Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: SOX11 (cancer-related)
Liu Y, Li F, Lai D, et al.MicroRNA-140 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of prostate cancer via degrading SOX4.
J BUON. 2019 Jan-Feb; 24(1):249-255 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To explore the regulatory roles of microRNA-140 and SOX4 in prostate cancer (PCa) tissues and paracancerous tissues, and their underlying mechanism.
METHODS: MicroRNA-140 expressions in PCa tissues, paracancerous tissues and PCa cell lines were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle of PCa cells after altering expressions of microRNA-140 and SOX4 were detected by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The regulatory effect of microRNA-140 on SOX4 was detected by Western blot and qRT-PCR. The binding condition of microRNA-140 on SOX4 was verified by luciferase reporter gene assay.
RESULTS: MicroRNA-140 was downregulated in PCa tissues compared to paracancerous tissues. In particular, lower expression of microRNA-140 was found in PCa with Grade I+II compared to Grade III+IV. In vitro, microRNA-140 expression was negatively correlated with proliferative and invasive abilities, while positively correlated with apoptosis of PCa cells. MicroRNA-140 promoted cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. SOX4 expression was inhibited by microRNA-140 overexpression in PCa cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Downregulated microRNA-140 promotes proliferation and cell cycle arrest, but inhibits apoptosis of PCa cells. MicroRNA-140 inhibits PCa development via degrading SOX4.
BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel type of noncoding RNAs and play important roles in tumorigenesis, including gastric cancer (GC). However, the functions of most circRNAs remain poorly understood. In our study, we aimed to investigate the functions of a new circRNA circ-DONSON in GC progression.
METHODS: The expression of circ-DONSON in gastric cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues was analyzed by bioinformatics method, qRT-PCR, Northern blotting and in situ hybridization (ISH). The effects of circ-DONSON on GC cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were measured by using CCK8, colony formation, EdU, immunofluorescence (IF), FACS and Transwell assays. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were utilized to validate how circ-DONSON regulates SOX4 expression. ChIP, DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (DNA-FISH) and DNA accessibility assays were used to investigate how circ-DONSON regulates SOX4 transcription. The interaction between circ-DONSON and NURF complex was evaluated by mass spectrum, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), pulldown and EMSA assays. Xenograft mouse model was used to analyze the effect of circ-DONSON on GC growth in vivo.
RESULTS: Elevated expression of circ-DONSON was observed in GC tissues and positively associated with advanced TNM stage and unfavorable prognosis. Silencing of circ-DONSON significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells while promoting apoptosis. circ-DONSON was localized in the nucleus, recruited the NURF complex to SOX4 promoter and initiated its transcription. Silencing of the NURF complex subunit SNF2L, BPTF or RBBP4 similarly attenuated GC cell growth and increased apoptosis. circ-DONSON knockdown inhibited GC growth in vivo.
CONCLUSION: circ-DONSON promotes GC progression through recruiting the NURF complex to initiate SOX4 expression.
BACKGROUND: SOX11 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in mantle cell lymphoma development. However, its functional role in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unknown.
METHODS: Protein expression was measured with Western blotting, immunohistochemistry or quantitative proteomics, and gene expression was measured with quantitative RT-PCR. Functional role of SOX11 in HNSCC was evaluated with MTS/apoptosis, migration, invasion assays and a xenograft model. A SOX11-targeting gene, SDCCAG8, was confirmed with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), luciferase reporter and rescue assays.
RESULTS: SOX11 was up-regulated in recurrent versus primary HNSCC and in highly invasive versus low invasive HNSCC cell lines. Silencing SOX11 in HNSCC cell lines significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration, invasion and resistance to Cisplatin, and vice versa. Quantitative proteomic analysis of SOX11-silencing HNSCC cells revealed a number of differentially expressed proteins, including a down-regulated tumor antigen SDCCAG8. Silencing of SDCCAG8 in HNSCC cells also significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and vice versa. ChIP assays demonstrated that endogenous SOX11 strongly bound to Sdccag8 gene promoter in highly invasive HNSCC cells. When over-expressed in low invasive HNSCC cells, wild type SOX11 but not mutant SOX11 induced the promoter activity of Sdccag8 and significantly induced the expression of SDCCAG8. However, exogenous mutant SOX11 abolished the expression of SDCCAG8 in highly invasive HNSCC cells. In addition, the inhibitory effects of SOX11 knockdown were partially rescued by over-expression of SDCCAG8 in HNSCC cells.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings indicate SOX11 promotes HNSCC progression via the regulation of SDCCAG8.
Sun Z, Zhang T, Chen BLong Non-Coding RNA Metastasis-Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1 (MALAT1) Promotes Proliferation and Metastasis of Osteosarcoma Cells by Targeting c-Met and SOX4 via miR-34a/c-5p and miR-449a/b.
Med Sci Monit. 2019; 25:1410-1422 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a functional long non-coding RNA involved in many biologic processes. The study was aimed to explore the functional roles of MALAT1 in osteosarcoma progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 76 osteosarcoma tissues and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues were collected from surgical resection. MALAT1, miRNAs, and genes mRNA expression levels were detected using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Protein expression level, cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were assessed using western blot, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), wound-healing assay, and Matrigel invasion assay respectively. The target relationships among miRNAs, MALAT1, and mRNA were detected via dual-luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS We found that MALAT1 was frequently upregulated in osteosarcoma samples and cell lines and a high level of MALAT1 predicted poor overall survival in osteosarcoma patients. Knockdown of MALAT1 inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Further study showed a positive correlation between MALAT1 and c-Met or SOX4 expression. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that MALAT1, as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA), regulated osteosarcoma proliferation and metastasis through competitively binding to miR-34a/c-5p and miR-449a/b. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, our study illustrates a new regulatory mechanism for MALAT1 and may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
Li X, Wu X, Li Y, et al.Promoter hypermethylation of SOX11 promotes the progression of cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(4):2351-2360 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The development of cervical cancer (CC) is a multi‑gene, multi‑step carcinogenic process that involves complex genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. SRY‑related HMG‑box gene 11 (SOX11) is a member of the SOX family of transcription factors with an emerging crucial role in the development of various tumor types. To elucidate the function of SOX11 in cervical carcinogenesis, the expression level of SOX11 during the development of human CC was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Additionally, the methylation status of the SOX11 was examined using bisulfite sequencing and methylation‑specific polymerase chain reaction. The SOX11 expression and promoter methylation in human CC cell lines were also determined. The effect of SOX11 expression restoration after 5‑aza‑2'‑deoxycytidine (5‑Aza‑dC) treatment on the CC cell proliferation ability was evaluated in CC cell lines. SOX11 was highly expressed in normal cervix (NC) and precancerous low‑grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, but weakly expressed or virtually absent in precancerous high‑grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and CC, which is consistent with the result of the western blot analysis. Hypermethylation of the SOX11 promoter was detected in CC, which was significantly higher than that in NC samples at each CpG site. The expression level of SOX11 in the CC cell lines was downregulated compared with the positive control, Tera‑1human teratoma cell line. Upon 5‑Aza‑dC treatment, SOX11 expression was significantly upregulated in the CC cell lines at the mRNA and protein levels, and cell proliferation was inhibited. The results indicated that the downregulation of SOX11 in CC is due to the hypermethylation of the SOX11 promoter region. Thus, SOX11 methylation may have a role in the growth of CC cells and cervical carcinogenesis.
INTRODUCTION: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a highly aggressive malignant cancer, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its development and progression remain largely elusive. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the expression profile and functional role of microRNA-625 (miR-625) in LSCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: LSCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected from 86 LSCC patients. The expression levels of miR-625 and SOX4 mRNA in tissues and cells were detected by RT-qPCR analysis. The expression levels of SOX4 and EMT-related proteins were detected by western blot analysis.
RESULTS: The results demonstrated that miR-625 is significantly down-regulated in clinical LSCC tissues, and its low expression may be closely associated with unfavorable clinicopathological characteristics of LSCC patients. Overexpression of miR-625 significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration, invasion, and EMT of LSCC cells. Furthermore, SOX4 was validated as a direct target of miR-625 in LSCC cells, and rescue experiments suggested that restoration of SOX4 blocked the tumor suppressive role of miR-625 in LSCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings highlighted a critical role of miR-625 in the pathogenesis of LSCC, and restoration of miR-625 could be considered as a potential therapeutic strategy against this fatal disease.
Zhang W, Liu K, Liu S, et al.MicroRNA‑744 inhibits migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting SOX12.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3585-3592 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNA‑744 (miR‑744) reportedly plays an oncogenic or tumor‑suppressive role in different human malignancies. Although a previous study demonstrated that miR‑744 significantly inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) proliferation in vitro, the role of miR‑744 in the migration and invasion of HCC cells remains largely unknown. The present study investigated the significance of miR‑744 in HCC tissues and cell lines and evaluated its role and underlying mechanism of action in HCC cells. miR‑744 expression was detected in HCC tissues and cell lines by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). The effect of miR‑744 on cell proliferation, migration and invasion was determined using Cell Counting Kit‑8, wound‑healing and Matrigel invasion assays, respectively. Targeting gene of miR‑744 in HCC cells was determined by luciferase reporter assay, RT‑qPCR and western blotting. It was revealed that miR‑744 was poorly expressed in HCC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05), and that decreased miR‑744 levels were significantly associated with the tumor node metastasis stage and lymph node metastasis. Additionally, restoration of miR‑744 in HCC cells significantly suppressed their proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, sex determining region Y‑box 12 (SOX12) was identified as a functional target of miR‑744 in HCC cells, and its expression was demonstrated to be upregulated in HCC tissues and inversely correlated with the expression of miR‑744. Notably, overexpression of SOX12 antagonized the suppressive effect of miR‑744 on HCC cell migration and invasion. These findings suggested that miR‑744 inhibited migration and invasion by targeting SOX12, and that it may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of metastatic HCC.
Chen P, Gu YY, Ma FC, et al.Expression levels and co‑targets of miRNA‑126‑3p and miRNA‑126‑5p in lung adenocarcinoma tissues: Αn exploration with RT‑qPCR, microarray and bioinformatic analyses.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(2):939-953 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common histological subtype of lung cancer. Previous studies have found that many microRNAs (miRNAs), including miRNA‑126‑3p, may play a critical role in the development of LUAD. However, no study of LUAD has researched the synergistic effects and co‑targets of both miRNA‑126‑3p and miRNA‑126‑5p. The present study used real‑time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) to explore the expression values of miRNA‑126‑3p and miRNA‑126‑5p in 101 LUAD and 101 normal lung tissues. Ten relevant microarray datasets were screened to further validate the expression levels of miRNA‑126‑3p and ‑5p in LUAD. Twelve prediction tools were employed to obtain potential targets of miRNA‑126‑3p and miRNA‑126‑5p. The results showed that both miRNA‑126‑3p and ‑5p were expressed significantly lower in LUAD. A significant positive correlation was also present between miRNA‑126‑3p and ‑5p expression in LUAD. In addition, lower expression of miRNA‑126‑3p and ‑5p was indicative of vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis (LNM), and a later tumor/node/metastasis (TNM) stage of LUAD. The authors obtained 167 targets of miRNA‑126‑3p and 212 targets of miRNA‑126‑5p; 44 targets were co‑targets of both. Eight co‑target genes (IGF2BP1, TRPM8, DUSP4, SOX11, PLOD2, LIN28A, LIN28B and SLC7A11) were initially identified as key genes in LUAD. The results of the present study indicated that the co‑regulation of miRNA‑126‑3p and miRNA‑126‑5p plays a key role in the development of LUAD, which also suggests a fail‑proof mode between miRNA‑3p and miRNA‑126‑5p.
Liu Z, Zhong Y, Chen YJ, Chen HSOX11 regulates apoptosis and cell cycle in hepatocellular carcinoma via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2019; 66(2):240-246 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer with high mortality. Identifying key molecules involved in the regulation of HCC development is of great clinical significance. SOX11 is a transcription factor belonging to group C of Sry-related high mobility group box family whose abnormal expression is frequently seen in many kinds of human cancers. Here, we noted that the expression of SOX11 was decreased in human HCC tumors compared with that in matched normal tissues. Overexpression of SOX11 promoted growth inhibition and apoptosis in HCC cell line HuH-7. Mechanistically, SOX11 enhanced the expression of nemo-like kinase and the phosphorylation of TCF4, thereby blunting the activation of oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HuH-7 cells. Finally, SOX11 was also found to sensitize HuH-7 cells to chemotherapy drugs cisplatin and 5-fluorouraci. Therefore, our study identifies SOX11 as a potential tumor suppressor in HCC and may hopefully be beneficial for the clinical diagnosis or treatment of HCC.
The expression of the transcription factor
Bin C, Xiaofeng H, Wanzi XThe effect of microRNA-129 on the migration and invasion in NSCLC cells and its mechanism.
Exp Lung Res. 2018; 44(6):280-287 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of microRNA-129 on the migration and invasion in (Non small cell lung cancer) NSCLC cells and involved mechanism.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A549 cells were cultured and transfected with microRNA-129 (miR-129) mimic. Wound-healing assay and transwell assay were used to analyses the migration and invasion of A549 cells, respectively. The SOX4 expression changes were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the binding site between miR-129 and the 3'-UTR of SOX4. A549 cells, miR-129 up-regulated A549 cells and miR-129 + SOX4 up-regulated A549 cells were treated with TGF-β in order to induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The miR-129 and SOX4 after TGF-β treatment were measured. The EMT markers level changes were detected by western blot.
RESULTS: Up-regulation of miR-129 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells. miR-129 mimic transfection could reduce the mRNA and protein level of SOX4. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-129 could bind to the 3'-UTR of SOX4. TGF-β induced EMT accompanied by the reduction of miR-129 and elevating of SOX4. Up-regulation of miR-129 could reverse the EMT marker changes caused by TGF-β, however, the SOX4 overexpression antagonized this effect of miR-129.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-129 could suppress the migration and invasion of A549 cells. The potential mechanism may be that miR-129 inhibit EMT via targeting SOX4.
Recently, lncRNA has been verified to regulate the development and progression of tumor. LncRNA ABHD11-AS1 has been proven to serve as an oncogene in several cancers. However, the role of ABHD11-AS1 in colorectal cancer remains totally unknown. In the present study, qRT-PCR assay revealed that ABHD11-AS1 expression was markedly higher in colorectal cancer tissues and cell lines. In addition, patients who displayed overexpression of ABHD11-AS1 showed a significantly poorer progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Loss-of-function experiments suggested that silencing of ABHD11-AS1 expression could significantly reduce the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells, and increase cell apoptosis. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis, biotin pull-down assay, luciferase reporter assay, and RIP assay disclosed that ABHD11-AS1 straightly interacted with miR-133a. We also found that SOX4 was a downstream target of miR-133a and ABHD11-AS1 subsequently exerted its biological effects via modulating the expression of SOX4 in colorectal cancer cells. Collectively, these findings manifested that the ABHD11-AS1/miR-133a/SOX4 axis may be a cogitable and promising therapeutic target for colorectal cancer.
Sun X, Liu H, Li T, Qin LMicroRNA‑339‑5p inhibits cell proliferation of acute myeloid leukaemia by directly targeting SOX4.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(6):5261-5269 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In recent decades, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been considered novel gene regulators. Dysregulated miRNAs serve crucial roles in the formation and progression of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Therefore, the roles of differentially expressed miRNAs in AML require extensive investigation to obtain insight into the treatment of patients with AML. The present study demonstrated significant miR‑339‑5p downregulation in AML samples and cell lines. miR‑339‑5p overexpression attenuated AML cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and promoting cell apoptosis. Additionally, sex‑determining region Y‑related high‑mobility group box 4 (SOX4) was identified as a direct target gene of miR‑339‑5p in AML. Furthermore, SOX4 expression was significantly upregulated in AML samples; this upregulation was inversely correlated with the expression levels of miR‑339‑5p. Additionally, a series of rescue experiments demonstrated that SOX4 resumption reversed the effects of miR‑339‑5p overexpression on cell proliferation, cycle status and apoptosis of AML. In conclusion, miR‑339‑5p may serve its antiproliferative role in AML by directly targeting SOX4, which suggests that miR‑339‑5p may be considered an effective novel therapeutic target for treating patients with such an aggressive haematological malignancy.
Sun H, Li Y, Kong H, et al.Dysregulation of KCNQ1OT1 promotes cholangiocarcinoma progression via miR-140-5p/SOX4 axis.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 2018; 658:7-15 [PubMed
] Related Publications
It is commonly recognized that aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is an important cause of cancer progression. The oncogenic property of KCNQ1OT1 has been identified in several malignant tumors. Here, we decided to explore the biological function and molecular mechanism of KCNQ1OT1 in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The expression conditions of KCNQ1OT1 in different tissues and cell lines were examined with qRT-PCR analysis. As expected, KCNQ1OT1 was highly expressed in CCA tissues and cell lines. Results of functional assays revealed the oncogenic function of KCNQ1OT in cholangiocarcinoma progression. The positive effect of KCNQ1OT1 on cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition was identified by performing MTT assay, colony formation assay, transwell invasion assay and western blotting. Whereas, the negative effect of KCNQ1OT1 on the cell apoptosis was tested with flow cytometry analysis. Mechanism investigation revealed that KCNQ1OT1 can act as a ceRNA to improve CCA progression by regulating miR-140-5p/SOX4 axis. Recue assays were conducted to demonstrate the actual effects of KCNQ1OT1-miR-140-5p-SOX4 pathway on CCA progression.
Vervoort SJ, Lourenço AR, Tufegdzic Vidakovic A, et al.SOX4 can redirect TGF-β-mediated SMAD3-transcriptional output in a context-dependent manner to promote tumorigenesis.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(18):9578-9590 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Expression of the transcription factor SOX4 is often elevated in human cancers, where it generally correlates with tumor-progression and poor-disease outcome. Reduction of SOX4 expression results in both diminished tumor-incidence and metastasis. In breast cancer, TGF-β-mediated induction of SOX4 has been shown to contribute to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which controls pro-metastatic events. Here, we identify SMAD3 as a novel, functionally relevant SOX4 interaction partner. Genome-wide analysis showed that SOX4 and SMAD3 co-occupy a large number of genomic loci in a cell-type specific manner. Moreover, SOX4 expression was required for TGF-β-mediated induction of a subset of SMAD3/SOX4-co-bound genes regulating migration and extracellular matrix-associated processes, and correlating with poor-prognosis. These findings identify SOX4 as an important SMAD3 co-factor controlling transcription of pro-metastatic genes and context-dependent shaping of the cellular response to TGF-β. Targeted disruption of the interaction between these factors may have the potential to disrupt pro-oncogenic TGF-β signaling, thereby impairing tumorigenesis.
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of over-expressing circular RNA CEP128 (circCEP128) on cell functions and explore the molecular mechanism of which in bladder carcinoma.
METHODS: The differentially expressed circRNAs and mRNAs in bladder carcinoma cells and cells in adjacent tissues were screened out using microarray analysis. Expression levels of circRNAs and mRNAs in tissues and cells were determined by qRT-PCR. Expression of SOX11 was detected by western blot. Luciferase reporter assay and RNA pull-down assay were used to investigate the interactions between the specific circRNA, miRNA and mRNA. Cell cycle and apoptosis were measured using flow cytometry after transfection. MTT assay was also performed to detect the cell proliferation.
RESULTS: In present study, circCEP128 and SOX11 were observed significantly up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues, while the expression of miR-145-5p was decreased in cancer samples compared to normal samples. Cytoscape was used to visualize circCEP128-miRNA-target gene interactions based on the TargetScan and circular RNA interactome, which revealed that circCEP128 served as a sponge of miR-145-5p and indirectly regulated SOX11. Knockdown of circCEP128 induced the inhibition of cell proliferation and the increased bladder cancer cell apoptosis rate.
CONCLUSIONS: CircCEP128 functions as a ceRNA for miR-145-5p, which could up regulates SOX11 and further promotes cell proliferation and inhibits cell apoptosis of bladder cancer.
Liu E, Sun X, Li J, Zhang CmiR‑30a‑5p inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of melanoma cells by targeting SOX4.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(2):2492-2498 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNA (miR)‑30a‑5p has been reported to suppress the progression of hepatocellular cancer, renal cell carcinoma, oral cancer and gastric cancer. However, whether miR‑30a‑5p is involved in the regulation of melanoma remains unclear. The present study revealed that miR‑30a‑5p was downregulated in melanoma tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR‑30a‑5p significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of melanoma cells in vitro. In addition, ectopic expression of miR‑30a‑5p delayed tumor growth in vivo. In terms of mechanism, miR‑30a‑5p targeted sex determining region Y‑box 4 (SOX4) and impeded the expression of SOX4 in melanoma cells. In addition, SOX4 was upregulated in melanoma tissues and cell lines when compared with normal tissues or cells. Furthermore, overexpression of SOX4 significantly rescued the proliferation, migration and invasion of melanoma cells transfected with miR‑30a‑5p mimics. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that miR‑30a‑5p suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of melanoma cells in SOX4‑dependent manner.
Cheng Q, Du J, Xie L, et al.Inhibition of SOX4 induces melanoma cell apoptosis via downregulation of NF-κB p65 signaling.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(1):369-376 [PubMed
] Related Publications
SOX4 (SRY Box 4) has attracted attention due to its important effects on cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis, among other cellular processes. However, the role of SOX4 in melanoma cell apoptosis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether inhibition of SOX4 induces melanoma cell apoptosis, and explored the possible mechanism involving the NF-κB signaling pathway. SOX4 was knocked down using a lentivirus in melanoma A2058 and SK-MEL-5 cell lines. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Western blotting was performed to detect the protein levels of SOX4, p65 and apoptosis-related proteins, such as PARP, Bcl-2, Bax and survivin. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to examine the mRNA levels of SOX4 and p65. To determine whether SOX4 is able to bind to the promoter of p65, a CHIP-PCR assay was performed. Our data demonstrated that SOX4 knockdown significantly induced apoptosis in melanoma cells, which was accompanied by increases in cleaved PARP and Bax, and decreases in Bcl-2 and survivin. The expression of p65 was also decreased in SOX4-knockdown melanoma cells. The CHIP-PCR assay indicated that SOX4 was able to bind to the promoter region of p65. We also observed that apoptosis in SOX4-knockdown and p65-overexpressing A2058 cells was much lower than that in SOX4-knockdown alone cells. This revealed that the overexpression of p65 partially reversed SOX4 downregulation-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that inhibition of SOX4 markedly induced melanoma cell apoptosis via downregulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, which thus may be a novel approach for the treatment of melanoma.
Pan L, Meng L, Liang F, Cao LmiR‑188 suppresses tumor progression by targeting SOX4 in pediatric osteosarcoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(1):441-446 [PubMed
] Related Publications
microRNA‑188 (miR‑188) acts as a tumor suppressor in various types of human cancer, including glioma, oral squamous cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the function and mechanism of miR‑188 in pediatric osteosarcoma (OS) have yet to be investigated. In the present study reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that miR‑188 expression was significantly downregulated in pediatric OS tissues and cell lines. miR‑188 overexpression markedly suppressed OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cellular apoptosis. An in vivo assay demonstrated that miR‑188 overexpression inhibited tumor growth. miR‑188 targeted SOX4 to regulate its expression. miR‑188 expression was inversely correlated with SOX4 in pediatric OS tissues. SOX4 restoration abrogated the inhibitory effects of miR‑188 on OS cells. The results of the present study indicated that miR‑188 suppressed pediatric OS progression by targeting SOX4.
Beekman R, Amador V, Campo ESOX11, a key oncogenic factor in mantle cell lymphoma.
Curr Opin Hematol. 2018; 25(4):299-306 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: SOX11 has emerged as a key transcription factor in the pathogenesis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) whereas it is not expressed in normal B cells or virtually in any other mature B-cell neoplasm. This review will examine the role of SOX11 as a biomarker in MCL, the new information on its transcriptional targets, and the mechanisms regulating its expression in MCL.
RECENT FINDINGS: SOX11 is highly expressed in conventional MCL, including cyclin D1-negative cases, but it is not expressed in the indolent leukemic nonnodal MCL subtype. These two MCL subtypes also differ in their cell-of-origin, IGHV mutational status and genomic instability. SOX11 promotes tumor growth of MCL cells in vivo and regulates a broad transcriptional program that includes B-cell differentiation pathways and tumor-microenvironment interactions, among others. The mechanisms upregulating SOX11 in MCL are not well understood but are mediated in part by the three-dimensional reconfiguration of the DNA, bringing together a distant enhancer region and the SOX11 promoter.
SUMMARY: SOX11 is a relevant element in the pathogenesis of MCL and has been instrumental to identify two distinct clinicobiological subtypes of this tumor. Further studies should clarify the mechanisms mediating its oncogenic potential and leading to its intriguing expression in these tumors.
Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the primary causes of gynecological cancer mortality. Increasing evidence has suggested that long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may serve a pivotal role in cancer development. To determine whether Lnc SRY‑box 4 (SOX4), an lncRNA, promotes the self‑renewal of liver tumor cells and contributes to the development of epithelial ovarian cancer, the present study investigated the expression of LncSOX4 in clinical epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and non‑cancer controls by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. In addition, siRNA targeting LncSOX4 was designed and transfected into epithelial ovarian cancer cells to further assess the effect of knocking out LncSOX4 on cellular apoptosis, cell viability, proliferation and the cell cycle. The results demonstrated that the LncSOX4 expression level was significantly upregulated in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues (3.98 vs. 1.71, P<0.001). Silencing LncSOX4 in the SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cell lines significantly impaired cell proliferation (P<0.001). Cell cycle assays revealed that the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase increased significantly, whereas those in the S phase and G2/M phase decreased. Apoptosis rate additionally increased following knockdown of LncSOX4 in the two cell lines. Furthermore, it was observed that an increased LncSOX4 expression level was positively associated with larger tumor sizes, more advanced tumor grade and more distant metastases.
Kuipers AJ, Middelbeek J, Vrenken K, et al.TRPM7 controls mesenchymal features of breast cancer cells by tensional regulation of SOX4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018; 1864(7):2409-2419 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Mechanically induced signaling pathways are important drivers of tumor progression. However, if and how mechanical signals affect metastasis or therapy response remains poorly understood. We previously found that the channel-kinase TRPM7, a regulator of cellular tension implicated in mechano-sensory processes, is required for breast cancer metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that TRPM7 contributes to maintaining a mesenchymal phenotype in breast cancer cells by tensional regulation of the EMT transcription factor SOX4. The functional consequences of SOX4 knockdown closely mirror those produced by TRPM7 knockdown. By traction force measurements, we demonstrate that TRPM7 reduces cytoskeletal tension through inhibition of myosin II activity. Moreover, we show that SOX4 expression and downstream mesenchymal markers are inversely regulated by cytoskeletal tension and matrix rigidity. Overall, our results identify SOX4 as a transcription factor that is uniquely sensitive to cellular tension and indicate that TRPM7 may contribute to breast cancer progression by tensional regulation of SOX4.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by increased B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, and BTK inhibition is an effective therapeutic intervention in MCL patients. The mechanisms leading to increased BCR signaling in MCL are poorly understood, as mutations in upstream regulators of BCR signaling such as CD79A, commonly observed in other lymphomas, are rare in MCL. The transcription factor SOX11 is overexpressed in the majority (78% to 93%) of MCL patients and is considered an MCL-specific oncogene. So far, attempts to understand SOX11 function in vivo have been hampered by the lack of appropriate animal models, because germline deletion of SOX11 is embryonically lethal. We have developed a transgenic mouse model (Eμ-SOX11-EGFP) in the C57BL/6 background expressing murine SOX11 and EGFP under the control of a B-cell-specific IgH-Eμ enhancer. The overexpression of SOX11 exclusively in B cells exhibits oligoclonal B-cell hyperplasia in the spleen, bone marrow, and peripheral blood, with an immunophenotype (CD5
The main cause of death in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients is relapse due to undetermined minimal residual disease (MRD) and therefore monitoring MRD is crucial for making the best treatment decisions. The gold standard method for MRD analysis is the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The most commonly used molecular markers for measuring MRD in MCL are: t(11;14)(q13;p32) translocation or CCND1 expression and IGH rearrangement. Such markers can, however, be found in other B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Recent studies demonstrate that SOX11 expression is highly specific for MCL and could be used as a marker for measuring MRD. Moreover, evidence shows that SOX11 level could be predictive for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). We have measured MRD level in follow-up samples from 27 patients diagnosed with MCL using the molecular markers: t(11;14), IGH rearrangement and SOX11 expression. We compared all markers by their sensitivity, utility and quantitative range. We also examined the predictive value of SOX11 expression for OS and PFS. SOX11 expression was found to have better specificity, quantitative range and utility than the t(11;14). The predictive value of SOX11 expression was confirmed. At diagnosis, patients with high SOX11 expression had shorter PFS than patients with low SOX11 expression (p = 0.04*); differences between OS being statistically insignificant. To our best knowledge this is a first study comparing SOX11 with t(11;14) and IGH rearrangement as markers of MRD level. Moreover, in this study we confirmed that SOX11 is useful in cases when other molecular markers cannot be used.
Wang Y, Xie J, Liu W, et al.Lidocaine sensitizes the cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouacil in melanoma cells
Pharmazie. 2017; 72(11):663-669 [PubMed
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Lidocaine is a well-documented local anesthetic that has been reported to sensitize the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in cancer cells. However, little information is available concerning whether lidocaine sensitizes the cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in melanoma cells. The study was aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of lidocaine on the sensitivity to 5-FU in the melanoma cell line SK-MEL-2. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after administration of different concentrations of lidocaine, 5-FU, or the combinations. Expression of microRNA (miR)-493 was assessed following lidocaine administration. The target genes of miR-493 were verified by luciferase reporter assay, PCR, and Western blot. The effects of abnormal expression of miR-493 and/or SRY-Box 4 (SOX4) on cell viability, apoptosis, and key proteins in phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and the Smad pathways were detected. The effects of (0-100 uM) lidocaine on cell viability and apoptosis was not obvious; however, lidocaine could significantly increase the cell viability and inhibit apoptosis in 5-FU-treated cells. In addition, lidocaine induced upregulation of miR-493 in a dose-dependent manner, and we confirmed that the effects of miR-493 on the sensitivity were by upregulating miR-493. Moreover, we verified that Sox4 was a target of miR-493, and Sox4 overexpression decreased the sensitivity to 5-FU. Besides, Sox4 overexpression increased the levels of p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3, and Sox4 suppression showed contrary results. Our results suggest that lidocaine sensitizes the cytotoxicity of 5-FU in melanoma cells via upregulation of miR-493, which might be involved in SOX4-mediated PI3K/AKT and Smad pathways.
Tian Z, Yang G, Jiang P, et al.Long non-coding RNA Sox4 promotes proliferation and migration by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in osteosarcoma.
Pharmazie. 2017; 72(9):537-542 [PubMed
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Osteosarcoma is a bone tumor without effective treatment in the world. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are considered as essential regulators in cancer progression. LncSox4 plays crucial roles in liver tumor-initiating cells self-renewal and tumor initiation. However, the effect of lncSox4 in osteosarcoma remains largely unclear. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Northern blot were performed to detect lncSox4 expressions in osteosarcoma. The functions of lncSox4 in osteosarcoma were determined using cell viability and migration assays. In addition, the proteins associated with lncSox4 were further evaluated by western blot. We found that lncSox4 was expressed highly in U-20S and Mg63 cells and osteosarcoma tumor tissues (all P < 0.001). LncSox4 silencing attenuated but lncSox4 overexpression promoted cell viability (all P < 0.001) and migration (P < 0.01) in the Mg63 cells. Next, we found lncSox4 regulation of osteosarcoma is involved in β-catenin, and overexpression of lncSox4 could stable β-catenin expression. Further, Wnt agonist CID11210285 completely abolished the decrease of Mg63 cells viability induced by lncSox4 silencing when cells cultured for 3 and 4 days (both P < 0.01), while Wnt inhibitor IWP-3 abolished the increase of Mg63 cells viability induced by overexpression of lncSox4 after treatment for 2 (P < 0.01), 3 (P < 0.001) and 4 (P < 0.01) days. Our study offers evidence for the first time that lncSox4 plays a positive role in osteosarcoma development and progression, and could act as a potential prognostic and therapy biomarker.
PURPOSE: Long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) is reported to be a vital regulator of the progression of various cancers. This study aimed to explore the exact roles and molecular mechanisms of TUG1 in osteosarcoma (OS) development.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time quantitative PCR was applied to detect the expressions of TUG1 and microRNA-132-3p (miR-132-3p) in OS tissues and cells. Western blot was performed to measure protein levels of sex determining region Y-box 4 (SOX4). Cell viability was assessed using XTT assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity detection assays. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter experiments were employed to confirm relationships among TUG1, miR-132-3p, and SOX4.
RESULTS: TUG1 was highly expressed in human OS tissues, OS cell lines, and primary OS cells. TUG1 knockdown hindered proliferation and induced apoptosis in human OS cell lines and primary OS cells. Moreover, TUG1 inhibited miR-132-3p expression by direct interaction, and introduction of miR-132-3p inhibitor partly abrogated the effect of TUG1 knockdown on the proliferation and apoptosis of OS cells. Furthermore, SOX4 was validated as a target of miR-132-3p. Further functional analyses revealed that miR-132-3p inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of OS cells, while this effect was greatly abated following SOX4 overexpression. Moreover, TUG1 knockdown suppressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis by upregulating miR-132-3p and downregulating SOX4 in primary OS cells.
CONCLUSION: TUG1 facilitated proliferation and suppressed apoptosis by regulating the miR-132-3p/SOX4 axis in human OS cell lines and primary OS cells. This finding provides a potential target for OS therapy.
Tosic N, Petrovic I, Grujicic NK, et al.Prognostic significance of SOX2, SOX3, SOX11, SOX14 and SOX18 gene expression in adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2018; 67:32-38 [PubMed
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Aberrant expression of different SOX (SRY-related high mobility group (HMG) box) genes has been observed in number of tumors but, little is known about their expression patterns in hematological malignancies, especially in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study we investigated SOX2, SOX3, SOX11, SOX14 and SOX18 gene expression in 50 de novo adult AML patients and correlated our findings with known clinical and molecular prognostic markers of the disease. We have found that these genes are overexpressed in 10-22% of patients and preliminary findings suggest that high expression level of these genes may have prognostic significance in AML patients. This is the first study focused on examining the expression level of SOX2, SOX3, SOX11, SOX14 and SOX18 genes in AML patients. Although this is a relatively limited study, initial findings indicate the need for further investigation of these genes, their potential roles in leukemia pathogenesis as well as prognosis in AML patients.
Dong X, Chen R, Lin H, et al.lncRNA BG981369 Inhibits Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion, and Promotes Cell Apoptosis by SRY-Related High-Mobility Group Box 4 (SOX4) Signaling Pathway in Human Gastric Cancer.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:718-726 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND Human gastric cancer (GC) is a leading primary cause of cancer-associated deaths in both males and females worldwide. However, there are few effective diagnostic and therapeutic measures for GC patients due to the complicated underlying mechanisms of GC. Recently, increasing research has indicated that lncRNAs may play a critical role in the progression of GC. MATERIAL AND METHODS AI769947, AK054978, DB077273, BG981369, AK054588, and AF131784 expressions were analyzed by qRT-PCR assay in GC tissues and corresponding normal tissues (n=44). BG981369 expression was detected by qRT-PCR assay in GC cells. BG981369 was overexpressed and silenced in AGS and SNU-5 cells. The proliferation ability was detected by MTT and colony formation assays. Cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis rate were analyzed by flow cytometry. The migration and invasion abilities were measured by Transwell assay. In addition, SOX4 expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in GC tissues. The correlation between SOX4 and BG981369 was analyzed by Pearson analysis. RESULTS The results indicated that lncRNA BG981369 was significantly higher in GC tissues than in normal tissues. Overexpression of BG981369 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion and promoted apoptosis of gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells, and silencing of BG981369 promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion, and inhibited cell apoptosis of SNU-5 cells. Furthermore, we found that SOX4 may act as a downstream mediator of BG981369, suggesting that BG981369 inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion, and promotes apoptosis by targeting SOX4 in the GC cell lines. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that BG981369 and SOX4 are potentially effective therapeutic targets for GC.
Currently available tools for early diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer lack sufficient accuracy. There is a need to identify novel biomarkers for this common malignancy. SOX family genes play an important role in embryogenesis and are also implicated in various cancers. SOX11 has been recently recognized as a potential tumour suppressor that is downregulated in prostate cancer. We hypothesized that hypermethylation may be responsible for SOX11 silencing in human prostate cancer. The aim of the study was to investigate SOX11 promoter methylation in prostate adenocarcinoma by comparing it with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A total of 143 human prostate tissue samples, 62 from patients with prostate cancer and 81 from patients with BPH were examined by methylation-specific PCR. Associations between SOX11 promoter methylation and clinicopathological parameters were assessed by univariate statistics. Detection rates of SOX11 promoter methylation were 80.6% and 35.8% in prostate cancer and BPH respectively (P < 0.001). SOX11 hypermethylation was associated with adverse clinicopathological characteristics of prostate cancer, including higher PSA level (P < 0.01), Gleason score ≥ 7 (P = 0.03) and perineural invasion (P = 0.03). SOX11 methylation was positively correlated with the PSA level (P = 0.001). Our data indicated that SOX11 can be a promising methylation marker candidate for differential diagnosis and risk stratification for prostate cancer.