Gene Summary

Gene:ADCYAP1; adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary)
Aliases: PACAP
Summary:This gene encodes a secreted proprotein that is further processed into multiple mature peptides. These peptides stimulate adenylate cyclase and increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, resulting in the transcriptional activation of target genes. The products of this gene are key mediators of neuroendocrine stress responses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (15)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 16 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cervical Cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type I
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Chromosome 18
  • DNA Methylation
  • Alternative Splicing
  • Adenylate Cyclase
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Culture Media, Serum-Free
  • Apoptosis
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Receptors
  • Oncogenes
  • Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
  • Neurosecretory Systems
  • Tumor Markers
  • Cancer RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Catecholamines
  • VIP
  • DNA Primers
  • Lung Cancer
  • Transfection
  • Pituitary Hormone Receptors
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Base Sequence
  • Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II
  • Hormones
  • Cyclic AMP
  • Pituitary Tumors
  • Neuropeptides
  • Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
  • Prostate
  • Messenger RNA
  • VIPR1
  • Neurotransmitter Agents
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ADCYAP1 (cancer-related)

Lee JH, Lee JY, Rho SB, et al.
PACAP inhibits tumor growth and interferes with clusterin in cervical carcinomas.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(24):4730-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Secretory clusterin (sCLU), an anti-apoptotic protein, is overexpressed in many tumors and enhances tumorigenesis and chemo-resistance. However, the regulation mechanism controlling the sCLU maturation process or activity remains undetermined. In this study, we found PACAP as a negative regulator of CLU. Overexpression of the PACAP gene in cervical cancer cell lines lacking PACAP expression significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis. We further demonstrated that interaction of PACAP with CLU significantly downregulated CLU expression and secretion, inhibited the Akt-Raf-ERK pathway, and suppressed the growth of human tumor xenografts in nude mice. This novel inhibitory function of PACAP may be applicable for developing novel molecular therapies for tumors with increased sCLU expression.

Liu S, Zeng Y, Li Y, et al.
VPAC1 overexpression is associated with poor differentiation in colon cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6397-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neurotransmitter that primarily functions as a vasodilator. VIP plays its role through binding to its receptors known as VIP/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptors (VPACs). In this study, we examined the expression of VPAC1 in human colon cancer tissues, analyzed the relationship between VPAC1 expression and cancer malignancy, and explored the possible mechanisms using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence double staining. The results showed that (1) poorly differentiated colon cancers have significantly higher VPAC1 expression than well-differentiated colon cancers do (p < 0.01); (2) phospho-epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression/activation in the cytoplasm of cancer cells is related to VPAC1 overexpression; (3) blood vessels surrounding colon cancer have significantly more VPAC1-positive than normal colon mucosa does; (4) tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) of colon cancer have a higher level of VPAC1 expression than macrophages in normal colon mucosa do. These data suggest that VPAC1 overexpression is associated with poorer differentiation of colon cancer, which is likely caused by subsequent EGFR activation in cancer cells. In addition, VPAC1 overexpression in both blood vessels and macrophages in tumors may also play an important role in the development of aggressive cancer.

Wentzensen N, Bakkum-Gamez JN, Killian JK, et al.
Discovery and validation of methylation markers for endometrial cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(8):1860-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2015 Related Publications
The prognosis of endometrial cancer is strongly associated with stage at diagnosis, suggesting that early detection may reduce mortality. Women who are diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma often have a lengthy history of vaginal bleeding, which offers an opportunity for early diagnosis and curative treatment. We performed DNA methylation profiling on population-based endometrial cancers to identify early detection biomarkers and replicated top candidates in two independent studies. We compared DNA methylation values of 1,500 probes representing 807 genes in 148 population-based endometrial carcinoma samples and 23 benign endometrial tissues. Markers were replicated in another set of 69 carcinomas and 40 benign tissues profiled on the same platform. Further replication was conducted in The Cancer Genome Atlas and in prospectively collected endometrial brushings from women with and without endometrial carcinomas. We identified 114 CpG sites showing methylation differences with p values of ≤ 10(-7) between endometrial carcinoma and normal endometrium. Eight genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL2, HS3ST2, HTR1B, MME, NPY and SOX1) were selected for further replication. Age-adjusted odds ratios for endometrial cancer ranged from 3.44 (95%-CI: 1.33-8.91) for ASCL2 to 18.61 (95%-CI: 5.50-62.97) for HTR1B. An area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 was achieved for discriminating carcinoma from benign endometrium. Replication in The Cancer Genome Atlas and in endometrial brushings from an independent study confirmed the candidate markers. This study demonstrates that methylation markers may be used to evaluate women with abnormal vaginal bleeding to distinguish women with endometrial carcinoma from the majority of women without malignancy.

Xia L, Shen C, Fu Y, et al.
MGC29506 induces cell cycle arrest and is downregulated in gastric cancer.
Cell Immunol. 2013; 281(1):31-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The proapoptotic caspase adaptor protein (PACAP) is involved in cell-cycle regulation and promotes apoptosis. Both MGC29506 and PACAP are isoforms of the MGC29506 gene and are generated by differential splicing of the alternative splice-acceptor. In studying PACAP, we inadvertently constructed the eukaryotic expression vector MGC29506. At present, the function of the MGC29506 gene is largely unknown with the key exception of information obtained by bioinformatics. We studied the role of MGC29506 in gastric cancer cell proliferation, the cell cycle and apoptosis. In addition, we studied MGC29506 expression in gastric cancer patients and explored its significance. We found that the expression of MGC29506 in gastric cancer samples was lower than in samples from adjacent non-tumor tissues. We found that the MGC29506 protein was localized in the cell nucleus of AGS cells and inhibited their proliferation. Higher percentages of G0/G1 and S phase cells were induced by transfection with the MGC29506 gene than were induced by transfection with the negative control. We showed that cells transfected with MGC29506 were arrested at the G0/G1 and S phases of the cell cycle. However, we found no significant increases in apoptosis of cells transfected with MGC29506 compared with cells transfected with the negative control. Our results suggested that MGC29506 has the potential of functioning as a novel suppressor gene in gastric cancer. Downregulation of MGC29506 may also promote the progression of gastric cancer.

Vacas E, Fernández-Martínez AB, Bajo AM, et al.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibits human renal cell carcinoma proliferation.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012; 1823(10):1676-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear renal cell carcinoma (cRCC) is an aggressive and fatal neoplasm. The present work was undertaken to investigate the antiproliferative potential of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) exposure on non-tumoral (HK2) and tumoral (A498, cRCC) human proximal tubular epithelial cell lines. Reverse transcription and semiquantitative PCR was used at the VIP mRNA level whereas enzyme immunoanalysis was performed at the protein level. Both renal cell lines expressed VIP as well as VIP/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (VPAC) receptors whereas only HK2 cells expressed formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL-1). Receptors were functional, as shown by VIP stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. Treatment with 0.1μM VIP (24h) inhibited proliferation of A498 but not HK2 cells as based on a reduction in the incorporation of [(3)H]-thymidine and BrdU (5'-Br-2'-deoxyuridine), PCNA (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen) expression and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) expression and activation. VPAC(1)-receptor participation was established using JV-1-53 antagonist and siRNA transfection. Growth-inhibitory response to VIP was related to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) signaling systems as shown by studies on adenylate cyclase stimulation, and using the EPAC-specific compound 8CPT-2Me-cAMP and specific kinase inhibitors such as H89, wortmannin and PD98059. The efficacy of VIP on the prevention of tumor progression was confirmed in vivo using xenografted athymic mouse. These actions support a potential role of this peptide and its agonists in new therapies for cRCC.

Kageyama K, Tamasawa N, Suda T
Signal transduction in the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor system and its clinical implications.
Stress. 2011; 14(4):357-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a major regulatory peptide in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis under stress conditions. In response to stress, CRF is produced in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Forskolin- or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-stimulated CRF gene transcription is mediated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element on the CRF 5'-promoter region. Estrogens enhance activation of the CRF gene in stress, while inducible cAMP-early repressor suppresses the stress response via inhibition of the cAMP-dependent CRF gene. Glucocorticoid-dependent repression of cAMP-stimulated CRF promoter activity is mediated by both the negative glucocorticoid-response element and the serum-response element, while interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulates the CRF gene. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3, stimulated by IL-6 and cAMP, is involved in the negative regulation of CRF gene expression. Such complex mechanisms contribute to stress responses and homeostasis in the hypothalamus. Moreover, disruption of the HPA axis may cause a number of diseases related to stress. For example, CRF-induced p21-activated kinase 3 mRNA expression may be related to the proliferation of corticotrophs in Nelson's syndrome. A higher molecular weight form of immunoreactive β-endorphin, putative proopiomelanocortin (POMC), is increased in CRF-knockout mice, suggesting the important role of CRF in the processing of POMC through changes in prohormone convertase type-1 expression levels.

Jung S, Yi L, Jeong D, et al.
The role of ADCYAP1, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1, as a methylation biomarker for the early detection of cervical cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2011; 25(1):245-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ADCYAP1 gene encodes an adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1. ADCYAP1 has been known to be involved in various biological processes. Multiple cytosine guanine dinucleotides (CpG island) are found in the ADCYAP1 promoter region. Transcriptional silencing by promoter hypermethylation is an important regulatory mechanism in tumorigenesis in many cancers. Therefore, the methylation level of the ADCYAP1 promoter was investigated in eight cervical cancer cell lines and human tissue samples with a distinctive degree of malignant transformation. While multiple CpG sites in the ADCYAP1 promoter were highly methylated in CIN III and invasive carcinoma cells as well as seven cervical cancer cell lines, they were rarely methylated in normal cells. Importantly, methylation in the ADCYAP1 promoter seems to start from CIN I, relatively early stage of multistep carcinogenesis. This fact suggest that ADCYAP1 can be used as an effective and sensitive methylation biomarker for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Moreover, our data imply that the level of the ADCYAP1 promoter hypermethylation is correlated with cervical cancer development. We also show that ADCYAP1 gene expression was reactivated by the treatment of a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor of 5'-aza-2'deoxycytidine and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor of trichostain A in cervical cancer cells suggesting that hypermethylation in the ADCYAP1 promoter is responsible for the transcriptional silencing of the ADCYAP1 gene in cervical cancer cells.

Thouennon E, Pierre A, Yon L, Anouar Y
Expression of trophic peptides and their receptors in chromaffin cells and pheochromocytoma.
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010; 30(8):1383-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing tumors arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal location. Along with catecholamines, tumoral cells produce and secrete elevated quantities of trophic peptides which are normally released in a regulated manner by the normal adrenal medulla. Among these peptides, the amounts of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), adrenomedullin (AM), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are particularly high. These peptides can exert endocrine, paracrine or autocrine effects in numerous cell types. In particular, they have been shown to be involved in cell proliferation and survival, catecholamine production and secretion, and angiogenesis. Some of these processes are exacerbated in pheochromocytomas, raising the possibility of the involvement of trophic peptides. Here, we review the expression levels of NPY, PACAP, and AM and theirs receptors in chromaffin cells and pheochromocytomas, and address their possible implication in the adrenal medulla tumorigenesis and malignant development of pheochromocytomas.

Thouënnon E, Pierre A, Tanguy Y, et al.
Expression of trophic amidated peptides and their receptors in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas: high expression of adrenomedullin RDC1 receptor and implication in tumoral cell survival.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010; 17(3):637-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing tumors which are generally benign, but which can also present as or develop into malignancy. Molecular pathways of malignant transformation remain poorly understood. Pheochromocytomas express various trophic peptides which may influence tumoral cell behavior. Here, we investigated the expression of trophic amidated peptides, including pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and adrenomedullin (AM), and their receptors in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas in order to assess their potential role in chromaffin cell tumorigenesis and malignant transformation. PACAP, NPY, and AM are expressed in the majority of pheochromocytomas studied; NPY exhibiting the highest mRNA levels relative to reference genes. Although median gene expression or peptide levels were systematically lower in malignant compared to benign tumors, no statistically significant difference was found. Among all the receptors of these peptides that were analyzed, only the AM receptor RDC1 displayed a differential expression between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas. This receptor exhibited a fourfold higher expression in malignant than in benign tumors. AM and stromal cell-derived factor 1, which has also been described as a ligand for RDC1, increased the number of human pheochromocytoma cells in primary culture and exerted anti-apoptotic activity on rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. In addition, RDC1 gene silencing decreased the number of viable PC12 cells. This study shows the expression of several trophic peptides and their receptors in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas, and suggests that AM and its RDC1 receptor could be involved in chromaffin cell tumorigenesis through pro-survival effects. Therefore, AM and RDC1 may represent valuable targets for the treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas.

Thakur ML, Devadhas D, Zhang K, et al.
Imaging spontaneous MMTVneu transgenic murine mammary tumors: targeting metabolic activity versus genetic products.
J Nucl Med. 2010; 51(1):106-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Despite the great strides made in imaging breast cancer (BC) in humans, the current imaging modalities miss up to 30% of BC, do not distinguish malignant lesions from benign ones, and require histologic examinations for which invasive biopsy must be performed. Annually in the United States, approximately 5.6 million biopsies find benign lesions. More than 50% of human BCs overexpress cyclin D1, and all BCs exhibit VPAC1 oncogene products. Together, these gene products may provide an excellent biomarker for the early and accurate detection of BC. We have evaluated 4 biologically active peptide analogs that have high affinity for VPAC1. The transgenic MMTVneu mice spontaneously develop BC and metastatic lesions that overexpress cyclin D1 and VPAC1 biomarkers. The MMTVneu mouse, therefore, provides an excellent animal model that mimics the pathogenesis of human BC. The objective of this investigation was to determine the ability of 1 of the peptide analogs, (64)Cu-TP3805, to detect BC in MMTVneu mice using (18)F-FDG as a gold standard.
METHODS: The transgenic MMTVneu mouse colony was maintained. Offspring were screened for transgenic status by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Nine mice with visible, palpable, or unknown metastatic lesions were entered into the protocol. (18)F-FDG (6,475 +/- 1,628 kBq [175 +/- 44 microCi]) PET served as a control, followed by a CT scan and 24-48 h later by PET with (64)Cu-TP3805 (4,588 +/- 962 kBq [124 +/- 26 microCi]). RT-PCR on excised tumors determined VPAC1 expression, and histology ascertained the pathology.
RESULTS: Ten tumors were detected by PET. Four tumors were detected both by (18)F-FDG and by (64)Cu-TP3805. Additionally, 4 tumors were imaged with (64)Cu-TP3805 only. These 8 tumors overexpressed VPAC1 receptors and were malignant by histology. The 2 remaining tumors were visualized with (18)F-FDG only. These tumors did not express the VPAC1 oncogene product and had benign histology. The standard uptake value ranged from 3.1 to 18.3 for (64)Cu-TP3805 and 0.9 to 1.4 for (18)F-FDG.
CONCLUSION: (64)Cu-TP3805 identified all malignant lesions unequivocally that overexpressed the VPAC1 oncogene surface product. The 2 benign tumors that did not express the VPAC1 receptor were not imaged. (64)Cu-TP3805 promises to have the potential for the early and accurate imaging of primary and metastatic BC.

Falktoft B, Georg B, Fahrenkrug J
Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells.
Neuropeptides. 2009; 43(5):387-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ganglia expressing the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) innervate vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) containing neurons suggesting a role of PACAP in regulating VIP expression. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells were applied to study PACAP regulated VIP gene expression aiming to identify the receptor and the signaling proteins involved. The PACAP receptor subtype PAC1 induced VIP gene expression as (i) PACAP and the PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan were equally efficient and approximately 200-fold more potent than VIP, and (ii) PACAP6-38 and PG99-465, antagonists of PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, respectively, abolished and did not affect the PACAP-induced VIP mRNA expression, respectively. A pivotal role of PKA was implicated in addition to partial involvement of PKC and ERK1/2 in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression as H-89, Bisindolylmaleimide I (BIS), Gö6976 and U0126 attenuated the VIP mRNA expression by 93%, 58%, 58% and 40%, respectively. PACAP modulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and CREB/ATF-1 (pCREB/ATF-1) concomitant with a translocation of PKA to the nucleus. Inhibition of conventional PKC isoforms and MEK1/2 completely abolished pERK1/2 without affecting PACAP induced pCREB/ATF-1. In contrast, inhibiting PKA attenuated PACAP induced pCREB/ATF-1. PACAP also enhanced the FOS gene expression and individual presence of H-89, BIS, Gö6976 and U0126 partially attenuated the PACAP induced FOS mRNA expression. Combining the kinase inhibitors completely suppressed the PACAP induced FOS mRNA expression. Immunoblotting confirmed expression of FOS protein upon addition of PACAP, which was diminished by impairment of PKC, ERK1/2 and PKA activities. The resemblance of the signaling pathways involving concomitant activities of PKC, ERK1/2 and PKA in PACAP regulation of the FOS and VIP gene expressions suggest for the first time a role of FOS in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression in human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells.

Siddique ZL, Drozdov I, Floch J, et al.
KRJ-I and BON cell lines: defining an appropriate enterochromaffin cell neuroendocrine tumor model.
Neuroendocrinology. 2009; 89(4):458-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the gastrointestinal (GI) system are increasing in incidence with minimal improvement in prognosis. Although the cell of origin has been identified as the enterochromaffin (EC) cell, its secretory and proliferative regulation has not been defined at a mechanistic level. To date, the BON cell line has been the most widely used in vitro EC cell model despite its pancreatic origin. Using whole-genome mathematical analysis as well as secretory and proliferative studies, we compared the BON cell line to the small intestine (SI) EC cell-derived NET cell line, KRJ-I, to assess individual cell line validity and applicability for the investigation of GI-NET disease.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Principal component analysis and ANOVA of KRJ-I and BON transcriptomes (U133 Plus 2) identified substantially different (<10%) overlap in transcripts with minimal (R(2) = 0.24) correlation in gene expression profiles. RT-PCR detected large variability (>12%) in neuroendocrine (NE) marker transcripts in the BON cell line and the absence of Tph-2, DDC, TGFbetaR2, and M3 transcripts in KRJ-I. The KRJ-I cell line secreted serotonin (5-HT) in response to isoproterenol (EC(50) = 100 nM), noradrenaline (EC(50) = 1.7 nM), and pituitary adenylate cyclase (PACAP, EC(50) = 0.03 nM). Cholecystokinin (IC(50) = 430 nM), somatostatin (IC(50) = 400 nM), acetylcholine (IC(50) = 3.7 nM), and gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A), IC(50) = 2 nM) all inhibited 5-HT release, while gastrin and bombesin had no effect. 5-HT secretion in the BON cell line was stimulated by isoproterenol (EC(50) = 900 nM), noradrenaline (EC(50) = 20 nM), cholecystokinin (EC(50) = 130 nM), PACAP (EC(50) = 0.12 nM), bombesin (EC(50) = 15 nM), and acetylcholine (EC(50) = 0.2 nM). It was inhibited by somatostatin (IC(50) = 300 nM) but not GABA(A). KRJ-I responded with proliferation to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, EC(50) = 0.002 ng/ml), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha, EC(50) = 0.63 ng/ml) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta, EC(50) = 0.63 ng/ml). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and somatostatin had no significant effect. BON cell proliferation was stimulated only by EGF and TGFalpha (EC(50) = 15.8 and 10 ng/ml). TGFbeta (IC(50) = 0.16 ng/ml), MZ-4-147 (IC(50) = 0.5 nM), and BIM23A761 (IC(50) = 0.06 nM) all inhibited proliferation. CTGF and somatostatin had no effect.
CONCLUSION: KRJ-I and BON cell lines demonstrate substantial differences in gene level transcripts, inconsistent receptor profile expression, wide variability in NE marker transcript levels, and significantly differential proliferative and secretory responses. Given the EC cell origin of KRJ-I, these results provide evidence that the BON cell line does not represent an EC cell system and is not a valid study model of (carcinoid) EC cell-derived NET.

Falktoft B, Georg B, Fahrenkrug J
Calmodulin interacts with PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and regulates PACAP-induced FOS expression in human neuroblastoma cells.
Neuropeptides. 2009; 43(2):53-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) mediates its physiological functions through activation of PAC1, VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, and the ubiquitous Ca(2+)-sensor calmodulin has been implicated in PACAP-induced signaling. The immediate early response gene FOS is a well-known marker of neuronal activation, so we used a human neuroblastoma cell line NB-1 to explore the role of calmodulin in PACAP-induced FOS gene expression. We observed both short-term and prolonged altered PACAP-mediated activation of the FOS gene in the presence of the calmodulin-antagonist W-7. NB-1 cells were shown to express PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, and immunoprecipitation of both receptors displayed a co-association with calmodulin in the absence of Ca(2+). Our findings indicate a novel mechanism of calmodulin in regulating PACAP signaling by possible interaction with the inactive state of PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors.

Nakayama S, Yokote T, Kobayashi K, et al.
VIPoma with expression of both VIP and VPAC1 receptors in a patient with WDHA syndrome.
Endocrine. 2009; 35(2):143-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a case of VIPoma in a 72-year-old female patient who presented with excessive diarrhea, severe hypokalemia, and acidemia. She had been referred to our hospital three times because of severe diarrhea. No primary tumor site was found by conventional techniques, including contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, angiography, endoscopy, and positron emission tomography (PET), but a tumor was subsequently found in the head of the pancreas by octreotide scanning. Her diarrhea diminished dramatically after octreotide treatment, while her diarrhea has ceased without the therapy of octreotide at the first admission in the course of 2 years of her disease. Immunohistochemial analysis of the excised tumor tissue revealed the expression of both vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and VIP and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide 1 (VPAC1) receptors. This is the first case report of a VIPoma that immunostains for VIP and VPAC1 receptors and indicates that abundant VIP produced by VIPoma might inhibit its growth and reduce VIP secretion via the VPAC1 receptor in vivo.

Ghzili H, Grumolato L, Thouënnon E, et al.
Role of PACAP in the physiology and pathology of the sympathoadrenal system.
Front Neuroendocrinol. 2008; 29(1):128-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells derive from common sympathoadrenal precursors which arise from the neural crest. Cells from this lineage migrate to their final destination and differentiate by acquiring a catecholaminergic phenotype in response to different environmental factors. It has been shown that the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its PAC1 receptor are expressed at early stages of sympathetic development, and participate to the control of neuroblast proliferation and differentiation. PACAP also acts as a neurotransmitter to stimulate catecholamine and neuropeptide biosynthesis and release from sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells, during development and in adulthood. In addition, PACAP and its receptors have been described in neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma, and the neuropeptide regulates the differentiation and activity of sympathoadrenal-derived tumoral cell lines, suggestive of an important role in the pathophysiology of the sympathoadrenal lineage. Transcriptome studies uncovered genes and pathways of known and unknown roles that underlie the effects of PACAP in the sympathoadrenal system.

Monaghan TK, Mackenzie CJ, Plevin R, Lutz EM
PACAP-38 induces neuronal differentiation of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells via cAMP-mediated activation of ERK and p38 MAP kinases.
J Neurochem. 2008; 104(1):74-88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2015 Related Publications
The intracellular signaling pathways mediating the neurotrophic actions of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Previously, we showed that SH-SY5Y cells express the PAC(1) and VIP/PACAP receptor type 2 (VPAC(2)) receptors, and that the robust cAMP production in response to PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was mediated by PAC(1) receptors (Lutz et al. 2006). Here, we investigated the ability of PACAP-38 to differentiate SH-SY5Y cells by measuring morphological changes and the expression of neuronal markers. PACAP-38 caused a concentration-dependent increase in the number of neurite-bearing cells and an up-regulation in the expression of the neuronal proteins Bcl-2, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and choline acetyltransferase: VIP was less effective than PACAP-38 and the VPAC(2) receptor-specific agonist, Ro 25-1553, had no effect. The effects of PACAP-38 and VIP were blocked by the PAC(1) receptor antagonist, PACAP6-38. As observed with PACAP-38, the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, also induced an increase in the number of neurite-bearing cells and an up-regulation in the expression of Bcl-2 and GAP-43. PACAP-induced differentiation was prevented by the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA), but not the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, or by siRNA-mediated knock-down of the PKA catalytic subunit. PACAP-38 and forskolin stimulated the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP; p38 MAP kinase) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). PACAP-induced neuritogenesis was blocked by the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 and partially by the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580. Activation of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) partially mimicked the effects of PACAP-38, and led to the phosphorylation of ERK but not p38 MAP kinase. These results provide evidence that the neurotrophic effects of PACAP-38 on human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells are mediated by the PAC(1) receptor through a cAMP-dependent but PKA-independent mechanism, and furthermore suggest that this involves Epac-dependent activation of ERK as well as activation of the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway.

Nakano I, Masterman-Smith M, Saigusa K, et al.
Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase is a key regulator of the proliferation of malignant brain tumors, including brain tumor stem cells.
J Neurosci Res. 2008; 86(1):48-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging evidence suggests that neural stem cells and brain tumors regulate their proliferation via similar pathways. In a previous study, we demonstrated that maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (Melk) is highly expressed in murine neural stem cells and regulates their proliferation. Here we describe how MELK expression is correlated with pathologic grade of brain tumors, and its expression levels are significantly correlated with shorter survival, particularly in younger glioblastoma patients. In normal human astrocytes, MELK is only faintly expressed, and MELK knockdown does not significantly influence their growth, whereas Ras and Akt overexpressing astrocytes have up-regulated MELK expression, and the effect of MELK knockdown is more prominent in these transformed astrocytes. In primary cultures from human glioblastoma and medulloblastoma, MELK knockdown by siRNA results in inhibition of the proliferation and survival of these tumors. Furthermore, we show that MELK siRNA dramatically inhibits proliferation and, to some extent, survival of stem cells isolated from glioblastoma in vitro. These results demonstrate a critical role for MELK in the proliferation of brain tumors, including their stem cells, and suggest that MELK may be a compelling molecular target for treatment of high-grade brain tumors.

Moretti C, Mammi C, Frajese GV, et al.
PACAP and type I PACAP receptors in human prostate cancer tissue.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1070:440-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We characterized the expression and localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its specific type I receptor variants in prostatic, hyperplastic, and carcinomatous tissue collected from patients undergoing prostate biopsy and surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). The immunohistochemical studies using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique evidenced positive immunostaining for PACAP in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostate specimens and in some scattered cells of the stroma. Type I PACAP receptors (PAC1 R) in healthy and BPH tissues were localized in all epithelial cells lining the lumen of the acini and in some stromal cells, while in specimens from PCa the anti-PAC1 R antibody stained the apical portion of a large percentage of cells. Furthermore, our molecular studies provide evidence that several PAC1 R isoforms (null, SV1/SV2) are present in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic tissue, the null variant being the most intensely expressed in PCa. These observations provide additional evidence for a role of PACAP and PAC1 R in the events determining the outcome of PCa.

Lieu SN, Oh DS, Pisegna JR, Germano PM
Neuroendocrine tumors express PAC1 receptors.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1070:399-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the gastrointestinal tract can be grossly divided into two general types: carcinoid and pancreatic endocrine tumors. The former develop in the luminal intestine whereas the latter occur within the pancreas. To ascertain whether pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has a biological effect on the regulation of secretion or growth, we studied the well-established NET cell line, BON. BON cells have been shown previously to contain chromogranin A, neurotensin, and serotonin. In response to mechanical stimulation, BON cells have been demonstrated to release serotonin. The current article demonstrates that the high-affinity PAC1 receptor is expressed on the NET cell line BON. These results indicate that PACAP may regulate the biological release of peptides and serotonin from BON cells and that, like in solid tumors, PACAP could potentially stimulate the growth of BON cells.

Waschek JA, Dicicco-Bloom E, Nicot A, Lelievre V
Hedgehog signaling: new targets for GPCRs coupled to cAMP and protein kinase A.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1070:120-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hedgehog (HH) is a secreted protein named for the bristle phenotype observed in Drosophila embryos that lack the corresponding gene. Three homologs have been characterized in vertebrates, all which have critical roles in the development of multiple organ systems. Moreover, these proteins regulate stem cell production and activation during tissue repair after injury, and appear to drive proliferation in a variety of type of tumors, including those arising in the brain, foregut, lung, breast, pancreas, stomach, and prostate. Early evidence from Drosophila, and later work in vertebrates established the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway as a major pathway which opposes HH signaling, doing so by phosphorylating intracellular signaling mediators and targeting them for degradation. Thus, it seems possible that ligands which activate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) may act in some cases to oppose or enhance HH signaling. We studied a possible interaction of pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) with sonic hedgehog (SHH) in the developing cerebellum, where both PACAP and SHH are know to act. PACAP and the PAC1-specific agonist, maxadilan, were found to completely block the proliferative action of SHH on developing cerebellar granule neurons. It remains to be determined if HH/GPCR antagonistic interactions play additional important roles in development, plasticity, tissue repair, cancer, and other processes.

Modlin IM, Kidd M, Pfragner R, et al.
The functional characterization of normal and neoplastic human enterochromaffin cells.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 91(6):2340-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Neuroendocrine regulation of small intestinal (SI) function is poorly understood because pure neuroendocrine cells are unavailable, whereas the biological basis of SI carcinoid tumors is unknown because neoplastic human enterochromaffin (EC) cells are unavailable.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to define the secretory regulation and transcriptome of naive and neoplastic SI neuroendocrine cells.
DESIGN: EC cells from human ilea were isolated and purified, and a malignant EC cell carcinoid cell line (KRJ-I) was characterized.
METHODS: Human ilea from right hemicolectomies were pronase/collagenase digested and Nycodenz gradient centrifuged, and EC cells were fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) sorted after acridine orange labeling. Enrichment was defined by immunostaining, gene expression, serotonin (5-HT) content, and real-time RT-PCR. Naive FACS-sorted EC and KRJ-I cells were cultured, and 5-HT secretion was measured after stimulation with forskolin, isoproterenol, acetylcholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-38, and gastrin. Normal and neoplastic EC cell transcriptomes were acquired by Affymetrix profiling (U133A).
RESULTS: FACS produced 100 +/- 0.3% (chromogranin A staining) and 99 +/- 0.7% pure EC cells by immunostaining for tryptophan hydroxylase with greater than 67-fold enrichment and a 5-HT content of 180 +/- 18 ng/mg protein (mucosa, 3.5 +/- 0.9). Forskolin- and isoproterenol-stimulated 5-HT secretion was 10-100 times more potent for naive cells (EC(50), 1.8 x 10(-9) m; 5.1 x 10(-9) m) than neoplastic cells (EC(50), 2.1 x 10(-7) m; 8.1 x 10(-8) m), but the effect of PACAP-38 was similar (EC(50), 1 x 10(-7) m). Isoproterenol stimulated cAMP levels 1.6 +/- 0.1-fold vs. basal (EC(50), 2.7 x 10(-9) m). Acetylcholine inhibited naive EC cell 5-HT secretion more potently than neoplastic (IC(50), 3.2 x 10(-9) vs. 1.6 x 10(-7) m), whereas GABA(A) was more potent in neoplastic cells (IC(50), 3.9 x 10(-10) vs. 4.4 x 10(-9) m). Octreotide inhibited naive, but not neoplastic, basal 5-HT secretion. Gastrin had no effect on 5-HT secretion. Comparison of naive and neoplastic transcriptomes revealed shared neuroendocrine and EC cell-specific marker genes. Real-time PCR confirmed that expression of adrenergic (beta1), somatostatinergic (SST(R)2), and neural (VPAC(1) and GABA(A)) receptors occurred on both cell types, but PACAP type 1 (PAC(1)) and cholecystokinin type 2 (CCK(2)) were undetectable. The putative carcinoid malignancy genes (MTA1 and MAGE-D2) were unique to the neoplastic EC cell transcriptome.
CONCLUSION: These data support novel methodology to purify live human EC cells for functional characterization and transcriptome assessment, which will allow identification of new targets to control the secretion and proliferation of SI carcinoids.

Mammi C, Frajese GV, Vespasiani G, et al.
PAC1-R null isoform expression in human prostate cancer tissue.
Prostate. 2006; 66(5):514-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PACAP is a member of the VIP/GHRH family of neuropeptides and has important effects on prostate cell proliferation. Here we analyze the expression and localization of PACAP and its specific receptor variants (PAC(1)-R) in tissues collected from patients undergoing prostate biopsy and surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa).
METHODS: Reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: PACAP and PAC(1)-R were localized by immunohistochemistry in the prostate tissue. While in healthy and BPH tissues PAC(1)-R positive staining is present in all the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the acini and in some stromal cells (mostly in the apical portion of the cells), in PCa tissues, anti-PAC(1)-R antibody stained the apical portion of the cells. We provide evidence that PAC(1)-R null and SV(1)/SV(2) variants are all present in normal and hyperplastic tissues, while in PCa tissue PAC(1)-R null is the most relevant receptor variant expressed.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrates that the PAC(1)-R null variant is the most relevant isoform expressed in human PCa tissue being suggestively related with the events determining the outcome of prostate cancer.

Lutz EM, Ronaldson E, Shaw P, et al.
Characterization of novel splice variants of the PAC1 receptor in human neuroblastoma cells: consequences for signaling by VIP and PACAP.
Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006; 31(2):193-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of VPAC and PAC1 receptor isoforms was determined in six neuroblastoma cell lines as well as in human embryonic and adult brain using reverse transcriptase PCR and quantitative PCR. PAC1 receptor splice variants missing a 21 amino acid sequence in the amino terminal domain were found to be the major receptor variants in the neuroblastoma cell lines and also were highly expressed in embryonic brain compared to adult brain. In four of the neuroblastoma cell lines, VIP and PACAP stimulated cyclic AMP production with different potencies and levels of maximal stimulation. High potency and greatest maximal stimulation of cyclic AMP for each peptide were recorded in SH-SY5Y cells, indicating the presence of high affinity VIP and PACAP receptors. Further characterization of specific VPAC and PAC1 receptor isoforms was carried out in the SH-SY5Y cell line, where along with known PAC1 receptor splice variants and the VPAC2 receptor, a number of novel PAC1 receptor splice variants were identified. The comparatively low level expression of the VPAC2 receptor along with the poor responsiveness of SH-SY5Y cells to the VPAC2 receptor-specific agonist Ro 25-1553 indicated that this receptor did not contribute significantly to the observed VIP responses. When the individual PAC1 receptor isoforms were expressed in COS 7 cells, the ability of VIP to activate cyclic AMP production was increased more than 50-fold at the majority of the PAC1 receptor variants lacking the 21 amino acid amino terminal domain sequence compared to those with the complete domain. Smaller changes were seen in the potency of PACAP-38. Similar trends were seen with inositol phosphate responses, where in each case agonist potencies were lower than for cyclic AMP production. The results of this study show that the combination of different amino terminal and intracellular loop 3 splicing variants in the PAC1 receptor dictates the ability of agonists, particularly VIP, to activate signaling pathways. VIP has considerably greater potency at most PAC1 receptors with the short amino terminal domain, and these therefore may mediate physiological effects of both VIP and PACAP. Furthermore, there may be a phenotypic switch in the expression of different PAC1 receptor amino terminal splice variants between embryonic and mature nervous system, indicating that regulation of this event may have an important role in VIP/PACAP function, particularly in the developing nervous system.

Melle C, Osterloh D, Ernst G, et al.
Identification of proteins from colorectal cancer tissue by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and SELDI mass spectrometry.
Int J Mol Med. 2005; 16(1):11-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated protein profiles obtained from colorectal tumor tissue and adjacent normal mucosa to identify tumor specific changes. Protein extracts of biopsis were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and >40 low-molecular mass proteins were identified by peptide fingerprinting using surface-enhanced laser desoption/ionization mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS). Among these, PACAP protein, hnrnp A1, flavin reductase, calgizzarin, NDK B (NM23-H2), cyclophilin A and smooth muscle protein 22-alpha showed significantly differential abundancy in the analyzed specimens. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis of tissue distribution and subcellular localization of some of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated alterations in subcellular protein distribution. Further investigations are in progress to assess whether these differentially expressed proteins are associated with tumor development and tumor progression.

Nagakawa O, Junicho A, Akashi T, et al.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide stimulate interleukin-6 production in prostate cancer cells and prostatic epithelial cells.
Oncol Rep. 2005; 13(6):1217-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the effect of the vasoactive intestinal (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptides (PACAP) on the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in normal prostate epithelial and stromal cells and prostate cancer cells. We performed RT-PCR analysis to assess the expression of VIP receptor (VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1) mRNA in normal prostate epithelial and stromal cells and prostate cancer cells, and investigated the effect of VIP and PACAP on the production of IL-6. VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1 receptor mRNAs were expressed in LNCaP and DU-145/AR prostate cancer cells and PrEC cells (prostate epithelial cells). VIP stimulated the production of IL-6 in DU-145/AR prostate cancer and PrEC cells. PACAP showed a similar effect on IL-6 production in PrEC cells. VIP stimulated IL-6 promoter transcriptional activity in DU-145/AR cells. These results indicate that VIP and PACAP may modulate the IL-6 production of normal prostate epithelial and prostate cancer cells.

Hofsli E, Thommesen L, Yadetie F, et al.
Identification of novel growth factor-responsive genes in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumour cells.
Br J Cancer. 2005; 92(8):1506-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2015 Related Publications
Targeting growth-regulatory pathways is a promising approach in cancer treatment. A prerequisite to the development of such therapies is characterisation of tumour growth regulation in the particular tumour cell type of interest. In order to gain insight into molecular mechanisms underlying proliferative responses in neuroendocrine (NE) gastrointestinal (GI) tumours, we investigated gene expression in human carcinoid BON cells after exposure to gastrin, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide or epidermal growth factor. We particularly focused on gastrin- and HGF-induced gene expression, and identified 95 gastrin- and 101 HGF-responsive genes. The majority of these genes are known mediators of processes central in tumour biology, and a number of them have been associated with poor prognosis and metastasis in cancer patients. Furthermore, we identified 12 genes that were regulated by all four factors, indicating that they may be universally regulated during NE GI tumour cell proliferation. Our findings provide useful hypotheses for further studies aimed to search for new therapeutic targets as well as tumour markers in NE GI tumours.

Goursaud S, Pineau N, Becq-Giraudon L, et al.
Human H9 cells proliferation is differently controlled by vasoactive intestinal peptide or peptide histidine methionine: implication of a GTP-insensitive form of VPAC1 receptor.
J Neuroimmunol. 2005; 158(1-2):94-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
The proliferation of human lymphoblastoma cell line (H9) was differently stimulated by Peptide Histidine Methionine (PHM) and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP). PHM induced a cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation, abolished by Adenylate Cyclase (AC) inhibitors leading to a loss of proliferative effect. VIP mitogenic activity was Pertussis toxin (PTX) sensitive and AC inhibitors insensitive. Pharmacological experiments performed on H9 membranes with or without a GTP analogue indicated expression of both GTP-insensitive and -sensitive PHM/VIP high-affinity binding sites (HA). H9 cells expressed only the VPAC1 receptor. VIP(10-28), known as a VPAC1 antagonist, bond to all GTP-insensitive PHM sites and inhibited evenly the PHM and VIP mitogenic actions. These data strongly suggested different mechanisms initiated by VIP and PHM and highlighted the key role of GTP-insensitive binding sites in the control of cell proliferation.

Isobe K, Kaneko M, Kaneko S, et al.
Expression of mRNAs for PACAP and its receptor in human neuroblastomas and their relationship to catecholamine synthesis.
Regul Pept. 2004; 123(1-3):29-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide family, induces the expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medullary cells. In addition, PACAP and its receptor have been detected in human neuroblastoma tissues and cell lines, though it is not yet known whether PACAP enhances the expression of genes encoding catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes. To address this question, we analyzed PACAP, PACAP receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNAs in neuroblastomas.
METHODS: The levels of mRNA for PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), as well as their receptors and the mRNA for TH were measured by RT-PCR or real-time PCR analysis.
RESULTS: VPAC1R mRNA was detected in all of 16 tissues and 3 cell lines that were examined, while VPAC2R mRNA was detected in 5 of 16 (31%) tissue and 2 of 3 cell lines. PAC1R mRNA was detected in 6 out of 16 (38%) tissues and none of 3 cell lines. mRNA expression of PACAP and TH were detected in many tissues (10/16 and 16/16, respectively). However, neither in tissues nor cell lines did PACAP mRNA expression correlate with TH mRNA expression.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PACAP is not involved in the regulation of expression of TH in neuroblastomas.

Katoh M, Katoh M
MGC29506 gene, frequently down-regulated in intestinal-type gastric cancer, encodes secreted-type protein with conserved cysteine residues.
Int J Oncol. 2003; 23(1):235-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microarray analyses is applied for prognosis of gastric cancer, including risk assessments of lymph-node metastasis and peritoneal dissemination. EST AA769445 derived from an unknown gene is reported to be frequently down-regulated in intestinal-type gastric cancer based on microarray analyses. Here, we identified and characterized the gene corresponding to EST AA769445 by using bioinformatics. EST AA769445 overlapped with MGC29506 cDNA (BC021275) and PACAP cDNA (AF338109). MGC29506 protein (189 aa) and PACAP protein (123 aa) were identical in codon 1-59, but were divergent in the C-terminal region due to a frame shift caused by sixteen-base insertion in PACAP cDNA. MGC29506 and PACAP were derived from the same gene, consisting of four exons, due to alternative splicing of alternative splice-acceptor-site type. Fourteen human ESTs were the MGC29506 type, while one human EST was the PACAP type. MGC29506 was the major isoform of the MGC29506/PACAP gene on human chromosome 5q31.2. MGC29506 orthologs in other species were next searched for. AK088094 and AK008016 cDNAs with nucleotide substitutions resulting in four-amino-acid substitutions were derived from mouse Mgc29506 gene. Rat Mgc29506 gene was identified in the rat genome draft sequence AC135285. ESTs AJ396310 and AJ441435 were derived from chicken Mgc29506 gene, while ESTs BW315632 and BW251767 from ciona mgc29506 gene. N-terminal signal peptide, six cysteine residues and other amino acids were conserved among human, mouse, rat, chicken, and ciona MGC29506 proteins. MGC29506 gene, frequently down-regulated in intestinal-type gastric cancer, was found to encode secreted-type protein with six conserved cysteine residues.

Busto R, Prieto JC, Bodega G, et al.
VIP and PACAP receptors coupled to adenylyl cyclase in human lung cancer: a study in biopsy specimens.
Peptides. 2003; 24(3):429-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are important neuropeptides in the control of lung physiology. Both of these commonly bind to specific G protein coupled receptors named VPAC(1)-R and VPAC(2)-R, and PAC(1)-R (with higher affinity for PACAP). VIP and PACAP have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation and tumor growth. This study examined the presence of VIP and PACAP receptors in human lung cancer samples, as well as the functionality of adenylyl cyclase (AC) stimulated by both peptides. Results from RT-PCR and immunoblot experiments showed the expression of VPAC(1)-, VPAC(2)- and PAC(1)-R in lung cancer samples. Immunohistochemical studies showed the expression of VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors. These receptors were positively coupled to AC, but the enzyme activity was impaired as compared to normal lung. There were no changes in Galpha(s) or Galpha(i) levels. Present results contribute to a better knowledge of VIP/PACAP actions in lung cancer and support the interest for the development of VIP/PACAP analogues with therapeutic roles.

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