Gene Summary

Gene:SSTR2; somatostatin receptor 2
Summary:Somatostatin acts at many sites to inhibit the release of many hormones and other secretory proteins. The biologic effects of somatostatin are probably mediated by a family of G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. SSTR2 is a member of the superfamily of receptors having seven transmembrane segments and is expressed in highest levels in cerebrum and kidney. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:somatostatin receptor type 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Water
  • Taxoids
  • Messenger RNA
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tumor Burden
  • Gene Expression
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Sulfonamides
  • X-Ray Computed Tomography
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Adolescents
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors
  • Yttrium
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Young Adult
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Receptors, Somatostatin
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Thigh
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chromosome 17
  • Stem Cells
  • Adenoviridae
  • Adenoma
  • Pituitary Tumors
  • p53 Protein
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Transcription Factors
  • Thyrotropin
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Octreotide
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SSTR2 (cancer-related)

Liu Y, Zhu D, Xing H, et al.
A 6‑gene risk score system constructed for predicting the clinical prognosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(3):1521-1530 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is the most common type of pancreatic cancer, which commonly has an unfavorable prognosis. The present study aimed to develop a novel prognostic prediction strategy for PAC patients. mRNA sequencing data of PAC (the training dataset) were extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, and the validation datasets (GSE62452 and GSE79668) were acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between good and poor prognosis groups were analyzed by limma package, and then prognosis‑associated genes were screened using Cox regression analysis. Subsequently, the risk score system was constructed and confirmed using Kaplan‑Meier (KM) survival analysis. After the survival associated‑clinical factors were screened using Cox regression analysis, they were performed with stratified analysis. Using DAVID tool, the DEGs correlated with risk scores were conducted with enrichment analysis. The results revealed that there were a total of 242 DEGs between the poor and good prognosis groups. Afterwards, a risk score system was constructed based on 6 prognosis‑associated genes (CXCL11, FSTL4, SEZ6L, SPRR1B, SSTR2 and TINAG), which was confirmed in both the training and validation datasets. Cox regression analysis showed that risk score, targeted molecular therapy, and new tumor (the new tumor event days after the initial treatment according to the TCGA database) were significantly related to clinical prognosis. Under the same clinical condition, 6 clinical factors (age, history of chronic pancreatitis, alcohol consumption, radiation therapy, targeted molecular therapy and new tumor (event days) had significant associations with clinical prognosis. Under the same risk condition, only targeted molecular therapy was significantly correlated with clinical prognosis. In conclusion, the 6‑gene risk score system may be a promising strategy for predicting the outcome of PAC patients.

Foiani G, Guelfi G, Chiaradia E, et al.
Somatostatin Receptor 2 Expression in Canine Meningioma.
J Comp Pathol. 2019; 166:59-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
The neuropeptide somatostatin (SST) plays an important regulatory role in the proliferation of normal and neoplastic cells. Five subtypes of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), SSTR1-SSTR5, have been identified in human tumours. The SSTR2 subtype is identified most commonly in meningiomas. Long half-life SST analogues are now recommended for the systemic treatment of unresectable or radiation-refractory recurrent human meningiomas. In this study, SSTR2 expression was evaluated in 46 canine meningiomas; in 21 cases this was by immunohistochemistry and in 25 cases by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In addition, SSTR2 expression was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, western blotting and RT-qPCR on primary cell cultures prepared from two canine meningiomas. SSTR2 immunohistochemical expression was observed in 17/21 cases (81%), and SSTR2 mRNA expression was detected in 14/25 cases (56%). SSTR2 protein and gene expression were not significantly correlated with the tumour histological subtype or grade. Overall, meningothelial meningiomas showed constant and diffuse SSTR2 immunohistochemical expression and the highest SSTR2 gene expression level compared with other subtypes. A tendency for loss of SSTR2 in high-grade meningiomas was observed in both immunohistochemical and RT-qPCR studies. About 90% of cultured canine meningioma cells showed SSTR2 expression. In both of the meningioma cell cultures, SSTR2 expression was also detected by western blotting and RT-qPCR. This study demonstrates for the first time that canine meningioma expresses SSTR2 and that this expression is maintained in vitro. Our results, while preliminary, provide encouragement for further studies aimed at finding novel medical treatment strategies for canine meningioma, especially for tumours that are not surgically accessible.

Guan Y, Wang X, Wu N, et al.
[Solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma of central nervous system: a clinicopathological analysis of 60 cases].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2019; 48(1):31-36 [PubMed] Related Publications

Kim HJ, Kang TW, Haam K, et al.
Whole genome MBD-seq and RRBS analyses reveal that hypermethylation of gastrointestinal hormone receptors is associated with gastric carcinogenesis.
Exp Mol Med. 2018; 50(12):156 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation is a regulatory mechanism in epigenetics that is frequently altered during human carcinogenesis. To detect critical methylation events associated with gastric cancer (GC), we compared three DNA methylomes from gastric mucosa (GM), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and gastric tumor (GT) cells that were microscopically dissected from an intestinal-type early gastric cancer (EGC) using methylated DNA binding domain sequencing (MBD-seq) and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) analysis. In this study, we focused on differentially methylated promoters (DMPs) that could be directly associated with gene expression. We detected 2,761 and 677 DMPs between the GT and GM by MBD-seq and RRBS, respectively, and for a total of 3,035 DMPs. Then, 514 (17%) of all DMPs were detected in the IM genome, which is a precancer of GC, supporting that some DMPs might represent an early event in gastric carcinogenesis. A pathway analysis of all DMPs demonstrated that 59 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes linked to the hypermethylated DMPs were significantly enriched in a neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway. Furthermore, among the 59 GPCRs, six GI hormone receptor genes (NPY1R, PPYR1, PTGDR, PTGER2, PTGER3, and SSTR2) that play an inhibitory role in the secretion of gastrin or gastric acid were selected and validated as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis or prognosis of GC patients in two cohorts. These data suggest that the loss of function of gastrointestinal (GI) hormone receptors by promoter methylation may lead to gastric carcinogenesis because gastrin and gastric acid have been known to play a role in cell differentiation and carcinogenesis in the GI tract.

Cai F, Hong Y, Xu J, et al.
A Novel Mutation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein Gene Associated with Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma Mediates Tumor Invasion and Growth Hormone Hypersecretion.
World Neurosurg. 2019; 123:e45-e59 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene were identified in nearly 20% of families with familial isolated pituitary adenoma. Some variants of AIP have been confirmed to induce tumor cell proliferation and invasiveness; however, the mechanism is still unclear.
METHODS: A novel missense mutation (c.512C>T, p.T171I) was discovered in 3 patients from a Chinese family with familial isolated pituitary adenoma. In silico and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis predicted the mutation to be pathogenic. GH3 and 293FT cell lines were used to verify the variant's effect on cell proliferation (Cell Counting Kit-8), invasiveness (Transwell) and growth hormone (GH) secretion (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) by transfection with different vectors: control, blank vector, wild-type AIP, p.T171I variant (experimental group), p.Q315* variant, and AIP small interfering RNA. Furthermore, Zac1, Sstr2, interleukin (IL)-6, and Stat3/phosphorylation-Stat3 expression (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot) in each group was also evaluated.
RESULTS: The experimental group, p.Q315* variant group, and AIP small interfering RNA-overexpressing group promoted cell proliferation at 24 and 48 hours, respectively (compared with the control group; P < 0.01 for both). Similarly, the cells in the experimental group manifested more invasion and GH secretion compared with the control group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Furthermore, the experimental group cells expressed less Sstr2 (a prerequisite for the responsiveness to somatostatin analogues) and Zac1 (tumor suppressor gene), but more IL-6 and phosphorylated-Stat3 (GH-secretion related).
CONCLUSIONS: The novel AIP mutation c.512C>T (p.T171I) is a pathogenic variant that promoted cell proliferation, invasiveness, and GH secretion through regulation of Sstr2, Zac1, and IL-6/phosphorylated-Stat3 expression.

Wanek J, Gaisberger M, Beyreis M, et al.
Pharmacological Inhibition of Class IIA HDACs by LMK-235 in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role in epigenetic mechanisms in health and disease and their dysfunction is implied in several cancer entities. Analysis of expression patterns in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) indicated HDAC5 to be a potential target for future therapies. As a first step towards a possible treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cellular and molecular effects of HDAC5 inhibition in pNET cells. Two pNET cell lines, BON-1 and QGP-1, were incubated with different concentrations of the selective class IIA HDAC inhibitor, LMK-235. Effects on cell viability were determined using the resazurin-assay, the caspase-assay, and Annexin-V staining. Western Blot and immunofluorescence microscopy were performed to assess the effects on HDAC5 functionality. LMK-235 lowered overall cell viability by inducing apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, acetylation of histone-H3 increased with higher LMK-235 concentrations, indicating functional inhibition of HDAC4/5. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that proliferative activity (phosphohistone H3 and Ki-67) decreased at highest concentrations of LMK-235 while chromogranin and somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) expression increased in a dose-dependent manner. HDAC5 expression was found to be largely unaffected by LMK-235. These findings indicate LMK-235 to be a potential therapeutic approach for the development of an effective and selective pNET treatment.

Appay R, Tabouret E, Touat M, et al.
Somatostatin receptor 2A protein expression characterizes anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with favorable outcome.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse gliomas are classified according to the 2016 WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System, which now defines entities by both histology and molecular features. Somatostatin receptor subtype 2A (SSTR2A) expression has been reported in various solid tumors as associated with favorable outcomes. Its expression has been reported in gliomas with uncertain results regarding its prognostic value. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic impact of SSTR2A protein expression in a large cohort of grade III and IV gliomas classified according to the updated 2016 WHO classification. We further validated our result with an independent cohort of low grade glioma using dataset generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network.We analyzed clinical and molecular data from 575 patients. SSTR2A protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. High expression of SSTR2A protein associated with the anaplastic oligodendroglioma IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted subgroup (p < 0.001). Among these tumors, SSTR2A protein expression was significantly associated with a lower proliferative index, the absence of microvascular proliferation and the absence of necrosis (p < 0.001). Furthermore SSTR2A protein expression associated with better overall survival (p = 0.007) and progression-free survival (p = 0.01) in both univariate and multivariate analysis when adjusted by the age, the presence of necrosis and the mitotic index. Similar results were obtained regarding SSTR2 mRNA expression in the TCGA low grade glioma, subtype IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted, dataset.SSTR2A might represent an attractive biomarker and therapeutic target in anaplastic oligodendroglioma IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted specific subgroup. Understanding the implicated molecular pathways may represent a step forward to improve therapeutic approaches.

Matsuyama A, Jotatsu M, Uchihashi K, et al.
MUC4 expression in meningiomas: under-recognized immunophenotype particularly in meningothelial and angiomatous subtypes.
Histopathology. 2019; 74(2):276-283 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: MUC4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays a role in cell growth signalling and is expressed in various epithelial tissues. Gene expression profiling and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that MUC4 is also constantly and specifically expressed in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas and sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcomas among the mesenchymal tumours, and immunohistochemical detection of MUC4 is extremely useful for their diagnoses. In our routine pathological practice, we noticed that meningiomas are also often positive for MUC4, which has not yet been reported previously, despite the extensive scrutiny of its expression in soft tissue tumours.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined immunohistochemically the expression of MUC4, progesterone receptor (PgR) and somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) in 140 meningiomas of various histological subtypes and 123 other mesenchymal tumours, including intracranial or sinonasal tumours and peripheral nerve sheath tumours. MUC4 was expressed in 130 meningiomas (92.9%). MUC4 expression was constant and almost diffuse in meningothelial and angiomatous subtypes, whereas it was limited in 5% or fewer tumour cells or absent in 26 of 28 fibrous meningiomas. All other mesenchymal tumours examined were negative for MUC4. PgR and SSTR2A were expressed in 94 (67.1%) and 134 (95.7%) meningiomas, respectively. Five of six SSTR2A-negative meningiomas focally expressed MUC4.
CONCLUSIONS: MUC4 is expressed variably but almost consistently in meningiomas, particularly in meningothelial or angiomatous subtypes. Its immunohistochemical detection is useful to distinguish meningiomas from other intracranial or head and neck mesenchymal tumours, particularly those with epithelioid features. Our study could expand a variety of MUC4-positive mesenchymal tumours.

Treppiedi D, Jobin ML, Peverelli E, et al.
Single-Molecule Microscopy Reveals Dynamic FLNA Interactions Governing SSTR2 Clustering and Internalization.
Endocrinology. 2018; 159(8):2953-2965 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cytoskeletal protein filamin A (FLNA) has been suggested to play an important role in the responsiveness of GH-secreting pituitary tumors to somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) agonists by regulating SSTR2 expression and signaling. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we use fast multicolor single-molecule microscopy to image individual SSTR2 and FLNA molecules at the surface of living cells with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. We find that SSTR2 and FLNA undergo transient interactions, which occur preferentially along actin fibers and contribute to restraining SSTR2 diffusion. Agonist stimulation increases the localization of SSTR2 along actin fibers and, subsequently, SSTR2 clustering and recruitment to clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Interfering with FLNA-SSTR2 binding with a dominant-negative FLNA fragment increases SSTR2 mobility, hampers the formation and alignment of SSTR2 clusters along actin fibers, and impairs both SSTR2 recruitment to CCPs and SSTR2 internalization. These findings indicate that dynamic SSTR2-FLNA interactions critically control the nanoscale localization of SSTR2 at the plasma membrane and are required for coupling SSTR2 clustering to internalization. These mechanisms explain the critical role of FLNA in the control of SSTR2 expression and signaling and suggest the possibility of targeting SSTR2-FLNA interactions for the therapy of pharmacologically resistant GH-secreting pituitary tumors.

Heidari P, Kunawudhi A, Martinez-Quintanilla J, et al.
Somatostatin receptor type 2 as a radiotheranostic PET reporter gene for oncologic interventions.
Theranostics. 2018; 8(12):3380-3391 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Reporter gene systems can serve as therapy targets. However, the therapeutic use of reporters has been limited by the challenges of transgene delivery to a majority of cancer cells. This study specifically assesses the efficacy of targeting human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (hSSTR2) with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) when a small subpopulation of cells bears the transgene.

Neyrinck K, Breuls N, Holvoet B, et al.
The human somatostatin receptor type 2 as an imaging and suicide reporter gene for pluripotent stem cell-derived therapy of myocardial infarction.
Theranostics. 2018; 8(10):2799-2813 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Höög A, Kjellman M, Mattsson P, et al.
Somatostatin Receptor Expression in Renal Cell Carcinoma-A New Front in the Diagnostics and Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2018; 16(3):e517-e520 [PubMed] Related Publications

Gains JE, Sebire NJ, Moroz V, et al.
Immunohistochemical evaluation of molecular radiotherapy target expression in neuroblastoma tissue.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2018; 45(3):402-411 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Neuroblastoma may be treated with molecular radiotherapy,
METHODS: Tissue bank samples of formalin fixed paraffin embedded neuroblastoma tissue from patients for whom clinical outcome data were available were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and monoclonal antibodies directed against NAT and SSTR2. Sections were examined blinded to clinical information and scored for the percentage and intensity of tumour cells stained. These data were analysed in conjunction with clinical data.
RESULTS: Tissue from 75 patients was examined. Target expression scores varied widely between patients: NAT median 45%, inter-quartile range 25% - 65%; and SSTR2 median 55%, interquartile range 30% - 80%; and in some cases heterogeneity of expression between different parts of a tumour was observed. A weak positive correlation was observed between the expression scores of the different targets: correlation coefficient = 0.23, p = 0.05. MYCN amplified tumours had lower SSTR2 scores: mean difference 23% confidence interval 8% - 39%, p < 0.01. Survival did not differ by scores.
CONCLUSIONS: As expression of both targets is variable and heterogeneous, imaging assessment of both may yield more clinical information than either alone. The clinical value of immunohistochemical assessment of target expression requires prospective evaluation. Variable target expression within a patient may contribute to treatment failure.

Choi AB, Maxwell JE, Keck KJ, et al.
Is Multifocality an Indicator of Aggressive Behavior in Small Bowel Neuroendocrine Tumors?
Pancreas. 2017; 46(9):1115-1120 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Many patients with small bowel neuroendocrine tumors (SBNETs) have multifocal tumors (MFTs), but the frequency of MFTs has varied widely across SBNET studies. It is also unclear whether patients with MFTs have more advanced disease or worse clinical course than do those with unifocal SBNETs. We set out to determine the frequency of multifocal and unifocal SBNETs and compare clinicopathologic factors, somatostatin receptor 2 expression, and survival.
METHODS: Clinicopathologic variables from 179 patients with surgically managed SBNETs were collected. Statistical comparisons were made using Welch t-test, Wilcoxon test, and Fisher's exact test. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Somatostatin receptor 2 expression was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Ki-67 expression by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Multifocal tumors were found in 45% of patients with SBNETs. Clinicopathologic factors such as grade, TNM stage, presence of distant metastases, mean somatostatin receptor 2 expression, success of imaging modalities, and preoperative and postoperative hormone levels were not significantly different between multifocal and unifocal groups. Progression-free survival and overall survival were also not significantly affected by multifocality.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinicopathologic features and survival of patients with MFTs and unifocal tumors are remarkably similar. Although the etiology of MFTs is unclear, patients with MFTs do not have a more aggressive clinical course than patients with unifocal SBNETs.

Ibáñez-Costa A, Korbonits M
AIP and the somatostatin system in pituitary tumours.
J Endocrinol. 2017; 235(3):R101-R116 [PubMed] Related Publications
Classic somatostatin analogues aimed at somatostatin receptor type 2, such as octreotide and lanreotide, represent the mainstay of medical treatment for acromegaly. These agents have the potential to decrease hormone secretion and reduce tumour size. Patients with a germline mutation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene,

Li J, Chen C, Bi X, et al.
DNA methylation of CMTM3, SSTR2, and MDFI genes in colorectal cancer.
Gene. 2017; 630:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasingly common worldwide, including in China. Therefore, there is an increasing need to detect CRC at an early stage and to discover and evaluate diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. DNA methylation of genes in CRC is a potential epigenetic biomarker for the early detection of CRC. This study was performed to analyze the methylation frequency of six candidate genes, CMTM3, SSTR2, MDFI, NDRG4, TGFB2, and BCL2L11, in fresh-frozen CRC tissues and adjacent normal colorectal tissues, from 42 patients with CRC. DNA isolation, bisulphite modification, and pyrosequencing were performed. The sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were evaluated to determine whether these genes showed any associations with tumor grade, stage, or diagnostic features. Among the tested genes, three genes, CMTM3, SSTR2, and MDFI were significantly methylated in CRC tissues when compared with adjacent normal colorectal tissues. The ROC analysis showed that a multigene model, including CMTM3, SSTR2, and MDFI, had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 91% with an AUC value of 0.92. The findings of this study have shown that DNA methylation of the genes, CMTM3, SSTR2, and MDFI should be studied further with a view to determining their potential role as biomarkers for CRC.

Lü XH, Wang CH, Xie Y
[Differences of Therapeutic Efficacy Between Different Kinds of Somatostatin Analogue for Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2017; 48(4):549-555 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of SOM230, octreotide and lanreotide on hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Bel-7402
METHODS: At different time points (24, 48, 72 h), the cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) was used to evaluate cell proliferation (drug concentration 1×10
RESULTS: All three drugs could inhibit the cell proliferation of Bel-7402. However, they were unable to promote the cell apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: In a certain concentration range, the long-term treatment of SSTA with high affinities to SSTR2 and SSTR5 could inhibit the growth of HCC.

Fortunati N, Guaraldi F, Zunino V, et al.
Effects of environmental pollutants on signaling pathways in rat pituitary GH3 adenoma cells.
Environ Res. 2017; 158:660-668 [PubMed] Related Publications
An increased rate of acromegaly was reported in industrialized areas, suggesting an involvement of environmental pollutants in the pathogenesis and behavior of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Based on these premises, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of some widely diffused pollutants (i.e. benzene, BZ; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, DEHP and polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB) on growth hormone secretion, the somatostatin and estrogenic pathways, viability and proliferation of rat GH-producing pituitary adenoma (GH3) cells. All the pollutants induced a statistically significant increase in GH secretion and interfered with cell signaling. They all modulated the expression of SSTR2 and ZAC1, involved in the somatostatin signaling, and the expression of the transcription factor FOXA1, involved in the estrogen receptor signaling. Moreover, all the pollutants increased the expression of the CYP1A1, suggesting AHR pathway activation. None of the pollutants impacted on cell proliferation or viability. Present data demonstrate that exposure to different pollutants, used at in vivo relevant concentrations, plays an important role in the behavior of GH3 pituitary adenoma cells, by increasing GH secretion and modulating several cellular signaling pathways. These observations support a possible influence of different pollutants in vivo on the GH-adenoma aggressiveness and biological behavior.

Peverelli E, Giardino E, Treppiedi D, et al.
Dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2) and somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) agonists are effective in inhibiting proliferation of progenitor/stem-like cells isolated from nonfunctioning pituitary tumors.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 140(8):1870-1880 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of progenitor/stem cells in pituitary tumorigenesis, resistance to pharmacological treatments and tumor recurrence is still unclear. This study investigated the presence of progenitor/stem cells in non-functioning pituitary tumors (NFPTs) and tested the efficacy of dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2) and somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) agonists to inhibit in vitro proliferation. They found that 70% of 46 NFPTs formed spheres co-expressing stem cell markers, transcription factors (DAX1, SF1, ERG1) and gonadotropins. Analysis of tumor behavior showed that spheres formation was associated with tumor invasiveness (OR = 3,96; IC: 1.05-14.88, p = 0.036). The in vitro reduction of cell proliferation by DRD2 and SSTR2 agonists (31 ± 17% and 35 ± 13% inhibition, respectively, p < 0.01 vs. basal) occurring in about a half of NFPTs cells was conserved in the corresponding spheres. Accordingly, these drugs increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 and decreased cyclin D3 expression in spheres. In conclusion, they provided further evidence for the existence of cells with a progenitor/stem cells-like phenotype in the majority of NFPTs, particularly in those with invasive behavior, and demonstrated that the antiproliferative effects of dopaminergic and somatostatinergic drugs were maintained in progenitor/stem-like cells.

Vedvyas Y, Shevlin E, Zaman M, et al.
Longitudinal PET imaging demonstrates biphasic CAR T cell responses in survivors.
JCI Insight. 2016; 1(19):e90064 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clinical monitoring of adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) utilizes serial blood analyses to discern T cell activity. While useful, these data are 1-dimensional and lack spatiotemporal information related to treatment efficacy or toxicity. We utilized a human genetic reporter, somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), and PET, to quantitatively and longitudinally visualize whole-body T cell distribution and antitumor dynamics using a clinically approved radiotracer. Initial evaluations determined that SSTR2-expressing T cells were detectable at low densities with high sensitivity and specificity. SSTR2-based PET was applied to ACT of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which is overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid tumors. Timely CAR T cell infusions resulted in survival of tumor-bearing mice, while later infusions led to uniform death. Real-time PET imaging revealed biphasic T cell expansion and contraction at tumor sites among survivors, with peak tumor burden preceding peak T cell burden by several days. In contrast, nonsurvivors displayed unrelenting increases in tumor and T cell burden, indicating that tumor growth was outpacing T cell killing. Thus, longitudinal PET imaging of SSTR2-positive ACT dynamics enables prognostic, spatiotemporal monitoring with unprecedented clarity and detail to facilitate comprehensive therapy evaluation with potential for clinical translation.

Shen Y, Zhang XY, Chen X, et al.
Synthetic paclitaxel-octreotide conjugate reverses the resistance of paclitaxel in A2780/Taxol ovarian cancer cell line.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(1):219-226 [PubMed] Related Publications
The high mortality of ovarian cancer is partly due to the frequent resistance of ovarian cancer to current chemotherapy agents such as paclitaxel and platinum. Somatostatin analogue (SSTA) has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of some tumors through binding to somatostatin receptor (SSTR) and activation of Ras-, Rapl- and B-Raf-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (Erk2). It was reported that paclitaxel-octreotide conjugate (POC) exhibited enhanced tumor growth inhibition with reduced toxicity. In the present study, we prepared the POC and investigated its effects and mechanism for the reversal of drug resistance in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. We demonstrated that treatment with POC led to more cell apoptosis than either paclitaxel or octreotide (OCT) alone. Moreover, the expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA, and protein decreased in a dose-dependent manner while the expression of SSTR remained stable following treatment with POC. Although the exact action, in vivo effects and pharmacologic kinetics of POC remain to be investigated, we have demonstrated the feasibility for the synthesis of POC, and more significantly, provided a potential approach to overcome the resistance of ovarian cancer against taxol. The findings also shed some new light on the mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to taxol by ovarian cancer cells.

Chen X, Zhang XY, Shen Y, et al.
Synthetic paclitaxel-octreotide conjugate reversing the resistance of A2780/Taxol to paclitaxel in xenografted tumor in nude mice.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(50):83451-83461 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peptide hormone-based targeted therapy to tumors has been studied extensively. Our previous study shows that somatostatin receptor expresses high level on drug-resistant human ovarian cancer. The paclitaxel-octreotide conjugate (POC) exhibits enhanced growth inhibition, as well as reduced toxicity, in paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of targeted cytotoxicity and potential reversal mechanism of resistance in paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells xenografted into nude mice. The SSTR2 shows higher expression levels in tumor tissue. Moreover, fluorescein-labeled POC displays favorable targeting in tumor cells. POC presents the perfect efficacy in inhibiting tumor growth and exerts lower or no toxic effects on normal tissues. Real-time PCR and Western Blotting has demonstrated that the mRNA and protein expressions of SSTR2 in POC group were significantly higher, while MDR1, α-tubulin, βIII-tubulin, VEGF and MMP-9 were significantly lower than in the other treatment groups and controls. Combined with the previous study in vitro, this study evaluates an effective approach on the treatment of paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer which expresses somatostatin receptor SSTR. Our investigation has also revealed the possible molecular mechanism of POC in treating the ovarian cancer, and therefore, provided a theoretical basis for the clinical application of this newly-invented compound.

Jorand R, Biswas S, Wakefield DL, et al.
Molecular signatures of mu opioid receptor and somatostatin receptor 2 in pancreatic cancer.
Mol Biol Cell. 2016; 27(22):3659-3672 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a particularly aggressive malignancy, has been linked to atypical levels, certain mutations, and aberrant signaling of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs have been challenging to target in cancer because they organize into complex networks in tumor cells. To dissect such networks with nanometer-scale precision, here we combine traditional biochemical approaches with superresolution microscopy methods. A novel interaction specific to PDAC is identified between mu opioid receptor (MOR) and somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2). Although MOR and SSTR2 did not colocalize in healthy pancreatic cells or matching healthy patient tissues, the pair did significantly colocalize in pancreatic cancer cells, multicellular tumor spheroids, and cancerous patient tissues. Moreover, this association in pancreatic cancer cells correlated with functional cross-talk and increased metastatic potential of cells. Coactivation of MOR and SSTR2 in PDAC cells led to increased expression of mesenchymal markers and decreased expression of an epithelial marker. Together these results suggest that the MOR-SSTR2 heteromer may constitute a novel therapeutic target for PDAC.

Taelman VF, Radojewski P, Marincek N, et al.
Upregulation of Key Molecules for Targeted Imaging and Therapy.
J Nucl Med. 2016; 57(11):1805-1810 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeted diagnosis and therapy enable precise tumor detection and treatment. Successful examples for precise tumor targeting are diagnostic and therapeutic radioligands. However, patients with tumors expressing low levels of the relevant molecular targets are deemed ineligible for such targeted approaches.
METHODS: We performed a screen for drugs that upregulate the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sstr
RESULTS: We identified 9 drugs that act as epigenetic modifiers, including the inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase decitabine as well as the inhibitors of histone deacetylase tacedinaline and romidepsin. In vitro, these drugs upregulated sstr
CONCLUSION: We present an approach that uses epigenetic modifiers to improve sstr

Qian ZR, Li T, Ter-Minassian M, et al.
Association Between Somatostatin Receptor Expression and Clinical Outcomes in Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Pancreas. 2016; 45(10):1386-1393 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), products of gene superfamily SSTR1-5, are commonly expressed in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) bind to SSTRs and are used as therapeutic agents in patients with advanced NETs. We hypothesized that tumor SSTR expression status would be associated with clinical outcomes in NET.
METHODS: Expression of the 5 SSTRs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, using tissue microarrays comprising 173 primary NETs, 24 matched metastases, and 22 metastatic NETs from 195 patients. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the association of SSTR expression status (high vs low) with clinical outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders.
RESULTS: High expression of SSTR2 was associated with longer overall survival (OS) in the cohort overall (multivariate hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.84; P = 0.013). In a subgroup of patients with metastatic small intestine NET treated with SSAs and evaluable for progression, SSTR2 expression was associated with both longer progression-free survival (PFS) and OS. No associations with PFS or OS were observed with expression of other SSTRs.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that expression of SSTR2, but not other SSTRs, is associated with longer OS. In patients treated with SSAs, expression of SSTR2 is associated with longer PFS survival.

Fukuda T, Tanaka T, Hamaguchi Y, et al.
Augmented Growth Hormone Secretion and Stat3 Phosphorylation in an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein (AIP)-Disrupted Somatotroph Cell Line.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(10):e0164131 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) is thought to be a tumor suppressor gene, as indicated by a mutational analysis of pituitary somatotroph adenomas. However, the physiological significance of AIP inactivation in somatotroph cells remains unclear. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we identified a GH3 cell clone (termed GH3-FTY) in which Aip was genetically disrupted, and subsequently investigated its character with respect to growth hormone (Gh) synthesis and proliferation. Compared with GH3, GH3-FTY cells showed remarkably increased Gh production and a slight increase in cell proliferation. Gh-induced Stat3 phosphorylation is known to be a mechanism of Gh oversecretion in GH3. Interestingly, phosphorylated-Stat3 expression in GH3-FTY cells was increased more compared with GH3 cells, suggesting a stronger drive for this mechanism in GH3-FTY. The phenotypes of GH3-FTY concerning Gh overproduction, cell proliferation, and increased Stat3 phosphorylation were significantly reversed by the exogenous expression of Aip. GH3-FTY cells were less sensitive to somatostatin than GH3 cells in the suppression of cell proliferation, which might be associated with the reduced expression of somatostatin receptor type 2. GH3-FTY xenografts in BALB/c nude mice (GH3-FTY mice) formed more mitotic somatotroph tumors than GH3 xenografts (GH3 mice), as also evidenced by increased Ki67 scores. GH3-FTY mice were also much larger and had significantly higher plasma Gh levels than GH3 mice. Furthermore, GH3-FTY mice showed relative insulin resistance compared with GH3 mice. In conclusion, we established a somatotroph cell line, GH3-FTY, which possessed prominent Gh secretion and mitotic features associated with the disruption of Aip.

Wang J, Arulanandam R, Wassenaar R, et al.
Enhancing Expression of Functional Human Sodium Iodide Symporter and Somatostatin Receptor in Recombinant Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus for In Vivo Imaging of Tumors.
J Nucl Med. 2017; 58(2):221-227 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy has emerged as a novel tool in our therapeutic arsenals for fighting cancer. As a live biologic agent, OV has the ability to target and selectively amplify at the tumor sites. We have reported that a vaccinia-based OV (Pexa-Vec) has shown good efficacy in preclinical models and in clinical trials. To give an additional tool to clinicians to allow both treatment of the tumor and improved visualization of tumor margins, we developed new viral-based platforms with 2 specific gene reporters.
METHODS: We incorporated the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and the human somatostatin receptor 2 (hSSR2) in the vaccinia-based OV and tested viral constructs for their abilities to track and treat tumor development in vivo.
RESULTS: Early and high-level expression of hNIS is detrimental to the recombinant virus, leading to the aggregation of hNIS protein and early cell death. Putting hNIS under a late synthetic promoter allowed a higher functional expression of the protein and much stronger
CONCLUSION: When tumor-bearing mice were given hNIS- and hSSR2-containing OV,

Ibáñez-Costa A, Rivero-Cortés E, Vázquez-Borrego MC, et al.
Octreotide and pasireotide (dis)similarly inhibit pituitary tumor cells in vitro.
J Endocrinol. 2016; 231(2):135-145 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatostatin analogs (SSA) are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for pituitary adenomas. However, some patients escape from therapy with octreotide, a somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2)-preferring SSA, and pasireotide, a novel multi-sst-preferring SSA, may help to overcome this problem. It has been proposed that correspondence between sst1-sst5 expression pattern and SSA-binding profile could predict patient's response. To explore the cellular/molecular features associated with octreotide/pasireotide response, we performed a parallel comparison of their in vitro effects, evaluating sst1-sst5 expression, intracellular Ca

Ito T, Hijioka S, Masui T, et al.
Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms in Japan.
J Gastroenterol. 2017; 52(1):9-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several new developments have occurred in the field of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (PNEN) recently in Japan. First, the utility of chromogranin A (CgA), useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of the treatment response of neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN), has been demonstrated in Japan. For PNEN diagnosis and treatment, grading and correct histological diagnosis according to the WHO 2010 classification is important. Regarding the histological diagnosis, the advent of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has enabled correct pathological diagnosis and suitable treatment for the affected tissue. Furthermore, EUS-FNA has also facilitates the assessment of the presence or absence of gene mutations. In addition, patients who have a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) showing a Ki-67 index of higher than 20 % according to the WHO 2010 classification, have also been identified, and their responses to treatment were found to be different from those of patients with poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Therefore, the concept of NET G3 was proposed. Additionally, somatostatin receptor type 2 is expressed in several cases of NET, and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (

Würth R, Barbieri F, Pattarozzi A, et al.
Phenotypical and Pharmacological Characterization of Stem-Like Cells in Human Pituitary Adenomas.
Mol Neurobiol. 2017; 54(7):4879-4895 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence and functional role of tumor stem cells in benign tumors, and in human pituitary adenomas in particular, is a debated issue that still lacks a definitive formal demonstration. Fifty-six surgical specimens of human pituitary adenomas were processed to establish tumor stem-like cultures by selection and expansion in stem cell-permissive medium or isolating CD133-expressing cells. Phenotypic and functional characterization of these cells was performed (1) ex vivo, by immunohistochemistry analysis on paraffin-embedded tissues; (2) in vitro, attesting marker expression, proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, and drug sensitivity; and (3) in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Within pituitary adenomas, we identified rare cell populations expressing stem cell markers but not pituitary hormones; we isolated and expanded in vitro these cells, obtaining fibroblast-free, stem-like cultures from 38 pituitary adenoma samples. These cells grow as spheroids, express stem cell markers (Oct4, Sox2, CD133, and nestin), show sustained in vitro proliferation as compared to primary cultures of differentiated pituitary adenoma cells, and are able to differentiate in hormone-expressing pituitary cells. Besides, pituisphere cells, apparently not tumorigenic in mice, engrafted in zebrafish embryos, inducing pro-angiogenic and invasive responses. Finally, pituitary adenoma stem-like cells express regulatory pituitary receptors (D2R, SSTR2, and SSTR5), whose activation by a dopamine/somatostatin chimeric agonist exerts antiproliferative effects. In conclusion, we provide evidence that human pituitary adenomas contain a subpopulation fulfilling biological and phenotypical signatures of tumor stem cells that may represent novel therapeutic targets for therapy-resistant tumors.

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