Research IndicatorsGraph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: RASSF10 (cancer-related)
Lu D, Ma J, Zhan Q, et al.Epigenetic silencing of RASSF10 promotes tumor growth in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Discov Med. 2014; 17(94):169-78 [PubMed
] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most malignant diseases and the five year survival rate remains less than 10%. RASSF10 is a newly identified member of the Ras-association family, but the regulation and the function of RASSF10 in ESCC remain unclear. Research methodologies such as methylation specific PCR (MSP), semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, Sodium bisulfite sequencing, and colony formation assay were utilized in this investigation. Loss of RASSF10 expression was found in KYSE150 cells and reduced expression was found in KYSE70 and KYSE180 cells. Expression of RASSF10 was found in KYSE140, KYSE450, KYSE510, TE1, TE3, and TE8 cell lines. Complete methylation was found in KYSE30 and KYSE150 cells, partial methylation was found in KYSE70, KYSE180, KYSE510, and TE1, and unmethylation was found in KYSE140, KYSE450, TE3, and TE8. Re-expression or increased expression was induced by 5-Aza-dC treatment. RASSF10 was methylated in 44.3% primary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. RASSF10 inhibits cell proliferation and induces G2/M phase arrest in esophageal cancer cells.
IN CONCLUSION: RASSF10 was frequently methylated in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and expression of RASSF10 was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. RASSF10 may serve as a tumor suppressor of esophageal cancer.
Li Z, Chang X, Dai D, et al.RASSF10 is an epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor in gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(4):1661-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To better understand the role of the N-Terminal Ras association domain family (RASSF) genes in the development of gastric cancer, we examined the expression of RASSF7 and RASSF10 and RASSF10 methylation in gastric cancer. We found that RASSF10 expression was lost in six gastric cancer cell lines, and was rescued by a DNA demethylating agent and a histone deacetylase inhibitor. However, RASSF7 expression was strong in four cancer cell lines as well as in 87% of primary gastric cancer tissues. In contrast, RASSF7 expression was moderate in the GES-1 cell line and negative in 33.3% of the corresponding non-cancerous tissues. Analysis of RASSF10 methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and sequencing revealed that the methylation frequency in primary gastric carcinoma tissues was significantly higher compared to that in adjacent non-carcinoma tissues (61.6 vs. 38.4%; p<0.01). The methylation frequency in the tumor with invasion depth at T3 and T4 was significantly higher compared to that with invasion depth at T1 and T2 (67.1 vs. 37.5%; p<0.05). Hypermethylation of RASSF10 was found in the patients with lymph node metastasis, compared to those with unaffected lymph nodes (68.8 vs. 40.9%; p<0.05). Among the 4 gross types of the Borrmann classification, i.e. EGC, Borrmann Ⅰ, Borrmann Ⅱ, Borrmann Ⅲ and Borrmann Ⅳ, the last one was more frequently methylated (85.7 vs. 56.9%; p<0.05). The present study revealed that RASSF10 is an epigenetically silenced gene involved in tumor invasion and metastasis in gastric cancer, suggesting that the methylation status of RASSF10 may be a useful indicator to predict the malignant degree of gastric cancer.
Wang Y, Ma T, Bi J, et al.RASSF10 is epigenetically inactivated and induces apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2014; 68(3):321-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Ras-association domain family 10 (RASSF10), the latest member of the RASSF family with Ras effector function, has been frequently inactivated by aberrant promoter hypermethylation in several human cancers. However, its role in lung cancer has remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the methylation status of RASSF10 by combined bisulfate restriction analysis (COBRA) and examined its preliminary function in lung cancer cell lines. RASSF10 was methylated in four out of six lung cancer cell lines, including NCI-H157, NCI-460, SPCA-1 and NCI-H446. Treatment with a DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytiding (5-aza-DC), restored RASSF10 mRNA expression and the restoration of RASSF10 increased cell apoptosis in a dose dependent manner, whereas knockdown of RASSF10 improved cell proliferation ability and inhibited cell apoptosis rate significantly. Immunofluorescence revealed that RASSF10 protein was located in the cell membrane. Taken together, our data for the first time demonstrates the frequent epigenetic inactivation of RASSF10 in lung cancer cell lines. RASSF10 induces cell apoptosis and might function as a tumor suppressor gene in lung cancer.
Chan JJ, Katan MPLCɛ and the RASSF family in tumour suppression and other functions.
Adv Biol Regul. 2013; 53(3):258-79 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Not all proteins implicated in direct binding to Ras appear to have a positive role in the generation and progression of tumours; examples include Phospholipase C epsilon (PLCɛ) and some members of the Ras-association domain family (RASSF). The RASSF family comprises of ten members, known as RASSF1 to RASSF10. PLCɛ and RASSF members carry a common Ras-association domain (RA) that can potentially bind Ras oncoproteins and mediate Ras-regulated functions. RASSF1 to RASSF6 also share a common SARAH domain that facilitates protein-protein interactions with other SARAH domain proteins. The majority of the family are frequently downregulated by epigenetic silencing in cancers. They are implicated in various important biological processes including apoptosis, microtubule stabilisation and cell cycle regulation. Recent studies have reinforced the tumour suppressive properties of the RASSF family, with new evidence of emerging pathways and novel functions that suggest a wider role for these proteins. This review will first describe an emerging role of PLCɛ in tumour suppression and then focus on and summarise the new findings on the RASSF family in the last five years to consolidate their well-established functions, and highlight the new regulatory roles of specific RASSF members.
Ras-association domain family of genes consist of 10 members (RASSF1-RASSF10), all containing a Ras-association (RA) domain in either the C- or the N-terminus. Several members of this gene family are frequently methylated in common sporadic cancers; however, the role of the RASSF gene family in rare types of cancers, such as bone cancer, has remained largely uninvestigated. In this report, we investigated the methylation status of RASSF1A and RASSF2 in Ewing sarcoma (ES). Quantitative real-time methylation analysis (MethyLight) demonstrated that both genes were frequently methylated in Ewing sarcoma tumors (52.5% and 42.5%, respectively) as well as in ES cell lines and gene expression was upregulated in methylated cell lines after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxcytidine. Overexpression of either RASSF1A or RASSF2 reduced colony formation ability of ES cells. RASSF2 methylation correlated with poor overall survival (p = 0.028) and this association was more pronounced in patients under the age of 18 y (p = 0.002). These results suggest that both RASSF1A and RASSF2 are novel epigenetically inactivated tumor suppressor genes in Ewing sarcoma and RASSF2 methylation may have prognostic implications for ES patients.
Wei Z, Chen X, Chen J, et al.RASSF10 is epigenetically silenced and functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 432(4):632-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Ras association domain family (RASSF) proteins are encoded by several tumor suppressor genes that are frequently silenced in human cancers. In this study, we investigated RASSF10 as a target of epigenetic inactivation and examined its functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. RASSF10 was silenced in six out of eight gastric cancer cell lines. Loss or downregulation of RASSF10 expression was associated with promoter hypermethylation, and could be restored by a demethylating agent. Overexpression of RASSF10 in gastric cancer cell lines (JRST, BGC823) suppressed cell growth and colony formation, and induced apoptosis, whereas RASSF10 depletion promoted cell growth. In xenograft animal experiments, RASSF10 overexpression effectively repressed tumor growth. Mechanistic investigations revealed that RASSF10 inhibited tumor growth by blocking activation of β-catenin and its downstream targets including c-Myc, cyclinD1, cyclinE1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, transcription factor 4, transcription factor 1 and CD44. In conclusion, the results of this study provide insight into the role of RASSF10 as a novel functional tumor suppressor in gastric cancer through inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
We quantitated the methylated fraction of CpG sites in the promoter regions of O6-MGMT, p14ARF, p16INK4a, RASSF1A and APC1A in tumor tissue from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in order to determine if promoter hypermethylation of any of these genes predicts survival. DNA was isolated from 111 primary CRC and 46 matched normal colorectal mucosa samples from the same patients, obtained at primary surgery and DNA methylation was examined by Pyrosequencing®. Follow-up time was up to 20 years. Patients showed partial promoter methylation in the following frequencies: O6-MGMT, 34%; p14ARF, 29%; p16INK4a, 28%; RASSF1A, 14%; and APC1A, 27%. Normal mucosa was always unmethylated. CRC patients with methylated p14ARF gene promoter had significantly worse prognosis (p=0.036), whereas those with methylated O6-MGMT had significantly better prognosis through the first 60 months post-treatment (RR 0.36; p=0.023). Methylation of one or more of the genes from the set p14ARF, RASSF1A and APC1A, was significantly (p=0.021) associated with worse prognosis even adjusting for tumor stage and differentiation (RR 2.2, p=0.037). Thus, DNA methylation of the p14ARF, RASSF1A and APC1A genes, diagnosed by Pyrosequencing, defines a poor prognosis subset of CRC patients independently of both tumor stage and differentiation. O6-MGMT methylation may play a protective role.
BACKGROUND: Hypermethylation of promotor CpG islands is a common mechanism that inactivates tumor suppressor genes in cancer. Genes belonging to the RASSF gene family have frequently been reported as epigenetically silenced by promotor methylation in human cancers. Two members of this gene family, RASSF1A and RASSF5A have been reported as methylated in neuroblastoma. Data from our previously performed genome-wide DNA methylation array analysis indicated that other members of the RASSF gene family are targeted by DNA methylation in neuroblastoma.
RESULTS: In the current study, we found that several of the RASSF family genes (RASSF2, RASSF4, RASSF5, RASSF6, RASSF7, and RASSF10) to various degrees were methylated in neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumors. In addition, several of the RASSF family genes showed low or absent mRNA expression in neuroblastoma cell lines. RASSF5 and RASSF6 were to various degrees methylated in a large portion of neuroblastoma tumors and RASSF7 was heavily methylated in most tumors. Further, CpG methylation sites in the CpG islands of some RASSF family members could be used to significantly discriminate between biological subgroups of neuroblastoma tumors. For example, RASSF5 methylation highly correlated to MYCN amplification and INRG stage M. Furthermore, high methylation of RASSF6 was correlated to unfavorable outcome, 1p deletion and MYCN amplification in our tumor material.
IN CONCLUSION: This study shows that several genes belonging to the RASSF gene family are methylated in neuroblastoma. The genes RASSF5, RASSF6 and RASSF7 stand out as the most promising candidate genes for further investigations in neuroblastoma.
Shinawi T, Hill V, Dagklis A, et al.KIBRA gene methylation is associated with unfavorable biological prognostic parameters in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Epigenetics. 2012; 7(3):211-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Ras-association domain family (RASSF) members are a family of genes containing an RA domain in either the C-terminus (RASSF1-RASSF6) or in the N-terminus (RASSF7-RASSF10). Members of this gene family are core members of the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) tumor suppressor network and have been shown to be involved in human tumorigenesis. Among the RASSF genes, RASSF1A is one of the most frequently methylated genes in a wide range of epithelial cancers, and we previously demonstrated that RASSF6 and RASSF10 genes are frequently epigenetically inactivated in acute leukemias, particularly in those of the B cell type. We here determined the methylation profiles of all members of the RASSF gene family as well as two recently identified (KIBRA, CRB3) upstream members of the SWH pathway in the leukemic B cells obtained from a well-characterized cohort of 95 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Among the RASSF genes, RASSF10 (50%) was the most frequently methylated gene, followed by RASSF6 (16%). The remaining RASSF genes were either unmethylated or showed a frequency of methylation < 10%. The upstream SWH member KIBRA was also frequently methylated in CLL (35%) in contrast to CRB3. Interestingly, the analysis of clinical-pathological parameters showed that KIBRA methylation was associated with unfavorable biological prognostic parameters, including unmutated IGHV genes (p = 0.007) and high CD38 expression (p < 0.05).
Dansranjavin T, Wagenlehner F, Gattenloehner S, et al.Epigenetic down regulation of RASSF10 and its possible clinical implication in prostate carcinoma.
Prostate. 2012; 72(14):1550-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ras association domain family (RASSF) comprises several tumor suppressor genes, which are often epigenetically inactivated in human tumors. Here, we aim to analyze the relevance of the recently identified member RASSF10 in prostate carcinogenesis.
METHODS: RASSF10 promoter methylation and mRNA expression were investigated by bisulfite-pyrosequencing and qRT-PCR, respectively, in prostate carcinoma (PCa) cell lines (LNCaP, 22Rv1, DU-145) and in 83 primary PCa and 53 primary benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues obtained after radical prostatectomy. Histological localization of RASSF10 was done by in situ hybridization. To prove the epigenetic nature of RASSF10 down regulation, PCa cell lines were treated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A. Potential function of RASSF10 was analyzed in LNCaP by colony formation and apoptosis assays.
RESULTS: RASSF10 mRNA was localized to cells of the basal layer of the prostatic gland. Absence (LNCaP) and decrease (22Rv1, DU-145) of RASSF10 expression was associated with promoter methylation and could be restored by demethylating agents. A link between RASSF10 mRNA reduction and promoter methylation was also detected in primary prostate tissues (P = 0.006), where PCa showed more frequently reduced RASSF10 levels when compared with BPH (33.7% vs. 13.2%, P = 0.009). RASSF10 methylation could be further associated with advanced tumor stage and advanced age (P-values < 0.05). Our preliminary functional assays revealed the ability of RASSF10 to inhibit colony formation (P = 0.018) and to increase apoptosis (P = 0.035).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study, which demonstrates the frequent epigenetic inactivation of RASSF10 in PCa and its implication in clinical symptoms of PCa.
Helmbold P, Richter AM, Walesch S, et al.RASSF10 promoter hypermethylation is frequent in malignant melanoma of the skin but uncommon in nevus cell nevi.
J Invest Dermatol. 2012; 132(3 Pt 1):687-94 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The Ras association domain family (RASSF) consists of several tumor suppressor genes, which are frequently silenced in human cancers. We analyzed the epigenetic inactivation of RASSF2 and RASSF10 in malignant melanoma (MM) of the skin, including 5 MM cell lines, 28 primary MM, 33 metastases of MM, 47 nevus cell nevi (NCN), and 22 control tissues. The RASSF2 promoter was epigenetically downregulated in two MM cell lines only, but not in any of the investigated tumor samples. In contrast, hypermethylation of the RASSF10 promoter was found in all investigated cell lines, 19/28 (68%) of the primary MM and 30/33 (91%) of the MM metastases, 2/18 (11%) of the dysplastic NCN, and 0/29 (0%) of the non-dysplastic NCN (difference between MM and all nevi, P<0.001). RASSF10 promoter hypermethylation correlated with a reduced RASSF10 mRNA expression in 3/4 MM cell lines, and treatment with a DNA methylation inhibitor reactivated RASSF10 transcription. Furthermore, immunohistological RASSF10 expression corresponds negatively to its promoter methylation state. In summary, RASSF10 proved to be a characteristically epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor in melanomagenesis, and analysis of RASSF10 methylation status represents a new candidate tool to assist in discrimination between MM and NCN.
Epigenetic inactivation of tumor suppressor genes is a hallmark of cancer development. RASSF1A (Ras Association Domain Family 1 isoform A) tumor suppressor gene is one of the most frequently epigenetically inactivated genes in a wide range of adult and children's cancers and could be a useful molecular marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. RASSF1A has been shown to play a role in several biological pathways, including cell cycle control, apoptosis and microtubule dynamics. RASSF2, RASSF4, RASSF5 and RASSF6 are also epigenetically inactivated in cancer but have not been analysed in as wide a range of malignancies as RASSF1A. Recently four new members of the RASSF family were identified these are termed N-Terminal RASSF genes (RASSF7-RASSF10). Molecular and biological analysis of these newer members has just begun. This review highlights what we currently know in respects to structural, functional and molecular properties of the N-Terminal RASSFs.
Hill VK, Underhill-Day N, Krex D, et al.Epigenetic inactivation of the RASSF10 candidate tumor suppressor gene is a frequent and an early event in gliomagenesis.
Oncogene. 2011; 30(8):978-89 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We have recently described the N-terminal RAS association domain family of genes, RASSF7-10. Previously, we cloned the N-terminal RASSF10 gene and demonstrated frequent methylation of the associated 5'-CpG island in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. To characterize RASSF10 gene expression, we demonstrate that in developing Xenopus embryos, RASSF10 shows a very striking pattern in the rhombencephalon (hind brain). It is also expressed in other parts of the brain and other organs. Due to the well-defined expression pattern in the brain of Xenopus embryos, we analyzed the methylation status of the RASSF10-associated 5'-CpG island in astrocytic gliomas. RASSF10 was frequently methylated in WHO grade II-III astrocytomas and WHO grade IV primary glioblastomas (67.5%), but was unmethylated in grade I astrocytomas and in DNA from age matched control brain samples. RASSF10 gene expression both at the mRNA and protein levels could be switched back on in methylated glioma cell lines after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In secondary glioblastomas (sGBM), RASSF10 methylation was an independent prognostic factor associated with worst progression-free survival and overall survival and occurred at an early stage in their development. In cell culture experiments, overexpression of RASSF10 mediated a reduction in the colony forming ability of two RASSF10-methylated glioma cell lines. Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of RASSF10-stimulated anchorage-independent growth of U87 glioma cells, increased their viability and caused an increase in the cells' proliferative ability. We generated and characterized a RASSF10-specific antibody and demonstrated for the first time that RASSF10 subcellular localization is cell-cycle dependent with RASSF10 colocalizing to centrosomes and associated microtubules during mitosis. This is the first report demonstrating that RASSF10 can act as a tumor suppressor gene and is frequently methylated in gliomas and can potentially be developed into a prognostic marker for sGBM.
Schagdarsurengin U, Richter AM, Wöhler C, Dammann RHFrequent epigenetic inactivation of RASSF10 in thyroid cancer.
Epigenetics. 2009; 4(8):571-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The Ras association domain family (RASSF) encodes for distinct tumor suppressors and several members are frequently silenced in human cancer. In our study, we analyzed the role of a novel RASSF member termed RASSF10 in thyroid carcinogenesis. The RASSF10 CpG island promoter was intensively methylated in nine thyroid cancer cell lines and in 66% of primary thyroid carcinomas. RASSF10 methylation was significantly increased in primary thyroid carcinoma compared to normal thyroid and follicular adenoma (0 and 10%, respectively; p < 0.004). Patients with cancerous lymph nodes were significantly hypermethylated for RASSF10 in primary thyroid tumors compared to those with non-affected lymph nodes (79 vs. 36%; p = 0.047). RASSF10 promoter hypermethylation correlated with a reduced expression and treatment with a DNA methylation inhibitor reactivated RASSF10 transcription. In summary, our data show frequent epigenetic inactivation of RASSF10 in thyroid cancer. These results suggest that RASSF10 may encode a novel epigenetically inactivated candidate tumor suppressor gene in thyroid carcinogenesis.
BACKGROUND: The Ras-association family (RASSF) of tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) contains 10 members that encode proteins containing Ras-association (RA) domains. Several members of the RASSF family are frequently epigenetically inactivated in cancer, however, their role in leukaemia has remained largely uninvestigated. Also, RASSF10 is a predicted gene yet to be experimentally verified. Here we cloned, characterised and demonstrated expression of RASSF10 in normal human bone marrow. We also determined the methylation status of CpG islands associated with RASSF1-10 in a series of childhood acute lymphocytic leukaemias (ALL) and normal blood and bone marrow samples.
RESULTS: COBRA and bisulphite sequencing revealed RASSF6 and RASSF10 were the only RASSF members with a high frequency of leukaemia-specific methylation. RASSF6 was methylated in 94% (48/51) B-ALL and 41% (12/29) T-ALL, whilst RASSF10 was methylated in 16% (8/51) B-ALL and 88% (23/26) T-ALL. RASSF6 and RASSF10 expression inversely correlated with methylation which was restored by treatment with 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (5azaDC).
CONCLUSION: This study shows the hypermethylation profile of RASSF genes in leukaemias is distinct from that of solid tumours and represents the first report of inactivation of RASSF6 or RASSF10 in cancer. These data show epigenetic inactivation of the candidate TSGs RASSF6 and RASSF10 is an extremely frequent event in the pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia. This study also warrants further investigation of the newly identified RASSF member RASSF10 and its potential role in leukaemia.