Gene Summary

Gene:TLR2; toll like receptor 2
Aliases: TIL4, CD282
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. This protein is a cell-surface protein that can form heterodimers with other TLR family members to recognize conserved molecules derived from microorganisms known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Activation of TLRs by PAMPs leads to an up-regulation of signaling pathways to modulate the host's inflammatory response. This gene is also thought to promote apoptosis in response to bacterial lipoproteins. This gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:toll-like receptor 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TLR2 (cancer-related)

Rudnicka K, Backert S, Chmiela M
Genetic Polymorphisms in Inflammatory and Other Regulators in Gastric Cancer: Risks and Clinical Consequences.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2019; 421:53-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of a chronic inflammatory response, which may induce peptic ulcers, gastric cancer (GC), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Chronic H. pylori infection promotes the genetic instability of gastric epithelial cells and interferes with the DNA repair systems in host cells. Colonization of the stomach with H. pylori is an important cause of non-cardia GC and gastric MALT lymphoma. The reduction of GC development in patients who underwent anti-H. pylori eradication schemes has also been well described. Individual susceptibility to GC development depends on the host's genetic predisposition, H. pylori virulence factors, environmental conditions, and geographical determinants. Biological determinants are urgently sought to predict the clinical course of infection in individuals with confirmed H. pylori infection. Possible candidates for such biomarkers include genetic aberrations such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in various cytokines/growth factors (e.g., IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A/B, IFN-γ, TNF, TGF-β) and their receptors (IL-RN, TGFR), innate immunity receptors (TLR2, TLR4, CD14, NOD1, NOD2), enzymes involved in signal transduction cascades (PLCE1, PKLR, PRKAA1) as well as glycoproteins (MUC1, PSCA), and DNA repair enzymes (ERCC2, XRCC1, XRCC3). Bacterial determinants related to GC development include infection with CagA-positive (particularly with a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation motifs) and VacA-positive isolates (in particular s1/m1 allele strains). The combined genotyping of bacterial and host determinants suggests that the accumulation of polymorphisms favoring host and bacterial features increases the risk for precancerous and cancerous lesions in patients.

Yu Y, Blokhuis BR, Garssen J, Redegeld FA
A Transcriptomic Insight into the Impact of Colon Cancer Cells on Mast Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mast cells (MCs) are one of the first immune cells recruited to a tumor. It is well recognized that MCs accumulate in colon cancer lesion and their density is associated with the clinical outcomes. However, the molecular mechanism of how colon cancer cells may modify MC function is still unclear. In this study, primary human MCs were generated from CD34⁺ progenitor cells and a 3D coculture model was developed to study the interplay between colon cancer cells and MCs. By comparing the transcriptomic profile of colon cancer-cocultured MCs versus control MCs, we identified a number of deregulated genes, such as MMP-2, VEGF-A, PDGF-A, COX2, NOTCH1 and ISG15, which contribute to the enrichment of cancer-related pathways. Intriguingly, pre-stimulation with a TLR2 agonist prior to colon cancer coculture induced upregulation of multiple interferon-inducible genes as well as MHC molecules in MCs. Our study provides an alternative approach to study the influence of colon cancer on MCs. The transcriptome signature of colon cancer-cocultured MCs may potentially reflect the mechanism of how colon cancer cells educate MCs to become pro-tumorigenic in the initial phase and how a subsequent inflammatory signal-e.g., TLR2 ligands-may modify their responses in the cancer milieu.

Li C, Ma L, Liu Y, et al.
TLR2 promotes development and progression of human glioma via enhancing autophagy.
Gene. 2019; 700:52-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to evaluate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression in human glioma tumors and the correlation between its expression with degrees of malignancy and autophagy, development of tumors.
METHOD: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were carried out to determine the expression of LC3, Beclin1 and TLR2 in 74 glioma specimens. We analyzed the prognosis of 551 glioma patients through the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). To determine the effect of TLR2 in glioma, we manipulated TLR2 expression using TLR2 plasmid transfer technique in U87 human glioma cell.
RESULTS: TLR2 expression in high-grade was significantly higher than that in low-grade glioma group (P < 0.05). TLR2 was positively correlated with tumor grade (P < 0.05). Spearman correlation showed that the expression of TLR2 was positively correlated with the numbers of LC3 and Beclin1 (P < 0.05). The patients with high TLR2 expression had a poorer outcome compared with the patients with low TLR2 in low-grade glioma (P < 0.05). TLR2 overexpression enhances glioma cell activity and accelerates cell cycle progression. In addition, treatment with TLR2 overexpression increases the conversion rate of LC3-I to LC3-II and enhances the level of phosphorylated p38.
CONCLUSION: TLR2 promotes development and progression of human glioma via enhancing autophagy.

Meliț LE, Mărginean CO, Mărginean CD, Mărginean MO
The Relationship between Toll-like Receptors and
J Immunol Res. 2019; 2019:8197048 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Innate immunity represents the first barrier against bacterial invasion. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to the large family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and their activation leads to the induction of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antigen-presenting molecules, and costimulatory molecules. Recent studies have focused on identifying the association between TLRs and

Chen X, Cheng F, Liu Y, et al.
Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 exhibit distinct regulation of cancer cell stemness mediated by cell death-induced high-mobility group box 1.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 40:135-150 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a common extracellular damage associated molecular pattern molecule, is overexpressed in several solid tumors including pancreatic carcinoma. We previously observed that radiotherapy induced dying cells secrete HMGB1 and accelerate pancreatic carcinoma progression through an unclear mechanism.
METHODS: Using the Millicell system as an in vitro co-culture model, we performed quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blot and sphere forming ability analyses to access the effect of dying-cell-derived HMGB1 on CD133
FINDINGS: Radiation-associated, dying-cell-derived HMGB1 maintained stemness and contributed to CD133
INTERPRETATION: Our results show how irradiation-induced cell death might enhance the stemness of resident cancer cells, and indicate HMGB1-TLR2 signaling as a potential therapeutic target for preventing pancreatic cancer recurrence.

Wang S, Yao Y, Rao C, et al.
25-HC decreases the sensitivity of human gastric cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil and promotes cells invasion via the TLR2/NF-κB signaling pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):966-980 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hyperlipidemia is associated with metastasis in patients with gastric cancer (GC). 25‑Hydroxycholesterol (25‑HC) is a type of oxysterol which is synthesized from cholesterol and is involved in a number of processes, including inflammation, immune responses and cancer development. However, the role of 25‑HC in gastric cancer remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that 25‑HC had no effects on GC cell proliferation and apoptosis, whereas it decreased the sensitivity of GC cells to 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU), as demonstrated by the increased cell proliferation and the decreased cell apoptosis. On the other hand, exposure to 2.5‑10 µM of 25‑HC significantly promoted GC invasion, both in vitro (using AGS and MGC‑803 GC cell lines) and in vivo (in an animal model), accompanied by the upregulation of the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Further investigations revealed that the promotion of GC invasion was, at least in part due to the activation of Toll‑like receptor 2 (TLR2)/nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling. Our results demonstrated that 25‑HC promoted GC cells invasion by upregulating TLR2/NF‑κB‑mediated MMP expression. Thus, on the whole, the findings of this study suggest a novel mechanism of hyperlipidemia‑induced GC progression.

Proença MA, Biselli JM, Succi M, et al.
Relationship between
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(47):5351-5365 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To examine the effect of
METHODS: Levels of
RESULTS: Overabundance of
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that

Huang J, Hang JJ, Qin XR, et al.
Interaction of H. pylori with toll-like receptor 2-196 to -174 ins/del polymorphism is associated with gastric cancer susceptibility in southern China.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2019; 24(5):494-500 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of TLR2-196 to -174 ins/del polymorphism in gastric cancer susceptibility and prognosis.
METHODS: This study included 520 people from southern China. Samples were genotyped by the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, among which 10% were randomly selected for sequencing. The serological method was used to determine Helicobacter pylori.
RESULTS: The TLR2 genotype was not associated with the risk of H. pylori infection. The del/del genotype exhibited significantly higher gastric cancer risk (adjusted OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.33‒5.07) than that of the ins/ins genotype. Further stratification analyses demonstrated that the del/del genotype was associated with a risk of intestinal gastric cancer (adjusted OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.34-5.14). In addition, the presence of the del/del genotype and the H. pylori infection conferred a synergistic effect (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.33‒6.98) for the development of gastric cancer. The del/del genotype was not associated with a poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients.
CONCLUSION: The del/del genotype is associated with an increased gastric cancer risk in the southern Chinese population. However, TLR2 polymorphism is neither associated with H. pylori infection, nor with a poor prognosis.

Kına I, Sultuybek GK, Soydas T, et al.
Variations in Toll-like receptor and nuclear factor-kappa B genes and the risk of glioma.
Br J Neurosurg. 2019; 33(2):165-170 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumour in the adult nervous system and is associated with a poor prognosis. NF-KB activation is an important driver of the malignant phenotype that confers a negative prognosis in patients with GBM. NF-KB plays a role in Toll-like Receptors (TLR)-induced tumourigenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of a promoter region polymorphism of NFKB1 gene encoding the p50 subunit of NF-KB, namely -94ins/del ATTG, the most widely discussed the TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR4Asp299Gly and TLR4Thr399Ile polymorphisms, their combined effects, and the glioma risk.
METHODS: A group of 120 Glioma patients and 225 control subjects were screened for these four polymorphisms using the PCR-RFLP method.
RESULTS: Statistical analysis indicates that the ins/ins genotype of NFKB -94ins/delATTG (p=0.003), and the AA genotype of TLR4Asp299Gly (p < 0.001) are risk factors for glioma and people carrying the ins allele have an approximately 1.47 times susceptibility risk of glioma whereas GG genotype of TLR2Arg753Gln seems to be protective against glioma (p = 0.002). Combined genotype analysis showed that del/ins-GG genotype of TLR2Arg753Gln-NFKB1, del/ins + GG genotype of TLR4Asp299Gly-NFKB1, del/ins-CC genotype of TLR4Thr399Ile-NFKB1 were risk factors for glioma development.
CONCLUSION: NFKB1 -94ins/delATTG and TLR4Asp299Gly polymorphisms are associated with increased glioma cancer risk in a Turkish population.

Leppänen J, Helminen O, Huhta H, et al.
Toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 9 and hypoxia markers HIF-1alpha and CAIX in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
APMIS. 2018; 126(11):852-863 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer arises from precursor lesions called pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) characterized by inflammatory microenvironment. In pancreatic cancer, strong innate immunity and hypoxia responses are typical. Occurrence and relationship of these responses in human PanINs is unknown. We have studied the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9, and hypoxia markers HIF-1alpha and Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) in normal and inflamed pancreatic ducts, in PanINs and in cancers. The samples of 69 surgically resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients were stained using immunohistochemistry. We found TLR2, TLR9, HIF-1alpha and CAIX to be prominently expressed in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Expression of TLR2 showed a linear increase from PanIN1 to PanIN3, while the highest TLR4 expression was detected in inflamed ducts, and TLR9 expression in PanIN1 lesions. Within the PanIN1-group, nuclear HIF-1alpha correlated with membranous and cytoplasmic TLR2 expression (ρ = 0.982 and 0.815; p < 0.001 and p = 0.025, respectively), and in the PanIN2-group nuclear HIF-1alpha correlated with nuclear TLR9 expression 0.636, p = 0.026). Our findings show that the expression of TLRs 2, 4 and 9, and hypoxia markers HIF-1alpha and CAIX is abnormal in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia suggesting that both the innate immunity activation and hypoxia response are involved in early pancreatic carcinogenesis. However, these processes might be independent.

Halec G, Scott ME, Farhat S, et al.
Toll-like receptors: Important immune checkpoints in the regression of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia 2.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(11):2884-2891 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune defenders thought to be critical for the clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections hence preventing the development of HPV-associated high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN2 or 3), a potential cervical cancer precursor. However, the role of TLRs in the regression of established cervical lesions, such as CIN2, is hindered by a lack of prospective design studies. Using SYBR green real-time PCR assays, we have examined the gene expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9, in cytobrush collected endocervical cells of 63 women diagnosed with CIN2 at study entry (baseline) and followed over a 3-year period. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to examine the association between TLR expression levels, measured at baseline, and CIN2 outcome (regression vs. persistence/progression) over time. HPV genotyping was performed using Roche Linear Array Assay detecting 37 HPV types. Women with CIN2 regression showed significantly higher baseline levels of TLR2 (p = 0.006) and TLR7 (p = 0.007), as well as a non-significant trend for a higher TLR8 expression (p = 0.053) compared to women with CIN2 persistence/progression. Six women with CIN2 regression, who presented with an HR-HPV DNA-negative CIN2 lesion at study entry, had significantly higher baseline levels of TLR2 (p = 0.005), TLR7 (p = 0.013) and TLR8 (p = 0.012), compared to women with CIN2 persistence/progression, suggesting their role in clearance of HPV prior to clearance of the lesion. Our results confirm a key role of TLRs in regression of CIN2 and support the potential use of TLR-agonists for treatment of these lesions.

Messeha SS, Zarmouh NO, Mendonca P, et al.
The inhibitory effects of plumbagin on the NF-қB pathway and CCL2 release in racially different triple-negative breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0201116 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of death among women in the US, and its subtype triple-negative BC (TNBC) is the most aggressive BC with poor prognosis. In the current study, we investigated the anticancer effects of the natural product plumbagin (PL) on racially different TNBC cells. The PL effects were examined in two TNBC cell lines: MDA-MB-231 (MM-231) and MDA-MB-468 (MM-468), representing Caucasian Americans and African Americans, respectively. The results obtained indicate that PL inhibited cell viability and cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both cell lines. Notably, MM-468 cells were 5-fold more sensitive to PL than MM-231 cells were. Testing PL and Taxol® showed the superiority of PL over Taxol® as an antiproliferative agent in MM-468 cells. PL treatment resulted in an approximately 20-fold increase in caspase-3 activity with 3 μM PL in MM-468 cells compared with an approximately 3-fold activity increase in MM-231 cells with 8 μM PL. Moreover, the results indicate a higher sensitivity to PL in MM-468 cells than in MM-231 cells. The results also show that PL downregulated CCL2 cytokine expression in MM-468 cells by 30% compared to a 90% downregulation in MM-231 cells. The ELISA results confirmed the array data (35% vs. 75% downregulation in MM-468 and MM-231 cells, respectively). Moreover, PL significantly downregulated IL-6 and GM-CSF in the MM-231 cells. Indeed, PL repressed many NF-қB-regulated genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The compound significantly downregulated the same genes (BIRC3, CCL2, TLR2, and TNF) in both types of cells. However, PL impacted five more genes in MM-231 cells, including BCL2A1, ICAM1, IKBKE, IL1β, and LTA. In conclusion, the data obtained in this study indicate that the quinone compound PL could be a novel cancer treatment for TNBC in African American women.

Moretti IF, Franco DG, de Almeida Galatro TF, et al.
Plasmatic membrane toll-like receptor expressions in human astrocytomas.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0199211 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first to identify disturbances in the immune system, recognizing pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Since the inflammation process plays an important role in several diseases, TLRs have been considered potential therapeutic targets, including treatment for cancer. However, TLRs' role in cancer remains ambiguous. This study aims to analyze the expression levels of plasmatic cell membrane TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR6) in human astrocytomas the most prevalent tumors of CNS different grades (II-IV). We demonstrated that TLR expressions were higher in astrocytoma samples compared to non-neoplastic brain tissue. The gene and protein expressions were observed in GBM cell lines U87MG and A172, proving their presence in the tumor cells. Associated expressions between the known heterodimers TLR1-TLR2 were found in all astrocytoma grades. In GBMs, the mesenchymal subtype showed higher levels of TLR expressions in relation to classical and proneural subtypes. A strong association of TLRs with the activation of cell cycle process and signaling through canonical, inflammasome and ripoptosome pathways was observed by in silico analysis, further highlighting TLRs as interesting targets for cancer treatment.

Messaritakis I, Stogiannitsi M, Koulouridi A, et al.
Evaluation of the detection of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in cancer development and progression in patients with colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0197327 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play essential role in innate and acquired immunity, are expressed in various cell types, and are associated with altered susceptibility to many diseases, and cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate TLR2 (-196 to-174del), TLR4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) and TLR9 (T1237C and T1486C) gene polymorphisms at risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression.
METHODS: Peripheral blood was obtained from 397 patients with adjuvant (stage II/III, n = 202) and metastatic (n = 195) CRC. Moreover, blood samples from 50 healthy volunteers and 40 patients with adenomatous polyps were also included as control groups. DNA from patients and controls was analyzed using PCR and PCR-RFLP for genotyping functional polymorphism within TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 genotypes.
RESULTS: TLR2-196 to-174del/del genotype was detected in 76.6% of the patients and was significantly higher that the controls groups (p<0.001). TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR4 Thr399Ile, TLR9 T1237C and T1486C homozygous genotypes were detected in 70.5%, 70.5%, 61.5% and 61.5% of the patients respectively, and were also significantly higher than that in the control groups (p<0.001). All polymorphisms detected were also significantly associated with the metastatic disease (p<0.001) leading to shorter overall survival (p<0.001); whereas, TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were significantly associated with KRAS mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: The detection of higher frequencies of the TLR2, TLR4 and/or TLR9 polymorphisms in CRC patients compared with the control groups highlight the role of these polymorphism in CRC development and cancer progression.

Liu YD, Ji CB, Li SB, et al.
Toll-like receptor 2 stimulation promotes colorectal cancer cell growth via PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2018; 59:375-383 [PubMed] Related Publications
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 is a key regulator of innate immune responses and has been shown to play an important role in inflammation-associated cancers. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of TLR2 in colorectal cancer (CRC). We demonstrated that TLR2 mRNA and protein expression was significantly upregulated in tumors from CRC patients and indicated poor prognosis. Using the TLR2 agonist Pam3Cys (P3C) to activate TLR2 signaling in human CRC cell lines, we showed that TLR2 drives cellular proliferation, which was dependent upon PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways and was associated with the upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes BCL2A1, WISP1 and BIRC3. Likewise, pharmacological blockade of PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways mitigated the CRC pro-survival effects of TLR2 stimulation. Furthermore, genetic ablation of TLR2 using CRISPR/Cas9 suppressed CRC cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TLR2 plays an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis and may represent a promising therapeutic target in CRC.

Hsiao JR, Chang CC, Lee WT, et al.
The interplay between oral microbiome, lifestyle factors and genetic polymorphisms in the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(6):778-787 [PubMed] Related Publications
Poor oral hygiene may lead to overgrowth of pathogenic oral bacteria, which may induce chronic inflammation to promote the oncogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study investigated the association between oral bacterial profile and OSCC risk in a case-control study of 138 OSCC cases and 151 controls (88 cases and 90 controls for the discovery group and 50 cases and 61 controls for the validation group). Oral bacterial profiles were characterized by targeted sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Three species of periodontopathogenic bacteria, Prevotella tannerae, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Prevotella intermedia, were associated with an increased OSCC risk. This association was modified by the genetic polymorphisms of TLR2 and TLR4. Use of alcohol, betel quids and cigarettes and poor oral hygiene were associated with a higher percentage of oral periodontopathogenic bacteria. The association between alcohol and periodontopathogenic bacteria was modified by the genetic polymorphism of ALDH2, with a stronger positive association observed among the ALDH2-deficient individuals. The percentage of periodontopathogenic bacteria was positively correlated with the level of salivary IL1β, an inflammatory cytokine. Overall, our results showed a positive association between periodontopathogenic bacteria and OSCC risk and this relationship may be influenced by lifestyle and genetic factors. Our results provided further biological support for the established association between poor oral hygiene and OSCC risk. This suggested that improving oral hygiene may reduce OSCC risk and should be part of a public health campaign to prevent the occurrence of OSCC.

Chen X, Zhang L, Jiang Y, et al.
Radiotherapy-induced cell death activates paracrine HMGB1-TLR2 signaling and accelerates pancreatic carcinoma metastasis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dying cells after irradiation could promote the repopulation of surviving cancer cells leading to tumor recurrence. We aim to define the role of dying cells in promoting pancreatic cancer cells metastasis following radiotherapy.
METHODS: Using the transwell system as the in vitro co-culture model, a small number of untreated pancreatic cancer cells were seeded in the upper chamber, while a larger number of lethally treated pancreatic cancer cells were seeded in the lower chamber. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the role of dying-cell-derived HMGB1 on the invasion of pancreatic cancer in vitro and cancer metastasis in vivo. We then designed shRNA knockdown and Western blot assays to detect signaling activity.
RESULTS: We found that dying pancreatic cancer cells significantly promote the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and cancer metastasis in vivo. HMGB1 gene knockdown attenuated the migration-stimulating effect of irradiated, dying cells on living pancreatic cancer cells. Finally, we showed that dying-cell-derived HMGB1 functions in a paracrine manner to affect cancer-cell migration dependent on acquiring an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and PI3K/pAkt activation. This process is mediated by the receptor for TLR2.
CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that, during radiotherapy, dying pancreatic cancer cells activate paracrine signaling events that promote the mobility of surviving tumor cells. We suggest a strategy to inhibit HMGB1 for preventing pancreatic carcinoma relapse and metastasis.

Kopp TI, Vogel U, Tjonneland A, Andersen V
Meat and fiber intake and interaction with pattern recognition receptors (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR10) in relation to colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective, case-cohort study.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2018; 107(3):465-479 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Meat and dietary fiber are associated with increased and decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) regulate the intestinal immune response in a complex interplay between the mucosal epithelium and the microbiota and may therefore be important modulators of diet-induced CRC together with other inflammatory mediators.
Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association between functional TLR polymorphisms and risk of CRC and the interaction with dietary factors. Additionally, interactions with previously studied polymorphisms in IL10, IL1B, PTGS2, and NFKB1 were assessed in order to examine possible biological pathways in meat-induced CRC.
Design: A nested case-cohort study of 897 CRC cases and 1689 randomly selected participants from the Danish prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study encompassing 57,053 persons was performed using Cox proportional hazard models and the likelihood ratio test.
Results: We found associations between polymorphisms in TLR2 (P = 0.018) and TLR4 (P = 0.044) and risk of CRC per se, interactions between intake of red and processed meat (10 g/d) and polymorphisms in TLR1 (P-interaction = 0.032) and TLR10 (P-interaction = 0.026 and 0.036), and intake of cereals (50 g/d) and TLR4 (P-interaction = 0.044) in relation to risk of CRC. Intake of red and processed meat also interacted with combinations of polymorphisms in TLR1 and TLR10 and polymorphisms in NFKB1, IL10, IL1B, and PTGS2 (P-interaction; TLR1/rs4833095 × PTGS2/rs20417 = 0.021, TLR10/rs11096955 × IL10/rs3024505 = 0.047, TLR10/rs11096955 × PTGS2/rs20417 = 0.017, TLR10/rs4129009 × NFKB1/rs28362491 = 0.027, TLR10/rs4129009 × IL1B/rs4848306 = 0.020, TLR10/rs4129009 × IL1B/rs1143623 = 0.021, TLR10/rs4129009 × PTGS2/rs20417 = 0.027), whereas intake of dietary fiber (10 g/d) interacted with combinations of polymorphisms in TLR4, IL10, and PTGS2 (P-interaction; TLR4/rs1554973 × IL10/rs3024505 = 0.0012, TLR4/rs1554973 × PTGS2/rs20417 = 0.0041, TLR4/rs1554973 × PTGS2/rs5275 = 0.0064).
Conclusions: Our study suggests that meat intake may activate TLRs at the epithelial surface, leading to CRC via inflammation by nuclear transcription factor-κB-initiated transcription of inflammatory genes, whereas intake of fiber may protect against CRC via TLR4-mediated secretion of interleukin-10 and cyclooxygenase-2. Our results should be replicated in other prospective cohorts with well-characterized participants. The trial was registered at as NCT03250637.

Fan S, Yu G, Nie W, et al.
Antitumor activity and underlying mechanism of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides in CNE-bearing mice.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 112:516-522 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was designed to investigate the antitumor effects of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides (SFPS) on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the underlying mechanism of its effect on splenic lymphocytes. As a result, SFPS significantly inhibited the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE in vivo, and remarkably increased the serum cytokines and IgM levels in CNE-bearing mice. Meanwhile, SFPS stimulated the peritoneal macrophages to secrete the cytokines, exerted a stimulatory effect on splenic lymphocytes proliferation, and increased the expression of IgM from splenic lymphocytes. The pretreatment of splenic lymphocytes with special antibodies (anti-TLR4 and anti-TLR2) significantly suppressed the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and blocked SFPS-induced IgM production. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, effectively suppressed SFPS-induced IgM secretion in splenic lymphocytes. Taken together, SFPS has antitumor and immunomodulatory activities in NPC, and its activity is mediated, at least in part, by TLR2/TLR4 receptors and p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

Skonieczna K, Styczyński J, Krenska A, et al.
Massively parallel targeted resequencing reveals novel genetic variants associated with aspergillosis in paediatric patients with haematological malignancies.
Pol J Pathol. 2017; 68(3):210-217 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to find novel genetic variants of susceptibility to aspąergillosis in paediatric patients with haematological malignancies. Complete sequences of fifteen genes of human innate immunity (CCL2, CCR2, CD209, CLEC6A, CLEC7A and ten TLR genes) were studied in 40 patients diagnosed with haematological disorders (20 unaffected and 20 affected by aspergillosis). All samples were sequenced with MiSeq (Illumina) and 454 (Roche Diagnostics) technologies. Statistical significance of the differences between studied groups was determined using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Sixty variants of potential importance were identified, the vast majority of which are located in non-coding parts of the targeted genes. At the threshold of p < 0.000005, one intergenic (TLR2 rs4585282) and one intronic variant (CLEC6A rs12099687) were found significant between the case and control groups for genotype and allele frequencies, respectively. Rs12099687 in CLEC6A was predicted to constitute an alternative isoform or cryptic splice site, which potentially changes activity of the Dectin-2 protein. Overall, we assume that the two strongest associations reported in this study are expected to be reproducible even in the absence of other evidence, while another twelve associations may be strong enough to justify additional research in larger cohorts.

Chavarría-Velázquez CO, Torres-Martínez AC, Montaño LF, Rendón-Huerta EP
TLR2 activation induced by H. pylori LPS promotes the differential expression of claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 via either STAT3 and ERK1/2 in AGS cells.
Immunobiology. 2018; 223(1):38-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric carcinogenesis has been associated to H. pylori virulence factors that induce a chronic inflammation process. Lipopolysaccharides play a role in chronic inflammatory responses via TLR2- and TLR4-dependent signaling pathways. Similarly, cellular invasiveness, metastatic potential and prognosis are usually associated to claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 expression in gastric carcinogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if H. pylori LPS exerts an influence on carcinogenesis-related claudin expression and if it was directly regulated through the TLR2 pathway. Human antrum gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells exposed or not to H. pylori LPS were used. Polyclonal anti-claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9, anti-TLR2, anti-pERK1/2 as well as rabbit monoclonal anti-pNFκB p65 and mouse monoclonal anti-CdX2 were used. ERK1/2 inhibitor UO126 and STAT3 inhibitor Stattic were also used. Western blot, immunofluorescence and confocal experiments were performed in whole cells as well as total protein, nuclear and cell membrane fractions. The results showed that H. pylori LPS increased the expression of TLR2 in a time dependent bi-phasic manner (<12 and >12h exposure). Immunofluorescence using AGS monolayers corroborated the double phase TLR2 expression mainly on the cell membrane but a detectable signal was also determined in the cytoplasm of the cells. Activation of NFkB was downstream and depended on TLR2 expression as a statistically significant increase in pNFkB, that followed a pattern highly similar to the TLR2 expression was observed on the cell membrane fraction. The increase in TLR2 expression was accompanied by dramatically increased claudin-4 expression in cultures exposed from 30m to 8h to LPS. Increased expression of claudin-6, -7 and -9 also increases in >12h LPS exposure times. The increase in claudins expression was also dependent on NFkB activation. The results also showed an increase in pSTAT3 that followed a bi-phasic pattern that began 30min after stimulation and was compatible with the increase in TLR2 expression. The expression of the claudin-4 related CDX2 transcription factor did not followed the biphasic pattern. The results also showed that claudin-4 expression was STAT3 dependent whereas claudin-6, 7 and 9 expressions was ERK1/2 dependent. Our results suggest that H. pylori LPS induces TLR2 expression in the AGS cells, and that the longer the exposure to LPS, the greater the expression of TLR2 in the cell membrane. Consequently the expression of claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 also increases.

Sharafeldin N, Slattery ML, Liu Q, et al.
Multiple Gene-Environment Interactions on the Angiogenesis Gene-Pathway Impact Rectal Cancer Risk and Survival.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017; 14(10) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Characterization of gene-environment interactions (GEIs) in cancer is limited. We aimed at identifying GEIs in rectal cancer focusing on a relevant biologic process involving the angiogenesis pathway and relevant environmental exposures: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and animal protein intake. We analyzed data from 747 rectal cancer cases and 956 controls from the Diet, Activity and Lifestyle as a Risk Factor for Rectal Cancer study. We applied a 3-step analysis approach: first, we searched for interactions among single nucleotide polymorphisms on the pathway genes; second, we searched for interactions among the genes, both steps using Logic regression; third, we examined the GEIs significant at the 5% level using logistic regression for cancer risk and Cox proportional hazards models for survival. Permutation-based test was used for multiple testing adjustment. We identified 8 significant GEIs associated with risk among 6 genes adjusting for multiple testing:

Sabah-Ozcan S, Baser A, Olcucu T, et al.
Human TLR gene family members are differentially expressed in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
Urol Oncol. 2017; 35(12):674.e11-674.e17 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have an important role in the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity in response to pathogens and endogenous danger signals from damaged or dying cells. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between urothelial carcinoma (UC) and TLR expression.
BASIC PROCEDURES: Real-time polymerase chain reaction evaluation was made of the messenger RNA expression of TLRs 1-10 in 24 UC samples and 46 nontumoral bladder tissue samples. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) in the urine samples were also determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
MAIN FINDINGS: TLR2-7 and TLR10 expressions were significantly higher in UC than in the control group (P<0.05 for all comparisons). No concordance was found between matched tumor tissue and urine samples in terms of TLR expression. IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in urine specimens of patients with UC (P = 0.033, P = 0.001, and P = 0.008, respectively).
PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrated that the TLR gene expression profiles reflect the heterogeneity within UC. These results might also prompt further investigation to better understand the role of the TLR gene family expression in the tumor progression of UC.

Lai Y, Weng J, Wei X, et al.
Toll-like receptor 2 costimulation potentiates the antitumor efficacy of CAR T Cells.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(3):801-808 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapies have shown unprecedented success in treating leukemia but limited clinical efficacy in solid tumors. Here, we generated 1928zT2 and m28zT2, targeting CD19 and mesothelin, respectively, by introducing the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to 1928z and m28z. T cells expressing 1928zT2 or m28zT2 showed improved expansion, persistency and effector function against CD19

Bachtiar BM, Bachtiar EW
Proinflammatory MG-63 cells response infection with Enterococcus faecalis cps2 evaluated by the expression of TLR-2, IL-1β, and iNOS mRNA.
BMC Res Notes. 2017; 10(1):401 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated that unencapsulated Enterococcus faecalis cps2 inhibits biofilm formation of Candida albicans, a fungus commonly found with E. faecalis in periapical lesion. In this study, we compared encapsulated and unencapsulated E. faecalis cps2 strains relationship with osteoblastic (MG-63) cells, whereas E. faecalis ATCC 29212 were used as a reference strain.
RESULTS: The binding capacity of E. faecalis to MG-63 cells as shown by each tested strain was comparable, but the unencapsulated strain was less invasive compared to the encapsulated and the reference strains. Moreover, quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) results showed that infecting unencapsulated E. faecalis cps2 is a stronger stimulator for toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNAs, but not for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in osteoblastic cells. In conclusion, the performance of unencapsulated E. faecalis cps2 when the bacterium interacts with osteoblastic cells is quite different from that of encapsulated E. faecalis cps2 and reference strains. It appears that the unencapsulated strain might contribute to the persistence of the periapical inflammatory response, depending on down-regulation of iNOS mRNA expression.

Jin Y, Qiu S, Shao N, Zheng J
Association of toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms and its interaction with HPV infection in determining the susceptibility of cervical cancer in Chinese Han population.
Mamm Genome. 2017; 28(5-6):213-219 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study is to investigate the association of several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within Toll-like receptors (TLRs) gene and additional gene-gene and gene-human papillomavirus (HPV) infection interaction with cervical cancer risk. A total of 1262 participants are selected, including 420 cervical cancer patients and 842 control participants. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was used to screen the best interaction combination among five SNPs within TLR gene and HPV infection. Logistic regression was performed to calculate the ORs (95 %CI) for association of five SNPs within TLR gene and additional gene-HPV infection interaction with cervical cancer risk. Cervical cancer risk was significantly higher in carriers of the T allele of rs3775290 within TLR2 gene, the G allele of rs7873784 within TLR4 gene, and the A allele of rs352140 within TLR9 gene than those with wild genotype; adjusted ORs (95 %CI) were 1.78 (1.20-2.24), 1.65 (1.23-2.12), and 1.70 (1.16-2.31). However, we did not find any significant association of rs4986791 and rs11536889 with cervical cancer risk. GMDR analysis suggested a significant two-locus model (p = 0.0107) involving rs352140 and HPV infection. Subjects with HPV infection and rs352140-GA + AA genotype within TLR9 gene have the highest cervical cancer risk, compared to no HPV infection participants with rs352140-GG genotype, OR (95 %CI) = 3.22 (1.68-4.81). Pairwise LD analysis did not find any significant haplotype combination associated with cervical cancer risk. The minor alleles of TLR2-rs3775290, TLR4-rs7873784, and TLR9-rs352140, and interaction between rs352140 and HPV infection were all associated with increased cervical cancer risk.

West AC, Tang K, Tye H, et al.
Identification of a TLR2-regulated gene signature associated with tumor cell growth in gastric cancer.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(36):5134-5144 [PubMed] Related Publications
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key regulators of innate immune responses, and their dysregulation is observed in numerous inflammation-associated malignancies, including gastric cancer (GC). However, the identity of specific TLRs and their molecular targets which promote the pathogenesis of human GC is ill-defined. Here, we sought to determine the clinical utility of TLR2 in human GC. TLR2 mRNA and protein expression levels were elevated in >50% of GC patient tumors across multiple ethnicities. TLR2 was also widely expressed among human GC cell lines, and DNA microarray-based expression profiling demonstrated that the TLR2-induced growth responsiveness of human GC cells corresponded with the up-regulation of six anti-apoptotic (BCL2A1, BCL2, BIRC3, CFLAR, IER3, TNFAIP3) and down-regulation of two tumor suppressor (PDCD4, TP53INP1) genes. The TLR2-mediated regulation of these anti-apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes was also supported by their increased and reduced expression, respectively, in two independent genetic GC mouse models (gp130

Zhang R, Real CI, Liu C, et al.
Hepatic expression of oncogenes Bmi1 and Dkk1 is up-regulated in hepatitis B virus surface antigen-transgenic mice and can be induced by treatment with HBV particles or lipopolysaccharides in vitro.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(2):354-363 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have shown that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops more frequently in hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)-transgenic mice (Alb/HBs) than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, the mechanism of this HCC model has not been well documented. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) signaling probably links innate immunity and HCC progression. This study was designed to investigate the role of innate immunity in hepatocarcinogenesis in Alb/HBs mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of liver specimens from Alb/HBs mice (16 per group) showed that the oncogenes Bmi1 (16/16, 100%) and Dkk1 (13/16, 81.25%) were highly expressed in Alb/HBs mice, whereas the other oncogenes evaluated were expressed in smaller percentages of mice (Afp, 9/16, 56.2%; Ctnnb1, 5/16, 31.3%; Epcam, 0/16; 0%). Comparable results were obtained by quantitative PCR analysis. Hepatic gene expression of Tlr2, Tlr4, Il6 and Tnf was additionally elevated in Alb/HBs mice. Stimulation of primary murine hepatocytes with cell culture-derived HBV particles or LPS increased the expression of oncogenes (Bmi1, Dkk1) and inflammatory factors (Tnf, Il6, Tlr4). Proliferation and colony formation of hepatoma cells were enhanced by treatment with HBV and LPS and were impaired by the suppression of Bmi1 and Dkk1 by small interfering RNAs. Substantial induction of BMI1 and DKK1 was found in liver biopsy samples from patients with HBV-related HCC but not in HCC samples without HBV infection background. These findings suggest that innate immunity may link inflammation and tumor progression during chronic HBV infection, involving the oncogenes BMI1 and DKK1.

Pop-Moldovan AL, Trofenciuc NM, Dărăbanţiu DA, et al.
Customized laboratory TLR4 and TLR2 detection method from peripheral human blood for early detection of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2017; 24(5):203-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer treatments can have significant cardiovascular adverse effects that can cause cardiomyopathy and heart failure with reduced survival benefit and considerable decrease in the use of antineoplastic therapy. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of TLR2 and TLR4 gene expression as an early marker for the risk of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in correlation with early diastolic dysfunction in patients treated with doxorubicin. Our study included 25 consecutive patients who received treatment with doxorubicin for hematological malignancies (leukemia, lymphomas or multiple myeloma), aged 18-65 years, with a survival probability>6 months and with left ventricular ejection fraction>50%. Exclusion criteria consisted of the following: previous anthracycline therapy, previous radiotherapy, history of heart failure or chronic renal failure, atrial fibrillation, and pregnancy. In all patients, in fasting state, a blood sample was drawn for the assessment of TLR2 and TLR4 gene expression. Gene expression was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) using blood collection, RNA isolation, cDNA reverse transcription, qRT-PCR and quantification of the relative expression. At enrollment, all patients were evaluated clinically; an ECG and an echocardiography were performed. The average amount of gene expression units was 0.113 for TLR4 (range 0.059-0.753) and 0.218 for TLR2 (range 0.046-0.269). The mean mRNA extracted quantity was 113 571 ng/μl. As for the diastolic function parameters, criteria for diastolic dysfunction were present after 6 months in 16 patients (64%). In these patients, the mean values for TLR4 were 0.1198625 and for TLR2 were 0.16454 gene expression units. As for the diastolic function parameters, criteria for diastolic dysfunction were present after 6 months in 16 patients (64%). In these patients, the mean value for TLR2 was 0.30±0.19 and for TLR4 was 0.15±0.04. The corresponding values for the patients who did not develop diastolic dysfunction were 0.16±0.07 for TLR2 (P=0.01) and 0.11±0.10 for TLR4 (P=0.2). Our study suggests that TLR4 and TLR2 expression is higher in patients under doxorubicin therapy who develop diastolic dysfunction. This may suggest a predisposition to myocardial involvement, a higher sensitivity to doxorubicin cardiac effects.

Chen Y, Li H, Li M, et al.
Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide activates T Lymphocytes of cancer patients through activation of TLRs mediated -MAPK and -NF-κB signaling pathways.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2017; 200:165-173 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide (SMP) is one of the most important components in the water extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which has been mainly applied for the prevention or treatment of ischemic encephalopathy and cardiac diseases including myocardial infarction and coronary heart diseases in clinical practice.
AIM OF THE STUDY: Our object is to investigate the immune regulation effects of SMP, specifically on the proliferation and cytotoxicity of T lymphocytes through MAPK and NF-κB pathway in peripheral blood of cancer patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: SMP was prepared through refluxing with ethanol, refluxing with water, Sevage treatment and ethanol precipitation. The lymphocytes were obtained from the peripheral blood of cancer patients. The effect of SMP on T lymphocyte proliferation was investigated by cell counting and flow cytometry. The effect of SMP on the proliferation of cancer cell lines A549, hepG2 and HCT116 was examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxic activity of T lymphocytes treated with SMP was detected by Calcein-acetoxymethyl (Calcein-AM) release. The gene expression of IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ and toll like receptors (TLRs) was detected by semi-quantitative PCR. The protein expression of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway were detected by western blotting. To further verify whether SMP functions through the indicated pathways,, T lymphocytes were treated with SMP and an extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) inhibitor (U0126), a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (SP600125) or an inhibitor of NF-κB inhibitor-α (IκBα) (BAY11-7082), respectively. After 24 h co-treatment, the expressions of p-JNK, p-ERK, IκBα, inhibitory kappa B kinase α (IKKα) and inhibitory kappa B kinase β (IKKβ) protein were detected by western blotting, meanwhile cell numbers of T lymphocytes after inhibition were calculated again by cell counter.
RESULTS: SMP dose-dependently promoted the proliferation of T lymphocytes of the cancer patients and significantly improved the cytotoxicity of T lymphocytes against cancer cells. However, SMP showed no effect on the proliferation of the tumor cells from the same source. Furthermore, the gene expression of cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-γ were also up-regulated. Moreover, SMP enhanced gene expression of TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4; elevated protein expression of p-JNK and p-ERK; increased protein expression of IKKα, and IKKβ and decreased IκBα levels. Meanwhile, knockdown of ERK、JNK or IκBα expression with specific inhibitor significantly depressed the proliferation of T lymphocytes treated with SMP, corroborating the specific regulation effect of SMP on T lymphocytes through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.
CONCLUSION: SMP specifically promotes the proliferation and enhances cytotoxicity of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of cancer patients through activation of TLRs mediated -MAPK and -NF-κB signaling pathways.

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