Gene Summary

Gene:RFC1; replication factor C (activator 1) 1, 145kDa
Aliases: A1, RFC, PO-GA, RECC1, MHCBFB, RFC140
Summary:This gene encodes the large subunit of replication factor C, a five subunit DNA polymerase accessory protein, which is a DNA-dependent ATPase required for eukaryotic DNA replication and repair. The large subunit acts as an activator of DNA polymerases, binds to the 3' end of primers, and promotes coordinated synthesis of both strands. It may also have a role in telomere stability. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:replication factor C subunit 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (22)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Folic Acid
  • Methotrexate
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chromosome 4
  • Reduced Folate Carrier Protein
  • Risk Factors
  • Genotype
  • Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase
  • 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Polymorphism
  • Infant
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Adolescents
  • Alleles
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Cell Surface Receptors
  • Sigmoidoscopy
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Young Adult
  • Smoking
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Thymidylate Synthase
  • Replication Protein C
  • Mutation
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • Pyrophosphatases
  • Drug Resistance
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RFC1 (cancer-related)

Shida A, Futawatari N, Fukuyama T, et al.
Frequent High Expression of Kita-Kyushu Lung Cancer Antigen-1 (KK-LC-1) in Gastric Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(6):3575-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The tumor-associated antigen Kita-Kyushu lung cancer antigen-1 (KK-LC-1) has been reported as not being expressed in normal tissues, except for the testis, and in the setting of non-small cell lung cancer. The present study demonstrated that KK-LC-1 is expressed in gastric cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of KK-LC-1 and cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) in surgical specimens of 49 gastric carcinomas. The expression of KK-LC-1 and CTAs was assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: KK-LC-1 expression was observed in gastric carcinomas. The number of lesions with expression of KK-LC-1, Melanoma antigen gene encoding-A1 (MAGE-A1), MAGE-A3 and New York Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1) was 40 (81.6%), 17 (34.7%), 22 (44.9%) and 8 (16.3%) out of the 49 specimens, respectively.
CONCLUSION: KK-LC-1 should be categorized as a CTA. The frequency of KK-LC-1 expression was higher than that of the other CTAs. KK-LC-1 might be a useful target for immunotherapy and in diagnosis of gastric cancer.

Mallawaaratchy DM, Buckland ME, McDonald KL, et al.
Membrane proteome analysis of glioblastoma cell invasion.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2015; 74(5):425-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor invasion is facilitated by cell migration and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Invadopodia are actin-rich structures that protrude from the plasma membrane in direct contact with the extracellular matrix and are proposed to participate in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We characterized the invasiveness of 9 established GBM cell lines using an invadopodia assay and performed quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses on enriched membrane fractions. All GBM cells produced invadopodia, with a 65% difference between the most invasive cell line (U87MG) and the least invasive cell line (LN229) (p = 0.0001). Overall, 1,141 proteins were identified in the GBM membrane proteome; the levels of 49 proteins correlated with cell invasiveness. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted activation "cell movement" (z-score = 2.608, p = 3.94E(-04)) in more invasive cells and generated a network of invasion-associated proteins with direct links to key regulators of invadopodia formation. Gene expression data relating to the invasion-associated proteins ITGA5 (integrin α5), CD97, and ANXA1 (annexin A1) showed prognostic significance in independent GBM cohorts. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated ITGA5, CD97, and ANXA1 localization in invadopodia assays, and small interfering RNA knockdown of ITGA5 reduced invadopodia formation in U87MG cells. Thus, invasion-associated proteins, including ITGA5, may prove to be useful anti-invasive targets; volociximab, a therapeutic antibody against integrin α5β1, may be useful for treatment of patients with GBM.

Yu C, Guo J, Liu Y, et al.
Oral squamous cancer cell exploits hnRNP A1 to regulate cell cycle and proliferation.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(9):2252-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common human malignant tumor with high mortality. So far, the molecular pathogenesis of OSCC remains largely unclear. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 is an important multi-function splicing factor and closely related to tumorigenesis. hnRNP A1 is overexpressed in various tumors, and promotes aerobic glycolysis and elongation of telomere, but the function of hnRNP A1 in cell cycle and proliferation remains unclear. We found that hnRNP A1 was overexpressed in OSCC tissues, and was required for the growth of OSCC cells. Moreover, hnRNP A1 was highly expressed in the G2/M cell cycle phase. Knockdown of hnRNP A1 induced G2/M arrest. DNA microarray assay result showed that hnRNP A1 regulated the expression of a number of target genes associated with G2/M phase. Moreover, hnRNP A1 controlled the alternative splicing of CDK2 exon 5. These findings suggested that hnRNP A1 plays key roles in the regulation of cell cycle progression and pathogenesis of OSCC.

Ferreira AF, de Oliveira GL, Tognon R, et al.
Apoptosis-related gene expression profile in chronic myeloid leukemia patients after imatinib mesylate and dasatinib therapy.
Acta Haematol. 2015; 133(4):354-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on the expression of apoptosis-related genes (BCL-2 and death receptor family members) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients.
METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 32 healthy subjects and 26 CML patients were evaluated before and after treatment with imatinib mesylate (IM) and dasatinib (DAS) by quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: Anti-apoptotic genes (c-FLIP and MCL-1) were overexpressed and the pro-apoptotic BIK was reduced in CML patients. Expression of BMF, A1, c-FLIP, MCL-1, CIAP-2 and CIAP-1 was modulated by DAS. In IM-resistant patients, expression of A1, c-FLIP, CIAP-1 and MCL-1 was upregulated, and BCL-2, CIAP-2, BAK, BAX, BIK and FASL expression was downregulated.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results point out that, in CML, DAS interferes with the apoptotic machinery regulation. In addition, the data suggest that apoptosis-related gene expression profiles are associated with primary resistance to IM.

Zheng B, Zhu H, Gu D, et al.
MiRNA-30a-mediated autophagy inhibition sensitizes renal cell carcinoma cells to sorafenib.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 459(2):234-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy-induced autophagy activation often contributes to cancer resistance. MiRNA-30a (miR-30a) is a potent inhibitor of autophagy by downregulating Beclin-1. In this study, we characterized the role of miR-30a in sorafenib-induced activity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. We found that expression of miR-30a was significantly downregulated in several human RCC tissues and in RCC cell lines. Accordingly, its targeted gene Beclin-1 was upregulated. Sorafenib activated autophagy in RCC cells (786-0 and A489 lines), evidenced by p62 degradation, Beclin-1/autophagy protein 5 (ATG-5) upregulation and light chain (LC)3B-I/-II conversion. Exogenously expressing miR-30a in 786-0 or A489 cells inhibited Beclin-1 expression and enhanced sorafenib-induced cytotoxicity. In contrast, knockdown of miR-30a by introducing antagomiR-30a increased Beclin-1 expression, and inhibited sorafenib-induced cytotoxicity against RCC cells. Autophagy inhibitors, including chloroquine, 3-methyaldenine or Bafliomycin A1, enhanced sorafenib activity, causing substantial cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, knockdown of Beclin-1 or ATG-5 by targeted siRNAs also increased sorafenib-induced cytotoxicity in above RCC cells. These findings indicate that dysregulation of miR-30a in RCC may interfere with the effectiveness of sorafenib-mediated apoptosis by an autophagy-dependent pathway, thus representing a novel potential therapeutic target for RCC.

Mousavi S, Panjehpour M, Izadpanahi MH, Aghaei M
Expression of adenosine receptor subclasses in malignant and adjacent normal human prostate tissues.
Prostate. 2015; 75(7):735-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adenosine, a purine nucleoside plays important roles in the pathogenesis of cancer initiation and promotion via interaction with four adenosine receptors. In the present study we examined the differential expression pattern of adenosine receptors in the malignant and adjacent normal human prostate tissues.
METHODS: Prostate cancer tissue samples and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 20 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and histopathological diagnosis was confirmed for each sample. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed into cDNA and the mRNA expression levels of adenosine receptors were investigated by Taq-man real-time RT-PCR experiment. Quantitative protein analysis was done by Western blotting experiment. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of adenosine receptors were measured after androgen treatment.
RESULT: Taq-man real-time RT-PCR measurements show different expression levels of adenosine receptor transcripts. A2B adenosine receptor was predominantly expressed in tumor tissues (2.4-fold) followed by significantly expression of A3 (1.6-fold) and A2A adenosine receptors (1.5-fold) compared to adjacent normal tissues. The presence of adenosine receptors at protein levels in prostate cancer tissues compared with normal tissues was shown the following rank order: A2B  > A3  > A2A  > A1 . Androgen receptor regulates adenosine receptors mRNA and protein expression in AR-positive LNCaP cells, which was not seen in AR-negative PC-3 cells.
CONCLUSION: These results indicated for the first time, the differential mRNA expression profile and protein levels of adenosine receptors in the human prostate cancer. Interestingly, the A2B adenosine receptor followed by A3 is highly expressed in prostate tumor samples in comparison with the adjacent normal tissues. The findings support the possible key role of A2B adenosine receptor in promoting cancer cell growth and suggest that A2B may be a novel target for prostate cancer treatment.

Liu XY, Li HL, Su JB, et al.
Regulation of RAGE splicing by hnRNP A1 and Tra2β-1 and its potential role in AD pathogenesis.
J Neurochem. 2015; 133(2):187-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene expresses two major alternative splicing isoforms, full-length membrane-bound RAGE (mRAGE) and secretory RAGE (esRAGE). Both isoforms play important roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, either via interaction of mRAGE with β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) or inhibition of the mRAGE-activated signaling pathway. In the present study, we showed that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) and Transformer2β-1 (Tra2β-1) were involved in the alternative splicing of mRAGE and esRAGE. Functionally, two factors had an antagonistic effect on the regulation. Glucose deprivation induced an increased ratio of mRAGE/esRAGE via up-regulation of hnRNP A1 and down-regulation of Tra2β-1. Moreover, the ratios of mRAGE/esRAGE and hnRNP A1/Tra2β-1 were increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AD patients. The results provide a molecular basis for altered splicing of mRAGE and esRAGE in AD pathogenesis. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene expresses two major alternative splicing isoforms, membrane-bound RAGE (mRAGE) and secretory RAGE (esRAGE). Both isoforms play important roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Mechanism for imbalanced expression of these two isoforms in AD brain remains elusive. We proposed here a hypothetic model to illustrate that impaired glucose metabolism in AD brain may increase the expression of splicing protein hnRNP A1 and reduce Tra2β-1, which cause the imbalanced expression of mRAGE and esRAGE.

Arantes LM, de Carvalho AC, Melendez ME, et al.
Validation of methylation markers for diagnosis of oral cavity cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(5):632-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumour suppressor genes are the major genetic alterations involved in carcinogenesis. The increase in methylation at the promoter region of a tumour suppressor gene can lead to gene inactivation, selecting cells with proliferative advantage. Thus, promoter hypermethylation is considered a marker in a variety of malignant tumours, including oral cavity.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The methylation pattern of eight genes was evaluated in 40 oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and 40 saliva samples from healthy individuals by Q-MSP. Different combinations of genes were also assessed in order to identify gene panels that could better distinguish between OSCC and saliva samples.
RESULTS: CCNA1, DAPK, DCC and TIMP3 methylation were highly specific for being found in the OSCC samples. Moreover, the combination of these genes improved detection when compared with single markers, reaching values of 92.5% for sensitivity and specificity (when using the panel CCNA1, DCC, TIMP3). Moreover, DAPK, DCC and TIMP3 were hypermethylated in nearly 90% of clinically T1 and T2 cases.
CONCLUSION: The pursuing of this panel of hypermethylated genes is an important tool for the detection of individuals with OSCC. Moreover, the identification of these markers in early stages of OSCC shows the feasibility of using the panel on saliva as possible biomarkers for early diagnosis. The lack of association between the methylation status of these genes and clinical characteristics shows that they are able to distinguish OSCC cases irrespective of social and clinical factors (gender, age, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, clinical stage, vascular embolisation and perineural invasion).

Wu HL, Chuang TY, Al-Hendy A, et al.
Berberine inhibits the proliferation of human uterine leiomyoma cells.
Fertil Steril. 2015; 103(4):1098-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether berberine (BBR), a naturally occurring plant-derived alkaloid, inhibits the proliferation of human uterine leiomyoma (UtLM) cells.
DESIGN: Laboratory research.
SETTING: Laboratory.
PATIENT(S): UtLM and normal human uterine smooth muscle (UtSMC) cell lines.
INTERVENTION(S): Treatment with [1] BBR (10, 20, and 50 μM), [2] BBR (20 and 50 μM) and/or 17β-estradiol (E2; 10 and 100 nM), and [3] BBR (20 and 50 μM) and/or progesterone (P4; 10 and 100 nM) for 24 or 72 hours.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and related genes expression were determined.
RESULT(S): BBR inhibited UtLM cell proliferation by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Cell cycle G2/M phase-related genes were altered by BBR treatment: the expression of cyclin A1, cyclin B1, and Cdk1 were down-regulated, while Cdk4, p21, and p53 were up-regulated. BBR-treated cells stained positively for annexin V and manifested increased BAX expression. E2- and P4-induced UtLM cell proliferation was blocked by BBR treatment. In marked contrast, even the highest concentration of BBR (50 μM) did not influence cell proliferation in UtSMC cells.
CONCLUSION(S): BBR selectively inhibits cellular proliferation and blocks E2- and P4-induced cell proliferation in UtLM but not in normal UtSMC cells. In addition, BBR did not demonstrate cytotoxicity effects in normal human UtSMCs. Our results suggest BBR could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of uterine leiomyoma.

Peng G, Dan W, Jun W, et al.
Transcriptome profiling of the cancer and adjacent nontumor tissues from cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients by RNA sequencing.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3309-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the world. The discovery of vital diagnostic and therapeutic markers against cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) would broaden our understanding on the molecular basis of CSCC. In this study, we thoroughly analyzed the transcriptome of CSCC and matched adjacent nontumor (ATN) tissue. RNA sequencing was performed to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of three pairs of CSCC and ATN tissues. Functional enrichment analysis was used to uncover the biological functions of DEGs. Protein interaction network was carried out to reveal interaction of DEGs. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted to validate the expression of DEGs. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the relationship between clinicopathological parameters of CSCC and DEGs. There were a total of 347 significantly common DEGs in the three paired examples, including 104 consistent upregulated and 148 consistent downregulated DEGs. The 347 DEGs were categorized into 73 functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis suggested six significantly signal pathways. The protein interaction network uncovered three important DEGs, including retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12), ubiquitin D (UBD), and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1). We found that RDH12 expression was decreased in 74.5 % of CSCC tissues. RDH12 expression was negatively associated with tumor size and depth of cervical invasion. The UBD was overexpressed in 61.7 % of CSCC tissues and was positively related with tumor size and lymphatic metastasis. The SAA1 protein was overexpressed in 57.4 % of CSCC tissues and was positively related with clinicopathological parameters of tumor size, lymphatic metastasis, and depth of cervical invasion. The RDH12, UBD, and SAA1 genes might participate in the progression of CSCC.

Zhang Y, Liu H, He J, et al.
Lactonase activity and status of paraoxonase 1 in Chinese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2015; 172(4):391-402 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between the lactonase activities and status of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and its association with the PON1 genetic polymorphisms in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).
DESIGN: A case-control study.
METHODS: A total of 455 PCOS patients and 441 control women were included in this study. The lactonase activities and concentrations of PON1 were assayed using 5-thiobutyl butyrolactone (TBBL) and 7-O-diethylphosphoryl-3-cyano-4-methyl-7-hydroxycoumarin (DEPCyMC) respectively. A normalized lactonase activity (NLA) was estimated based on the ratio of TBBLase:DEPCyMCase activity. The PON1 genotypes, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and total antioxidant capacity were analyzed.
RESULTS: The lactonase activities and levels of PON1 were higher in PCOS patients than in the control women. However, the NLA did not significantly differ between groups. The -108C→T variation of the PON1 gene showed decreased lactonase activities and levels of PON1 in a genotype-dependent manner (CC>CT>TT); the 192Q→R variation of the PON1 gene showed increased PON1 lactonase activities and NLA; and the 55L→M variation of the PON1 gene showed decreased lactonase activities and levels of PON1 but an increased NLA. A multivariable regression analysis showed that the -108C/T, 192Q/R, and 55L/M variations of the PON1 gene, serum apolipoprotein A1, and MDA levels were significant predictors of PON1 lactonase activity, PON1 level, and NLA.
CONCLUSIONS: The serum lactonase activities and concentrations of PON1 are increased in PCOS patients. The increased oxidative stress and the -108C/T, 192Q/R, and 55L/M genetic polymorphisms of PON1 may be associated with these changes.

Sochalska M, Tuzlak S, Egle A, Villunger A
Lessons from gain- and loss-of-function models of pro-survival Bcl2 family proteins: implications for targeted therapy.
FEBS J. 2015; 282(5):834-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell survival depends on the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity controlled by a well-balanced interplay between anti- and pro-apoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) family members. Given their frequent deregulation in human pathologies, including autoimmunity and cancer, significant research efforts have increased our molecular understanding of how Bcl2 proteins control cell death. This has fostered the development of small non-peptidic compounds, so-called BH3-mimetics, that show excellent prospects of passing clinical trials and entering daily use for targeted therapy. Possible limitations in clinical application may, to a certain degree, be predicted from loss-of-function phenotypes gathered from studies using gene-modified mice that we attempt to summarize and discuss in this context.

Belvedere R, Bizzarro V, Popolo A, et al.
Role of intracellular and extracellular annexin A1 in migration and invasion of human pancreatic carcinoma cells.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:961 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a 37 kDa multifunctional protein, is over-expressed in tissues from patients of pancreatic carcinoma (PC) where the protein seems to be associated with malignant transformation and poor prognosis.
METHODS: The expression and localization of ANXA1 in MIA PaCa-2, PANC-1, BxPC-3 and CAPAN-2 cells were detected by Western Blotting and Immunofluorescence assay. Expression and activation of Formyl Peptide Receptors (FPRs) were shown through flow cytometry/PCR and FURA assay, respectively. To investigate the role of ANXA1 in PC cell migration and invasion, we performed in vitro wound-healing and matrigel invasion assays.
RESULTS: In all the analyzed PC cell lines, a huge expression and a variable localization of ANXA1 in sub-cellular compartments were observed. We confirmed the less aggressive phenotype of BxPC-3 and CAPAN-2 compared with PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells, through the evaluation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) markers. Then, we tested MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cell migration and invasiveness rate which was inhibited by specific ANXA1 siRNAs. Both the cell lines expressed FPR-1 and -2. Ac2-26, an ANXA1 mimetic peptide, induced intracellular calcium release, consistent with FPR activation, and significantly increased cell migration/invasion rate. Interestingly, in MIA PaCa-2 cells we found a cleaved form of ANXA1 (33 kDa) that localizes at cellular membranes and is secreted outside the cells, as confirmed by MS analysis. The importance of the secreted form of ANXA1 in cellular motility was confirmed by the administration of ANXA1 blocking antibody that inhibited migration and invasion rate in MIA PaCa-2 but not in PANC-1 cells that lack the 33 kDa ANXA1 form and show a lower degree of invasiveness. Finally, the treatment of PANC-1 cells with MIA PaCa-2 supernatants significantly increased the migration rate of these cells.
CONCLUSION: This study provides new insights on the role of ANXA1 protein in PC progression. Our findings suggest that ANXA1 protein could regulate metastasis by favouring cell migration/invasion intracellularly, as cytoskeleton remodelling factor, and extracellularly like FPR ligand.

D'Angelo D, Mussnich P, Rosa R, et al.
High mobility group A1 protein expression reduces the sensitivity of colon and thyroid cancer cells to antineoplastic drugs.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:851 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Development of resistance to conventional drugs and novel biological agents often impair long-term chemotherapy. HMGA gene overexpression is often associated with antineoplastic drug resistance and reduced survival. Inhibition of HMGA expression in thyroid cancer cells reduces levels of ATM protein, the main cellular sensor of DNA damage, and enhances cellular sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. HMGA1 overexpression promotes chemoresistance to gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through an Akt-dependent mechanism.
METHODS: To elucidate the role of HMGA1 proteins in chemoresistance we analyzed resistance to conventional drugs and targeted therapies of human colon carcinoma cells (GEO) that are sensitive to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor cetuximab, and express minimal levels of HMGA1 and cetuximab-resistant (GEO CR) cells expressing high HMGA1 protein levels.
RESULTS: GEO CR cells were less sensitive than GEO cells to cetuximab and 5-fluorouracil. GEO CR cells silenced for HMGA1 expression were more susceptible than empty vector-transfected cells to the drugs' cytotoxicity. Similar results were obtained with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing or not HMGA1 proteins, treated with doxorubicin or the HDAC inhibitor LBH589. Finally, HMGA1 overexpression promoted the DNA-damage response and stimulated Akt phosphorylation and prosurvival signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the blockage of HMGA1 expression is a promising approach to enhance cancer cell chemosensitivity, since it could increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to antineoplastic drugs by inhibiting the survival signal and DNA damage repair pathways.

Pan XD, Yang ZP, Tang QL, et al.
Expression and function of GSTA1 in lung cancer cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(20):8631-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) appears to be primarily involved in detoxification processes, but possible roles in lung cancer remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and function of GSTA1 in lung cancer cells. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to assess expression in cancer cell lines and the normal lung cells, then verify the A549 cells line with stable overexpression. Localization of GSTA1 proteins was assessed by cytoimmunofluorescence. Three double-strand DNA oligoRNAs (SiRNAs) were synthesized prior to being transfected into A549 cells with Lipofectamine 2000, and then the most efficient SiRNA was selected. Expression of the GSTA1 gene in the transfected cells was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The viability of the transfected cells were assessed by MTT. Results showed that the mRNA and protein expression of A549 cancer cells was higher than in MRC-5 normal cells. Cytoimmunofluorescence demonstrated GSTA1 localization in the cell cytoplasm and/or membranes. Transfection into A549 cells demonstrated that down-regulated expression could inhibit cell viability. Our data indicated that GSTA1 expression may be a target molecule in early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

Eschbach J, von Einem B, Müller K, et al.
Mutual exacerbation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α deregulation and α-synuclein oligomerization.
Ann Neurol. 2015; 77(1):15-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) and α-syn cytotoxicity are hallmarks of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease (PD), with accumulating evidence that prefibrillar oligomers and protofibrils are the pathogenic species in PD and related synucleinopathies. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular energy metabolism, has recently been associated with the pathophysiology of PD. Despite extensive effort on studying the function of PGC-1α in mitochondria, no studies have addressed whether PGC-1α directly influences oligomerization of α-syn or whether α-syn oligomers impact PGC-1α expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested whether pharmacological or genetic activation of PGC-1α or PGC-11α knockdown could modulate the oligomerization of α-syn in vitro by using an α-syn -fragment complementation assay.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that both PGC-1α reference gene (RG-PGC-1α) and the central nervous system (CNS)-specific PGC-1α (CNS-PGC-1α) are downregulated in human PD brain, in A30P α-syn transgenic animals, and in a cell culture model for α-syn oligomerization. Importantly, downregulation of both RG-PGC-1α and CNS-PGC-1α in cell culture or neurons from RG-PGC-1α-deficient mice leads to a strong induction of α-syn oligomerization and toxicity. In contrast, pharmacological activation or genetic overexpression of RG-PGC-1α reduced α-syn oligomerization and rescued α-syn-mediated toxicity.
INTERPRETATION: Based on our results, we propose that PGC-1α downregulation and α-syn oligomerization form a vicious circle, thereby influencing and/or potentiating each other. Our data indicate that restoration of PGC-1α is a promising approach for development of effective drugs for the treatment of PD and related synucleinopathies.

Zhang Z, Wang Q, Chen F, Liu J
Elevated expression of HMGA1 correlates with the malignant status and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(2):1213-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) has been suggested to play a significant role in tumor progression, but little is known about the accurate significance of HMGA1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The aim of this study was to identify the role of HMGA1 in NSCLC. The expression status of HMGA1 was observed initially in NSCLC by Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The expression of HMGA1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was examined in NSCLC and adjacent normal lung tissues through real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, the relationship of HMGA1 expression levels with clinical features and prognosis of NSCLC patients was analyzed. In our results, HMGA1 was overexpressed in NSCLC tissues compared with adjacent normal lung tissues in microarray data (GSE19804). HMGA1 mRNA and protein expressions were markedly higher in NSCLC tissues than in normal lung tissues (P < 0.001 and P = 0.010, respectively). Using immunohistochemistry, high levels of HMGA1 protein were positively correlated with the status of clinical stage (I-II vs. III-IV, P < 0.001), T classification (T1-T vs. T3-T4, P = 0.003), N classification (N0N1 vs. N2-N3, P < 0.001), M classification (M0 vs. M1, P = 0.002), and differentiated degree (high or middle vs. low or undifferentiated, P = 0.003) in NSCLC. Patients with higher HMGA1 expression had a significantly shorter overall survival time than did patients with low HMGA1 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated that the level of HMGA1 expression was an independent prognostic factor (P < 0.001) for the survival of patients with NSCLC. In conclusion, HMGA1 plays an important role on NSCLC progression and prognosis and may act as a convictive biomarker for prognostic prediction.

Ma Y, Li X, Cheng S, et al.
MicroRNA-106a confers cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by targeting adenosine triphosphatase-binding cassette A1.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(1):625-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered to have pivotal roles in regulating the drug resistance of various types of human cancer, including cisplatin (DDP) resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fewer studies have explored the roles of miR-106a in NSCLC-cell resistance to DDP and its precise molecular mechanism has remained elusive. In the present study, whether miR-106a was able to mediate resistance of the lung cancer cell line A549 to DDP was investigated. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze miR-106a mRNA expression levels. miR-106a expression levels were upregulated in the DDP-resistant cell line A549/DDP compared with its parental cell line, A549. miR-106a-transfection induced DDP-resistance in A549 cells, while repression of miR-106a by anti-miR-106a in A549/DDP resulted in enhanced DDP cytotoxicity. Furthermore, it was discovered that the mechanism of miR-106a-induced DDP resistance involved the expression of adenosine triphosphatase-binding cassette, sub-family A, member 1 (ABCA1), as indicated by transfection of cells with short interfering RNA-ABCA1. The results of the present study suggested a novel mechanism underlying DDP-resistance in NSCLC.

Yu S, Meng Q, Hu H, Zhang M
Correlation of ANXA1 expression with drug resistance and relapse in bladder cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(9):5538-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of annexin a1 (ANXA1) in adriamycin-resistant human bladder cancer cell line (pumc-91/ADM) compared with the parental cell line (pumc-91) and its relevance to the drug resistance of bladder cancer, as well as explore the relevance of ANXA1 in recurrent bladder cancer tissues as pertinent to relapse.
METHODS: qRT-PCR and Western blot were implemented to research the level of ANXA1 in two cell lines (pumc-91/ADM and pumc-91). Immunohistochemistry was applied to explore ANXA1 expression in bladder cancer tissues of different intervals of relapse. The association of ANXA1 with clinicopathological parameters was analyzed.
RESULTS: The expression of ANXA1 was downregulated in drug-resistant cell line pumc-91/ADM compared to pumc-91. The bladder cancer tissues recurring two years later exhibited higher ANXA1 levels. ANXA1 expression level was positively correlated with T stage, while it was not connected with histological grade strongly. The expression level and influencing factors of ANXA1 in recurrent tissues of bladder cancer were clarified for the first time.
CONCLUSION: ANXA1 may become a promising marker to predict the recurrence and drug resistance of bladder cancer and provide guidance for surveillance.

Liu A, Huang W, Zeng G, et al.
Expression of the Annexin A1 gene is associated with suppression of growth, invasion and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(6):3059-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a highly increased incidence rate (20/100,000) in Southern regions of China, while being rare in the rest of the world. NPC is a malignant type of cancer due to its high occurrence rate of metastasis; however, biomarkers for effective diagnosis and treatment are yet to be identified. Annexin A1 is a glucocorticoid‑regulated member of a large superfamily of calcium and phospholipid‑binding proteins and has been shown to have important roles in tumor development and progression, and was demonstrated to be a prognostic biomarker for head and neck cancer types. A previous study by our group showed that Annexin A1 was decreased in NPC tissue as compared with normal adjacent tissue. To investigate whether Annexin A1 is a potential biomarker for NPC, the present study assessed the effect of the Annexin A1 on the biological behavior (i.e., invasion and metastasis) of the highly metastatic NPC cell line 5‑8F and the non‑metastatic NPC cell line 6‑10B. The expression levels of Annexin A1 in the above two cell lines were determined by western blot analysis. Next, the recombinant plasmid pEGFP‑C1‑Annexin A1 and the small interfering (si)RNA plasmid pRNAT‑U6.1‑Annexin A1 were used and stably transfected into 5‑8F and 6‑10B cells, respectively. These established recombinant cell lines were then used to study the up- and downregulation of Annexin A1, respectively. The correlation of Annexin A1 expression levels with the biological behavior of NPC cell lines was analyzed using a cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, soft agar colony formation assay, as well as Transwell invasion and migration assays. The results demonstrated that upregulation of Annexin A1 suppressed the proliferation, invasion and migration of NPC cells, while downregulation of Annexin A1 promoted the proliferation, invasion and migration of NPC cells. These findings suggested that Annexin A1 may be a potential biomarker for the development and prognosis of NPC, and its dysregulation may have an important role in its underlying pathogenesis.

Chen D, Huang J, Zhang K, et al.
MicroRNA-451 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in docetaxel-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells by targeting proto-oncogene c-Myc.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(17):3050-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported to play a significant role in tumour metastasis as well as chemoresistance. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in chemotherapy-induced EMT are still unclear. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression and functions have been reported to contribute to phenotypic features of tumour cells. To investigate the roles of miRNAs in chemotherapy-induced EMT, we established two docetaxel-resistant lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) cell models (SPC-A1/DTX and H1299/DTX), which display EMT-like properties and gain increased invasion or migration activity. MiR-451 was found to be significantly downregulated in docetaxel-resistant LAD cells, and re-expression of miR-451 could reverse EMT to mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) and inhibit invasion and metastasis of docetaxel-resistant LAD cells both in vitro and in vivo. The proto-oncogene c-Myc was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-451, and further researches confirmed that overexpression of c-Myc which induced extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) inactivation and subsequent snail activation is essential for acquisition of EMT phenotype induced by loss of miR-451. Furthermore, c-Myc was significantly upregulated in docetaxel-non-responding LAD tissues in comparison with docetaxel-responding tissues, and its expression was inversely correlated with miR-451 expression. This study first reported the involvement of miR-451/c-Myc/ERK/GSK-3β signalling axis in the acquisition of EMT phenotype in docetaxel-resistant LAD cells, suggesting that re-expression of miR-451 or targeting c-Myc will be a potential strategy for the treatment of chemoresistant LAD patients.

Biaoxue R, Shuanying Y, Wei L, et al.
Co-overexpression of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 with a significantly positive correlation contributes to the diagnosis of lung cancer.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2014; 14(8):1067-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Hsp90-β and annexin A1 have been demonstrated to be associated with tumorigenesis. However, the effect of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 in lung cancer remains poorly understood. In this research, the correlation of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 in lung cancer patients were analyzed.
METHODS: The expression levels of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 were examined by immunohistochemistry and ELISA.
RESULTS: Lung cancer tissues and serum exhibited higher co-expression of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 than control groups (p < 0.05). Hsp90-β and annexin A1 could discriminate lung cancer from the control groups (sensitivity of Hsp90-β was 80.2% in tissues and 96% in serum; specificity of Hsp90-β was 80% in tissues and 83.33% in serum; sensitivity of annexin A1 was 68.76% in tissues and 95.23% in serum; specificity of annexin A1 was 75% in tissues and 85.7% in serum) and multi-index combined detection had a better diagnostic value.
CONCLUSION: The expression levels of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 positively correlated and such co-overexpression of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 contributed to lung cancer diagnosis.

Chujan S, Kitkumthorn N, Siriangkul S, Mutirangura A
CCNA1 promoter methylation: a potential marker for grading Papanicolaou smear cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(18):7971-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: From our previous study, we established that cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter methylation is strongly correlated with multistep progression of HPV-associated cervical cancer, suggesting potential use as a diagnostic maker of disease.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of CCNA1 promoter methylation in residual cervical cells isolated from liquid-based cytology that underwent hrHPV DNA screening for cervical cancer, and then to evaluate this marker for diagnostic accuracy using parameters like sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratio.
METHODS: In this retrospective study, histopathology was used as the gold standard method with specimens separated into the following groups: negative (n=31), low- grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, n=34) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL+, n=32). The hrHPV was detected by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and CCNA1 promoter methylation was examined by CCNA1 duplex methylation specific PCR.
RESULTS: The results showed the frequencies of CCNA1 promoter methylation were 0%, 5.88% and 83.33%, while the percentages of hrHPV were 66.67%, 82.35% and 100% in the negative, LSIL and HSIL+ groups, respectively. Although hrHPV infection showed high frequency in all three groups, it could not differentiate between the different groups and grades of precancerous lesions. In contrast, CCNA1 promoter methylation clearly distinguished between negative/LSIL and HSIL+, with high levels of all statistic parameters.
CONCLUSION: CCNA1 promoter methylation is a potential marker for distinguishing between histologic negative/LSIL and HSIL+using cervical cytology samples.

Ručka Z, Koutná I, Tesařová L, et al.
Intravenous insulin therapy during lung resection does not affect lung function or surfactant proteins.
BMC Pulm Med. 2014; 14:155 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The surgical resection of lung disrupts glucose homeostasis and causes hyperglycemia, as in any other major surgery or critical illness. We performed a prospective study where we carefully lowered hyperglycemia by insulin administration during the surgery, and for the first time we monitored immediate insulin effects on lung physiology and gene transcription.
METHODS: The levels of blood gases (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3-, HCO3- std, base excess, FiO2, and pO2/FiO2) were measured at the beginning of surgery, at the end of surgery, and two hours after. Samples of healthy lung tissue surrounding the tumour were obtained during the surgery, anonymized and sent for subsequent blinded qPCR analysis (mRNA levels of surfactant proteins A1, A2, B, C and D were measured). This study was done on a cohort of 64 patients who underwent lung resection. Patients were randomly divided, and half of them received insulin treatment during the surgery.
RESULTS: We demonstrated for the first time that insulin administered intravenously during lung resection does not affect levels of blood gases. Furthermore, it does not induce immediate changes in the expression of surfactant proteins.
CONCLUSION: According to our observations, short insulin treatment applied intravenously during resection does not affect the quality of breathing.

Perriaud L, Marcel V, Sagne C, et al.
Impact of G-quadruplex structures and intronic polymorphisms rs17878362 and rs1642785 on basal and ionizing radiation-induced expression of alternative p53 transcripts.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(12):2706-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
G-quadruplex (G4) structures in intron 3 of the p53 pre-mRNA modulate intron 2 splicing, altering the balance between the fully spliced p53 transcript (FSp53, encoding full-length p53) and an incompletely spliced transcript retaining intron 2 (p53I2 encoding the N-terminally truncated Δ40p53 isoform). The nucleotides forming G4s overlap the polymorphism rs17878362 (A1 wild-type allele, A2 16-base pair insertion) which is in linkage disequilibrium with rs1642785 in intron 2 (c.74+38 G>C). Biophysical and biochemical analyses show rs17878362 A2 alleles form similar G4 structures as A1 alleles although their position is shifted with respect to the intron 2 splice acceptor site. In addition basal FSp53 and p53I2 levels showed allele specific differences in both p53-null cells transfected with reporter constructs or lymphoblastoid cell lines. The highest FSp53 and p53I2 levels were associated with combined rs1642785-GG/rs17878362-A1A1 alleles, whereas the presence of rs1642785-C with either rs17878362 allele was associated with lower p53 pre-mRNA, total TP53, FSp53 and p53I2 levels, due to the lower stability of transcripts containing rs1642785-C. Treatment of lymphoblastoid cell with the G4 binding ligands 360A or PhenDC3 or with ionizing radiation increased FSp53 levels only in cells with rs17878362 A1 alleles, suggesting that under this G4 configuration full splicing is favoured. These results demonstrate the complex effects of intronic TP53 polymorphisms on G4 formation and identify a new role for rs1642785 on mRNA splicing and stability, and thus on the differential expression of isoform-specific transcripts of the TP53 gene.

Tan JK, Tan EL, Gan SY
Elucidating the roles of miR-372 in cell proliferation and apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma TW01 cells.
Exp Oncol. 2014; 36(3):170-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Deregulation of microRNA has been associated with cancer progression and the modification of cancer phenotypes could be achieved by targeting microRNA expression. This study aimed to determine the effects of miR-372 on cell progression and gene expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, TW01.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: NPC TW01 cells were transfected with the miR-372 precursor molecules. Gene expression studies were conducted using RT-PCR assays for nine cancer related genes. The effects of miR-372 on cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were also investigated.
RESULTS: Expression of -miR-372 caused cell cycle arrest at the S phase that was accompanied by an overall decrease of cells entering the G2/M phase. miR-372 did not have any significant effect on apoptosis. Of the nine genes studied, four were up-regulated, namely CDKN1A, INCA1, LATS2 and BIRC5. The other five genes - CDK2, CCNA1, TP53, BAX and BCL2 were down-regulated by miR-372.
CONCLUSION: This preliminary study indicated the tumor suppressing roles of miR-372 in cell cycle progression of TW01 cells, possibly via the down-regulation of CDK2 and CCNA1 as well as the up-regulation of CDKN1A and INCA1.Key Words: apoptosis, microRNA, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, miR-372, CDK2, CCNA1.

Yu W, Qiao Y, Tang X, et al.
Tumor suppressor long non-coding RNA, MT1DP is negatively regulated by YAP and Runx2 to inhibit FoxA1 in liver cancer cells.
Cell Signal. 2014; 26(12):2961-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies are indicative for strong carcinogenetic roles of Runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Yes associated protein (YAP) in several cancer types. However, whether and how the interaction between Runx2 and YAP plays a role in liver tumorigenesis still remain illusive. Here, we identified a close relationship between Runx2 and YAP in liver cancer cells. Runx2 had a positive role on YAP expression and vice versa. We also found that Rux2 and YAP were capable of inhibiting long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), Metallothionein 1D, Pseudogene (MT1DP) expression through direct promoter binding. Overexpression of MT1DP resulted in reduced cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar, but increased apoptosis in liver cancer cells, whereas knockdown of this lncRNA had the opposite effect, indicating that MT1DP acts as a tumor suppressor. Furthermore, MT1DP was revealed as a negative regulator of Alfa-fetoprotein (AFP), a classic liver cancer tumor marker, through inhibiting protein synthesis of Forkhead box A1 (FoxA1), an important transcription factor in liver development and cancer progression. Furthermore, we found that FoxA1 plays a positive role on YAP and Runx2 expression. Specially, opening the compacted chromatin by FoxA1 around CREB binding site within the YAP promoter facilitates CREB-mediated YAP transcription. Finally, MT1DP-inhibited in vivo liver cancer cell growth could be rescued by a combination of overexpression of FoxA1, Runx2 and YAP. Taken together, the close relationship between Rnux2 and YAP plays a pro-carcinogenetic role in liver cancer cells through inhibiting tumor suppressor lncRNA, MT1DP in a FoxA1 dependent manner.

Maximov PY, McDaniel RE, Fernandes DJ, et al.
Pharmacological relevance of endoxifen in a laboratory simulation of breast cancer in postmenopausal patients.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(10) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen is metabolically activated via a CYP2D6 enzyme system to the more potent hydroxylated derivatives 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen. This study addresses the pharmacological importance of endoxifen by simulating clinical scenarios in vitro.
METHODS: Clinical levels of tamoxifen metabolites in postmenopausal breast cancer patients previously genotyped for CYP2D6 were used in vitro along with clinical estrogen levels (estrone and estradiol) in postmenopausal patients determined in previous studies. The biological effects on cell growth were evaluated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines via cell proliferation assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Data were analyzed with one- and two-way analysis of variance and Student's t test. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Postmenopausal levels of estrogen-induced proliferation of all test breast cancer cell lines (mean fold induction ± SD vs vehicle control: MCF-7 = 11 ± 1.74, P < .001; T47D = 7.52 ± 0.72, P < .001; BT474 = 1.75 ± 0.23, P < .001; ZR-75-1 = 5.5 ± 1.95, P = .001. Tamoxifen and primary metabolites completely inhibited cell growth regardless of the CYP2D6 genotype in all cell lines (mean fold induction ± SD vs vehicle control: MCF-7 = 1.57 ± 0.38, P = .54; T47D = 1.17 ± 0.23, P = .79; BT474 = 0.96 ± 0.2, P = .98; ZR-75-1 = 0.86 ± 0.67, P = .99). Interestingly, tamoxifen and its primary metabolites were not able to fully inhibit the estrogen-stimulated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in MCF-7 cells (P < .05 for all genes), but the addition of endoxifen was able to produce additional antiestrogenic effect on these genes.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tamoxifen and other metabolites, excluding endoxifen, completely inhibit estrogen-stimulated growth in all cell lines, but additional antiestrogenic action from endoxifen is necessary for complete blockade of estrogen-stimulated genes. Endoxifen is of supportive importance for the therapeutic effect of tamoxifen in a postmenopausal setting.

Li XS, Xu Q, Fu XY, Luo WS
ALDH1A1 overexpression is associated with the progression and prognosis in gastric cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:705 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1A1) is a cancer stem cell marker, and its expression correlates with prognosis in a number of malignancies. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of ALDH1A1 expression with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in gastric cancer.
METHODS: ALDH1A1 and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 216 gastric carcinoma samples. The association between expression of ALDH1A1 and MMP-9, clinicopathological parameters, and prognosis of gastric cancer was examined.
RESULTS: ALDH1A1 protein expression was significantly associated with depth invasion, lymph node metastasis and stage of disease (all P<0.05). Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that ALDH1A1 was an independent prognostic factor for both overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (both P<0.001). Furthermore, ALDH1A1 overexpression was associated with poor prognosis in patients subgroups stratified by tumor size, depth invasion and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, ALDH1A1 was significantly correlated with MMP-9 among 216 gastric cancer tissues (P<0.001). Patients who had ALDH1A1 overexpression, in which tumor cells displayed high invasiveness, had poor OS and shorter RFS.
CONCLUSION: ALDH1A1 plays an important role in tumor aggressiveness and prognosis, and may act as a promising target for prognostic prediction.

Winiecka-Klimek M, Szybka M, Rieske P, et al.
PIN3 duplication may be partially responsible for TP53 haploinsufficiency.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:669 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previously we have suggested that cancer cells develop a mechanism(s) which allows for either: silencing of the wild-type TP53 transcription, degradation of the wild-type TP53 mRNA, or selective overproduction of the mutated TP53 mRNA, which is the subject of this article. Sequencing of TP53 on the respective cDNA and DNA templates from tumor samples were found to give discordant results. DNA analysis showed a pattern of heterozygous mutations, whereas the analysis of cDNA demonstrated the mutated template only. We hypothesized that different TP53 gene expression levels of each allele may be caused by the polymorphism within intron 3 (PIN3). The aim of this study was to test if one of the polymorphic variants of PIN3 (A1 or A2) in the heterozygotes is associated with a higher TP53 expression, and therefore, responsible for the haploinsufficiency phenomenon.
METHODS: 250 tumor samples were tested. To analyze the involvement of PIN3 polymorphic variant (A1 or A2) on TP53 mRNA expression regulation, bacterial subcloning combined with sequencing analyses, dual luciferase reporter assays and bioinformatic analysis were performed.
RESULTS: Haplotype analysis showed the predominance of the mutated template during the cDNA sequencing in all samples showing a heterozygous TP53 mutation and PIN3 heterozygosity. Out of 30 samples (from the total of 250 tested samples) which carried TP53 mutations and had a bias in allelic expression 6 were heterozygous for the A1/A2 polymorphism, and all 6 (p = 0.04) samples carried the mutation within the PIN3 longer allele (A2). Reporter assays revealed higher luciferase activity in cells transfected with the plasmid containing A2 construct than A1 and control. A2/A1 ratio ranged from 1.16 for AD293 cell line (p = 0.019) to 1.59 for SW962 cell line (p = 0.0019). Moreover, bioinformatic analyses showed that PIN3 duplication stabilized secondary DNA structures - G-quadruplexes.
CONCLUSION: TP53 alleles are not equivalent for their impact on the regulation of expression of TP53 mRNA. Therefore, in PIN3-heterozygous cases a single TP53 mutation of the longer allele might sufficiently destabilize its function. Secondary DNA structures such as quadruplexes can also play a role in PIN3-dependent TP53 haploinsufficiency.

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