Gene Summary

Gene:TNFAIP3; tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 3
Aliases: A20, OTUD7C, TNFA1P2
Summary:This gene was identified as a gene whose expression is rapidly induced by the tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger protein and ubiqitin-editing enzyme, and has been shown to inhibit NF-kappa B activation as well as TNF-mediated apoptosis. The encoded protein, which has both ubiquitin ligase and deubiquitinase activities, is involved in the cytokine-mediated immune and inflammatory responses. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (61)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • beta Catenin
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins
  • Translocation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Drug Resistance
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Infections
  • Guanylate Cyclase
  • Western Blotting
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Splenic Neoplasms
  • Inflammation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Chromosome 6
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Apoptosis
  • MALT Lymphoma
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • CGH
  • Notch Receptors
  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Breast Cancer
  • Up-Regulation
  • Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Expression
  • siRNA
  • Signal Transduction
  • FISH
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human
  • NF-kappa B
  • Mutation
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNFAIP3 (cancer-related)

Nanjo S, Nakagawa T, Takeuchi S, et al.
In vivo imaging models of bone and brain metastases and pleural carcinomatosis with a novel human EML4-ALK lung cancer cell line.
Cancer Sci. 2015; 106(3):244-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
EML4-ALK lung cancer accounts for approximately 3-7% of non-small-cell lung cancer cases. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying tumor progression and targeted drug sensitivity/resistance in EML4-ALK lung cancer, clinically relevant animal models are indispensable. In this study, we found that the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A925L expresses an EML4-ALK gene fusion (variant 5a, E2:A20) and is sensitive to the ALK inhibitors crizotinib and alectinib. We further established highly tumorigenic A925LPE3 cells, which also have the EML4-ALK gene fusion (variant 5a) and are sensitive to ALK inhibitors. By using A925LPE3 cells with luciferase gene transfection, we established in vivo imaging models for pleural carcinomatosis, bone metastasis, and brain metastasis, all of which are significant clinical concerns of advanced EML4-ALK lung cancer. Interestingly, crizotinib caused tumors to shrink in the pleural carcinomatosis model, but not in bone and brain metastasis models, whereas alectinib showed remarkable efficacy in all three models, indicative of the clinical efficacy of these ALK inhibitors. Our in vivo imaging models of multiple organ sites may provide useful resources to analyze further the pathogenesis of EML4-ALK lung cancer and its response and resistance to ALK inhibitors in various organ microenvironments.

Clipson A, Wang M, de Leval L, et al.
KLF2 mutation is the most frequent somatic change in splenic marginal zone lymphoma and identifies a subset with distinct genotype.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(5):1177-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
To characterise the genetics of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), we performed whole exome sequencing of 16 cases and identified novel recurrent inactivating mutations in Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a gene whose deficiency was previously shown to cause splenic marginal zone hyperplasia in mice. KLF2 mutation was found in 40 (42%) of 96 SMZLs, but rarely in other B-cell lymphomas. The majority of KLF2 mutations were frameshift indels or nonsense changes, with missense mutations clustered in the C-terminal zinc finger domains. Functional assays showed that these mutations inactivated the ability of KLF2 to suppress NF-κB activation by TLR, BCR, BAFFR and TNFR signalling. Further extensive investigations revealed common and distinct genetic changes between SMZL with and without KLF2 mutation. IGHV1-2 rearrangement and 7q deletion were primarily seen in SMZL with KLF2 mutation, while MYD88 and TP53 mutations were nearly exclusively found in those without KLF2 mutation. NOTCH2, TRAF3, TNFAIP3 and CARD11 mutations were observed in SMZL both with and without KLF2 mutation. Taken together, KLF2 mutation is the most common genetic change in SMZL and identifies a subset with a distinct genotype characterised by multi-genetic changes. These different genetic changes may deregulate various signalling pathways and generate cooperative oncogenic properties, thereby contributing to lymphomagenesis.

Ma Y, Liao Z, Xu Y, et al.
Characteristics of CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1-A20-NF-κB expression in T cell-acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Eur J Med Res. 2014; 19:62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the oncogenic signaling pathways of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) remains limited. Constitutive aberrant activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway has been detected in various lymphoid malignancies and plays a key role in the development of these carcinomas. The zinc finger-containing protein, A20, is a central regulator of multiple NF-κB-activating signaling cascades. A20 is frequently inactivated by deletions and/or mutations in several B-and T-cell lymphoma subtypes. However, few A20 mutations and polymorphisms have been reported in T-ALL. Thus, it is of interest to analyze the expression characteristics of A20 and its regulating factors, including upstream regulators and the CBM complex, which includes CARMA1, BCL10, and MALT1.
METHODS: The expression levels of CARMA1, BCL10, MALT1, A20, and NF-κB were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 21 patients with newly diagnosed T-ALL using real-time PCR, and correlations between the aberrant expression of these genes in T-ALL was analyzed. Sixteen healthy individuals, including 10 males and 6 females, served as controls.
RESULTS: Significantly lower A20 expression was found in T-ALL patients (median: 4.853) compared with healthy individuals (median: 8.748; P = 0.017), and significantly increased expression levels of CARMA1 (median: 2.916; P = 0.034), BCL10 (median: 0.285; P = 0.033), and MALT1 (median: 1.201; P = 0.010) were found in T-ALL compared with the healthy individuals (median: 1.379, 0.169, and 0.677, respectively). In contrast, overexpression of NF-κB (median: 0.714) was found in T-ALL compared with healthy individuals (median: 0.335; P = 0.001). A negative correlation between the MALT1 and A20 expression levels and a positive correlation between CARMA1 and BCL10 were found in T-ALL and healthy individuals. However, no negative correlation was found between A20 and NF-κB and the MALT1 and NF-κB expression level in the T-ALL group.
CONCLUSIONS: We characterized the expression of the CARMA-BCL10-MALT1-A20-NF-κB pathway genes in T-ALL. Overexpression of CARMA-BCL10-MALT in T-ALL may contribute to the constitutive cleavage and inactivation of A20, which enhances NF-κB signaling and may be related to T-ALL pathogenesis.

Lu X, Chen Y, Zeng T, et al.
Knockout of the HCC suppressor gene Lass2 downregulates the expression level of miR-694.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(6):2696-702 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homo sapiens longevity assurance homolog 2 of yeast LAG (Lass2) catalyzes the synthesis of long-chain ceramide which is an essential element of membranous structures. Deletion of Lass2 is associated with a high risk of spontaneous or DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), yet the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we found extensive vesicles in hepatocytes of one-month-old Lass2-knockout (KO) mice. Hepatic biochemical indices were increased and expression of albumin was attenuated in the one‑month Lass2-KO liver. The results indicate that the injuries of the hepatocytes in young Lass2-KO mice, based on the results of Gene Ontology analysis of mRNA microarray of Lass2-KO liver vs. wild-type liver showed 'wounding response' was the mostly possible altered pathway in the Lass2-KO mice. miR-mRNA integrated analysis revealed that miR-694 was downregulated while its target gene tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3 (Tnfaip3) was upregulated, as confirmed by qPCR. The expression of NF-κB which is negatively controlled by Tnfaip3 was detected by qPCR and was found to be downregulated. Herein, we first report that Lass2 deficiency caused the downregulation of miR-694 and the upregulation of its target gene Tnfaip3 in vivo in mice, which may be related to a high risk of occurrence of HCC.

da Silva CG, Minussi DC, Ferran C, Bredel M
A20 expressing tumors and anticancer drug resistance.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 809:65-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistance to anticancer drugs is a major impediment to treating patients with cancer. The molecular mechanisms deciding whether a tumor cell commits to cell death or survives under chemotherapy are complex. Mounting evidence indicates a critical role of cell death and survival pathways in determining the response of human cancers to chemotherapy. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a eukaryotic transcription factor on the crossroad of a cell's decision to live or die. Under physiological conditions, NF-kappaB is regulated by a complex network of endogenous pathway modulators. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induced protein 3 (tnfaip3), a gene encoding the A20 protein, is one of the cell's own inhibitory molecule, which regulates canonical NF-kappaB activation by interacting with upstream signaling pathway components. Interestingly, A20 is also itself a NF-kappaB dependent gene, that has been shown to also exert cell-type specific anti- or pro-apoptotic functions. Recent reports suggest that A20 expression is increased in a number of solid human tumors. This likely contributes to both carcinogenesis and response to chemotherapy. These data uncover the complexities of the mechanisms involved in A20's impact on tumor development and response to treatment, highlighting tumor and drug-type specific outcomes. While A20-targeted therapies may certainly add to the chemotherapeutic armamentarium, better understanding of A20 regulation, molecular targets and function(s) in every single tumor and in response to any given drug is required prior to any clinical implementation. Current renewed appreciation of the unique molecular signature of each tumor holds promise for personalized chemotherapeutic regimen hopefully comprising specific A20-targeting agents i.e., both inhibitors and enhancers.

Xu X, Hegazy WA, Guo L, et al.
Effective cancer vaccine platform based on attenuated salmonella and a type III secretion system.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(21):6260-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Vaccines explored for cancer therapy have been based generally on injectable vector systems used to control foreign infectious pathogens, to which the immune system evolved to respond naturally. However, these vectors may not be effective at presenting tumor-associated antigens (TAA) to the immune system in a manner that is sufficient to engender antitumor responses. We addressed this issue with a novel orally administered Salmonella-based vector that exploits a type III secretion system to deliver selected TAA in the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells in situ. A systematic comparison of candidate genes from the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) locus was conducted in the vaccine design, using model antigens and a codon-optimized form of the human TAA survivin (coSVN), an oncoprotein that is overexpressed in most human cancers. In a screen of 20 SPI2 promoter:effector combinations, a PsifB::sseJ combination exhibited maximal potency for antigen translocation into the APC cytosol, presentation to CD8 T cells, and murine immunogenicity. In the CT26 mouse model of colon carcinoma, therapeutic vaccination with a lead PsifB::sseJ-coSVN construct (p8032) produced CXCR3-dependent infiltration of tumors by CD8 T cells, reversed the CD8:Treg ratio at the tumor site, and triggered potent antitumor activity. Vaccine immunogenicity and antitumor potency were enhanced by coadministration of the natural killer T-cell ligand 7DW8-5, which heightened the production of IL12 and IFNγ. Furthermore, combined treatment with p8032 and 7DW8-5 resulted in complete tumor regression in A20 lymphoma-bearing mice, where protective memory was demonstrated. Taken together, our results demonstrate how antigen delivery using an oral Salmonella vector can provide an effective platform for the development of cancer vaccines.

Tung CY, Lewis DE, Han L, et al.
Activation of dendritic cell function by soypeptide lunasin as a novel vaccine adjuvant.
Vaccine. 2014; 32(42):5411-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The addition of an appropriate adjuvant that activates the innate immunity is essential to subsequent development of the adaptive immunity specific to the vaccine antigens. Thus, any innovation capable of improving the immune responses may lead to a more efficacious vaccine. We recently identified a novel immune modulator using a naturally occurring seed peptide called lunasin. Lunasin was originally isolated from soybeans, and it is a small peptide containing 43 amino acids. Our studies revealed stimulatory effects of lunasin on innate immune cells by regulating expression of a number of genes that are important for immune responses. The objective was to define the effectiveness of lunasin as an adjuvant that enhances immune responses. The immune modulating functions of lunasin were characterized in dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Lunasin-treated conventional DCs (cDCs) not only expressed elevated levels of co-stimulatory molecules (CD86, CD40) but also exhibited up-regulation of cytokines (IL1B, IL6) and chemokines (CCL3, CCL4). Lunasin-treated cDCs induced higher proliferation of allogeneic CD4+ T cells when comparing with medium control treatment in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). Immunization of mice with ovalbumin (OVA) and lunasin inhibited the growth of OVA-expressing A20 B-lymphomas, which was correlated with OVA-specific CD8+ T cells. In addition, lunasin was an effective adjuvant for immunization with OVA, which together improved animal survival against lethal challenge with influenza virus expressing the MHC class I OVA peptide SIINFEKL (PR8-OTI). These results suggest that lunasin may function as a vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC maturation, which in turn enhances the development of protective immune responses to the vaccine antigens.

Giordano M, Roncagalli R, Bourdely P, et al.
The tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, A20) imposes a brake on antitumor activity of CD8 T cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(30):11115-20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
The transcription factor NF-κB is central to inflammatory signaling and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Activation of the NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled by several negative feedback mechanisms, including A20, an ubiquitin-modifying enzyme encoded by the tnfaip3 gene. Mice with selective deletion of A20 in myeloid, dendritic, or B cells recapitulate some human inflammatory pathology. As we observed high expression of A20 transcripts in dysfunctional CD8 T cells in an autochthonous melanoma, we analyzed the role of A20 in regulation of CD8 T-cell functions, using mice in which A20 was selectively deleted in mature conventional T cells. These mice developed lymphadenopathy and some organ infiltration by T cells but no splenomegaly and no detectable pathology. A20-deleted CD8 T cells had increased sensitivity to antigen stimulation with production of large amounts of IL-2 and IFNγ, correlated with sustained nuclear expression of NF-κB components reticuloendotheliosis oncogene c-Rel and p65. Overexpression of A20 by retroviral transduction of CD8 T cells dampened their intratumor accumulation and antitumor activity. In contrast, relief from the A20 brake in NF-κB activation in adoptively transferred antitumor CD8 T cells led to improved control of melanoma growth. Tumor-infiltrating A20-deleted CD8 T cells had enhanced production of IFNγ and TNFα and reduced expression of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1. As manipulation of A20 expression in CD8 T cells did not result in pathologic manifestations in the mice, we propose it as a candidate to be targeted to increase antitumor efficiency of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy.

Bour T, Yang X, Li W, et al.
Differential effects of antofine N-oxide on solid tumor and leukemia cells.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2014; 14(10):1315-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have studied the anti-cancer activities of antofine N-oxide isolated and purified from the medicinal plant Cynanchum vincetoxicum. Antofine N-oxide displayed a strong inhibitory effect on several solid tumor cell lines (glioblastoma, breast carcinoma and lung carcinoma) and on a T-cell leukemia cell line. Remarkably, its cytotoxic effect was considerably weaker in non-cancer cells. Antofine N-oxide was found to inhibit proliferation of the solid tumor cells whereas it caused apoptotic cell death in the leukemia cells. A microarray analysis after a short treatment revealed that the number of differentially expressed genes was considerably higher in solid tumor than in leukemia cells. Up-regulated genes in the three solid tumor cell lines include genes related to TNFα signaling, of which TNFα was among the most significantly induced. A functional analysis revealed that TNFR1 signaling was most likely activated in the solid tumor cells. The increased mRNA levels of several genes of this pathway (namely TNFα, TNFAIP3 and BIRC3) were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR after different treatment durations. Finally a slight inhibition of NFκB-mediated transcription was observed in the same cells. Together our results suggest that inhibition of cell proliferation in solid tumor cells essentially occurs through TNFα signaling whereas this pathway is not activated in leukemia cells. Apoptotic cell death in the latter is induced by a distinct yet unknown pathway.

Zhang J, Luo J, Liu F, et al.
Diabetes mellitus potentiates diffuse large B‑cell lymphoma via high levels of CCL5.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(3):1231-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is much evidence suggesting that CCL5 is one of the chemoattractant cytokines involved in diabetes mellitus (DM) with diffuse large B‑cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the pathological impact is unclear. In the current study, in order to improve understanding regarding the role of CCL5 in DM with DLBCL, the expression levels of CCL5 mRNA were examined in normal B cells, human DLBCL cell lines (Ly1, Ly8 and Ly10) and a mouse DLBCL cell line (A20), as well as those in cells cultured with either 5 or 30 mmol/l glucose. A20‑CCL5+ (CCL5 overexpression) and A20‑CCL5‑ (CCL5 knockdown) subclones were obtained through cell transduction with a lentiviral vector, and were subcutaneously injected into BALB/c DM mice and normal mice. Tumor growth was observed by calculating the tumor volume. The results demonstrated that CCL5 mRNA levels in DLBCL cells were significantly higher than those in the normal cells (P<0.05); and levels in DLBCL cells in 30 mmol/l Glu were significantly higher than in those of DLBCL cells in 5 mmol/l Glu (P<0.05). A20‑CCL5+ cells led to tumor formation in DM mice compared with A20 and A20‑CCL5‑ cells. These results indicate that high levels of CCL5 expression may accelerate DLBCL formation in DM.

Haemmig S, Baumgartner U, Glück A, et al.
miR-125b controls apoptosis and temozolomide resistance by targeting TNFAIP3 and NKIRAS2 in glioblastomas.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1279 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffusely infiltrating gliomas are among the most prognostically discouraging neoplasia in human. Temozolomide (TMZ) in combination with radiotherapy is currently used for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) patients, but less than half of the patients respond to therapy and chemoresistance develops rapidly. Epigenetic silencing of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been associated with longer survival in GBM patients treated with TMZ, but nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-mediated survival signaling and TP53 mutations contribute significantly to TMZ resistance. Enhanced NF-κB is in part owing to downregulation of negative regulators of NF-κB activity, including Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) and NF-κB inhibitor interacting RAS-like 2 (NKIRAS2). Here we provide a novel mechanism independent of TP53 and MGMT by which oncogenic miR-125b confers TMZ resistance by targeting TNFAIP3 and NKIRAS2. GBM cells overexpressing miR-125b showed increased NF-κB activity and upregulation of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle genes. This was significantly associated with resistance of GBM cells to TNFα- and TNF-related inducing ligand-induced apoptosis as well as resistance to TMZ. Conversely, overexpression of anti-miR-125b resulted in cell cycle arrest, increased apoptosis and increased sensitivity to TMZ, indicating that endogenous miR-125b is sufficient to control these processes. GBM cells overexpressing TNFAIP3 and NKIRAS2 were refractory to miR-125b-induced apoptosis resistance as well as TMZ resistance, indicating that both genes are relevant targets of miR-125b. In GBM tissues, high miR-125b expression was significantly correlated with nuclear NF-κB confirming that miR-125b is implicated in NF-κB signaling. Most remarkably, miR-125b overexpression was clearly associated with shorter overall survival of patients treated with TMZ, suggesting that this microRNA is an important predictor of response to therapy.

Carbone A, Gloghini A, Kwong YL, Younes A
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma: using pathologic and molecular biomarkers to define subgroups for novel therapy.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(8):1263-77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) comprises specific subtypes, disease entities, and other not otherwise specified (NOS) lymphomas. This review will focus on DLBCL NOS because of their prevalence and their heterogeneity with respect to morphology, clinical presentation, biology, and response to treatment. Gene expression profiling of DLBCL NOS has identified molecular subgroups that correlate with prognosis and may have relevance for treatment based on signaling pathways. New technologies have revealed that the "activated B cell" subgroup is linked to activation of the nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) pathway, with mutations found in CD79A/B, CARD11, and MYD88, and loss of function mutations in TNFAIP3. The "germinal center B cell-like" subgroup is linked to mutational changes in EZH2 and CREBBP. Biomarkers that are related to pathways promoting tumor cell growth and survival in DLBCL have been recognized, although their predictive role requires clinical validation. Immunohistochemistry for detecting the expression of these biomarkers is a practical technique that could provide a rational for clinical trial design.

Wikman H, Westphal L, Schmid F, et al.
Loss of CADM1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and brain metastasis in breast cancer patients.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(10):3076-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) are detected with increasing incidence. In order to detect potential genes involved in BCBM, we first screened for genes down-regulated by methylation in cell lines with site-specific metastatic ability. The expression of five genes, CADM1, SPARC, RECK, TNFAIP3 and CXCL14, which were also found down-regulated in gene expression profiling analyses of BCBM tissue samples, was verified by qRT-PCR in a larger patient cohort. CADM1 was chosen for further down-stream analyses. A higher incidence of CADM1 methylation, correlating with lower expression levels, was found in BCBM as compared to primary BC. Loss of CADM1 protein expression was detected most commonly among BCBM samples as well as among primary tumors with subsequent brain relapse. The prognostic role of CADM1 expression was finally verified in four large independent breast cancer cohorts (n=2136). Loss of CADM1 protein expression was associated with disease stage, lymph node status, and tumor size in primary BC. Furthermore, all analyses revealed a significant association between loss of CADM1 and shorter survival. In multivariate analyses, survival was significantly shorter among patients with CADM1-negative tumors. Loss of CADM1 expression is an independent prognostic factor especially associated with the development of brain metastases in breast cancer patients.

Zhang X, Su Y, Song H, et al.
Attenuated A20 expression of acute myeloid leukemia-derived dendritic cells increased the anti-leukemia immune response of autologous cytolytic T cells.
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(6):673-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies reported leukemic cells from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients can differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs), which had some immunoregulatory dysfunctions to effectively stimulate autologous CTLs' anti-leukemia immune response. The zinc-finger protein A20, a negative regulator of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, was found to play a crucial role in controlling the maturation and function of human monocyte-derived DCs. However, the effects of A20 in AML derived DCs (AML-DCs) have not yet been evaluated. In this study, A20 expression was up-regulated in AML-DCs activated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Then, A20 attenuation with siRNA in AML-DC enhanced the expression of several co-stimulatory molecules and proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, after A20 attenuation in AML-DCs, the autologous cytolytic T cells (CTLs) induced by AML-DCs had higher killing capability and specificity for primary AML cells. Additionally, receptor-interacting protein (RIP) and the NF-κBp65 pathway were elevated in AML-DCs when A20 was reduced. Hence, this study identified A20 as a negative regulator for controlling AML-DC maturation and immunostimulatory potency, as A20 down-regulation resulted in AML-DCs with enhanced autologous CTLs immune capacity through the NF-κB pathway.

Cheadle EJ, Sheard V, Rothwell DG, et al.
Differential role of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in autotoxicity driven by CD19-specific second-generation chimeric antigen receptor T cells in a mouse model.
J Immunol. 2014; 192(8):3654-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
T cells engrafted with chimeric AgRs (CAR) are showing exciting potential for targeting B cell malignancies in early-phase clinical trials. To determine whether the second-generation CAR was essential for optimal antitumor activity, two CD28-based CAR constructs targeting CD19 were tested for their ability to redirect mouse T cell function against established B cell lymphoma in a BALB/c syngeneic model system. T cells armed with either CAR eliminated A20 B cell lymphoma in vivo; however, one construct induced a T cell dose-dependent acute toxicity associated with a raised serum Th1 type cytokine profile on transfer into preconditioned mice. Moreover, a chronic toxicity manifested as granuloma-like formation in spleen, liver, and lymph nodes was observed in animals receiving T cells bearing either CD28 CAR, albeit with different kinetics dependent upon the specific receptor used. This phenotype was associated with an expansion of CD4+ CAR+ T cells and CD11b+ Gr-1(+) myeloid cells and increased serum Th2-type cytokines, including IL-10 and IL-13. Mouse T cells engrafted with a first-generation CAR failed to develop such autotoxicity, whereas toxicity was not apparent when T cells bearing the same receptors were transferred into C57BL/6 or C3H animals. In summary, the adoptive transfer of second-generation CD19-specific CAR T cells can result in a cell dose-dependent acute toxicity, whereas the prolonged secretion of high levels of Th2 cytokines from these CAR T cells in vivo drives a granulomatous reaction resulting in chronic toxicity. Strategies that prevent a prolonged Th2-cytokine biased CAR T cell response are clearly warranted.

Zhu L, Zhang F, Shen Q, et al.
Characteristics of A20 gene polymorphisms in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Hematology. 2014; 19(8):448-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
A20 is a repressor of NF-κB and was recently shown to be frequently inactivated by deletions or mutations in several types of lymphomas including T-cell lymphoma. Little is known about the characteristics of A20 mutations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). In this study, we analyzed A20 polymorphisms and characterized their features in 11 cases with T-ALL, 30 samples from healthy Chinese individuals, and 3 cells lines including CCRF-CEM, Molt-4, and Toledo cells. Two frequent A20 polymorphisms were found: a CCT deletion at position 12384 and a nucleotide exchange (A to C) at position 13751 (rs2307859 and rs661561). The homozygous form (CC) of rs661561 was detected in all 10 cases with detectable T-ALL, while only 80% (24/30) of the healthy controls had this genotype. We found one T-ALL case without the above frequent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in which a T to G mutation at position 12486 was found, which results in an amino acid exchange (Phe127Cys; rs2230926). Similar results were found in Molt-4 cells, which lack the frequent SNPs but have a heterozygous polymorphism at position 13749 (C > T) (rs5029948). Interestingly, the T-ALL case with the Phe127Cys mutation and Molt-4 cells demonstrated a high A20 copy number as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification with three primer sets that cover different regions of the A20 gene, corresponding to a high A20 and low NF-κB expression level. In conclusion, we characterized the features of A20 polymorphisms in T-ALL, and found that a low frequency A20 mutation, which was thought to be involved in malignant T-ALL development, might function differently in T cell lymphomas.

Todo K, Koga O, Nishikawa M, Hikida M
IgG1 cytoplasmic tail is essential for cell surface expression in Igβ down-regulated cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 445(3):572-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been shown that cytoplasmic tail of the IgG1 B cell receptors (BCRs) are essential for the induction of T-dependent immune responses. Also it has been revealed that unique tyrosine residue in the cytoplasmic tail of IgG2a has the potential of being phosphorylated at tyrosine and that this phosphorylation modulates BCR signaling. However, it still remains unclear whether such phosphorylation of IgG cytoplasmic tail is involved in the regulation of BCR surface expression. In order to approach the issue, we established and analyzed the cell lines which express wild-type or mutated forms of IgG1 BCR. As the result, we found that IgG1 BCR expressed normally on the surface of A20 B cell line independent of the cytoplasmic tail. In contrast, IgG1 BCR whose cytoplasmic tyrosine was replaced with glutamic acid which mimics phosphorylated tyrosine, was expressed most efficiently on the surface of non-B lineage cells and Igβ-down-regulated B cell lines. These results suggest that tyrosine residue in IgG cytoplasmic tail is playing a essential role for the efficient expression of IgG BCR on the cell surface when BCR associated signaling molecules, including Igβ, are down-regulated.

Haery L, Lugo-Picó JG, Henry RA, et al.
Histone acetyltransferase-deficient p300 mutants in diffuse large B cell lymphoma have altered transcriptional regulatory activities and are required for optimal cell growth.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:29 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent genome-wide studies have shown that approximately 30% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases harbor mutations in the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) coactivators p300 or CBP. The majority of these mutations reduce or eliminate the catalytic HAT activity. We previously demonstrated that the human DLBCL cell line RC-K8 expresses a C-terminally truncated, HAT-defective p300 protein (p300ΔC-1087), whose expression is essential for cell proliferation.
METHODS: Using results from large-scale DLBCL studies, we have identified and characterized a second C-terminally truncated, HAT-defective p300 mutant, p300ΔC-820, expressed in the SUDHL2 DLBCL cell line. Properties of p300ΔC-820 were characterized in the SUDHL2 DLBCL cell line by Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation, and shRNA gene knockdown, as well by using cDNA expression vectors for p300ΔC-820 in pull-down assays, transcriptional reporter assays, and immunofluorescence experiments. A mass spectrometry-based method was used to compare the histone acetylation profile of DLBCL cell lines expressing various levels of wild-type p300.
RESULTS: We show that the SUDHL2 cell line expresses a C-terminally truncated, HAT-defective form of p300 (p300ΔC-820), but no wild-type p300. The p300ΔC-820 protein has a wild-type ability to localize to subnuclear "speckles," but has a reduced ability to enhance transactivation by transcription factor REL. Knockdown of p300ΔC-820 in SUDHL2 cells reduced their proliferation and soft agar colony-forming ability. In RC-K8 cells, knockdown of p300ΔC-1087 resulted in increased expression of mRNA and protein for REL target genes A20 and IκBα, two genes that have been shown to limit the growth of RC-K8 cells when overexpressed. Among a panel of B-lymphoma cell lines, low-level expression of full-length p300 protein, which is characteristic of the SUDHL2 and RC-K8 cells, was associated with decreased acetylation of histone H3 at lysines 14 and 18.
CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of p300 mutations in DLBCL suggests that HAT-deficient p300 activity defines a subtype of DLBCL, which we have investigated using human DLBCL cell lines RC-K8 and SUDHL2. Our results suggest that truncated p300 proteins contribute to DLBCL cell growth by affecting the expression of specific genes, perhaps through a mechanism that involves alterations in global histone acetylation.

Laureys G, Gerlo S, Spooren A, et al.
β₂-adrenergic agonists modulate TNF-α induced astrocytic inflammatory gene expression and brain inflammatory cell populations.
J Neuroinflammation. 2014; 11:21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The NF-κB signaling pathway orchestrates many of the intricate aspects of neuroinflammation. Astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors have emerged as potential regulators in central nervous system inflammation and are potential targets for pharmacological modulation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the crosstalk between astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors and the TNF-α induced inflammatory gene program.
METHODS: Proinflammatory conditions were generated by the administration of TNF-α. Genes that are susceptible to astrocytic crosstalk between β₂-adrenergic receptors (stimulated by clenbuterol) and TNF-α were identified by qPCR-macroarray-based gene expression analysis in a human 1321 N1 astrocytoma cell line. Transcriptional patterns of the identified genes in vitro were validated by RT-PCR on the 1321 N1 cell line as well as on primary rat astrocytes. In vivo expression patterns were examined by intracerebroventricular administration of clenbuterol and/or TNF-α in rats. To examine the impact on the inflammatory cell content of the brain we performed extensive FACS analysis of rat brain immune cells after intracerebroventricular clenbuterol and/or TNF-α administration.
RESULTS: Parallel transcriptional patterns in vivo and in vitro confirmed the relevance of astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors as modulators of brain inflammatory responses. Importantly, we observed pronounced effects of β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and TNF-α on IL-6, CXCL2, CXCL3, VCAM1, and ICAM1 expression, suggesting a role in inflammatory brain cell homeostasis. Extensive FACS-analysis of inflammatory cell content in the brain demonstrated that clenbuterol/TNF-α co-administration skewed the T cell population towards a double negative phenotype and induced a shift in the myeloid brain cell population towards a neutrophilic predominance.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors are potent regulators of astrocytic TNF-α-activated genes in vitro and in vivo, and ultimately modulate the molecular network involved in the homeostasis of inflammatory cells in the central nervous system. Astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors and their downstream signaling pathway may serve as potential targets to modulate neuroinflammatory responses.

de Figueiredo-Pontes LL, Wong DW, Tin VP, et al.
Identification and characterization of ALK kinase splicing isoforms in non-small-cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(2):248-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements are present in an important subset of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and predict for response to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib. In this study, we evaluated the yet unknown frequency and functional role of ALK splicing isoforms in NSCLC.
METHODS: We analyzed 270 cases of NSCLC for ALK kinase domain splicing aberrations and in addition generated constructs with full-length echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK (E13;A20) and a splicing isoform.
RESULTS: Splicing isoforms of the kinase domain of ALK-including complete skipping of exon 23 (ALKdel23, ALK p.I1171fs*42) and exon 27 (ALKdel27, ALK p.T1312fs*0)-were identified in 11.1% (30 of 270 cases) of NSCLC, and these changes coexisted with ALK rearrangements, KRAS mutations, and EGFR mutations. ALK splicing isoforms were observed with full-length EML4-ALK in crizotinib-naive and treated NSCLCs. ALK T1312fs*0 was unable to render cells solely dependent on ALK signaling. Unlike EML4-ALK and EML4-ALK p.L1196M, EML4-ALK T1312fs*0 did not autophosphorylate ALK or other phosphotyrosine sites. Coexpression of equal amounts of EML4-ALK T1312fs*0 and EML4-ALK did not result in resistance to crizotinib, whereas coexpression of EML4-ALK L1196M with EML4-ALK resulted in resistance to inhibition of ALK by crizotinib.
CONCLUSIONS: ALK kinase splicing isoforms were present in NSCLC and even if translated seemed to be nonfunctional variants of ALK.

Okosun J, Bödör C, Wang J, et al.
Integrated genomic analysis identifies recurrent mutations and evolution patterns driving the initiation and progression of follicular lymphoma.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(2):176-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma is an incurable malignancy, with transformation to an aggressive subtype representing a critical event during disease progression. Here we performed whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing on 10 follicular lymphoma-transformed follicular lymphoma pairs followed by deep sequencing of 28 genes in an extension cohort, and we report the key events and evolutionary processes governing tumor initiation and transformation. Tumor evolution occurred through either a 'rich' or 'sparse' ancestral common progenitor clone (CPC). We identified recurrent mutations in linker histone, JAK-STAT signaling, NF-κB signaling and B cell developmental genes. Longitudinal analyses identified early driver mutations in chromatin regulator genes (CREBBP, EZH2 and KMT2D (MLL2)), whereas mutations in EBF1 and regulators of NF-κB signaling (MYD88 and TNFAIP3) were gained at transformation. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the genetic basis of follicular lymphoma and the clonal dynamics of transformation and suggests that personalizing therapies to target key genetic alterations in the CPC represents an attractive therapeutic strategy.

Parry M, Rose-Zerilli MJ, Gibson J, et al.
Whole exome sequencing identifies novel recurrently mutated genes in patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83244 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
The pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) remains largely unknown. Recent high-throughput sequencing studies have identified recurrent mutations in key pathways, most notably NOTCH2 mutations in >25% of patients. These studies are based on small, heterogeneous discovery cohorts, and therefore only captured a fraction of the lesions present in the SMZL genome. To identify further novel pathogenic mutations within related biochemical pathways, we applied whole exome sequencing (WES) and copy number (CN) analysis to a biologically and clinically homogeneous cohort of seven SMZL patients with 7q abnormalities and IGHV1-2*04 gene usage. We identified 173 somatic non-silent variants, affecting 160 distinct genes. In additional to providing independent validation of the presence of mutation in several previously reported genes (NOTCH2, TNFAIP3, MAP3K14, MLL2 and SPEN), our study defined eight additional recurrently mutated genes in SMZL; these genes are CREBBP, CBFA2T3, AMOTL1, FAT4, FBXO11, PLA2G4D, TRRAP and USH2A. By integrating our WES and CN data we identified three mutated putative candidate genes targeted by 7q deletions (CUL1, EZH2 and FLNC), with FLNC positioned within the well-characterized 7q minimally deleted region. Taken together, this work expands the reported directory of recurrently mutated cancer genes in this disease, thereby expanding our understanding of SMZL pathogenesis. Ultimately, this work will help to establish a stratified approach to care including the possibility of targeted therapy.

Gottschalk S, Yu F, Ji M, et al.
A vaccine that co-targets tumor cells and cancer associated fibroblasts results in enhanced antitumor activity by inducing antigen spreading.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e82658 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines targeting only cancer cells have produced limited antitumor activity in most clinical studies. Targeting cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in addition to cancer cells may enhance antitumor effects, since CAFs, the central component of the tumor stroma, directly support tumor growth and contribute to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. To co-target CAFs and tumor cells we developed a new compound DC vaccine that encodes an A20-specific shRNA to enhance DC function, and targets fibroblast activation protein (FAP) expressed in CAFs and the tumor antigen tyrosine-related protein (TRP)2 (DC-shA20-FAP-TRP2). DC-shA20-FAP-TRP2 vaccination induced robust FAP- and TRP2-specific T-cell responses, resulting in greater antitumor activity in the B16 melanoma model in comparison to monovalent vaccines or a vaccine encoding antigens and a control shRNA. DC-shA20-FAP-TRP2 vaccination enhanced tumor infiltration of CD8-positive T cells, and induced antigen-spreading resulting in potent antitumor activity. Thus, co-targeting of tumor cells and CAFs results in the induction of broad-based tumor-specific T-cell responses and has the potential to improve current vaccine approaches for cancer.

Dalmases A, González I, Menendez S, et al.
Deficiency in p53 is required for doxorubicin induced transcriptional activation of NF-кB target genes in human breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(1):196-210 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
NF-кB has been linked to doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer patients. NF-кB nuclear translocation and DNA binding in doxorubicin treated-breast cancer cells have been extensively examined; however its functional relevance at transcriptional level on NF-кB-dependent genes and the biological consequences are unclear. We studied NF-кB-dependent gene expression induced by doxorubicin in breast cancer cells and fresh human cancer specimens with different genetic backgrounds focusing on their p53 status. NF-кB-dependent signature of doxorubicin was identified by gene expression microarrays in breast cancer cells treated with doxorubicin and the IKKβ-inhibitor MLN120B, and confirmed ex vivo in human cancer samples. The association with p53 was functionally validated. Finally, NF-кB activation and p53 status was determined in a cohort of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. Doxorubicin treatment in the p53-mutated MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in NF-кB driven-gene transcription signature. Modulation of genes related with invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance (ICAM-1, CXCL1, TNFAIP3, IL8) were confirmed in additional doxorubicin-treated cell lines and fresh primary human breast tumors. In both systems, p53-deficient background correlated with the activation of the NF-кB-dependent signature. Furthermore, restoration of p53WT in the mutant p53 MDA-MB-231 cells impaired NF-кB driven transcription induced by doxorubicin. Moreover, a p53 deficient background and nuclear NF-кB/p65 in breast cancer patients correlated with reduced disease free-survival. This study supports that p53 deficiency is necessary for a doxorubicin driven NF-кB-response that limits doxorubicin cytotoxicity in breast cancer and is linked to an aggressive clinical behavior.

Zheng H, Wang X, Ma Y, et al.
The TCR γδ repertoire and relative gene expression characteristics of T-ALL cases with biclonal malignant Vδ1 and Vδ2 T cells.
DNA Cell Biol. 2014; 33(1):49-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Despite significant improvement in our understanding of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) biology and pathogenesis, many questions remain unanswered. In previous studies, we found a T-ALL case with two malignant T-cell clones with Vδ1Dδ2Dδ3Jδ1 and Vδ2Dδ3Jδ2 rearrangements. In this study, we further characterized T-ALL cases with two malignant clones containing Vδ1Dδ3Jδ1 and Vδ2Dδ1Jδ1 rearrangements using fine-tiling array comparative genomic hybridization, ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LM-PCR), sequencing, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. We further analyzed the distribution and clonality of the T-cell receptor (TCR) Vγ and Vδ subfamily T cells in the two T-ALL cases by RT-PCR and GeneScan. Monoclonal Vδ1 and Vδ2 subfamilies were confirmed in both samples, the Vδ3 through Vδ7 subfamilies could not be detected in the T-ALL samples, whereas the oligoclonal Vδ8 subfamily could be identified. Based on the clinical finding that both of the T-ALL cases with two malignant T-cell clones had a poor outcome, we attempted to compare the expression pattern of genes related to T-cell activation and proliferation between cases with the malignant Vδ1 and Vδ2 T-cell clones and T-ALL cases with a mono-malignant Vα T-cell clone. We selected two T-ALL cases with VαJα rearrangements and analyzed the expression level of Notch1, TAL1, and the CARMA-BCL10-MALT-A20-NF-κB pathway genes by real-time PCR. A20 had significantly higher expression in the biclonal compared with the monoclonal T-ALL group (p=0.0354), and there was a trend toward higher expression for the other genes in the biclonal group with the exception of TAL1, although the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, we identified two T-ALL cases with biclonal malignant T-cell clones and described the characteristics of the biclonal T-ALL subtype and its gene expression pattern. Thus, our findings may improve the understanding of biclonal T-ALL.

Yamaguchi N, Lucena-Araujo AR, Nakayama S, et al.
Dual ALK and EGFR inhibition targets a mechanism of acquired resistance to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib in ALK rearranged lung cancer.
Lung Cancer. 2014; 83(1):37-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib is active against ALK translocated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however acquired resistance invariably develops over time. ALK mutations have previously been implicated in only a third of resistant tumors. We sought to evaluate alternative mechanisms of resistance and preclinical strategies to overcome these in a cell line driven by EML4-ALK.
METHODS: We selected the NSCLC cell line NCI-H3122 (H3122: EML4-ALK E13;A20) and derived resistant variants that were able to grow in the presence of 1 μM crizotinib. These were analyzed for ALK mutations, sensitivity to crizotinib in combination with other TKIs, and for activation of alternative tyrosine kinases.
RESULTS: All H3122 crizotinib resistant (CR) clones lacked amplification or mutations in the kinase domain of ALK. To evaluate if possible alternative kinases functioned as "bypass" tracks for downstream signaling activation in these resistance cells, we performed of phosho-receptor tyrosine kinase array that demonstrated that CR clones had higher phospho-EGFR signals than H3122 cells before and after exposure to crizotinib. A functional approach of dual ALK TKI (with crizotinib) with combinatory TKI inhibition was used as a secondary screen for possible targets. Crizotinib+erlotinib (reversible EGFR TKI) and crizotinib+afatinib (irreversible EGFR/ERBB2 TKI) were able to inhibit the growth of H3122 CR clones, confirming EGFR activation as a mechanism of resistance. The removal of crizotinib from the culture media re-sensitized CR cells to crizotinib.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified activation of EGFR as a mechanism of resistance to crizotinib in preclinical models of ALK translocated NSCLC. If EGFR activation is confirmed as a predominant mechanism of ALK TKI-induced resistance in patient-derived tumors, the use of ALK plus EGFR TKIs could be explored for this important cohort of NSCLCs.

Nocturne G, Boudaoud S, Miceli-Richard C, et al.
Germline and somatic genetic variations of TNFAIP3 in lymphoma complicating primary Sjogren's syndrome.
Blood. 2013; 122(25):4068-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Several autoimmune diseases, including primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), are associated with an increased risk for lymphoma. Polymorphisms of TNFAIP3, which encodes the A20 protein that plays a key role in controlling nuclear factor κB activation, have been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Somatic mutations of TNFAIP3 have been observed in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma subtype frequently associated with pSS. We studied germline and somatic abnormalities of TNFAIP3 in 574 patients with pSS, including 25 with lymphoma. Nineteen additional patients with pSS and lymphoma were available for exome sequence analysis. Functional abnormalities of A20 were assessed by gene reporter assays. The rs2230926 exonic variant was associated with an increased risk for pSS complicated by lymphoma (odds ratio, 3.36 [95% confidence interval, 1.34-8.42], and odds ratio, 3.26 [95% confidence interval, 1.31-8.12], vs controls and pSS patients without lymphoma, respectively; P = .011). Twelve (60%) of the 20 patients with paired germline and lymphoma TNFAIP3 sequence data had functional abnormalities of A20: 6 in germline DNA, 5 in lymphoma DNA, and 1 in both. The frequency was even higher (77%) among pSS patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Some of these variants showed impaired control of nuclear factor κB activation. These results support a key role for germline and somatic variations of A20 in the transformation between autoimmunity and lymphoma.

Litchfield LM, Appana SN, Datta S, Klinge CM
COUP-TFII inhibits NFkappaB activation in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 382(1):358-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reduced COUP-TFII expression contributes to endocrine resistance in breast cancer cells. Endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells have higher NFkappa B (NFκB) activity and target gene expression. The goal of this study was to determine if COUP-TFII modulates NFκB activity. Endocrine-resistant LCC9 cells with low endogenous COUP-TFII displayed ∼5-fold higher basal NFκB activity than parental endocrine-sensitive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Transient transfection of LCC9 cells with COUP-TFII inhibited NFκB activation and reduced NFκB target gene expression. COUP-TFII and NFκB were inversely correlated in breast cancer patient samples. Endogenous COUP-TFII coimmunoprecipitated with NFκB subunits RelB and NFκB1 in MCF-7 cells. COUP-TFII inhibited NFκB-DNA binding in vitro and impaired coactivator induced NFκB transactivation. LCC9 cells were growth-inhibited by an NFκB inhibitor and 4-hydroxytamoxifen compared to MCF-7 cells. Together these data indicate a novel role for COUP-TFII in suppression of NFκB activity and explain, in part, why decreased COUP-TFII expression results in an endocrine-resistant phenotype.

Liu J, Yang S, Wang Z, et al.
Ubiquitin ligase A20 regulates p53 protein in human colon epithelial cells.
J Biomed Sci. 2013; 20:74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Intestinal polyps may further develop into colon cancer; the pathogenesis is not clear. The p53 gene is an important anti-cancer gene in the body, which is suppressed in cancer. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in regulating the activities of epithelial cells. This study was designed to investigate the role of the colon polyp epithelium-derived A20 in the pathogenesis of colon cancer.
RESULTS: Eighty-eight colon cancer patients and 136 colon polyp patients were recruited into this study. Human colon cancer tissue, the epithelium of adenomas polyp and hyperplastic polyp showed high levels of A20, which had a positive correlation with the cancerous tendency of colon polyps. The levels of A20 were much higher in the adenomas and hyperplastic polyps than that in the inflammatory polyps; the latter showed less cancerous tendency. A20 bound p53 to form complexes in colon cancer tissue and colon polyps. Over expression of A20 suppresses P53 protein levels in the HEK293 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: A20 may play an important role in the cancerous tendency of colon polyposis.

Mladenova D, Pangon L, Currey N, et al.
Sulindac activates NF-κB signaling in colon cancer cells.
Cell Commun Signal. 2013; 11:73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sulindac has shown efficacy in preventing colorectal cancer. This potent anti-tumorigenic effect is mediated through multiple cellular pathways but is also accompanied by gastrointestinal side effects, such as colon inflammation. We have recently shown that sulindac can cause up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors in the mouse colon mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the signaling pathways that mediate the transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in colon cancer epithelial cells treated with sulindac sulfide.
RESULTS: We found that sulindac sulfide increased NF-κB signaling in HCT-15, HCT116, SW480 and SW620 cells, although the level of induction varied between cell lines. The drug caused a decrease in IκBα levels and an increase of p65(RelA) binding to the NF-κB DNA response element. It induced expression of IL-8, ICAM1 and A20, which was inhibited by the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. Sulindac sulfide also induced activation of the AP-1 transcription factor, which co-operated with NF-κB in up-regulating IL-8. Up-regulation of NF-κB genes was most prominent in conditions where only a subset of cells was undergoing apoptosis. In TNFα stimulated conditions the drug treatment inhibited phosphorylation on IκBα (Ser 32) which is consistent with previous studies and indicates that sulindac sulfide can inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. Sulindac-induced upregulation of NF-κB target genes occurred early in the proximal colon of mice given a diet containing sulindac for one week.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that sulindac sulfide can induce pro-inflammatory NF-κB and AP-1 signaling as well as apoptosis in the same experimental conditions. Therefore, these results provide insights into the effect of sulindac on pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, as well as contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of sulindac-induced gastrointestinal side effects.

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