Gene Summary

Gene:TLR1; toll like receptor 1
Aliases: TIL, CD281, rsc786, TIL. LPRS5
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This gene is ubiquitously expressed, and at higher levels than other TLR genes. Different length transcripts presumably resulting from use of alternative polyadenylation site, and/or from alternative splicing, have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:toll-like receptor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Messenger RNA
  • Risk Factors
  • Toll-Like Receptor 3
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • Odds Ratio
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Toll-Like Receptor 6
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2
  • Multigene Family
  • Staging
  • Breast Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genotype
  • Signal Transduction
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Transcriptome
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Genetic Variation
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Chromosome 4
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Toll-Like Receptor 10
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Helicobacter Infections
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Carcinoma
  • China
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Western Blotting
  • Toll-Like Receptor 1
  • Precancerous Conditions
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TLR1 (cancer-related)

Fukuoka E, Yamashita K, Tanaka T, et al.
Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Increases PD-L1 Expression and CD8
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4539-4548 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate PD-L1 expression and its association with prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin, NAC-FP).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using a database of 69 ESCC patients, we analyzed PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TCs) and immune cells (ICs), as well as the density of CD8
RESULTS: The fraction of ESCC containing ICs expressing PD-L1 and having a high CD8
CONCLUSION: NAC-FP induced PD-L1 expression on ICs and CD8

Zhou J, Jiang Y, Zhang H, et al.
Clinicopathological implications of TIM3
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(7):1157-1169 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chordoma is difficult to eradicate due to high local recurrence rates. The immune microenvironment is closely associated with tumor prognosis; however, its role in skull base chordoma is unknown. The expression of Galectin-9 (Gal9) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) markers was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox analyses were used to assessing local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients. MiR-455-5p was identified as a regulator of Gal9 expression. Immunopositivity for Gal9 was associated with tumor invasion (p = 0.019), Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score (p = 0.017), and total TIL count (p < 0.001); downregulation of miR-455-5p was correlated with tumor invasion (p = 0.017) and poor prognosis; and the T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain 3 (TIM3)

Kuehm LM, Wolf K, Zahour J, et al.
Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy enhances the frequency and effector function of murine tumor-infiltrating T cells but does not alter TCRβ diversity.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(7):1095-1106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy is now a first-line treatment option for patients with melanoma. Despite achieving objective responses in about half of patients, the exact immune mechanisms elicited and those required for therapeutic success have not been clearly identified. Insight into these mechanisms is key for improving outcomes in a broader range of cancer patients. We used a murine melanoma model to track responses by different subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) during checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Tumors from treated mice had increased frequencies of both CD4

Sadahiro S, Suzuki T, Tanaka A, et al.
Induction of CD3+ and FoxP3+ T Cells in Left-sided Colorectal Tumors After UFT/LV Chemotherapy.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(4):1997-2005 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are mainly used for right-sided, microsatellite instability-high colorectal tumors. In this study, the effects of oral uracil-tegafur plus leucovorin (UFT/LV) chemotherapy on the gene expressions of four immunotherapy targets and the amounts of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were investigated.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 260 patients with stage II or stage III colorectal cancer were analyzed. Gene expression and amount of TILs were evaluated using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (CRT-PCR) assay and immunohistochemical staining, respectively.
RESULTS: Expression of CTLA4 and LAG3 in tumor tissues was significantly increased after UFT/LV chemotherapy, but only in left-sided tumors. The percentage of high-TIL, high-CD3 and high-FoxP3 patients in the UFT/LV group was significantly higher than that in the control group, only in left-sided tumors.
CONCLUSION: The increase in TILs count, especially of CD3+ T cells and FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, after UFT/LV chemotherapy were specific to left-sided colorectal cancers.

Meliț LE, Mărginean CO, Mărginean CD, Mărginean MO
The Relationship between Toll-like Receptors and
J Immunol Res. 2019; 2019:8197048 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Innate immunity represents the first barrier against bacterial invasion. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to the large family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and their activation leads to the induction of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antigen-presenting molecules, and costimulatory molecules. Recent studies have focused on identifying the association between TLRs and

Morse CB, Toukatly MN, Kilgore MR, et al.
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and homologous recombination deficiency are independently associated with improved survival in ovarian carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(2):217-222 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and defects in homologous recombination (HR) are each important prognostic factors in ovarian carcinoma (OC). We characterized the association between HR deficiency (HRD) and the presence of TILs in a cohort of OC patients and the relative contribution to overall survival.
METHODS: Patients with carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum were prospectively enrolled. Malignant neoplasm and serum samples were collected. Immunohistochemistry for CD3+ T cells and CD68+ tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) was performed on specimens collected at primary surgery. Damaging germline and somatic mutations in genes in the HR-mediated repair (HRR) pathway were identified using BROCA sequencing. HRD was defined as a damaging mutation in one of 12 genes in the HRR pathway or promoter hypermethylation in BRCA1 or RAD51C.
RESULTS: Ninety-eight of 250 patients included in the analysis had HRD OC (39.2%). HRD OC were enriched for CD3+ TILs and CD68+ TAMs. High CD3+ TIL was present in 65.3% of HRD OC compared to 43.4% of non-HRD OC (P = 0.001). High CD68+ TAM was present in 66.3% of HRD OC compared to 50.7% of non-HRD OC (P = 0.015). Patients with HRD OC and high CD3+ TILs had the longest median overall survival compared to non-HRD OC with low CD3+ TILs (70.9 vs. 35.8 months, adjusted HR 0.38, 95% CI (0.25-0.59)).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients that have both CD3+ TILs and HRD OC are afforded the greatest improvement in overall survival. This finding may have therapeutic implications for OC patients treated with emerging immunotherapies.

Haeggblom L, Näsman A, Ramqvist T, et al.
TLR5 and TLR7 are differentially expressed in human papillomavirus-positive and negative base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma, and TLR7 may have an independent prognostic influence.
Acta Otolaryngol. 2019; 139(2):206-210 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus-positive (HPV
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: For validation, TLR5 and TLR7 were analyzed in a BOTSCC-cohort for correlation with HPV, survival, CD4
RESULTS: TLR5 expression was more frequently absent/weak than medium/strong in HPV
CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Absent/weak TLR5 and medium/strong TLR7 expression was validated as more frequent in HPV

O'Meara T, Safonov A, Casadevall D, et al.
Immune microenvironment of triple-negative breast cancer in African-American and Caucasian women.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 175(1):247-259 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: African-American (AA) patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are less likely to achieve pathologic complete response from neoadjuvant chemotherapy and have poorer prognosis than Caucasian patients with TNBC, suggesting potential biological differences by race. Immune infiltration is the most consistent predictive marker for chemotherapy response and improved prognosis in TNBC. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the immune microenvironment differs between AA and Caucasian patients.
METHODS: RNA-seq expression data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database for 162 AA and 697 Caucasian breast cancers. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive, and TNBC subtypes were included in the analyses. Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) counts, immunomodulatory scores, and molecular subtypes were obtained from prior publications for a subset of the TNBC cases. Differences in immune cell distributions and immune functions, measured through gene expression and TIL counts, as well as neoantigen, somatic mutation, amplification, and deletion loads, were compared by race and tumor subtype.
RESULTS: Immune metagene analysis demonstrated marginal immune attenuation in AA TNBC relative to Caucasian TNBC that did not reach statistical significance. The distributions of immune cell populations, lymphocyte infiltration, molecular subtypes, and genomic aberrations between AA and Caucasian subtypes were also not significantly different. The MHC1 metagene demonstrated increased expression in AA ER-positive cancers relative to Caucasian ER-positive cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the immunological differences between AA and Caucasian breast cancers represented by TCGA data are subtle, if they exist at all. We observed no consistent racial differences in immune gene expression or TIL counts in TNBC by race. However, this study cannot rule out small differences in immune cell subtype distribution and activity status that may not be apparent in bulk RNA analysis.

De Silva P, Garaud S, Solinas C, et al.
FOXP1 negatively regulates tumor infiltrating lymphocyte migration in human breast cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 39:226-238 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: FOXP1, a transcriptional regulator of lymphocyte development, is abnormally expressed in some human tumors. This study investigated FOXP1-mediated regulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in untreated primary breast cancer (BC).
METHODS: FOXP1 expression was analyzed in tissues from primary untreated breast tumors, BC cell lines and the METABRIC gene expression BC dataset. Cytokine and chemokine expression and lymphocyte migration in response to primary tumor supernatants (SN) was compared between FOXP1
FINDING: FOXP1 expression was higher in estrogen receptor positive compared to negative BC. FOXP1
INTERPRETATION: These data identify FOXP1 as an important negative regulator of immune responses in BC via its regulation of cytokine and chemokine expression. FUND: Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS 3.4513.12F) and Opération Télévie (7.4636.13F and 7.4609.15F), Fonds J.C. Heuson and Fonds Lambeau-Marteaux.

Dargiene G, Streleckiene G, Skieceviciene J, et al.
TLR1 and PRKAA1 Gene Polymorphisms in the Development of Atrophic Gastritis and Gastric Cancer.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2018; 27(4):363-369 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous genome-wide association studies showed that genetic polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and protein kinase AMP-activated alpha 1 catalytic subunit (PRKAA1) genes were associated with gastric cancer (GC) or increased Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection susceptibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between TLR1 and PRKAA1 genes polymorphisms and H. pylori infection, atrophic gastritis (AG) or GC in the European population.
METHODS: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analysed in 511 controls, 340 AG patients and 327 GC patients. TLR1 C>T (rs4833095) and PRKAA1 C>T (rs13361707) were genotyped by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. H. pylori status was determined by testing for anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies in the serum.
RESULTS: The study included 697 (59.2%) H. pylori positive and 481 (40.8%) H. pylori negative cases. We observed similar distribution of TLR1 and PRKAA1 alleles and genotypes in H. pylori positive and negative cases. TLR1 and PRKAA1 SNPs were not linked with the risk of AG. TC genotype of TLR1 gene was more prevalent in GC patients compared to the control group (29.7% and 22.3% respectively, p=0.002). Carriers of TC genotype had a higher risk of GC (aOR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.26-2.83, p=0.002). A similar association was observed in a dominant inheritance model for TLR1 gene SNP, where comparison of CC+TC vs. TT genotypes showed an increased risk of GC (aOR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.26-2.75, p=0.002). No association between genetic polymorphism in PRKAA1 gene and GC was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: TLR1 rs4833095 SNP was associated with an increased risk of GC in a European population, while PRKAA1 rs13361707 genetic variant was not linked with GC. Both genetic polymorphisms were not associated with H. pylori infection susceptibility or the risk of AG.

Wang B, Pan W, Yang M, et al.
Programmed death ligand-1 is associated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and poorer survival in urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(2):489-498 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Drugs blocking programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have shown unprecedented activity in metastatic and unresectable bladder cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression, clinical significance and association of PD-L1 with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in resectable urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). In this retrospective study, 248 UCB patients who received radical cystectomy or transurethral resection were examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate PD-L1 expression and stromal CD8

Rohaan MW, Wilgenhof S, Haanen JBAG
Adoptive cellular therapies: the current landscape.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(4):449-461 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
For many cancer types, the immune system plays an essential role in their development and growth. Based on these rather novel insights, immunotherapeutic strategies have been developed. In the past decade, immune checkpoint blockade has demonstrated a major breakthrough in cancer treatment and has currently been approved for the treatment of multiple tumor types. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) or gene-modified T cells expressing novel T cell receptors (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) is another strategy to modify the immune system to recognize tumor cells and thus carry out an anti-tumor effector function. These treatments have shown promising results in various tumor types, and multiple clinical trials are being conducted worldwide to further optimize this treatment modality. Most successful results were obtained in hematological malignancies with the use of CD19-directed CAR T cell therapy and already led to the commercial approval by the FDA. This review provides an overview of the developments in ACT, the associated toxicity, and the future potential of ACT in cancer treatment.

Cui C, Tian X, Wu J, et al.
T cell receptor β-chain repertoire analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(1):61-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is lethal due to lack of perceptible symptoms and effective treatment methods. Immunotherapy may provide promising therapeutic choices for malignant tumors like pancreatic cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in tumor mesenchyme could recognize peptide antigens presented on the surface of tumor cells. The present study aimed to test the relationship between the T cell receptor (TCR) β repertoire of the tumor and peripheral blood, and also to investigate the intra-tumor spatial heterogeneity of the TCR β repertoire in pancreatic cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the clonal composition of TCR β repertoire in TIL across the spatial extent of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we studied 5 patients who were diagnosed with primary pancreatic cancer. Ultra-deep sequencing was used to assess the rearrangement of the TCR β-chain (TCR β) gene. HE staining and immunohistochemistry of CD3, CD4, CD8 and HLA class I were used to show histopathology and immune conditions macroscopically. TIL repertoire showed that different regions of the same tumor showed a greater number of repertoire overlaps between each other than between peripheral blood, which suggested that T cell clones in pancreatic cancer might be quite different from those in peripheral blood. In contrast, intra-tumoral TCR β repertoires were spatially homogeneous between different regions of a single tumor tissue. Based on these results, we speculated that the cellular adaptive immune response in pancreatic cancer was spatially homogeneous; this may pave the way for immunotherapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer patients.

Tao Y, Tao T, Gross N, et al.
Combined Effect of IL-12Rβ2 and IL-23R Expression on Prognosis of Patients with Laryngeal Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 50(3):1041-1054 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to pathologically elucidate the roles of interleukin-12 receptor (IL-12R) β2 and interleukin-23 receptor (IL-23R) expression in tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the tumor microenvironment and to determine their combined effect on prognosis of laryngeal cancer (LC).
METHODS: The tumor-cell expression scores and TIL positivity ratiosof IL-12Rβ2 and IL-23R in matched LC and normal laryngeal tissue samples from 61 LC patients were measured via immunohistochemistry (IHC). We adopted a linear regression model to analyze the correlation between IL-12Rβ2 and IL-23R expression in tumor cells and TIL ratios. TheKaplan-Meier log-rank test and Cox regression hazard ratios were used to analyze survival.
RESULTS: LC tumor cells had a higher IL-12Rβ2 expression and TIL ratio than IL-23R expression and TIL ratio. The significant correlations between IL-12Rβ2 and IL-23R expression and TIL ratios were identified in LC tissues, particularly in well-differentiated LC. Furthermore, either high tumor cell IL-12Rβ2 or low IL-23R expression had better survival than its corresponding low or high expression, respectively. Similar results did for IL-12Rβ2 ratio and IL-23R ratio. Finally, patients with both high IL-12Rβ2 and low IL-23R had the best prognosis among any other combined groups with both gene expression (HR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.8). Likewise, patients with positive ratios of high IL-12Rβ2 and low IL-23R TILs had the best survival (HR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.4).
CONCLUSION: IL-12Rβ2 and IL-23R create a homeostasis within the tumor cells and TILs, and this homeostasis affects prognosis. While the intrinsic mechanisms of epigenetic immunoediting for IL-12Rβ2 and IL-23R remain unknown, additional larger and functional studies are warranted for validation.

Lee H, Lee HJ, Song IH, et al.
CD11c-Positive Dendritic Cells in Triple-negative Breast Cancer.
In Vivo. 2018 Nov-Dec; 32(6):1561-1569 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) are prognostic markers in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Our study analyzed the relationship between cluster of differentiation (CD)11c-positive dendritic cells (DCs) and TILs and TLSs to elucidate mechanisms of TIL influx.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for CD4, CD8, and CD11c in tissue microarrays from 681 patients with TNBC was performed. The proportions of TILs and TLSs were reviewed. Two additional TNBC gene expression datasets were used.
RESULTS: CD11c expression showed a significantly positive correlation with the level of TILs and the number of CD4
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated a strong correlation of CD11c expression, which represents DCs, with TILs and TLSs in TNBC. Further investigation is warranted to identify therapeutic modalities that facilitate recruitment and activation of DCs.

Meng X, Gao Y, Yang L, et al.
Immune Microenvironment Differences Between Squamous and Non-squamous Non-small-cell Lung Cancer and Their Influence on the Prognosis.
Clin Lung Cancer. 2019; 20(1):48-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Checkpoint blockades have entered routine clinical use for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there were some differences in efficacy and response predictors for anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibodies between squamous (SQ) and nonsquamous (non-SQ) NSCLC. The study aims to elucidate the possible difference in immune microenvironment between SQ-NSCLC and non-SQ-NSCLC and their influence on the prognosis.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 197 patients with stages I to III NSCLC were included. cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8), cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression were examined in cancer nest and stroma on 85 SQ-NSCLC and 112 non-SQ-NSCLC samples using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: More CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were detected in the cancer nests (cCD8) from patients with SQ-NSCLC than those with non-SQ-NSCLC (56% vs. 34%; P = .002). There were no significant differences between the SQ and non-SQ groups in terms of other TIL markers or PD-L1 expression. Multivariate analysis showed that the degree of cCD8+ TIL infiltration was an independent positive predictor for overall survival (OS) in the SQ-NSCLC group (P = .003) and in the non-SQ-NSCLC group (P = .024). In the univariate analysis, CD8+ TILs in the stroma, CD4+ TILs in the cancer nest and stroma, and FOXP3+ TILs in the cancer stroma associated with different prognoses for patients with either non-SQ-NSCLC or SQ-NSCLC. Using a 10% cutoff, PD-L1 expression was a poor prognostic factor in total NSCLC (P = .011), stage I (P = .037), SQ-NSCLC (P = .097), and non-SQ-NSCLC (P = .051).
CONCLUSION: The different cCD8+ TIL profile and different prognostic value with certain TILs indicates that SQ-NSCLC and non-SQ-NSCLC are likely different cancer types with respect to their immune microenvironments.

Liu K, Guo J, Liu K, et al.
Integrative analysis reveals distinct subtypes with therapeutic implications in KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 36:196-208 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) are heterogeneous and frequently occur in smokers. The heterogeneity of KRAS-mutant LUAD has been an obstacle for the drug discovery.
METHODS: We integrated multiplatform datatypes and identified two corresponding subtypes in the patients and cell lines. We further characterized the features of these two subtypes and performed drug screening to identify subtype-specific drugs. Finally, we used the defining features of the KRAS subtypes for drug sensitivity prediction.
FINDINGS: Patient-Subtype 1 (PS1) was characterized by increased smoking-related mutational signature activity, a low tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-associating score and STK11/KEAP1 co-mutations. Patient-Subtype 2 (PS2) was characterized by an increased smoking-related methylation signature activity, a high TIL-associating score and increased KRAS dependency. The cell line subtypes faithfully recapitulated all the patients' features. Drug screening of the two cell line subtypes yielded several potential candidates, such as cytarabine and enzastaurin for Cell-line-Subtype 1 (CS1) and a BTK inhibitor QL-XII-61 for Cell-line-Subtype 2 (CS2). The defining features, such as smoking-related methylation signature, were significantly associated with the sensitivity to several drugs.
INTERPRETATION: The heterogeneity of KRAS-mutant LUAD is associated with smoking-related genomic and epigenomic aberration along with other features such as immunogenicity, KRAS dependency and STK11/KEAP1 co-mutations. These features might be used as biomarkers for drug sensitivity prediction. FUND: This research was funded by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China and the Education and Research Foundation for Young Scholars of Education Department of Fujian Province, China.

Hu X, Li YQ, Li QG, et al.
ITGAE Defines CD8+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Predicting a better Prognostic Survival in Colorectal Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 35:178-188 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in colorectal tumor tissue are significantly correlated with a favorable prognosis, such as CD8+ lymphocytes, which are also called tumor-reactive lymphocytes. However, not all tumor-infiltrating T cells confer benefit to patients. Therefore, it is of substantial benefit to identify a biomarker to demarcate these tumor-reactive lymphocytes.
METHODS: We investigated whether ITGAE could be used to discriminate reactive CD8+ lymphocytes in colorectal cancer (CRC). TCGA colorectal cancer data sets (n1 = 492, n2 = 386) and FUSCC set (n3 = 276) were used in this study. Further phenotyping of ITGAE+ cells and the mechanistic basis were investigated.
FINDINGS: In the training and testing sets from TCGA, ITGAE expression, which is strongly correlated with cytotoxic T cell markers (CD8/CD3/PD1), independently predicted longer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In line with this, the association between ITGAE+ lymphocytes and survival has been confirmed in the FUSCC cohort for validation (P = .026). ITGAE + cells in the series always co-stained with CD8 were preferentially located in the tumor. Interestingly, ITGAE+ lymphocytes tended to associate with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with decreased Snail and increased E-cadherin expression accompanied. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis showed that immune activation was significantly enriched in the high ITGAE+ TIL group, accompanied by enriched EMT-related pathways.
INTERPRETATION: Because of the specified expression of tumor-reactive CD8+ T-cells, ITGAE may be a promising biomarker for the rapid identification of immune infiltration in CRC.

Saeed MEM, Mertens R, Handgretinger R, Efferth T
Identification of fatal outcome in a childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient by protein expression profiling.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(4):1721-1731 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare disease in children with good prognosis and high cure rate. Nevertheless, certain patients have an unfavorable prognosis due to development of refractory NPC that is unresponsive to any therapeutic strategies. The current study studies a case of a 17 years-old female with non-keratinizing NPC type IIb (T2N0M0), who passed away as a consequence of resistance to chemo-, radio- and β-interferon therapy, and to an allogenic stem cell transplantation. In order to identify factors that lead to treatment failure and fatal outcome, immunohistochemical analyses of different tumor biomarkers and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed and compared with those of eight other patients with NPC who experienced complete remission following conventional therapy. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the immunohistochemical results clearly demonstrated that staining for immunological factors (CD4, CD8 and CD56) distinguished this patient from the others. To further investigate a potential role of the immune system, lymphocytic infiltration was assessed in tumor tissue by evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tumor sections. Indeed, no tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were observed in this NPC case, while 7 out of 8 of the other NPC samples contained variable TIL amounts. The view that immunodeficiency of the patient may be a factor in the fatal outcome of treatment is supported by the fact that this patient with NPC was not positive for Epstein-Barr virus markers and also infected by several other viruses and fungi (herpes simplex virus, human herpes virus 6, Varicella zoster virus, and Candida). In conclusion, the investigation of rare NPC cases with poor prognosis may provide an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in refractory tumors and identification of novel potential therapeutic targets for NPC in the future.

Lee J, Kim DM, Lee A
Prognostic Role and Clinical Association of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte, Programmed Death Ligand-1 Expression with Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Locally Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 51(2):649-663 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated to immunogenicity and prognosis of breast cancer. We analyzed baseline NLR, changes of NLR, TIL, and PD-L1 during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and their clinical implication in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).
Materials and Methods: Between January 2008 to December 2015, 358 TNBC patients were analyzed. Baseline NLR, 50 paired NLR (initial diagnosis, after completion of NAC) and 34 paired tissues (initial diagnosis, surgical specimen after completion of NAC) were collected. Changes of TIL, CD4, CD8, forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), and PD-L1 expression were assessed with immunohistochemical stain.
RESULTS: Low NLR (≤ 3.16) was associated to superior survival (overall survival: 41.83 months vs. 36.5 months, p=0.002; disease-free survival [DFS]: 37.85 months vs. 32.14 months, p=0.032). Modest NLR change after NAC (-30% < NLR change < 100%) showed prolonged DFS (38.37 months vs. 22.37 months, p=0.015). During NAC, negative or negative conversion of tumor PD-L1 expression was associated to poor DFS (34.77 months vs. 16.03 months, p=0.037), and same or increased TIL showed trends for superior DFS, but without statistical significance. Positive tumor PD-L1 expression (H-score ≥ 5) in baseline or post- NAC tissue was associated to superior DFS (57.6 months vs. 12.5 months, p=0.001 and 53.3 months vs. 18.9 months, p=0.040). Positive stromal PD-L1 expression in baseline was also associated to superior DFS (50.2 months vs. 20.4 months, p=0.002).
CONCLUSION: In locally advanced TNBC, baseline NLR, changes of NLR during NAC was associated to survival. Baseline PD-L1 expression and changes of PD-L1 expression in tumor tissue during NAC also showed association to prognosis.

Lee M, Tayyari F, Pinnaduwage D, et al.
Tumoral BRD4 expression in lymph node-negative breast cancer: association with T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and disease-free survival.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):750 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously observed that T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (T-bet+ TILs) in primary breast tumors were associated with adverse clinicopathological features, yet favorable clinical outcome. We identified BRD4 (Bromodomain-Containing Protein 4), a member of the  Bromodomain and Extra Terminal domain (BET) family, as a gene that distinguished T-bet+/high and T-bet-/low tumors. In clinical studies, BET inhibitors have been shown to suppress inflammation in various cancers, suggesting a potential link between BRD4 and immune infiltration in cancer. Hence, we examined the BRD4 expression and clinicopathological features of breast cancer.
METHODS: The cohort consisted of a prospectively ascertained consecutive series of women with axillary node-negative breast cancer with long follow-up. Gene expression microarray data were used to detect mRNAs differentially expressed between T-bet+/high (n = 6) and T-bet-/low (n = 41) tumors. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) constructed from tumors of 612 women were used to quantify expression of BRD4 by immunohistochemistry, which was analyzed for its association with T-bet+ TILs, Jagged1, clinicopathological features, and disease-free survival.
RESULTS: Microarray analysis indicated that BRD4 mRNA expression was up to 44-fold higher in T-bet+/high tumors compared to T-bet-/low tumors (p = 5.38E-05). Immunohistochemical expression of BRD4 in cancer cells was also shown to be associated with T-bet+ TILs (p = 0.0415) as well as with Jagged1 mRNA and protein expression (p = 0.0171, 0.0010 respectively). BRD4 expression correlated with larger tumor size (p = 0.0049), pre-menopausal status (p = 0.0018), and high Ki-67 proliferative index (p = 0.0009). Women with high tumoral BRD4 expression in the absence of T-bet+ TILs exhibited a significantly poorer outcome (log rank test p = 0.0165) relative to other subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS: The association of BRD4 expression with T-bet+ TILs, and T-bet+ TIL-dependent disease-free survival suggests a potential link between BRD4-mediated tumor development and tumor immune surveillance, possibly through BRD4's regulation of Jagged1 signaling pathways. Further understanding BRD4's role in different immune contexts may help to identify an appropriate subset of breast cancer patients who may benefit from BET inhibitors without the risk of diminishing the anti-tumoral immune activity.

Santos JM, Cervera-Carrascon V, Havunen R, et al.
Adenovirus Coding for Interleukin-2 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Replaces Lymphodepleting Chemotherapy in Adoptive T Cell Therapy.
Mol Ther. 2018; 26(9):2243-2254 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/09/2019 Related Publications
Lymphodepleting preconditioning with high-dose chemotherapy is commonly used to increase the clinical efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) strategies, however, with severe toxicity for patients. Conversely, oncolytic adenoviruses are safe and, when engineered to express interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), they can achieve antitumor immunomodulatory effects similar to lymphodepletion. Therefore, we compare the safety and efficacy of such adenoviruses with a cyclophosphamide- and fludarabine-containing lymphodepleting regimen in the setting of ACT. Human adenovirus (Ad5/3-E2F-D24-hTNF-α-IRES-hIL-2; TILT-123) replication was studied using a Syrian hamster pancreatic tumor model (HapT1) infused with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Using the oncolytic virus instead of lymphodepletion resulted in superior efficacy and survival. Immune cells responsive to TNF-α IL-2 were studied using an immunocompetent mouse melanoma model (B16.OVA) infused with ovalbumin-specific T (OT-I) cells. Here, the adenovirus approach improved tumor control together with increased intratumoral Th1 cytokine levels and infiltration of CD8+ T cells and CD86+ dendritic cells. Similar to humans, lymphodepleting preconditioning caused severe cytopenias, systemic inflammation, and damage to vital organs. Toxicity was minimal in adenovirus- and OT-I-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that ACT can be effectively facilitated by cytokine-coding adenovirus without requiring lymphodepletion, a rationale being clinically investigated.

Savas P, Virassamy B, Ye C, et al.
Single-cell profiling of breast cancer T cells reveals a tissue-resident memory subset associated with improved prognosis.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(7):986-993 [PubMed] Related Publications
The quantity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer (BC) is a robust prognostic factor for improved patient survival, particularly in triple-negative and HER2-overexpressing BC subtypes

Moretti IF, Franco DG, de Almeida Galatro TF, et al.
Plasmatic membrane toll-like receptor expressions in human astrocytomas.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0199211 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/09/2019 Related Publications
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first to identify disturbances in the immune system, recognizing pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Since the inflammation process plays an important role in several diseases, TLRs have been considered potential therapeutic targets, including treatment for cancer. However, TLRs' role in cancer remains ambiguous. This study aims to analyze the expression levels of plasmatic cell membrane TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR6) in human astrocytomas the most prevalent tumors of CNS different grades (II-IV). We demonstrated that TLR expressions were higher in astrocytoma samples compared to non-neoplastic brain tissue. The gene and protein expressions were observed in GBM cell lines U87MG and A172, proving their presence in the tumor cells. Associated expressions between the known heterodimers TLR1-TLR2 were found in all astrocytoma grades. In GBMs, the mesenchymal subtype showed higher levels of TLR expressions in relation to classical and proneural subtypes. A strong association of TLRs with the activation of cell cycle process and signaling through canonical, inflammasome and ripoptosome pathways was observed by in silico analysis, further highlighting TLRs as interesting targets for cancer treatment.

Pei X, Wang X, Li H
LncRNA SNHG1 regulates the differentiation of Treg cells and affects the immune escape of breast cancer via regulating miR-448/IDO.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 118(Pt A):24-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of lncRNA SNHG1 in the immune escape of breast cancer (BC).
METHODS: SNHG1, miR-448 and IL-10 levels were evaluated by qRT-PCR. The protein levels of IDO and Foxp3 were measured by Western blot. SNHG1 and miR-448 interaction was tested by RIP assay and RNA pull-down assay. MiR-448 and IDO interaction was observed by luciferase reporter assay.
RESULTS: Compared with CD4
CONCLUSION: Interference SNHG1 could inhibit the differentiation of Treg cells by promoting miR-448 expression and reducing IDO level, thereby impeding the immune escape of BC.

Cornel AM, van Til NP, Boelens JJ, Nierkens S
Strategies to Genetically Modulate Dendritic Cells to Potentiate Anti-Tumor Responses in Hematologic Malignancies.
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:982 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/09/2019 Related Publications
Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination has been investigated as a potential strategy to target hematologic malignancies, while generating sustained immunological responses to control potential future relapse. Nonetheless, few clinical trials have shown robust long-term efficacy. It has been suggested that a combination of surmountable shortcomings, such as selection of utilized DC subsets, DC loading and maturation strategies, as well as tumor-induced immunosuppression may be targeted to maximize anti-tumor responses of DC vaccines. Generation of DC from CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) may provide potential in patients undergoing allogeneic HSPC transplantations for hematologic malignancies. CD34+ HSPC from the graft can be genetically modified to optimize antigen presentation and to provide sufficient T cell stimulatory signals. We here describe beneficial (gene)-modifications that can be implemented in various processes in T cell activation by DC, among which major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II presentation, DC maturation and migration, cross-presentation, co-stimulation, and immunosuppression to improve anti-tumor responses.

Narayanan S, Kawaguchi T, Yan L, et al.
Cytolytic Activity Score to Assess Anticancer Immunity in Colorectal Cancer.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2018; 25(8):2323-2331 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Elevated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) within the tumor microenvironment is a known positive prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that since cytotoxic T cells release cytolytic proteins such as perforin (PRF1) and pro-apoptotic granzymes (GZMA) to attack cancer cells, a cytolytic activity score (CYT) would be a useful tool to assess anticancer immunity.
METHODS: Genomic expression data were obtained from 456 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). CYT was defined by GZMA and PRF1 expression, and CIBERSORT was used to evaluate intratumoral immune cell composition.
RESULTS: High CYT was associated with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H), as well as high levels of activated memory CD4+T cells, gamma-delta T cells, and M1 macrophages. CYT-high CRC patients had improved overall survival (p = 0.019) and disease-free survival (p = 0.016) compared with CYT-low CRC patients, especially in TIL-positive tumors. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CYT- high associates with improved survival independently after controlling for age, lymphovascular invasion, colonic location, microsatellite instability, and TIL positivity. The levels of immune checkpoint molecules (ICMs)-programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM3), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1)-correlated significantly with CYT (p < 0.0001); with improved survival in CYT-high and ICM-low patients, and poorer survival in ICM-high patients.
CONCLUSIONS: High CYT within CRC is associated with improved survival, likely due to increased immunity and cytolytic activity of T cells and M1 macrophages. High CYT is also associated with high expression of ICMs; thus, further studies to elucidate the role of CYT as a predictive biomarker of the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade are warranted.

Saint-Jean M, Knol AC, Volteau C, et al.
Adoptive Cell Therapy with Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Advanced Melanoma Patients.
J Immunol Res. 2018; 2018:3530148 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/09/2019 Related Publications
Immunotherapy for melanoma includes adoptive cell therapy with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). This monocenter retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this treatment of patients with advanced melanoma. All advanced melanoma patients treated with TILs using the same TIL expansion methodology and same treatment interleukin-2 (IL-2) regimen between 2009 and 2012 were included. After sterile intralesional excision of a cutaneous or subcutaneous metastasis, TILs were produced according to a previously described method and then infused into the patient who also received a complementary subcutaneous IL-2 regimen. Nine women and 1 man were treated for unresectable stage IIIC (

Ligtenberg MA, Pico de Coaña Y, Shmushkovich T, et al.
Self-Delivering RNAi Targeting PD-1 Improves Tumor-Specific T Cell Functionality for Adoptive Cell Therapy of Malignant Melanoma.
Mol Ther. 2018; 26(6):1482-1493 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/09/2019 Related Publications
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is becoming a prominent alternative therapeutic treatment for cancer patients relapsing on traditional therapies. In parallel, antibodies targeting immune checkpoint molecules, such as cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and cell death protein 1 pathway (PD-1), are rapidly being approved for multiple cancer types, including as first line therapy for PD-L1-expressing non-small-cell lung cancer. The combination of ACT and checkpoint blockade could substantially boost the efficacy of ACT. In this study, we generated a novel self-delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) (sdRNA) that knocked down PD-1 expression on healthy donor T cells as well as patient-derived tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). We have developed an alternative chemical modification of RNA backbone for improved stability and increased efficacy. Our results show that T cells treated with sdRNA specific for PD-1 had increased interferon γ (IFN-γ) secreting capacity and that this modality of gene expression interference could be utilized in our rapid expansion protocol for production of TIL for therapy. TIL expanded in the presence of PD-1-specific sdRNA performed with increased functionality against autologous tumor as compared to control TIL. This method of introducing RNAi into T cells to modify the expression of proteins could easily be adopted into any ACT protocol and will lead to the exploration of new combination therapies.

Kamamoto D, Ohara K, Kitamura Y, et al.
Association between programmed cell death ligand-1 expression and extracranial metastasis in intracranial solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 139(2):251-259 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) often shows extracranial metastasis, and treatment options are very limited. Immune-checkpoint molecules have not been studied well in SFT/HPCs, and their role in intracranial SFT/HPCs remains unclear.
METHODS: We investigated the expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in 16 patients of intracranial SFT/HPC by immunohistochemistry to determine if correlation with prognosis exists.
RESULTS: Median overall survival (OS) of 16 patients was 9.2 years, and median follow-up of alive patients was 9.9 years. Recurrence was observed in 13 (81.3%) patients, and extracranial metastasis were observed in 6 (37.5%). PD-L1 expression was observed in all 16 tumors, whereas PD-1 expression was observed in 2. CD3 and CD8 expressions were observed in TILs in 12 and 13 patients respectively. Although the ratio of PD-L1 positive-tumor cells was not associated with OS, progression-free survival, or metastasis-free survival (MFS), diffuse staining of PD-L1 showed a trend toward shorter time to treatment failure (TTF: time to either extracranial metastasis or death) (p = 0.072). Similarly, the intense staining of PD-L1 was associated with shorter MFS (p = 0.0084) and TTF (p = 0.033). CD3 or CD8 expression was not associated with any of the prognostic parameters. In the combined analysis of PD-L1 and CD8, diffuse PD-L1 staining coupled with no or sparse CD8 expression was significantly associated with a shorter TTF (p = 0.005) and showed a trend toward shorter MFS (p = 0.0611).
CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 is frequently expressed in intracranial SFT/HPCs, and diffuse or intense PD-L1 expression might be associated with the early occurrence of extracranial metastases.

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