Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (10)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: AQP3 (cancer-related)
Pak S, Kim W, Kim Y, et al.Dihydrotestosterone promotes kidney cancer cell proliferation by activating the STAT5 pathway via androgen and glucocorticoid receptors.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(9):2293-2301 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Androgen receptors (ARs) are expressed on a variety of cell types, and AR signaling plays an important role in tumor development and progression in several cancers. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the proliferation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in relation to AR status.
METHODS: Steroid hormone receptor expression was evaluated using RT-PCR and Western blotting. The effect of DHT on cell proliferation and STAT5 phosphorylation was evaluated in RCC cell lines (Caki-2, A498, and SN12C) and primary RCC cells using cell viability assays and Western blotting. ARs and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) were knocked down with small interfering RNAs before assessing changes in cell proliferation and STAT5 activation.
RESULTS: DHT treatment promoted cell proliferation and increased STAT5 phosphorylation regardless of AR status. The AR antagonist bicalutamide reduced kidney cancer cell proliferation, regardless of AR status. AR and GR knockdown blocked STAT5 activation and reduced cell proliferation in all RCC cell lines. In patient-derived primary cells, DHT enhanced cell proliferation and this effect was diminished by treatment with the AR antagonists bicalutamide and enzalutamide and the GR antagonist mifepristone.
CONCLUSION: DHT promotes cell proliferation through STAT5 activation in RCC cells, regardless of AR status. DHT appears to utilize the AR and GR pathways to activate STAT5, and the inhibition of AR and GR showed antitumor activity in RCC cells. These data suggest that targeting AR and GR may be a promising new approach to the treatment of RCC.
Song Y, Park IS, Kim J, Seo HRActinomycin D inhibits the expression of the cystine/glutamate transporter xCT via attenuation of CD133 synthesis in CD133
Chem Biol Interact. 2019; 309:108713 [PubMed
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Liver cancer is one of the most frequently occurring types of cancer with high mortality rate. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently metastasizes to lung, portal vein, and portal lymph nodes and most HCCs show strong resistance to conventional anticancer drugs. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be responsible for resistance to therapies. Hence, recent advancements in the use of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) are rapidly gaining recognition as an efficient and organized means for developing antitumor agents. We aimed to use a non-target-based high-throughput screening (HTS) approach to specifically target α-fetoprotein (AFP)
Hyun KH, Gil KC, Kim SG, et al.Delphinidin Chloride and Its Hydrolytic Metabolite Gallic Acid Promote Differentiation of Regulatory T cells and Have an Anti-inflammatory Effect on the Allograft Model.
J Food Sci. 2019; 84(4):920-930 [PubMed
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Regulatory T cells (Tregs) control the reactivity of other T cells to prevent excessive inflammatory responses. They also plays a role in preventing autoimmune diseases; but when they are overproduced, they decreased vital immunity, which can lead to invasion of external pathogens. Therefore, it is most important in preventing the development of immune diseases to maintain the homeostasis of these cells. Delphinidin chloride is an anthocyanidin and known to have anti-oxidant activities. However, its structure is very unstable and easily decomposed. One of these degradation products is gallic acid, which also has anti-oxidant effects. In this study, we examined the effect of these materials on Tregs in controlling immune response. It was found that these materials further promote differentiation into Tregs, and TGF-β and IL-2 related signals are involved in this process. Furthermore, it was verified that a variety of immunosuppressive proteins were secreted more, and the function of induced Tregs was also increased. Finally, in the allograft model, we could find a decrease in activated T cells when these materials were treated because they increased differentiation into Tregs. Therefore, these two materials are expected to become new candidates for the treatment of diseases caused by excessive activation of immune cells, such as autoimmune diseases. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Delphinidin, a kind of anthocyanin rich in pigmented fruits, and its hydrolytic metabolite, gallic acid, are known to have antimicrobial and anti-oxidant properties. In this experiment, it was shown that delphinidin and gallic acid had an effect of increasing the differentiation of regulatory T cells, and the effect of suppressing the function of memory T cells was also observed. Due to these functions, delphinidin and gallic acid might have the potential to be used as immune suppressive agents in organ transplant and autoimmune disease patients or be a model for food development associated with the immune system.
Mok TSK, Wu YL, Kudaba I, et al.Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for previously untreated, PD-L1-expressing, locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-042): a randomised, open-label, controlled, phase 3 trial.
Lancet. 2019; 393(10183):1819-1830 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: First-line pembrolizumab monotherapy improves overall and progression-free survival in patients with untreated metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer with a programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumour proportion score (TPS) of 50% or greater. We investigated overall survival after treatment with pembrolizumab monotherapy in patients with a PD-L1 TPS of 1% or greater.
METHODS: This randomised, open-label, phase 3 study was done in 213 medical centres in 32 countries. Eligible patients were adults (≥18 years) with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer without a sensitising EGFR mutation or ALK translocation and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score of 0 or 1, life expectancy 3 months or longer, and a PD-L1 TPS of 1% or greater. Randomisation was computer generated, accessed via an interactive voice-response and integrated web-response system, and stratified by region of enrolment (east Asia vs rest of world), ECOG performance status score (0 vs 1), histology (squamous vs non-squamous), and PD-L1 TPS (≥50% vs 1-49%). Enrolled patients were randomly assigned 1:1 in blocks of four per stratum to receive pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks for up to 35 cycles or the investigator's choice of platinum-based chemotherapy for four to six cycles. Primary endpoints were overall survival in patients with a TPS of 50% or greater, 20% or greater, and 1% or greater (one-sided significance thresholds, p=0·0122, p=0·0120, and p=0·0124, respectively) in the intention-to-treat population, assessed sequentially if the previous findings were significant. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02220894.
FINDINGS: From Dec 19, 2014, to March 6, 2017, 1274 patients (902 men, 372 women, median age 63 years [IQR 57-69]) with a PD-L1 TPS of 1% or greater were allocated to pembrolizumab (n=637) or chemotherapy (n=637) and included in the intention-to-treat population. 599 (47%) had a TPS of 50% or greater and 818 patients (64%) had a TPS of 20% or greater. As of Feb 26, 2018, median follow-up was 12·8 months. Overall survival was significantly longer in the pembrolizumab group than in the chemotherapy group in all three TPS populations (≥50% hazard ratio 0·69, 95% CI 0·56-0·85, p=0·0003; ≥20% 0·77, 0·64-0·92, p=0·0020, and ≥1% 0·81, 0·71-0·93, p=0·0018). The median surival values by TPS population were 20·0 months (95% CI 15·4-24·9) for pembrolizumab versus 12·2 months (10·4-14·2) for chemotherapy, 17·7 months (15·3-22·1) versus 13·0 months (11·6-15·3), and 16·7 months (13·9-19·7) versus 12·1 months (11·3-13·3), respectively. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse occurred in 113 (18%) of 636 treated patients in the pembrolizumab group and in 252 (41%) of 615 in the chemotherapy group and led to death in 13 (2%) and 14 (2%) patients, respectively.
INTERPRETATION: The benefit-to-risk profile suggests that pembrolizumab monotherapy can be extended as first-line therapy to patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer without sensitising EGFR or ALK alterations and with low PD-L1 TPS.
FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.
BACKGROUND: Upregulation of SLC2A genes that encode glucose transporter (GLUT) protein is associated with poor prognosis in many cancers. In colorectal cancer, studies reporting the association between overexpression of GLUT and poor clinical outcomes were flawed by small sample sizes or subjective interpretation of immunohistochemical staining. Here, we analyzed mRNA expressions in all 14 SLC2A genes and evaluated the association with prognosis in colorectal cancer using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.
METHODS: In the present study, we analyzed the expression of SLC2A genes in colorectal cancer and their association with prognosis using data obtained from the TCGA for the discovery sample, and a dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus for the validation sample.
RESULTS: SLC2A3 was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in both the discovery sample (345 patients) and validation sample (501 patients). High SLC2A3 expression resulted in shorter OS and DFS. In multivariate analyses, high SLC2A3 levels predicted unfavorable OS (adjusted HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.11; P = 0.005) and were associated with poor DFS (adjusted HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.10-3.12; P = 0.02). Similar results were found in the discovery set.
CONCLUSION: Upregulation of the SLC2A3 genes is associated with decreased OS and DFS in colorectal cancer patients. Therefore, assessment of SLC2A3 gene expression may useful for predicting prognosis in these patients.
OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer is more open related to genetic predisposition. In our RNA sequencing study on gastric cancer patients, Runt-related transcription factor-3 (RUNX3) expression was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer. We showed that decreased levels of RUNX3 are significantly associated with c-MET (r = - 0.4216, P = 0.0130). In addition, c-MET expression is a candidate for targeted therapy in gastric cancer. Therefore, in the present study, the anti-cancer effects of the c-MET inhibitor on gastric cancer cells from positive or negative for c-MET amplification were evaluated.
RESULTS: INC280 treatment inhibits growth of a c-MET-amplified MKN45 (RUNX3-positive) and SNU620 (RUNX3-negative) diffuse type cells. Then, INC280 showed the highest inhibition and apoptotic rates with the lowest IC
INTRODUCTION: SLIT-ROBO is a ligand-receptor family of neuronal guidance cues that has been involved in pathological and physiological angiogenesis. SLIT-ROBO expression is altered in many tumours. However, no data exist about the role of the whole family in acute myelogenous myeloid leukemia (AML).
PURPOSE: Herein, we assessed the expression of all SLIT-ROBO family in bone marrow (BM) biopsy of AML patients and control group on both protein and RNA levels.
METHODS: The paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were subjected to immunohistochemistry for SLIT1, SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO2, ROBO3, and ROBO4. Microvessel density (MVD) was evaluated by CD34 immunohistochemistry. An in silico analysis using The Cancer Genome Atlas data repository was conducted for assessment of RNA level.
RESULTS: Acute myeloid leukemia patients were generally high expressers of ROBO1 and ROBO2 compared to the controls (p < 0.0001, p < 0.001, respectively). In contrast, low expression of SLIT1, SLIT2, and SLIT3 ligands has been noted more commonly in AML than in control BM samples (p < 0.0001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.001, respectively). ROBO4 expression correlated with MVD. The in silico analysis showed a poor prognostic value of high ROBO3 and low SLIT2 RNA levels (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0008, respectively), as well as high ROBO3 and ROBO4 RNA levels in cytogenetic poor risk groups of patients (p = 0.0029 and p = 0.0003, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that SLIT-ROBO family members play a role in the biology of AML. Low expression of SLIT in BM of AML patients may suggest its expression alterations in AML. Increased expression of ROBO1 and ROBO2 in AML patients suggests their participation in AML pathogenesis.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal human cancers. It thrives in a nutrient-poor environment; however, the mechanisms by which PDAC cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to adapt to metabolic stress are still poorly understood. Here, we show that microRNA-135 is significantly increased in PDAC patient samples compared to adjacent normal tissue. Mechanistically, miR-135 accumulates specifically in response to glutamine deprivation and requires ROS-dependent activation of mutant p53, which directly promotes miR-135 expression. Functionally, we found miR-135 targets phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK1) and inhibits aerobic glycolysis, thereby promoting the utilization of glucose to support the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Consistently, miR-135 silencing sensitizes PDAC cells to glutamine deprivation and represses tumor growth in vivo. Together, these results identify a mechanism used by PDAC cells to survive the nutrient-poor tumor microenvironment, and also provide insight regarding the role of mutant p53 and miRNA in pancreatic cancer cell adaptation to metabolic stresses.
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced alopecia has been well documented as a cause of distress to patients undergoing cancer treatment. Almost all traditional chemotherapeutic agents cause severe alopecia. Despite advances in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced alopecia, there is no effective treatment for preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia.
METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the potential role of a multi-target iron chelator, M30 in protecting against cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia in C57BL/6 mice implanted with an osmotic pump. M30 enhanced hair growth and prevented cyclophosphamide-induced abnormal hair in the mice. Furthermore, we examined the gene expression profiles derived from skin biopsy specimens of normal mice, cyclophosphamide-treated mice, and cyclophosphamide treated mice with M30 supplement.
RESULTS: The top genes namely Tnfrsf19, Ercc2, Lama5, Ctsl, and Per1 were identified by microarray analysis. These genes were found to be involved in the biological processes of hair cycle, hair cycle phase, hair cycle process, hair follicle development, hair follicle maturation, hair follicle morphogenesis, regulation of hair cycle.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that M30 treatment is a promising therapy for cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia and suggests that the top five genes have unique preventive effects in cyclophosphamide-induced transformation.
Kim SH, Song Y, Seo HRGSK-3β regulates the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition via reciprocal crosstalk between NSCLC cells and HUVECs in multicellular tumor spheroid models.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):46 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy used for patients with unresectable lung tumors remains largely palliative due to chemoresistance, which may be due to tumor heterogeneity. Recently, multiple studies on the crosstalk between lung cancer cells and their tumor microenvironment (TME) have been conducted to understand and overcome chemoresistance in lung cancer.
METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of reciprocal crosstalk between lung cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells using multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTSs) containing lung cancer cells and HUVECs.
RESULTS: Secretomes from lung cancer spheroids significantly triggered the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) process in HUVECs, compared to secretomes from monolayer-cultured lung cancer cells. Interestingly, expression of GSK-3β-targeted genes was altered in MCTSs and inhibition of this activity by a GSK-3β inhibitor induced reversion of EndMT in lung tumor microenvironments. Furthermore, we observed that HUVECs in MCTSs significantly increased the compactness of the spheroids and exhibited strong resistance against Gefitinib and Cisplatin, relative to fibroblasts, by facilitating the EndMT process in HUVECs. Subsequently, EndMT reversion contributed to control of chemoresistance, regardless of the levels of soluble transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Using the MCTS xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that inhibition of GSK-3β reduces lung cancer volume, and in combination with Gefitinib, has a synergistic effect on lung cancer therapy.
CONCLUSION: In summary, these findings suggest that targeting EndMT through GSK-3β inhibition in HUVECs might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for lung cancer therapy.
Yun S, Kim SH, Cho HS, et al.EWSR1-PBX3 fused myoepithelioma arising in metatarsal bone: Case report and review of the literature.
Pathol Int. 2019; 69(1):42-47 [PubMed
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Intraosseous myoepithelial tumors are very rare. Due to the low incidence and diverse histologic features, accurate diagnosis is challenging, necessitating ancillary immunohistochemistry. Moreover, genetic abnormality in this tumor was not revealed until recently. Although EWSR1 translocation is involved in half of the cases of intraosseous myoepithelioma, only a few cases have indicated its counterpart gene. We herein describe a case of intraosseous myoepithelioma with a novel localization in the fourth metatarsal bone of a 36-year-old female. Cytogenetic analysis using next generation sequencing detected a rare EWSR1-PBX3 fusion. Next generation sequencing could be useful in understanding the cytogenetic characteristics of intraosseous myoepithelioma, and in obtaining an accurate diagnosis of this rare condition.
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) protein expression in pancreatic cancer is largely unknown. In this study, we aimed investigate the clinical significance of FGFR1 expression in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: First, we investigated the relationship between FGFR pathway gene expression and clinicopathological data in three pancreatic cancer cohorts containing 313 cases. Subsequently, to confirm the findings from the discovery cohorts, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) of FGFR1 protein in a validation cohort of 205 pancreatic cancer cases.
RESULTS: In discovery cohort 1, FGFR1 and Klotho beta (KLB) overexpression was associated with low tumor stage (P < 0.05), low tumor grade (P < 0.05), and better overall survival. Multivariate analysis predicted FGFR1 (P < 0.05) as a prognostic factor for better overall survival. In discovery cohorts 2 and 3, only FGFR1 overexpression was associated with better overall survival (P < 0.05). In the validation cohort, there were 15.7% and 61% strong and weak/moderate FGFR1-positive cases, respectively. FGFR1-positive cases showed better overall survival than FGFR1-negative cases (P < 0.05). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed FGFR1 positivity as an independent prognostic factor for better overall survival in pancreatic cancer patients (hazard ratio 0.677, 95% confidence interval 0.471-0.972, P = 0.035).
CONCLUSIONS: FGFR1 expression, as estimated by IHC, may be used to define clinically distinct subtypes in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, FGFR1-based subclassification of pancreatic cancer may lead to new therapeutic approaches for the FGFR1-positive subtype.
Lee HK, Kwon MJ, Seo J, et al.Expression of mucins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6) in ALK-positive lung cancer: Comparison with EGFR-mutated lung cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(3):459-465 [PubMed
] Related Publications
ALK-positive (ALK+) lung adenocarcinoma usually shows a more advanced-staged disease with frequent nodal metastasis and highly aggressive outcomes compared with EGFR-mutated lung cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profiles of several mucins in ALK + lung cancers to gain insight into the relationship between the more aggressive biological nature of ALK + lung cancers and the role of mucins. We examined the immunohistochemical profiles of mucins MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 in 19 ALK + lung cancers compared with 42 EGFR-mutated lung cancers. ALK + cancers were found to occur in younger patients and were characterized by a solid-predominant histologic subtype with frequent signet ring cells and peritumoral muciphages. By contrast, EGFR-mutated cancers lacked ALK-specific histological patterns. Although all MUC1 and MUC5AC were expressed in both subtypes, MUC1 expression in ALK + cancers was visualized exclusively through cytoplasmic staining, whereas those in EGFR-mutated cancers were predominantly membranous staining in apical area (92.9%) and focally in cytoplasmic staining (7.1%). MUC5AC expression in ALK + cancers was exclusively visualized through cytoplasmic staining (100%), whereas EGFR-mutated cancers showed predominantly perinuclear dot-like patterns (90.5%) and focal cytoplasmic staining (9.5%). MUC2 and MUC6 expression was not detected in either type of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of both MUC1 and MUC5AC cytoplasmic expression, coupled with a lack of MUC2 and MUC6 expression in ALK + lung cancer may contribute to the biologically aggressive behavior of ALK + cancer. Inhibitors to these types of mucins may thus act as a barrier to cancerous extension reducing their aggressive behavior.
BACKGROUND: A subset of lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor sensitizing mutations (mEGFR) is common in non-smokers and women, suggesting that mutational stressors other than smoking are involved.
METHODS: Targeted sequencing using a custom panel containing 70 cancer-related genes were performed from 73 cases of lung adenocarcinoma with mEGFR (study cohort). In parallel, publicly available data of 47 TCGA-LUAD cases with mEGFR (LUAD cohort) were extracted from the GDC data portal and analyzed by non-negative matrix factorization using the Maftools package.
RESULTS: In the study cohort, the C > A transversions accounted for 12.9% of all single nucleotide variations (SNVs), comprising the second smallest proportion among SNVs. The E19del-subgroup had a significantly lower mutational burden with significantly higher Ti/Tv ratio than the SNV-subgroup, which includes cases with L858R and other EGFR-TKI sensitizing SNVs. (P = 0.0326 and 0.0002, respectively, Mann-Whitney U test). In the LUAD cohort, the mutational burden was substantially lower than in other TCGA cancer cohorts, and the frequency of C > A transversions was 30.3%, occupying the second frequency. The E19del-subgroup had a lower mutational burden overall and a higher Ti/Tv ratio than the SNV-subgroup (P = 0.0497 and P = 0.0055, respectively, Mann-Whitney U test). Smoking-related signature 4 was observed only in the L858R-subgroup, while ignature 30 and 5 was observed in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Lung adenocarcinoma with mEGFR(+) has a lower mutational burden and does not show a characteristic mutation pattern influenced by smoking. E19del and L858R, which are representative subtypes of mEGFR(+) lung adenocarcinoma, differ in terms of mutational spectrum, as the E19del-subgroup has a lower mutation burden and a higher Ti/Tv ratio than the SNV-subgroup. These findings could help explain the differences in the responses to EGFR-TKIs and in the clinical courses between the two lung adenocarcinoma subgroups.
Pectolinarigenin (PEC), a natural flavonoid that is present in citrus fruits, has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects in several cancers. Though the mechanism of PEC-induced cytotoxicity effects has been documented, the proteomic changes that are associated with the cellular response to this flavonoid are poorly understood in gastric cancer cells. In this study, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins associated with PEC-induced cell death in two human gastric cancer cell lines: AGS and MKN-28. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed a total of 29 and 56 protein spots with significant alteration were screened in AGS and MKN-28 cells respectively. In total, 13 (AGS) and 39 (MKN28) proteins were successfully identified by mass spectrometry from the differential spots and they are known to be involved in signal transduction, apoptosis, transcription and translation, cell structural organization, and metabolism, as is consistent with multiple effects of PEC on tumor cells. Notably, novel target proteins like Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX4 (DDX4) and E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LRSAM1 (LRSAM1) along with the commonly differential expressed proteins on both the cell lines that are treated with PEC were confirmed by immunoblotting. The DDX4 accelerates cell cycle progression by abrogating the G2 checkpoint when overexpressed in cancer cells, while the aberrant expression of LRSAM1 may be involved in the cancer pathology. Thus, proteomic analysis provides vital information about target proteins that are important for PEC-induced cell death in gastric cancer cells.
Despite great progress in research on the subject, the involvement of autophagy in colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis (initiation, progression, metastasis) remains obscure and controversial. Autophagy is a catabolic process, fundamental to cell viability and connected with degradation/recycling of proteins and organelles. In this study, we aimed at investigating the relative expression level of mRNA via Real-Time PCR of 16 chosen genes belonging to Atg8 mammalian orthologs and their conjugation system, comprising GABARAP, GABARAPL1, GABARAPL2, MAP1LC3A, MAP1LC3B, MAP1LC3C, ATG3, ATG7, ATG10, ATG4A, ATG4B, ATG4C, ATG4D, and three genes encoding proteins building the multimeric ATG16L1 complex, namely ATG5, ATG12, and ATG16L1, in 73 colorectal tumors and paired adjacent normal colon mucosa. Our study demonstrated the relative downregulation of all examined genes in CRC tissues in comparison to adjacent noncancerous mucosa, with the highest rate of expression in both tumor and non-tumor tissues observed for GAPARBPL2 and the lowest for MAP1LC3C. Moreover, in patients with advanced-stage tumors and high values of regional lymph nodes, statistically significant downregulation of ATG4D expression in adjacent normal cells was observed. Our study confirms the role of autophagy genes as cancer suppressors in colorectal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, in regard to the ATG4D gene, we observed the influence of tumor microenvironments on gene expression in adjacent colon mucosa.
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer has numerous genomic features that are potentially actionable by targeted agents. Nevertheless, both pre-clinical and clinical research using molecular targeted agents have been very limited in bladder cancer.
RESULTS: We created the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Bladder Cancer (GDBC) database, an integrated database (DB) to facilitate the genomic understanding of bladder cancer in relation to drug sensitivity, in order to promote potential therapeutic applications of targeted agents in bladder cancer treatment. The GDBC database contains two separate datasets: 1) in-house drug sensitivity data, in which 13 targeted agents were tested against 10 bladder cancer cell lines; 2) data extracted and integrated from public databases, including the Cancer Therapeutics Research Portal, Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and the Cancer Gene Census databases, as well as bladder cancer genomics data and synthetic lethality/synthetic dosage lethality connections.
CONCLUSIONS: GDBC is an integrated DB of genomics and drug sensitivity data with a specific focus on bladder cancer. With a user-friendly web-interface, GDBC helps users generate genomics-based hypotheses that can be tested experimentally using drugs and cell lines included in GDBC.
Cancer cells undergo uncontrolled proliferation resulting from aberrant activity of various cell-cycle proteins. Therefore, despite recent advances in intensive chemotherapy, it is difficult to cure cancer completely. Recently, cell-cycle regulators became attractive targets in cancer therapy. Zingerone, a phenolic compound isolated from ginger, is a nontoxic and inexpensive compound with varied pharmacological activities. In this study, the therapeutic effect of zingerone as an anti-mitotic agent in human neuroblastoma cells was investigated. Following treatment of BE(2)-M17 cells with zingerone, we performed a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and colony-formation assay to evaluate cellular proliferation, in addition to immunofluorescence cytochemistry and flow cytometry to examine the mitotic cells. The association of gene expression with tumor stage and survival was analyzed. Furthermore, to examine the anti-cancer effect of zingerone, we applied a BALB/c mouse-tumor model using a BALB/c-derived adenocarcinoma cell line. In human neuroblastoma cells, zingerone inhibited cellular viability and survival. Moreover, the number of mitotic cells, particularly those in prometaphase, increased in zingerone-treated neuroblastoma cells. Regarding specific molecular mechanisms, zingerone decreased cyclin D1 expression and induced the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1). The decrease in cyclin D1 and increase in histone H3 phosphorylated (p)-Ser10 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissues administered with zingerone. These results suggest that zingerone induces mitotic arrest followed by inhibition of growth of neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, zingerone may be a potential therapeutic drug for human cancers, including neuroblastoma.
Kim MH, Park JW, Lee EJ, et al.C16‑ceramide and sphingosine 1‑phosphate/S1PR2 have opposite effects on cell growth through mTOR signaling pathway regulation.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(5):2977-2987 [PubMed
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Recently, sphingolipid derivatives, such as ceramide and sphingosine‑1‑phosphate (S1P), have emerged as key modulators in apoptotic cell death and cell proliferation. This study aimed to clarify the underlying signaling pathways of ceramide and S1P involved in breast cancer cell proliferation. Ceramide acyl chain length is determined by six mammalian ceramide synthases (CerS). We overexpressed CerS1 to 6 in MCF‑7 cells to examine whether ceramide signaling propagation varies as a function of acyl chain length. Among the six CerS, only CerS6 overexpression reduced phosphorylation of Akt, S6 kinase (S6K), and extracellular signal‑regulated kinases (ERK) as shown by western blotting. In addition, CerS6 overexpression reduced MCF‑7 cell proliferation. This effect was partially reversed by co‑treatment with MHY1485, an activator of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), demonstrating an important role for the mTOR pathway in the CerS6‑mediated decrease in MCF‑7 cell proliferation. ERK inhibition, but not Akt inhibition, along with mTOR inhibition synergistically reduced MCF‑7 cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. Notably, the expression of CerS6 and S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2), or CerS6 and sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), were negatively correlated according to the invasive breast carcinoma patient cohort in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. In addition, both SphK1 overexpression and S1P addition increased mTOR phosphorylation as shown by ELISA, while S1PR2 inhibition had the inverse effect. These data suggest that CerS6 and SphK1 regulate mTOR signaling in breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, mTOR activity can be regulated by the balance between S1P and C16‑ceramide, which is generated by CerS6.
BACKGROUND: To study the expression pattern, localisation and potential clinical significance of aquaporin water channels (AQP) both in prostate cancer (PC) cell lines and in benign and malignant human prostate tissue.
METHODS: The AQP transcript and protein expression of HPrEC, LNCaP, DU-145 and PC3 cell lines was investigated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy labelling. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to assess AQP protein expression in surgical specimens of benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as in PC. Tissue mRNA expression of AQPs was quantified by single-step reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Relative gene expression was determined using the 40-ΔC
RESULTS: Transcripts of AQP 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10 and 11 were expressed in all four cell lines, while AQP 9 transcripts were not detected in malignant cell lines. IF microscopy confirmed AQP 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 protein expression. IHC revealed highly heterogeneous AQP 3 protein expression in PC specimens, with a marked decrease in expression in tumours of increasing malignancy. Loss of AQP 9 was shown in PC specimens. mRNA expression of AQP3 was found to be negatively correlated to PSA levels (ρ = - 0.354; p = 0.013), D'Amico risk stratification (ρ = - 0.336; p = 0.012), ISUP grade (ρ = - 0.321; p = 0.017) and Gleason score (ρ = - 0.342; p = 0.011).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to systematically characterize human prostate cell lines, benign prostatic hyperplasia and PC in relation to all 13 members of the AQP family. Our results indicate the differential expression of several AQPs in benign and malignant prostate tissue. A significant correlation was observed between AQP 3 expression and tumour grade, with progressive loss in more malignant tumours. Taken together, AQPs may play a role in the progression of PC and AQP expression patterns may serve as a prognostic marker.
Kim SHericium erinaceus isolectins recognize mucin-type O-glycans as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens on the surface of K562 human leukemia cells.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 120(Pt A):1093-1102 [PubMed
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In Hericium erinaceus mushroom fruiting body, two different lectin groups, HEL1 and HEL2, were identified by using peptide mass fingerprinting based on customized protein sequence databases derived from RNA-Seq data. The HEL2 group included four isoforms designated HEL2a-d. Codon-optimized genes encoding HEL1, HEL2a, and HEL2b were expressed in Escherichia coli to produce fully active soluble proteins designated rHEL1, rHEL2a, and rHEL2b. Interestingly, these lectins showed different molecular weights: approximately 15 kDa for rHEL1 and approximately 120 kDa for rHEL2a and rHEL2b under non-denaturing conditions. rHEL2a and rHEL2b exhibited agglutination activities, but rHEL1 did not show any agglutination activity toward animal erythrocytes. The hemagglutination activity of rHEL2 lectins was strongly inhibited by glycoproteins containing mucin-type O-glycans. Glycan array analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that rHEL2 isolectins interacted strongly with O-glycans harboring the core 1 O-glycan motif, Galβ(1,3)GalNAc. Moreover, the glycan binding specificities of rHEL2 isolectins were comparable to that of peanut agglutinin in their ability to recognize O-glycans attached to leukosialin as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens on the surface of K562 human leukemia cells. These results indicate that rHEL2 isolectins could be used as a powerful tool for analyzing mucin-type O-glycans expressed on the surface of cancer cells.
Wang J, Liu W, Zhao Z, et al.Association of the Aquaporin 3 Gene Polymorphism (rs2231231) with Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Cancers in China.
Intervirology. 2018; 61(2):72-78 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aquaporins are widely expressed in a variety of cancers and were found to play an important role in cell migration, angiogenesis, tumor formation, and tumor development. Thus, they have been proposed as a potential biomarker for some cancers. Accordingly, we analyzed the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism locus of aquaporin 3 (rs2231231) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (EBVaNPC), lymphoma (EBVaL), and gastric carcinoma in China.
METHODS: Sequenom MassARRAY technique and polymerase chain reaction sequencing were used to test the genotype of 393 cases of patients with cancer and 148 normal control (NC) samples. A χ2 test or correction for continuity or the likelihood ratio was used for statistical analysis, and two-sided p values < 0.05 were considered a statistically significant difference.
RESULTS: We found that the genotype distributions were significantly different between either the EBVaNPC group and the NC group or the EBVaL case group and the NC group. However, no statistical associations between rs2231231 and gastric carcinoma was observed in the current study.
CONCLUSIONS: The AQP3 gene polymorphism is associated with a susceptibility to EBVaNPC and EBVaL, and the homozygous AA genotype is more frequently observed in individuals who develop EBVaNPC and EBVaL.
Herrera M, Llorens C, Rodríguez M, et al.Differential distribution and enrichment of non-coding RNAs in exosomes from normal and Cancer-associated fibroblasts in colorectal cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):114 [PubMed
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Exosome production from cancer-associated fibroblasts seems to be an important driver of tumor progression. We report the first in-depth biotype characterization of ncRNAs, analyzed by Next Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics, expressed in established primary human normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) from cancer and normal mucosa tissues from 9 colorectal cancer patients, and/or packaged in their derived exosomes. Differential representation and enrichment analyses based on these ncRNAs revealed a significant number of differences between the ncRNA content of exosomes and the expression patterns of the normal and cancer-associated fibroblast cells. ncRNA regulatory elements are specifically packaged in CAF-derived exosomes, supporting a specific cross-talk between CAFs and colon cancer cells and/or other stromal cells, mediated by exosomes. These sncRNAs are potential biomarkers present in cancer-associated fibroblast-derived exosomes, which should thereby contribute to developing new non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic and predictive methods for clinical applications in management of cancer patients.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that FGFR3 is a potential therapeutic target in urothelial carcinoma (UC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rates and types of FGFR3 aberrations in patients with muscle-invasive UC who received radical resection.
METHODS: We analyzed surgical tumor samples from 74 UC patients who had received radical cystectomy (n = 40) or ureteronephrectomy (n = 34). Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 and nCounter Copy Number Variation Assay were used to detect FGFR3 aberrations.
RESULTS: Fifty-four patients (73%) had high-grade tumors, and 62% had lymph node involvement. Sixteen patients (22%) harbored FGFR3 alterations, the most common of which was FGFR3 mutations (n = 13): Y373C (n = 3), N532D (n = 3), R248C (n = 2), S249C (n = 1), G370C (n = 1), S657S (n = 1), A797P (n = 1), and 746_747insG (n = 1). Three additional patients had a FGFR3-TACC3 rearrangement. The frequency of FGFR3 aberrations was higher in bladder UC (25%) than in UC of the renal pelvis and ureter (18%) but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.444). Genes that were co-aberrant with FGFR3 included APC (88%), PDGFRA (81%), RET (69%), and TP53 (69%).
CONCLUSIONS: We report the frequency and types of FGFR3 aberrations in Korean patients with UC. Patients with FGFR3 mutations or FGFR3-TACC3 fusion may constitute potential candidates for a novel FGFR-targeted therapy in the perioperative setting.
Park JS, Yoon G, Kim HJ, et al.HER2 status in patients with residual rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy: the relationship with molecular results and clinicopathologic features.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(4):413-423 [PubMed
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The specific role of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status in rectal cancers remains unclear. This study therefore aimed to explore clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics, and prognostic value of HER2-positivity in residual mid- and/or low-rectal cancers after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Surgical specimens from 145 patients with residual rectal cancer after preoperative CRT between January 2006 and January 2011 were used to evaluate HER2 status. HER2 protein expression and gene amplification were determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and silver in situ hybridization (SISH) on whole tissue sections, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze molecular characteristics, including microsatellite instability (MSI) and mutations in KRAS exon 2 (codon 12 and 13) and BRAF V600E mutation. Of 139 eligible patients, 8 (5.8%) had HER2 overexpression (IHC 2+ and 3+) that was not associated with clinicopathologic characteristics and patient survival, except positive circumferential resection margin (CRM) (P = 0.012). SISH was performed on 24 patient samples with IHC 1+ (n = 16), 2+ (n = 6), and 3+ (n = 2). HER2 amplification was identified in 3 patients (2.2%); however, this was also associated with positive CRM (P = 0.009) but not survival (all P > 0.05). Moreover, HER2 overexpression and amplification had no relationship with KRAS or BRAF mutations, and MSI status (all P > 0.05). HER2 positivity was found in a minority of rectal cancer patients and was not significantly associated with clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics. Our findings can be helpful in understanding the clinicopathologic bases of HER2 status in rectal cancers.
It has been reported that aquaporin 3 (AQP3) expression is associated with the progression of numerous types of cancer and microRNA (miRNA/miR) processing. However, the effects and precise mechanisms of AQP3 in osteosarcoma (OS) have not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between AQP3 and miR‑488 in OS. The reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) assay was performed to detect the levels of AQP3 and miR‑488 in OS tissues and cell lines, respectively. Cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were detected to analyze the biological functions of miR‑488 and AQP3 in OS cells. Furthermore, mRNA and protein levels of AQP3 was measured by RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis. Furthermore, AQP3 was validated as an miR‑488 target using luciferase assays in OS cells. The present study revealed that the miR‑488 level was significantly downregulated in OS tissues and cell lines, and that the expression of AQP3 was markedly increased. Notable, the low miR‑488 expression level was associated with upregulated AQP3 expression in OS tissues. Furthermore, introduction of miR‑488 markedly suppressed the proliferation, invasion and EMT of OS cells. However, miR‑488-knockdown increased the proliferation, invasion and EMT of OS cells. The present study demonstrated that miR‑488 could directly target AQP3 using bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assays. In addition, AQP3-silencing had similar effects to miR‑488 overexpression on OS cells. Overexpression of AQP3 in OS cells partially reversed the inhibitory effects of miR‑488 mimic. miR‑488 inhibited the proliferation, invasion and EMT of OS cells by directly downregulating AQP3 expression, and miR‑488 targeting AQP3 was responsible for inhibition of the proliferation, invasion and EMT of OS cells.
Oncogene-induced senescence is a potent tumor-suppressive response. Paradoxically, senescence also induces an inflammatory secretome that promotes carcinogenesis and age-related pathologies. Consequently, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) is a potential therapeutic target. Here, we describe an RNAi screen for SASP regulators. We identified 50 druggable targets whose knockdown suppresses the inflammatory secretome and differentially affects other SASP components. Among the screen candidates was PTBP1. PTBP1 regulates the alternative splicing of genes involved in intracellular trafficking, such as EXOC7, to control the SASP. Inhibition of PTBP1 prevents the pro-tumorigenic effects of the SASP and impairs immune surveillance without increasing the risk of tumorigenesis. In conclusion, our study identifies SASP inhibition as a powerful and safe therapy against inflammation-driven cancer.
Mucin1 (MUC1) is a highly glycosylated transmembrane protein that plays a crucial role in the lubrication and protection of normal epithelial cells. However, MUC1 has emerged as a potential target for cancer therapy because it is overexpressed and functions in several types of cancers. Recently, we produced a monoclonal antibody (the anti-hMUC1 antibody) specific to the extracellular region of the MUC1 subunit MUC1-C to evaluate the utility of using anti-MUC1 antibodies in pancreatic cancer models. The anti-hMUC1 antibody recognized the MUC1-C protein in pancreatic cancer cells. Based on immunostaining and confocal image analyses, the anti-hMUC1 antibody initially bound to the cell membrane then was internalized in cancer cells that express MUC1. The anti-hMUC1 antibody suppressed epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated extracellular signal⁻regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression. When the anti-hMUC1 antibody was injected into a xenograft mouse model and traced using an in vivo imaging system, we observed that the anti-hMUC1 antibody was localized to MUC1-expressing pancreatic tumors. Importantly, the anti-hMUC1 monoclonal antibody suppressed pancreatic tumor growth in mice. According to immunohistochemistry analysis using a pancreatic cancer tissue array and the anti-hMUC1 antibody, MUC1 was highly expressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues compared to normal tissues. Therefore, we conclude that the anti-hMUC1 antibody specifically targets MUC1 and suppresses its function in pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo and can be further developed as a promising targeted therapy to treat pancreatic cancer.
BACKGROUND: Personalized treatment for cancer patients is a hot topic of debate, particularly the decision to initiate chemotherapy in patients with Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, HER2-negative tumors in the early stages of breast cancer (BC). Owing to significant advancements in information technology (IT) and genomics, clinicians are increasingly attaining therapeutic goals rapidly and safely by effectively differentiating patient subsets that require chemotherapy. IBM Watson for Oncology (WFO) is a cognitive computing system employed by clinicians to provide evidence-based treatment options for cancer. WFO aids in clinical diagnosis, with claims that it may be superior in performance to human clinicians. The current study was based on the hypothesis that WFO alone cannot effectively determine whether or not chemotherapy is essential for the subset of ER-positive, HER2-negative BC patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From December 2015 to July 2017, 95 patients with ER-positive, HER2- negative BC subjected to treatment were retrospectively examined using WFO, and outputs compared to real clinical practice. Treatment options were suggested by WFO, and WFO recommendations calculated both with and without data from the gene expression assay (GEA).
RESULTS: WFO without GEA was unable to determine the groups of patients that did not require chemotherapy. Concordant therapeutic recommendations between real clinical practice and WFO without GEA were obtained for 23.2% of the patient group. On the other hand, the results of WFO with GEA showed good clinical applicability. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of WFO with GEA were 100%, 80%, 61% and 100%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Our collective findings indicate that WFO without the gene expression assay has limited clinical utility.