VIPR2

Gene Summary

Gene:VIPR2; vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2
Aliases: VPAC2, VPAC2R, VIP-R-2, VPCAP2R, PACAP-R3, DUP7q36.3, PACAP-R-3, C16DUPq36.3
Location:7q36.3
Summary:This gene encodes a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide, a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in smooth muscle relaxation, exocrine and endocrine secretion, and water and ion flux in lung and intestinal epithelia. Its actions are effected through integral membrane receptors associated with a guanine nucleotide binding protein which activates adenylate cyclase. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 2
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Neurosecretory Systems
  • Adenylate Cyclase
  • Gene Expression
  • Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic
  • Lung Cancer
  • Pain
  • Fatigue
  • Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
  • Base Sequence
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cell Differentiation
  • stearyl-norleucine(17)-vasoactive intestinal peptide
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Telomere
  • Leukocytes
  • Pituitary Hormone Receptors
  • VIPR1
  • Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II
  • Sleep
  • Culture Media, Serum-Free
  • Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type I
  • Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Neurites
  • Cyclic AMP
  • Neurons
  • VIP
  • Binding, Competitive
  • Chromosome 7
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Infant
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Regression Analysis
  • Neuropeptides
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • VIPR2
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Receptors
  • Cytogenetics
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: VIPR2 (cancer-related)

Light KC, Agarwal N, Iacob E, et al.
Differing leukocyte gene expression profiles associated with fatigue in patients with prostate cancer versus chronic fatigue syndrome.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013; 38(12):2983-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) often worsens fatigue in patients with prostate cancer, producing symptoms similar to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Comparing expression (mRNA) of many fatigue-related genes in patients with ADT-treated prostate cancer versus with CFS versus healthy controls, and correlating mRNA with fatigue severity may clarify the differing pathways underlying fatigue in these conditions.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on leukocytes from 30 fatigued, ADT-treated prostate cancer patients (PCF), 39 patients with CFS and 22 controls aged 40-79, together with ratings of fatigue and pain severity. 46 genes from these pathways were included: (1) adrenergic/monoamine/neuropeptides, (2) immune, (3) metabolite-detecting, (4) mitochondrial/energy, (5) transcription factors.
RESULTS: PCF patients showed higher expression than controls or CFS of 2 immune transcription genes (NR3C1 and TLR4), chemokine CXCR4, and mitochondrial gene SOD2. They showed lower expression of 2 vasodilation-related genes (ADRB2 and VIPR2), 2 cytokines (TNF and LTA), and 2 metabolite-detecting receptors (ASIC3 and P2RX7). CFS patients showed higher P2RX7 and lower HSPA2 versus controls and PCF. Correlations with fatigue severity were similar in PCF and CFS for only DBI, the GABA-A receptor modulator (r=-0.50, p<0.005 and r=-0.34, p<0.05). Purinergic P2RY1 was correlated only with PCF fatigue and pain severity (r=+0.43 and +0.59, p=0.025 and p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: PCF patients differed from controls and CFS in mean expression of 10 genes from all 5 pathways. Correlations with fatigue severity implicated DBI for both patient groups and P2RY1 for PCF only. These pathways may provide new targets for interventions to reduce fatigue.

Xu HL, Cheng JR, Zhang W, et al.
Re-evaluation of ABO gene polymorphisms detected in a genome-wide association study and risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a Chinese population.
Chin J Cancer. 2014; 33(2):68-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is a fatal malignancy with an increasing incidence in Shanghai, China. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) and other work have shown that ABO alleles are associated with pancreatic cancer risk. We conducted a population-based case-control study involving 256 patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and 548 healthy controls in Shanghai, China, to assess the relationships between GWAS-identified ABO alleles and risk of PDAC. Carriers of the C allele of rs505922 had an increased cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.98] compared to TT carriers. The T alleles of rs495828 and rs657152 were also significantly associated with an elevated cancer risk (adjusted OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.17-2.14; adjusted OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.09-2.10). The rs630014 variant was not associated with risk. We did not find any significant gene-environment interaction with cancer risk using a multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method. Haplotype analysis also showed that the haplotype CTTC was associated with an increased risk of PDAC (adjusted OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.12-1.91) compared with haplotype TGGT. GWAS-identified ABO variants are thus also associated with risk of PDAC in the Chinese population.

Mo LJ, Ye HX, Mao Y, et al.
B7-H4 expression is elevated in human U251 glioma stem-like cells and is inducible in monocytes cultured with U251 stem-like cell conditioned medium.
Chin J Cancer. 2013; 32(12):653-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies indicated that B7-H4, the youngest B7 family, negatively regulates T cell-mediated immunity and is significantly overexpressed in many human tumors. Tumor stem cells are purported to play a role in tumor renewal and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. However, the link between B7-H4 and tumor stem cells is unclear. In this study, we investigated B7-H4 expression in the medium of human glioma U251 cell cultures. Immunofluorescence results showed that U251 cells cultured in serum-free medium (supplemented with 2% B27, 20 ng/mL epidermal growth factor, 20 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor) maintained stem-like cell characteristics, including expression of stem cell marker CD133 and the neural progenitor cell markers nestin and SOX2. In contrast, U251 cells cultured in serum-containing medium highly expressed differentiation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. Flow cytometry analysis showed serum-free medium-cultured U251 cells expressed higher intracellular B7-H4 than serum-containing medium-cultured U251 cells (24%-35% vs. 8%-11%, P < 0.001). Immunofluorescence in purified monocytes from normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed moderate expression of B7-H4 after stimulation with conditioned medium from U251 cells cultured in serum-containing medium. Moreover, conditioned medium from U251 stem-like cells had a significant stimulation effect on B7-H4 expression compared with serum-containing conditioned medium (P < 0.01). Negative costimulatory molecule B7-H4 was preferentially expressed in U251 stem-like cells, and conditioned medium from these cells more effectively induced monocytes to express B7-H4 than conditioned medium from U251 cells cultured in the presence of serum. Our results show that U251 stem-like cells may play a more crucial role in tumor immunoloregulation with high expression of B7-H4.

Fernández-Martínez AB, Carmena MJ, Arenas MI, et al.
Overexpression of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors and cyclooxygenase-2 in human prostate cancer. Analysis of potential prognostic relevance.
Histol Histopathol. 2012; 27(8):1093-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a potent inductor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in human prostate cancer cell lines. There are conflicting data regarding the role of COX-2 in the progression of this disease. Here we examined the expression of VIP receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2) and COX-2 in prostate cancer specimens. Correlations among protein levels and various clinicopathological factors and prognosis of patients were statistically analyzed. For these purposes, formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded prostate tissue specimens from 63 patients with prostate cancer and 9 control samples were used. The expression of VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and COX-2 was analyzed at mRNA levels by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. The corresponding expression at protein level was studied by immunohistochemistry, scored as negative, weak, moderate, or strong, and correlated with different clinicopathological factors by means of multivariate analysis. 88% of prostate cancer tissues overexpressed VPAC1-receptor at mRNA level, 72% VPAC2-receptor and 77% COX-2. Simultaneous overexpression of the three genes was seen in 52% of patients. Similar overexpression patterns were observed at protein level. The correlation between VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptor protein levels was statistically significant. However, no significant correlations existed among protein levels of VPAC receptors and COX-2 with patient age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, tumor stage, Gleason score and survival time. The overexpression of VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and COX-2 in cancer tissue gives them a potential role as targets for diagnosis of prostate cancer but results do not support a clear value as biomarkers for the clinical prognosis of this disease.

Szilasi M, Buglyo A, Treszl A, et al.
Gene expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors in human lung cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2011; 39(4):1019-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of various human carcinomas, the 5-year survival rate for lung cancer remains below 20%. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an important neuropeptide in the control of lung physiology, and exerts its functions mainly through two receptor subtypes, VPAC1 and VPAC2. Receptors for VPAC1 and VPAC2 are present in human lung cancer cells, but very limited information exists about the mRNA expression of these VIP receptor subtypes in lung cancer specimens. The aim of the present study was to investigate by RT-PCR the mRNA expression of the VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors in surgical specimens of 43 human lung cancer specimens and 7 normal lung samples. mRNA expression of the VPAC1 receptor was detected in 51% of the tumor specimens, while the incidence of mRNA expression for VPAC2 was 46%. Twenty-one percent of the tumor samples expressed only the VPAC1 receptor and 16% displayed only the VPAC2 receptor, while 13 samples (30%) expressed neither subtype. Thirteen cancer tissue specimens (30%), expressed both of these VIP receptor subtypes. Three normal lung tissue specimens also displayed gene expression for VPAC1 and/or VPAC2 receptors. Our results support the additional investigation of the role of VIP and its receptors in human lung cancer and suggest a further development of VIP analogs for therapeutic and imaging purposes in this malignancy.

Falktoft B, Georg B, Fahrenkrug J
Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells.
Neuropeptides. 2009; 43(5):387-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ganglia expressing the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) innervate vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) containing neurons suggesting a role of PACAP in regulating VIP expression. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells were applied to study PACAP regulated VIP gene expression aiming to identify the receptor and the signaling proteins involved. The PACAP receptor subtype PAC1 induced VIP gene expression as (i) PACAP and the PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan were equally efficient and approximately 200-fold more potent than VIP, and (ii) PACAP6-38 and PG99-465, antagonists of PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, respectively, abolished and did not affect the PACAP-induced VIP mRNA expression, respectively. A pivotal role of PKA was implicated in addition to partial involvement of PKC and ERK1/2 in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression as H-89, Bisindolylmaleimide I (BIS), Gö6976 and U0126 attenuated the VIP mRNA expression by 93%, 58%, 58% and 40%, respectively. PACAP modulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and CREB/ATF-1 (pCREB/ATF-1) concomitant with a translocation of PKA to the nucleus. Inhibition of conventional PKC isoforms and MEK1/2 completely abolished pERK1/2 without affecting PACAP induced pCREB/ATF-1. In contrast, inhibiting PKA attenuated PACAP induced pCREB/ATF-1. PACAP also enhanced the FOS gene expression and individual presence of H-89, BIS, Gö6976 and U0126 partially attenuated the PACAP induced FOS mRNA expression. Combining the kinase inhibitors completely suppressed the PACAP induced FOS mRNA expression. Immunoblotting confirmed expression of FOS protein upon addition of PACAP, which was diminished by impairment of PKC, ERK1/2 and PKA activities. The resemblance of the signaling pathways involving concomitant activities of PKC, ERK1/2 and PKA in PACAP regulation of the FOS and VIP gene expressions suggest for the first time a role of FOS in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression in human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells.

Siddique ZL, Drozdov I, Floch J, et al.
KRJ-I and BON cell lines: defining an appropriate enterochromaffin cell neuroendocrine tumor model.
Neuroendocrinology. 2009; 89(4):458-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the gastrointestinal (GI) system are increasing in incidence with minimal improvement in prognosis. Although the cell of origin has been identified as the enterochromaffin (EC) cell, its secretory and proliferative regulation has not been defined at a mechanistic level. To date, the BON cell line has been the most widely used in vitro EC cell model despite its pancreatic origin. Using whole-genome mathematical analysis as well as secretory and proliferative studies, we compared the BON cell line to the small intestine (SI) EC cell-derived NET cell line, KRJ-I, to assess individual cell line validity and applicability for the investigation of GI-NET disease.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Principal component analysis and ANOVA of KRJ-I and BON transcriptomes (U133 Plus 2) identified substantially different (<10%) overlap in transcripts with minimal (R(2) = 0.24) correlation in gene expression profiles. RT-PCR detected large variability (>12%) in neuroendocrine (NE) marker transcripts in the BON cell line and the absence of Tph-2, DDC, TGFbetaR2, and M3 transcripts in KRJ-I. The KRJ-I cell line secreted serotonin (5-HT) in response to isoproterenol (EC(50) = 100 nM), noradrenaline (EC(50) = 1.7 nM), and pituitary adenylate cyclase (PACAP, EC(50) = 0.03 nM). Cholecystokinin (IC(50) = 430 nM), somatostatin (IC(50) = 400 nM), acetylcholine (IC(50) = 3.7 nM), and gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A), IC(50) = 2 nM) all inhibited 5-HT release, while gastrin and bombesin had no effect. 5-HT secretion in the BON cell line was stimulated by isoproterenol (EC(50) = 900 nM), noradrenaline (EC(50) = 20 nM), cholecystokinin (EC(50) = 130 nM), PACAP (EC(50) = 0.12 nM), bombesin (EC(50) = 15 nM), and acetylcholine (EC(50) = 0.2 nM). It was inhibited by somatostatin (IC(50) = 300 nM) but not GABA(A). KRJ-I responded with proliferation to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, EC(50) = 0.002 ng/ml), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha, EC(50) = 0.63 ng/ml) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta, EC(50) = 0.63 ng/ml). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and somatostatin had no significant effect. BON cell proliferation was stimulated only by EGF and TGFalpha (EC(50) = 15.8 and 10 ng/ml). TGFbeta (IC(50) = 0.16 ng/ml), MZ-4-147 (IC(50) = 0.5 nM), and BIM23A761 (IC(50) = 0.06 nM) all inhibited proliferation. CTGF and somatostatin had no effect.
CONCLUSION: KRJ-I and BON cell lines demonstrate substantial differences in gene level transcripts, inconsistent receptor profile expression, wide variability in NE marker transcript levels, and significantly differential proliferative and secretory responses. Given the EC cell origin of KRJ-I, these results provide evidence that the BON cell line does not represent an EC cell system and is not a valid study model of (carcinoid) EC cell-derived NET.

Falktoft B, Georg B, Fahrenkrug J
Calmodulin interacts with PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and regulates PACAP-induced FOS expression in human neuroblastoma cells.
Neuropeptides. 2009; 43(2):53-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) mediates its physiological functions through activation of PAC1, VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, and the ubiquitous Ca(2+)-sensor calmodulin has been implicated in PACAP-induced signaling. The immediate early response gene FOS is a well-known marker of neuronal activation, so we used a human neuroblastoma cell line NB-1 to explore the role of calmodulin in PACAP-induced FOS gene expression. We observed both short-term and prolonged altered PACAP-mediated activation of the FOS gene in the presence of the calmodulin-antagonist W-7. NB-1 cells were shown to express PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, and immunoprecipitation of both receptors displayed a co-association with calmodulin in the absence of Ca(2+). Our findings indicate a novel mechanism of calmodulin in regulating PACAP signaling by possible interaction with the inactive state of PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors.

Bartsch O, Vlcková Z, Erdogan F, et al.
Two independent chromosomal rearrangements, a very small (550 kb) duplication of the 7q subtelomeric region and an atypical 17q11.2 (NF1) microdeletion, in a girl with neurofibromatosis.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2007; 119(1-2):158-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most patients with neurofibromatosis (NF1) are endowed with heterozygous mutations in the NF1 gene. Approximately 5% show an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17q11.2 (including NF1) and in most cases also a more severe phenotype. Here we report on a 7-year-old girl with classical NF1 signs, and in addition mild overgrowth (97th percentile), relatively low OFC (10th-25th percentile), facial dysmorphy, hoarse voice, and developmental delay. FISH analysis revealed a 17q11.2 microdeletion as well as an unbalanced 7p;13q translocation leading to trisomy of the 7q36.3 subtelomeric region. The patient's mother and grandmother who were phenotypically normal carried the same unbalanced translocation. The 17q11.2 microdeletion had arisen de novo. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) demonstrated gain of a 550-kb segment from 7qter and loss of 2.5 Mb from 17q11.2 (an atypical NF1 microdeletion). We conclude that the patient's phenotype is caused by the atypical NF1 deletion, whereas 7q36.3 trisomy represents a subtelomeric copy number variation without phenotypic consequences. To our knowledge this is the first report that a duplication of the subtelomeric region of chromosome 7q containing functional genes (FAM62B, WDR60, and VIPR2) can be tolerated without phenotypic consequences. The 17q11.2 microdeletion (containing nine more genes than the common NF1 microdeletions) and the 7qter duplication were not accompanied by unexpected clinical features. Most likely the 7qter trisomy and the 17q11.2 microdeletion coincide by chance in our patient.

Modlin IM, Kidd M, Pfragner R, et al.
The functional characterization of normal and neoplastic human enterochromaffin cells.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 91(6):2340-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Neuroendocrine regulation of small intestinal (SI) function is poorly understood because pure neuroendocrine cells are unavailable, whereas the biological basis of SI carcinoid tumors is unknown because neoplastic human enterochromaffin (EC) cells are unavailable.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to define the secretory regulation and transcriptome of naive and neoplastic SI neuroendocrine cells.
DESIGN: EC cells from human ilea were isolated and purified, and a malignant EC cell carcinoid cell line (KRJ-I) was characterized.
METHODS: Human ilea from right hemicolectomies were pronase/collagenase digested and Nycodenz gradient centrifuged, and EC cells were fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) sorted after acridine orange labeling. Enrichment was defined by immunostaining, gene expression, serotonin (5-HT) content, and real-time RT-PCR. Naive FACS-sorted EC and KRJ-I cells were cultured, and 5-HT secretion was measured after stimulation with forskolin, isoproterenol, acetylcholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-38, and gastrin. Normal and neoplastic EC cell transcriptomes were acquired by Affymetrix profiling (U133A).
RESULTS: FACS produced 100 +/- 0.3% (chromogranin A staining) and 99 +/- 0.7% pure EC cells by immunostaining for tryptophan hydroxylase with greater than 67-fold enrichment and a 5-HT content of 180 +/- 18 ng/mg protein (mucosa, 3.5 +/- 0.9). Forskolin- and isoproterenol-stimulated 5-HT secretion was 10-100 times more potent for naive cells (EC(50), 1.8 x 10(-9) m; 5.1 x 10(-9) m) than neoplastic cells (EC(50), 2.1 x 10(-7) m; 8.1 x 10(-8) m), but the effect of PACAP-38 was similar (EC(50), 1 x 10(-7) m). Isoproterenol stimulated cAMP levels 1.6 +/- 0.1-fold vs. basal (EC(50), 2.7 x 10(-9) m). Acetylcholine inhibited naive EC cell 5-HT secretion more potently than neoplastic (IC(50), 3.2 x 10(-9) vs. 1.6 x 10(-7) m), whereas GABA(A) was more potent in neoplastic cells (IC(50), 3.9 x 10(-10) vs. 4.4 x 10(-9) m). Octreotide inhibited naive, but not neoplastic, basal 5-HT secretion. Gastrin had no effect on 5-HT secretion. Comparison of naive and neoplastic transcriptomes revealed shared neuroendocrine and EC cell-specific marker genes. Real-time PCR confirmed that expression of adrenergic (beta1), somatostatinergic (SST(R)2), and neural (VPAC(1) and GABA(A)) receptors occurred on both cell types, but PACAP type 1 (PAC(1)) and cholecystokinin type 2 (CCK(2)) were undetectable. The putative carcinoid malignancy genes (MTA1 and MAGE-D2) were unique to the neoplastic EC cell transcriptome.
CONCLUSION: These data support novel methodology to purify live human EC cells for functional characterization and transcriptome assessment, which will allow identification of new targets to control the secretion and proliferation of SI carcinoids.

Mammi C, Frajese GV, Vespasiani G, et al.
PAC1-R null isoform expression in human prostate cancer tissue.
Prostate. 2006; 66(5):514-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PACAP is a member of the VIP/GHRH family of neuropeptides and has important effects on prostate cell proliferation. Here we analyze the expression and localization of PACAP and its specific receptor variants (PAC(1)-R) in tissues collected from patients undergoing prostate biopsy and surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa).
METHODS: Reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: PACAP and PAC(1)-R were localized by immunohistochemistry in the prostate tissue. While in healthy and BPH tissues PAC(1)-R positive staining is present in all the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the acini and in some stromal cells (mostly in the apical portion of the cells), in PCa tissues, anti-PAC(1)-R antibody stained the apical portion of the cells. We provide evidence that PAC(1)-R null and SV(1)/SV(2) variants are all present in normal and hyperplastic tissues, while in PCa tissue PAC(1)-R null is the most relevant receptor variant expressed.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrates that the PAC(1)-R null variant is the most relevant isoform expressed in human PCa tissue being suggestively related with the events determining the outcome of prostate cancer.

Lutz EM, Ronaldson E, Shaw P, et al.
Characterization of novel splice variants of the PAC1 receptor in human neuroblastoma cells: consequences for signaling by VIP and PACAP.
Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006; 31(2):193-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of VPAC and PAC1 receptor isoforms was determined in six neuroblastoma cell lines as well as in human embryonic and adult brain using reverse transcriptase PCR and quantitative PCR. PAC1 receptor splice variants missing a 21 amino acid sequence in the amino terminal domain were found to be the major receptor variants in the neuroblastoma cell lines and also were highly expressed in embryonic brain compared to adult brain. In four of the neuroblastoma cell lines, VIP and PACAP stimulated cyclic AMP production with different potencies and levels of maximal stimulation. High potency and greatest maximal stimulation of cyclic AMP for each peptide were recorded in SH-SY5Y cells, indicating the presence of high affinity VIP and PACAP receptors. Further characterization of specific VPAC and PAC1 receptor isoforms was carried out in the SH-SY5Y cell line, where along with known PAC1 receptor splice variants and the VPAC2 receptor, a number of novel PAC1 receptor splice variants were identified. The comparatively low level expression of the VPAC2 receptor along with the poor responsiveness of SH-SY5Y cells to the VPAC2 receptor-specific agonist Ro 25-1553 indicated that this receptor did not contribute significantly to the observed VIP responses. When the individual PAC1 receptor isoforms were expressed in COS 7 cells, the ability of VIP to activate cyclic AMP production was increased more than 50-fold at the majority of the PAC1 receptor variants lacking the 21 amino acid amino terminal domain sequence compared to those with the complete domain. Smaller changes were seen in the potency of PACAP-38. Similar trends were seen with inositol phosphate responses, where in each case agonist potencies were lower than for cyclic AMP production. The results of this study show that the combination of different amino terminal and intracellular loop 3 splicing variants in the PAC1 receptor dictates the ability of agonists, particularly VIP, to activate signaling pathways. VIP has considerably greater potency at most PAC1 receptors with the short amino terminal domain, and these therefore may mediate physiological effects of both VIP and PACAP. Furthermore, there may be a phenotypic switch in the expression of different PAC1 receptor amino terminal splice variants between embryonic and mature nervous system, indicating that regulation of this event may have an important role in VIP/PACAP function, particularly in the developing nervous system.

Nagakawa O, Junicho A, Akashi T, et al.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide stimulate interleukin-6 production in prostate cancer cells and prostatic epithelial cells.
Oncol Rep. 2005; 13(6):1217-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the effect of the vasoactive intestinal (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptides (PACAP) on the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in normal prostate epithelial and stromal cells and prostate cancer cells. We performed RT-PCR analysis to assess the expression of VIP receptor (VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1) mRNA in normal prostate epithelial and stromal cells and prostate cancer cells, and investigated the effect of VIP and PACAP on the production of IL-6. VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1 receptor mRNAs were expressed in LNCaP and DU-145/AR prostate cancer cells and PrEC cells (prostate epithelial cells). VIP stimulated the production of IL-6 in DU-145/AR prostate cancer and PrEC cells. PACAP showed a similar effect on IL-6 production in PrEC cells. VIP stimulated IL-6 promoter transcriptional activity in DU-145/AR cells. These results indicate that VIP and PACAP may modulate the IL-6 production of normal prostate epithelial and prostate cancer cells.

Isobe K, Kaneko M, Kaneko S, et al.
Expression of mRNAs for PACAP and its receptor in human neuroblastomas and their relationship to catecholamine synthesis.
Regul Pept. 2004; 123(1-3):29-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide family, induces the expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medullary cells. In addition, PACAP and its receptor have been detected in human neuroblastoma tissues and cell lines, though it is not yet known whether PACAP enhances the expression of genes encoding catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes. To address this question, we analyzed PACAP, PACAP receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNAs in neuroblastomas.
METHODS: The levels of mRNA for PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), as well as their receptors and the mRNA for TH were measured by RT-PCR or real-time PCR analysis.
RESULTS: VPAC1R mRNA was detected in all of 16 tissues and 3 cell lines that were examined, while VPAC2R mRNA was detected in 5 of 16 (31%) tissue and 2 of 3 cell lines. PAC1R mRNA was detected in 6 out of 16 (38%) tissues and none of 3 cell lines. mRNA expression of PACAP and TH were detected in many tissues (10/16 and 16/16, respectively). However, neither in tissues nor cell lines did PACAP mRNA expression correlate with TH mRNA expression.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PACAP is not involved in the regulation of expression of TH in neuroblastomas.

Busto R, Prieto JC, Bodega G, et al.
VIP and PACAP receptors coupled to adenylyl cyclase in human lung cancer: a study in biopsy specimens.
Peptides. 2003; 24(3):429-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are important neuropeptides in the control of lung physiology. Both of these commonly bind to specific G protein coupled receptors named VPAC(1)-R and VPAC(2)-R, and PAC(1)-R (with higher affinity for PACAP). VIP and PACAP have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation and tumor growth. This study examined the presence of VIP and PACAP receptors in human lung cancer samples, as well as the functionality of adenylyl cyclase (AC) stimulated by both peptides. Results from RT-PCR and immunoblot experiments showed the expression of VPAC(1)-, VPAC(2)- and PAC(1)-R in lung cancer samples. Immunohistochemical studies showed the expression of VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors. These receptors were positively coupled to AC, but the enzyme activity was impaired as compared to normal lung. There were no changes in Galpha(s) or Galpha(i) levels. Present results contribute to a better knowledge of VIP/PACAP actions in lung cancer and support the interest for the development of VIP/PACAP analogues with therapeutic roles.

Isobe K, Tatsuno I, Yashiro T, et al.
Expression of mRNA for PACAP and its receptors in intra- and extra-adrenal human pheochromocytomas and their relationship to catecholamine synthesis.
Regul Pept. 2003; 110(3):213-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the secretin/glucagons/vasoactive intestinal peptide family, induces the expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medullary cells. In addition, PACAP and its receptor have been detected in human pheochromocytoma tissues, though it is not yet known whether PACAP enhances the expression of genes encoding catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes. To address this question, we analyzed PACAP, PACAP receptor, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNAs in pheochromocytomas.
METHODS: The levels of the mRNA for PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and their receptors, and for TH and PNMT were measured by RT-PCR or real-time PCR analysis, and the concentrations of catecholamines were measured by HPLC in 24 intra-adrenal and six extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.
RESULTS: mRNA expression of PACAP and its receptor VPAC1R were detected in many pheochromocytomas (24/30 and 29/30, respectively), but mRNA expression of the PAC1R and VPAC2R receptor subtypes were detected in only one of six extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas. PACAP mRNA expression correlated with TH (p=0.0018) and PNMT (p=0.05) mRNA expression, as well as epinephrine (p=0.0342) levels in 16 intra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.
CONCLUSION: Our findings support a possible role for PACAP in the regulation of expression of genes encoding catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in intra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.

Moody TW, Walters J, Casibang M, et al.
VPAC1 receptors and lung cancer.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000; 921:26-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
VIP/PACAP are autocrine growth factors for lung cancer. VIP and/or PACAP mRNA is present in most lung cancer cell lines examined. Although mRNA for VPAC2-R is not common, VPAC1-R and PAC1-R mRNA is present in many lung cancer cell lines. 125I-VIP binds with high affinity to lung cancer cells and specific 125I-VIP binding is inhibited with high affinity by (Lys15, Arg16, Leu27)VIP1-7 GRF8-27, the VPAC1-R specific agonist, but not by Ro25-1553(18), the VPAC2-R specific agonist. VIP elevates cAMP and increases c-fos gene expression. The increase in cAMP and c-fos mRNA caused by VIP is inhibited by SN(VH). (SH)VH inhibited the proliferation of NCIH1299 cells in the MTT assay, which is based on cytotoxicity. In a recent cell line screen, (SN)VH inhibited the growth of 51 of 56 cancer cell lines including leukemia, lung cancer, colon cancer, CNS cancer, melanoma, ovarian cancer, renal cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer (T. Moody, unpublished). It remains to be determined if (SN)VH will be useful for treatment of a wide variety of cancers.

Frühwald MC, O'Dorisio MS, Fleitz J, et al.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and VIP receptors: gene expression and growth modulation in medulloblastoma and other central primitive neuroectodermal tumors of childhood.
Int J Cancer. 1999; 81(2):165-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuromodulator and growth regulator in the developing nervous system. We analyzed 10 primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) cell lines, 29 central PNET (cPNET) and 17 tumors of the Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral PNET family (ESFT) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern hybridization. Each of the 10 cell lines and 86.2% of cPNET expressed mRNA for VIP receptor 1 (VIPR1) compared to 52.9% of ESFT. VIPR2 was expressed in 75.8% of cPNET, in 28.6% of ESFT and in all 10 cell lines. cPNET demonstrated high-affinity binding of 125I-VIP on quantitative autoradiography and in competitive binding assays. VIP inhibited tumor cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in 5 of 7 PNET cell lines. We conclude that VIPR1 and VIPR2 are highly expressed in cPNET and demonstrate that VIP is a growth modulator in these tumors.

Marie J, Wakkach A, Coudray A, et al.
Functional expression of receptors for calcitonin gene-related peptide, calcitonin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the human thymus and thymomas from myasthenia gravis patients.
J Immunol. 1999; 162(4):2103-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular and functional expression of serpentine membrane receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and calcitonin (CT) were characterized in human thymus and thymomas from myasthenia gravis (MG) patients and thymic epithelial cells either in primary culture (PTEC) or transformed by the simian virus 40 large T (SV40LT) oncogene (LT-TEC). Using RT-PCR combined with Southern analysis, we identified the PCR products corresponding to the receptor (-R) transcripts for VIP, CGRP, and CT in thymus from control subjects and MG patients with either hyperplasia or thymoma. Similar expressions of the VIP- and CGRP-R transcripts were observed in PTEC, whereas the CT-R message was not detected. In LT-TEC, the signals for VIP-R, CGRP-R, and CT-R transcripts were seen with a lower intensity than those in control and MG thymus. In agreement with our molecular analysis, 1) VIP was the most potent peptide among VIP-related peptides (VIP > PACAP > PHM > PHV) to stimulate cAMP production through specific type 1 VIP receptors in both PTEC and LT-TEC; 2) cAMP generation was induced by CGRP in PTEC and by CT in LT-TEC; 3) in frozen thymic sections and by flow cytometry, type 1 VIP-R, CGRP-R, and CT-R were localized in epithelial cells; and 4) in parallel, the transcription of the acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit (the main autoantigen in MG) was induced by CGRP and CT in PTEC and LT-TEC, respectively. Our data suggest that the neuroendocrine peptides VIP, CGRP, and CT may exert functional roles during MG and malignant transformation of the human thymus.

Togari A, Arai M, Mizutani S, et al.
Expression of mRNAs for neuropeptide receptors and beta-adrenergic receptors in human osteoblasts and human osteogenic sarcoma cells.
Neurosci Lett. 1997; 233(2-3):125-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In human periosteum-derived osteoblastic cells (SaM-1) and human osteosarcoma-derived cells (SaOS-2, HOS, MG-63), the mRNA expressions of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRP-R), substance P receptor (SP-R), neuropeptide Y receptor (NPY-R), beta-adrenergic receptors (beta1-R, beta2-R, beta3-R), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide type 1 and type 2 receptors (VIP-1R, VIP-2R) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptor (PACAP-R) were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). According to the magnitude of the mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the relative state of commitment of these osteoblastic cell lines to the osteoblast lineage was SaM-1 > SaOS-2 > HOS > MG-63. CGRP-R, NPY-R, VIP-1R and beta2-R, but not SP-R, VIP-2R, PACAP-R, beta1-R and beta3-R, were expressed in osteoblasts as well as osteosarcoma cells. Expression of these receptors seems to be a common feature in osteoblastic cells, but the magnitude of expression was not dependent upon the relative state of commitment of the osteoblastic cells to the osteoblast lineage. In addition, VIP mRNA was not expressed in osteoblastic cells, suggesting the absence of an autocrine system of VIP in osteoblasts. These observations suggest that these neuropeptides and norepinephrine are involved in local regulation of human bone metabolism.

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