induced NED. Together, these results suggest targeting the Enz/AR/lncRNA-p21/EZH2/STAT3 signaling may help urologists to develop a treatment for better suppression of the human CRPC progression.

Jorda R, Lopes SMM, Řezníčková E, et al.
Tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-fused steroids and their in vitro biological evaluation in prostate cancer.
Eur J Med Chem. 2019; 178:168-176 [PubMed] Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) is a steroid hormone receptor and its high expression and disruption of its regulation are strongly implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) development. One of the current therapies includes application of steroidal antiandrogens leading to blockade of the AR action by the abrogation of AR-mediated signaling. We introduced here novel 4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-fused steroidal compounds, described their synthesis based on [8π+2π] cycloaddition reactions of diazafulvenium methides with different steroidal scaffolds and showed their biological evaluation in different prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Our results showed the ability of novel compounds to suppress the expression of known androgen receptor targets, Nkx3.1 and PSA in two prostate cell lines, 22Rv1 and VCaP. Candidate compound diminished the transcription of AR-regulated genes in the reporter cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Antiproliferative activity of the most promising steroid was studied by clonogenic assay and induction of apoptosis in treated cells was documented by immunoblot detection of cleaved PARP.

Jerez S, Araya H, Hevia D, et al.
Extracellular vesicles from osteosarcoma cell lines contain miRNAs associated with cell adhesion and apoptosis.
Gene. 2019; 710:246-257 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor during childhood and adolescence. Several reports have presented data on serum biomarkers for osteosarcoma, but few reports have analyzed circulating microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we used next generation miRNA sequencing to examine miRNAs isolated from microvesicle-depleted extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from six different human osteosarcoma or osteoblastic cell lines with different degrees of metastatic potential (i.e., SAOS2, MG63, HOS, 143B, U2OS and hFOB1.19). EVs from each cell line contain on average ~300 miRNAs, and ~70 of these miRNAs are present at very high levels (i.e., >1000 reads per million). The most prominent miRNAs are miR-21-5p, miR-143-3p, miR-148a-3p and 181a-5p, which are enriched between 3 and 100 fold and relatively abundant in EVs derived from metastatic SAOS2 cells compared to non-metastatic MG63 cells. Gene ontology analysis of predicted targets reveals that miRNAs present in EVs may regulate the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cell lines by potentially inhibiting a network of genes (e.g., MAPK1, NRAS, FRS2, PRCKE, BCL2 and QKI) involved in apoptosis and/or cell adhesion. Our data indicate that osteosarcoma cell lines may selectively package miRNAs as molecular cargo of EVs that could function as paracrine agents to modulate the tumor micro-environment.

Zhao J, Lee EE, Kim J, et al.
Transforming activity of an oncoprotein-encoding circular RNA from human papillomavirus.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2300 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Single-stranded circular RNAs (circRNAs), generated through 'backsplicing', occur more extensively than initially anticipated. The possible functions of the vast majority of circRNAs remain unknown. Virus-derived circRNAs have recently been described in gamma-herpesviruses. We report that oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) generate circRNAs, some of which encompass the E7 oncogene (circE7). HPV16 circE7 is detectable by both inverse RT-PCR and northern blotting of HPV16-transformed cells. CircE7 is N

Pires LV, Yi Y, Cheng JC, et al.
Lapatinib Inhibits Amphiregulin-induced BeWo Choriocarcinoma Cell Proliferation by Reducing ERK1/2 and AKT Signaling Pathways.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2377-2383 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human choriocarcinoma is the most aggressive type of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in choriocarcinomas is significantly higher than those of trophoblastic cells in healthy placentas. Lapatinib is a potent EGFR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) inhibitor that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in various human cancer cells. Amphiregulin (AREG) is the most abundant EGFR ligand in amniotic fluid during human pregnancy.
AIM: To explore the role of AREG in human choriocarcinoma cell proliferation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of lapatinib and AREG on cell proliferation was examined by the MTT assay. Western blots were used to investigate EGFR and HER2 expression, and the activation of caspase-3, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase /protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathways.
RESULTS: Treatment with lapatinib reduced BeWo cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Moreover, AREG treatment stimulated BeWo cell proliferation by activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, which was blocked by lapatinib.
CONCLUSION: Targeting EGFR/HER2 might be a useful therapeutic strategy for human choriocarcinoma.

Candelaria RP, Adrada BE, Wei W, et al.
Imaging features of triple-negative breast cancers according to androgen receptor status.
Eur J Radiol. 2019; 114:167-174 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Different molecular subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have previously been identified through analysis of gene expression profiles. The luminal androgen receptor (LAR) subtype has been shown to have a lower rate of pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy than other TNBC subtypes. The purpose of this study was to determine if the imaging features of TNBCs differ by AR (androgen receptor) status, which is a surrogate immunohistochemical (IHC) marker for the chemoresistant LAR subtype of TNBC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This sub-study was part of a clinical trial in patients with stage I-III TNBC who were prospectively monitored for response while receiving neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NAST) at a single comprehensive cancer center. This interim imaging analysis included 144 patients with known AR status measured by IHC. AR-positive (AR+) tumors were defined as those in which at least 10% of tumor cells had positive nuclear AR staining. Two experienced, fellowship-trained breast radiologists who were blinded to the IHC results retrospectively reviewed and reached consensus on all imaging studies for the index lesion (i.e., mammogram, ultrasound, and breast magnetic resonance imaging). The index lesion for each patient was reviewed and described according to the fifth edition of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify imaging features predictive of AR status. p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: Univariate logistic regression models for AR status showed that AR+ TNBC was significantly associated with heterogeneously dense breast composition on mammography (p = 0.02), mass with calcifications (p = 0.05), irregular mass shape on mammography (p = 0.03), and irregular mass shape on sonography (p = 0.003). Multivariate logistic regression models for AR status showed that AR+ TNBC was significantly associated with heterogeneously dense breast composition on mammography (p = 0.01), high mass density on mammography (p = 0.003), and irregular mass shape on sonography (p = 0.0004).
CONCLUSION: The imaging features of TNBCs differ by AR status. Multimodality breast imaging may help identify the LAR subtype of TNBC, which has been shown to be a subtype that is relatively resistant to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Zajda K, Rak A, Ptak A, Gregoraszczuk EL
Compounds of PAH mixtures dependent interaction between multiple signaling pathways in granulosa tumour cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2019; 310:14-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mechanism of PAH mixtures, using granulosa tumour cells, was investigated. Cells were exposed to a mixture of all 16 priority PAHs (M1) or a mixture of five PAHs not classified as human carcinogens (M2). The effect of siAHR, siAHRR and siNFKB2 on the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1, ERα, AR and cell proliferation was described. M1 decreased AhR and CYP1A1, while increased AhRR and ARNT expression. M2 also decreased AhR and CYP1A1 but had no effect on AhRR expression. siAHRR reversed the inhibitory effect of M1 on AhR and CYP1A1,while inhibitory effect of M2 was still observed. siNFKB2 reversed inhibitory effect of both mixtures on AhR and CYP1A1 expression and stimulatory effect of M1 on AhRR expression. siAHR reversed stimulatory effect of both mixtures on ERα expression. Stimulatory effect of M1 on cell proliferation was not observed in siAHR, was still observed in siESR1 cells. M2 had no effect on cell proliferation, however stimulatory effect was appeared in siAHR and siESR1cells. In conclusion: M1 by activation of AhRR and NFkB p52, but M2 only by activation of NFκB attenuated AhR signalling and ligand-induced CYP1A1 expression. Interaction between AhR and ER following M1 and M2 exposure is primarily initiated through AhR.

Rogers C, Erkes DA, Nardone A, et al.
Gasdermin pores permeabilize mitochondria to augment caspase-3 activation during apoptosis and inflammasome activation.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1689 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Gasdermin E (GSDME/DFNA5) cleavage by caspase-3 liberates the GSDME-N domain, which mediates pyroptosis by forming pores in the plasma membrane. Here we show that GSDME-N also permeabilizes the mitochondrial membrane, releasing cytochrome c and activating the apoptosome. Cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in response to intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimuli are significantly reduced in GSDME-deficient cells comparing with wild type cells. GSDME deficiency also accelerates cell growth in culture and in a mouse model of melanoma. Phosphomimetic mutation of the highly conserved phosphorylatable Thr6 residue of GSDME, inhibits its pore-forming activity, thus uncovering a potential mechanism by which GSDME might be regulated. Like GSDME-N, inflammasome-generated gasdermin D-N (GSDMD-N), can also permeabilize the mitochondria linking inflammasome activation to downstream activation of the apoptosome. Collectively, our results point to a role of gasdermin proteins in targeting the mitochondria to promote cytochrome c release to augment the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

Tiwari A, Mukherjee B, Hassan MK, et al.
Reduced FRG1 expression promotes prostate cancer progression and affects prostate cancer cell migration and invasion.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):346 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in males and accounts for high cancer related deaths. Therapeutic advancement in prostate cancer has not been able to reduce the mortality burden of prostate cancer, which warrants further research. FRG1 which affects angiogenesis and cell migration in Xenopus, can be a potential player in tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of FRG1 in prostate cancer progression.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine FRG1 expression in patient samples. FRG1 expression perturbation was done to investigate the effect of FRG1 on cell proliferation, migration and invasion, in DU145, PC3 and LNCaP cells. To understand the mechanism, we checked expression of various cytokines and MMPs by q-RT PCR, signaling molecules by western blot, in FRG1 perturbation sets. Results were validated by use of pharmacological inhibitor and activator and, western blot.
RESULTS: In prostate cancer tissue, FRG1 levels were significantly reduced, compared to the uninvolved counterpart. FRG1 expression showed variable effect on PC3 and DU145 cell proliferation. FRG1 levels consistently affected cell migration and invasion, in both DU145 and PC3 cells. Ectopic expression of FRG1 led to significant reduction in cell migration and invasion in both DU145 and PC3 cells, reverse trends were observed with FRG1 knockdown. In androgen receptor positive cell line LNCaP, FRG1 doesn't affect any of the cell properties. FRG1 knockdown led to significantly enhanced expression of GM-CSF, MMP1, PDGFA and CXCL1, in PC3 cells and, in DU145, it led to higher expression of GM-CSF, MMP1 and PLGF. Interestingly, FRG1 knockdown in both the cell lines led to activation of p38 MAPK. Pharmacological activation of p38 MAPK led to increase in the expression of GM-CSF and PLGF in DU145 whereas in PC3 it led to enhanced expression of GM-CSF, MMP1 and CXCL1. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAPK led to reduction in the expression of above mentioned cytokines.
CONCLUSION: FRG1 expression is reduced in prostate adenocarcinoma tissue. FRG1 expression affects migration and invasion in AR negative prostate cancer cells through known MMPs and cytokines, which may be mediated primarily via p38 MAPK activation.

Piotrowska A, Wierzbicka J, Rybarczyk A, et al.
Vitamin D and its low calcemic analogs modulate the anticancer properties of cisplatin and dacarbazine in the human melanoma A375 cell line.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(4):1481-1495 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Melanoma represents a significant challenge in cancer treatment due to the high drug resistance of melanomas and the patient mortality rate. This study presents data indicating that nanomolar concentrations of the hormonally active form of vitamin D, 1α,25‑dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3], its non‑calcemic analogues 20S‑hydroxyvitamin D3 and 21‑hydroxypregnacalciferol, as well as the low‑calcemic synthetic analog calcipotriol, modulate the efficacy of the anticancer drugs cisplatin and dacarbazine. It was observed that vitamin D analogs sensitized melanoma A375 cells to hydrogen peroxide used as an inducer of oxidative stress. On the other hand, only 1α,25(OH)2D3 resulted in a minor, but significant effect on the proliferation of melanoma cells treated simultaneously with dacarbazine, but not cisplatin. Notably, cisplatin (300 µM) exhibited a higher overall antiproliferative activity than dacarbazine. Cisplatin treatment of melanoma cells resulted in an induction of apoptosis as demonstrated by flow cytometry (accumulation of cells at the subG1 phase of the cell cycle), whereas dacarbazine caused G1/G0 cell cycle arrest, with the effects being improved by pre‑treatment with vitamin D analogs. Treatment with cisplatin resulted in an initial increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dacarbazine caused transient stimulation of ROS levels and the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) (after 1 or 3 h of treatment, respectively), but the effect was not detectable following prolonged (24 h) incubation with the drug. Vitamin D exhibited modulatory effects on the cells treated with dacarbazine, decreasing the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for the drug, stimulating G1/G0 arrest and causing a marked decrease in Δψm. Finally, cisplatin, dacarbazine and 1α,25(OH)2D3 displayed modulatory effects on the expression of ROS and vitamin D‑associated genes in the melanoma A375 cells. In conclusion, nanomolar concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 only had minor effects on the proliferation of melanoma cells treated with dacarbazine, decreasing the relative IC50 value. However, co‑treatment with vitamin D analogs resulted in the modulation of cell cycle and ROS responses, and affected gene expression, suggesting possible crosstalk between the signaling pathways of vitamin D and the anticancer drugs used in this study.

Yasui M, Kawahara T, Izumi K, et al.
Androgen receptor mRNA expression is a predictor for recurrence-free survival in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):331 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-muscular invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a high risk of recurrence. As androgen receptor (AR) reportedly affects bladder cancer, we assessed the correlation between NMIBC recurrence and tumor AR expression in Japanese patients.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 53 specimens of non-metastatic NMIBC, with recurrence-free survival (RFS) as the primary endpoint. We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to quantify AR mRNA expression. Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimators were used to assess RFS distribution, log-rank tests to analyze differences in RFS between high- and low-risk groups; and multivariate analyses of AR mRNA expression and other clinicopathological factors to predict independent factors for RFS.
RESULTS: The high AR mRNA-expressing group (n = 43) tended to have a longer median RFS (not reached) than did the low-AR group (n = 10; 9.04 months; P = 0.112). Multivariate analysis showed female sex (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.360, 95% CI: 1.649-32.856, P = 0.009), tumor size ≥3 cm (HR: 23.697, 95% CI: 4.383-128.117, P < 0.001) and low AR mRNA expression (HR: 0.202, 95% CI: 0.048-0.841, P = 0.028) to be independent predictors of shorter RFS.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that low AR mRNA expression level is an independent risk factor for RFS in Japanese patients with NMIBC. Further studies are necessary but AR expression might be a new indicator of recurrence of NMIBC.

Campoy EM, Branham MT, Mayorga LS, Roqué M
Intratumor heterogeneity index of breast carcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):328 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer cells evolve and constitute heterogeneous populations that fluctuate in space and time and are subjected to selection generating intratumor heterogeneity. This phenomenon is determined by the acquisition of genetic/epigenetic alterations and their selection over time which has clinical implications on drug resistance.
METHODS: DNA extracted from different tumor cell populations (breast carcinomas, cancer cell lines and cellular clones) were analyzed by MS-MLPA. Methylation profiles were used to generate a heterogeneity index to quantify the magnitude of epigenetic heterogeneity in these populations. Cellular clones were obtained from single cells derived of MDA-MB 231 cancer cell lines applying serial limiting dilution method and morphology was analyzed by optical microscopy and flow cytometry. Clones characteristics were examined through cellular proliferation, migration capacity and apoptosis. Heterogeneity index was also calculated from beta values derived from methylation profiles of TCGA tumors.
RESULTS: The study of methylation profiles of 23 fresh breast carcinomas revealed heterogeneous allele populations in these tumor pieces. With the purpose to measure the magnitude of epigenetic heterogeneity, we developed an heterogeneity index based on methylation information and observed that all tumors present their own heterogeneity level. Applying the index calculation in pure cancer cell populations such as cancer cell lines (MDA-MB 231, MCF-7, T47D, HeLa and K-562), we also observed epigenetic heterogeneity. In addition, we detected that clones obtained from the MDA-MB 231 cancer cell line generated their own new heterogeneity over time. Using TCGA tumors, we determined that the heterogeneity index correlated with prognostic and predictive factors like tumor size (p = 0.0088), number of affected axillary nodes (p = 0.007), estrogen receptor expression (p < 0.0001) and HER2 positivity (p = 0.0007). When we analyzed molecular subtypes we found that they presented different heterogeneity levels. Interestingly, we also observed that all mentioned tumor cell populations shared a similar Heterogeneity index (HI) mean.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that each tumor presents a unique epigenetic heterogeneity level, which is associated with prognostic and predictive factors. We also observe that breast tumor subtypes differ in terms of epigenetic heterogeneity, which could serve as a new contribution to understand the different prognosis of these groups.

Gamboa-Cedeño AM, Castillo M, Xiao W, et al.
Alternative and canonical NF-kB pathways DNA-binding hierarchies networks define Hodgkin lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin diffuse large B Cell lymphoma respectively.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(6):1437-1448 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Despite considerable evidence that supports the NF-kB role in the immune system and lymphomagenesis, it is unclear whether specific NF-kB dimers control a particular set of genes that account for their biological functions. Our previous work showed that Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) is unique, among germinal center (GC)-derived lymphomas, with respect to its dependency on Rel-B to survive. In contrast, diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including both Activated B-Cell-Like and Germinal Center B-Cell-Like, requires cREL and Rel-A to survive and it is not affected by Rel-B depletion. These findings highlighted the activity of specific NF-kB subunits in different GC-derived lymphomas.
METHODS: Sequenced chromatin immunoprecipitated DNA fragments (ChIP-Seq) analysis revealed an extensive NF-kB DNA-binding network in DLBCL and HL. The ChIP-Seq data was merged with microarray analysis following the Rel-A, Rel-B or cRel knockdown to determine effectively regulated genes.
RESULTS: Downstream target analysis showed enrichment for cell cycle control, among other signatures. Rel-B and cRel controlled different genes within the same signature in HL and DLBCL, respectively. BCL2 was exclusively controlled by Rel-B in HL. Both mRNA and protein levels decreased following Rel-B depletion meanwhile there was no change upon cRel knock-down. BCL2 exogenous expression partially rescued the death induced by decreased Rel-B in HL cells.
CONCLUSION: The Rel-B hierarchical network defined HL and the cRel hierarchical network characterized DLBCL. Each Rel member performs specific functions in distinct GC-derived lymphomas. This result should be considered for the development of targeted therapies that are aimed to selectively inhibit individual NF-kB dimers.

Yu J, Zhang L, Yan G, et al.
Discovery and biological evaluation of novel androgen receptor antagonist for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Eur J Med Chem. 2019; 171:265-281 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common malignancy in men worldwide. Among current therapies, two antiandrogens, Abiraterone Acetate and Enzalutamide (Enza) have become the standard of care for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here, we designed and synthesized a new series of nonsteroidal compounds deriving from the hybridization of Abiraterone (Abi) and Enzalutamide, among which compound 4a featuring the diphenylamine scaffold was identified as a potent and cell selective androgen receptor (AR) antagonist. In cell proliferation assays, compound 4a exhibited better antiproliferative activities than Enzalutamide against AR-overexpressing VCaP cells and 22Rv1 cells bearing H874Y-mutated AR. In addition, 4a suppressed the activity of AR-F876L mutant that confers resistance to Enzalutamide and efficiently blocked R1881-induced PSA and FKBP5 gene expression. In competitive binding assay, compound 4a displayed higher binding affinity to AR than Enzalutamide. These results suggest compound 4a as a potential candidate to treat Enza-resistant CRPC.

Kuwano M, Shibata T, Watari K, Ono M
Oncogenic Y-box binding protein-1 as an effective therapeutic target in drug-resistant cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(5):1536-1543 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Y-box binding protein-1 (YBX1), a multifunctional oncoprotein containing an evolutionarily conserved cold shock domain, dysregulates a wide range of genes involved in cell proliferation and survival, drug resistance, and chromatin destabilization by cancer. Expression of a multidrug resistance-associated ATP binding cassette transporter gene, ABCB1, as well as growth factor receptor genes, EGFR and HER2/ErbB2, was initially discovered to be transcriptionally activated by YBX1 in cancer cells. Expression of other drug resistance-related genes, MVP/LRP, TOP2A, CD44, CD49f, BCL2, MYC, and androgen receptor (AR), is also transcriptionally activated by YBX1, consistently indicating that YBX1 is involved in tumor drug resistance. Furthermore, there is strong evidence to support that nuclear localization and/or overexpression of YBX1 can predict poor outcomes in patients with more than 20 different tumor types. YBX1 is phosphorylated by kinases, including AKT, p70S6K, and p90RSK, and translocated into the nucleus to promote the transcription of resistance- and malignancy-related genes. Phosphorylated YBX1, therefore, plays a crucial role as a potent transcription factor in cancer. Herein, a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy is presented by targeting activated YBX1 to overcome drug resistance and malignant progression.

Qin J, Cui N, Hou R, et al.
Association between androgen receptor gene polymorphisms and testicular germ cell tumor: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2019; 15(Supplement):S60-S68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: To estimate association between androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphisms and testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) susceptibility.
Materials and Methods: Systematic search of studies on the association between AR gene polymorphisms and TGCT susceptibility was conducted. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to pool effect size.
Results: For CAG repeat, no evidence was found for association between (>25 vs. ≤25), (>25 vs. 21-25), (<21 vs. 21-25), (others vs. 21-25), (>23 vs. ≤23), (<21 vs. ≥21), (<21 vs. ≥21)'s some subgroups and TGCT susceptibility, which showed stability. In (>24 vs. ≤24), (>24 vs. 21-24), (<21 vs. 21-24), and (others vs. 21-24) and almost all of their subgroups, increased TGCT risk was found without sensitivity analysis. For GGN, no statistical change of TGCT risk was found in (<23 vs. ≥23), (<23 vs. 23), which showed stability. For single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6152 G > A, rs1204038 G > A and rs2361634 A > G, no statistical change was found without sensitivity analysis.
Conclusions: GGN repeat number <23 may not be associated with TGCTs susceptibility. However, there was insufficient data to fully confirm association in GGN repeat number >23, CAG repeat number, SNP rs6152, rs1204038, and rs2361634.

Kalmouni M, Al-Hosani S, Magzoub M
Cancer targeting peptides.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019; 76(11):2171-2183 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite continuing advances in the development of biomacromolecules for therapeutic purposes, successful application of these often large and hydrophilic molecules has been hindered by their inability to efficiently traverse the cellular plasma membrane. In recent years, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have received considerable attention as a promising class of delivery vectors due to their ability to mediate the efficient import of a large number of cargoes in vitro and in vivo. However, the lack of target specificity of CPPs remains a major obstacle to their clinical development. To address this issue, researchers have developed strategies in which chemotherapeutic drugs are conjugated to cancer targeting peptides (CTPs) that exploit the unique characteristics of the tumor microenvironment or cancer cells, thereby improving cancer cell specificity. This review highlights several of these strategies that are currently in use, and discusses how multi-component nanoparticles conjugated to CTPs can be designed to provide a more efficient cancer therapeutic delivery strategy.

Sohn SH, Kim B, Sul HJ, et al.
INC280 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin and EMT signaling pathways and its induce apoptosis in diffuse gastric cancer positive for c-MET amplification.
BMC Res Notes. 2019; 12(1):125 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer is more open related to genetic predisposition. In our RNA sequencing study on gastric cancer patients, Runt-related transcription factor-3 (RUNX3) expression was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer. We showed that decreased levels of RUNX3 are significantly associated with c-MET (r = - 0.4216, P = 0.0130). In addition, c-MET expression is a candidate for targeted therapy in gastric cancer. Therefore, in the present study, the anti-cancer effects of the c-MET inhibitor on gastric cancer cells from positive or negative for c-MET amplification were evaluated.
RESULTS: INC280 treatment inhibits growth of a c-MET-amplified MKN45 (RUNX3-positive) and SNU620 (RUNX3-negative) diffuse type cells. Then, INC280 showed the highest inhibition and apoptotic rates with the lowest IC

Mamidi TKK, Wu J, Hicks C
Integrating germline and somatic variation information using genomic data for the discovery of biomarkers in prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):229 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. High-throughput genotyping has enabled discovery of germline genetic susceptibility variants (herein referred to as germline mutations) associated with an increased risk of developing PCa. However, germline mutation information has not been leveraged and integrated with information on acquired somatic mutations to link genetic susceptibility to tumorigenesis. The objective of this exploratory study was to address this knowledge gap.
METHODS: Germline mutations and associated gene information were derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reports. Somatic mutation and gene expression data were derived from 495 tumors and 52 normal control samples obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We integrated germline and somatic mutation information using gene expression data. We performed enrichment analysis to discover molecular networks and biological pathways enriched for germline and somatic mutations.
RESULTS: We discovered a signature of 124 genes containing both germline and somatic mutations. Enrichment analysis revealed molecular networks and biological pathways enriched for germline and somatic mutations, including, the PDGF, P53, MYC, IGF-1, PTEN and Androgen receptor signaling pathways.
CONCLUSION: Integrative genomic analysis links genetic susceptibility to tumorigenesis in PCa and establishes putative functional bridges between the germline and somatic variation, and the biological pathways they control.

Wanchai V, Jin J, Bircan E, et al.
Genome-wide tracts of homozygosity and exome analyses reveal repetitive elements with Barrets esophagus/esophageal adenocarcinoma risk.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2019; 20(Suppl 2):98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is most commonly seen as the condition in which the normal squamous epithelium lining of the esophagus is replaced by goblet cells. Many studies show that BE is a predisposing factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a particularly lethal cancer. The use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to map BE/EAC genes has previously provided insufficient genetic information to fully characterize the heterogeneous nature of the disease. We therefore hypothesize that rigorous interrogation of other types of genomic changes, e.g. tracts of homozygosity (TOH), repetitive elements, and insertion/deletions, may provide a comprehensive understanding of the development of BE/EAC.
RESULTS: First, we used a case-control framework to identify TOHs by using SNPs and tested for association with BE/EAC. Second, we used a case only approach on a validation series of eight samples subjected to exome sequencing to identify repeat elements and insertion/deletions. Third, insertion/deletions and repeat elements identified in the exomes were then mapped onto genes in the significant TOH regions. Overall, 24 TOH regions were significantly differentially represented among cases, as compared to controls (adjusted-P = 0.002-0.039). Interestingly, four BE/EAC-associated genes within the TOH regions consistently showed insertions and deletions that overlapped across eight exomes. Predictive functional analysis identified NOTCH, WNT, and G-protein inflammation pathways that affect BE and EAC.
CONCLUSIONS: The integration of common TOHs (cTOHs) with repetitive elements, insertions, and deletions within exomes can help functionally prioritize factors contributing to low to moderate penetrance predisposition to BE/EAC.

Sun W, Li L, Du Z, et al.
Combination of phospholipase Cε knockdown with GANT61 sensitizes castration‑resistant prostate cancer cells to enzalutamide by suppressing the androgen receptor signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5):2689-2702 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Castration‑resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a major challenge in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). Phospholipase Cε (PLCε), an oncogene, has been found to be involved in the carcinogenesis, tumor proliferation and migration of several types of cancer. The effects, however, of PLCε on CRPC remains unclear. In the present study, the expression of PLCε and glioma‑associated homolog (Gli)‑1/Gli‑2 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), PCa and CRPC tissues and cells was investigated, and the correlations between PLCε and Gli‑1/Gli‑2 in CRPC tissues and cell lines were further explored. In addition, the effect of PLCε on cell proliferation and invasion was assessed in CRPC cell lines, and the sensitivity of EN‑R and 22RV1 cells to enzalutamide following the downregulation of PLCε expression was determined using lentivirus‑mediated shPLCε and/or treatment with specific Gli inhibitor GANT61. It was found that the PLCε expression was excessively upregulated in the majority of CRPC tissues, and PLCε positivity was linked to poor progression‑free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with PCa. Furthermore, PLCε knockdown significantly suppressed CRPC cell proliferation and invasion. Of note, it was found that PLCε knockdown increased the sensitivity of CRPC cells to enzalutamide in vitro by suppressing androgen receptor (AR) activities via the non‑canonical Hedgehog/Gli‑2 and p‑STAT3 signaling pathways. PLCε knockdown was shown to increase the sensitivity of CRPC cell xenografts to enzalutamide in vivo. Finally, the combination of PLCε knockdown with GANT61 significantly sensitized CRPC cells to enzalutamide. Collectively, the results of the present study suggest that PLCε is a potential therapeutic target for CRPC.

Sekino Y, Sakamoto N, Ishikawa A, et al.
Transcribed ultraconserved region Uc.63+ promotes resistance to cisplatin through regulation of androgen receptor signaling in bladder cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5):3111-3118 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cisplatin (CDDP)‑based combination chemotherapy is the standard for muscle‑invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, nearly all patients undergoing CDDP chemotherapy become refractory due to the development of CDDP resistance. Therefore, clarification of the mechanisms of CDDP resistance is urgently needed. The transcribed ultraconserved regions (T‑UCRs) are a novel class of non‑coding RNAs that are highly conserved across species and are associated with carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In addition, emerging evidence has shown the involvement of androgen receptor (AR) signals in urothelial carcinoma (UC) progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of transcribed ultraconserved region Uc.63+, and to analyze the effects of Uc.63+ on AR expression and CDDP resistance in UC. Quantitative reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (qRT‑PCR) revealed that the expression of Uc.63+ was higher in UC tissues than that in non‑neoplastic bladder tissues and 15 types of normal tissue. An MTT assay revealed that Uc.63+ was involved in cell proliferation. Western blotting demonstrated that the expression of AR was disrupted by the overexpression or knockdown of Uc.63+ in AR‑positive UMUC3 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of Uc.63+ increased sensitivity to CDDP in UMUC3 cells. Conversely, overexpression of Uc.63+ had no effect on CDDP sensitivity in AR‑negative RT112 cells. Additionally, we observed that the expression of Uc.63+ was increased in CDDP‑resistant UMUC3 cells (UMUC3‑CR) in comparison with that in parental UMUC3 cells. Knockdown of Uc.63+ re‑sensitized the UMUC3‑CR cells to CDDP. These results indicated that Uc.63+ may be a promising therapeutic target to overcome CDDP resistance in UC.

Yang C, Zhang W, Wang J, et al.
Effect of docetaxel on the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3864-3870 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a common type of malignancy. Given the complexity of prostate cancer and the pressing challenge of chemoresistance, the current study was conducted to investigate the effect of docetaxel (Doc) on androgen receptor (AR)‑dependent and AR‑independent prostate cancers cells. Subsequent experiments were designed to explore the mechanism underlying the Doc‑induced apoptosis. Three different human prostate cancer cell lines, namely PC‑3, LNCaP and DU‑145, were exposed to various concentrations of Doc. The cytotoxic effects of Doc were evaluated by an MTT assay, while apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometric analysis of cells stained with Annexin V‑FITC and propidium iodide. Western blot assay was also used to measure the protein levels of B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated death promoter (Bad), total protein kinase B (Akt), phospho‑Akt and caspase‑3/9. Doc induced cytotoxicity in all three cell lines in a dose‑dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values for the effect of Doc on PC‑3, DU‑145 and LNCaP cells were 3.72, 4.46 and 1.13 nM, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicated a significant difference in Doc sensitivity between AR‑dependent and AR‑independent prostate cancer cells. Evaluation of key gene expression at protein levels revealed a notable decrease in antiapoptotic Bcl‑2 and p‑Akt levels, along with a significant increase in pro‑apoptotic Bad, caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 levels. Therefore, Doc may induce cell apoptosis in prostate cancer via various pathways.

Ishigami-Yuasa M, Ekimoto H, Kagechika H
Class IIb HDAC Inhibition Enhances the Inhibitory Effect of Am80, a Synthetic Retinoid, in Prostate Cancer.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2019; 42(3):448-452 [PubMed] Related Publications
Combination therapy is often an effective strategy to treat cancer. In this study, we examined the growth-inhibitory effects of Am80 (tamibarotene), a specific retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α/β agonist, in combination with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), or a DNA methyl transferase (DNMT) inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, on androgen receptor (AR)-positive and AR-negative prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and PC-3, respectively). We found that the combination therapy of SAHA and Am80 showed an enhanced growth-inhibitory effect on LNCaP cells. Further studies with various HDAC isotype-selective inhibitors showed that SAHA and KD5170 (a selective class I and II HDAC inhibitor) each increased the RARα protein level in LNCaP cells. Our results indicate that the target of the enhancing effect belongs to the Class IIb HDACs, especially HDAC6. Dual targeting of Class IIb HDAC and RARα may be a candidate therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer.

Myers MB, McKim KL, Banda M, et al.
Low-Frequency Mutational Heterogeneity of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Subtypes: Information to Direct Precision Oncology.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Information regarding the role of low-frequency hotspot cancer-driver mutations (CDMs) in breast carcinogenesis and therapeutic response is limited. Using the sensitive and quantitative Allele-specific Competitor Blocker PCR (ACB-PCR) approach, mutant fractions (MFs) of six CDMs (

Leonardi DB, Anselmino N, Brandani JN, et al.
Heme Oxygenase 1 Impairs Glucocorticoid Receptor Activity in Prostate Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Glucocorticoids are used during prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. However, they may also have the potential to drive castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) growth via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Given the association between inflammation and PCa, and the anti-inflammatory role of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), we aimed at identifying the molecular processes governed by the interaction between HO-1 and GR. PCa-derived cell lines were treated with Hemin, Dexamethasone (Dex), or both. We studied GR gene expression by RTqPCR, protein expression by Western Blot, transcriptional activity using reporter assays, and nuclear translocation by confocal microscopy. We also evaluated the expression of HO-1, FKBP51, and FKBP52 by Western Blot. Hemin pre-treatment reduced Dex-induced GR activity in PC3 cells. Protein levels of FKBP51, a cytoplasmic GR-binding immunophilin, were significantly increased in Hemin+Dex treated cells, possibly accounting for lower GR activity. We also evaluated these treatments in vivo using PC3 tumors growing as xenografts. We found non-significant differences in tumor growth among treatments. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed strong nuclear GR staining in almost all groups. We did not observe HO-1 staining in tumor cells, but high HO-1 reactivity was detected in tumor infiltrating macrophages. Our results suggest an association and crossed modulation between HO-1 and GR pathways.

Kiliccioglu I, Konac E, Dikmen AU, et al.
Hsp-27 and NF-κB pathway is associated with AR/AR-V7 expression in prostate cancer cells.
Gene. 2019; 697:138-143 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present study, NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 and/or Hsp-27 inhibitor KRIBB-3 agents were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms mediating androgen receptor expression on prostate cancer cell lines. The decrease observed in androgen receptor and p65 expressions, particularly at 48 h, in parallel with the decrease in the phosphorylation of the p-IKK α/β and p-Hsp-27 proteins in the LNCaP cells, indicated that androgen receptor inactivation occurred after the inhibition of the NF-κB and Hsp-27. In 22Rv1 cells, androgen receptor variant-7 was also observed to be decreased in the combined dose of 48 h. The association of this decrease with the decrease in androgen receptor and p65 expressions is a supportive result for the role of NF-κB signaling in the formation of androgen receptor variant. In androgen receptor variant-7 siRNA treatment in 22Rv1 cell lines, decrease of expression of androgen receptor variant-7 as well as decrease of expression of androgen receptor and p65 were observed. The decrease statistically significant in androgen receptor and p65 expressions was even greater when siRNA treatment was followed with low dose and time (6 h) combined treatment after transfection. We also showed that increased Noxa and decreased Bcl-2 protein level, indicated that apoptotic induction after this combination. In conclusion, inhibition of NF-κB and Hsp-27 is also important, along with therapies for androgen receptor variant-7 inhibition.

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