RAG1

Gene Summary

Gene:RAG1; recombination activating gene 1
Aliases: RAG-1, RNF74
Location:11p13
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is involved in activation of immunoglobulin V-D-J recombination. The encoded protein is involved in recognition of the DNA substrate, but stable binding and cleavage activity also requires RAG2. Defects in this gene can be the cause of several diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:V(D)J recombination-activating protein 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (23)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Breast Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Risk Factors
  • Leukaemia
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Knockout Mice
  • T-Cell Lymphoma
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Base Sequence
  • Genes, RAG-1
  • Gene Deletion
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • Transfection
  • Genes, Immunoglobulin
  • Recombinases
  • DNA
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • BRCA2 Protein
  • Adolescents
  • Translocation
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Vitronectin
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Chromosome 11
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Cell Differentiation
  • DNA Repair
  • T-Cell Leukemia
  • Immunoglobulins
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RAG1 (cancer-related)

Abolhassani H, Wang N, Aghamohammadi A, et al.
A hypomorphic recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1) mutation resulting in a phenotype resembling common variable immunodeficiency.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014; 134(6):1375-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1) deficiency presents with a varied spectrum of combined immunodeficiency, ranging from a T(-)B(-)NK(+) type of disease to a T(+)B(+)NK(+) phenotype.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the genetic background of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).
METHODS: A patient given a diagnosis of CVID, who was born to a consanguineous family and thus would be expected to show an autosomal recessive inheritance, was subjected to clinical evaluation, immunologic assays, homozygosity gene mapping, exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing, and functional analysis.
RESULTS: The 14-year-old patient, who had liver granuloma, extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, and autoimmune neutropenia, presented with a clinical picture resembling CVID. Genetic analysis of this patient showed a homozygous hypomorphic RAG1 mutation (c.1073 G>A, p.C358Y) with a residual functional capacity of 48% of wild-type protein.
CONCLUSION: Our finding broadens the range of disorders associated with RAG1 mutations and might have important therapeutic implications.

Mendes RD, Sarmento LM, Canté-Barrett K, et al.
PTEN microdeletions in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia are caused by illegitimate RAG-mediated recombination events.
Blood. 2014; 124(4):567-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-inactivating mutations and/or deletions are an independent risk factor for relapse of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients treated on Dutch Childhood Oncology Group or German Cooperative Study Group for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia protocols. Some monoallelic mutated or PTEN wild-type patients lack PTEN protein, implying that additional PTEN inactivation mechanisms exist. We show that PTEN is inactivated by small deletions affecting a few exons in 8% of pediatric T-ALL patients. These microdeletions were clonal in 3% and subclonal in 5% of patients. Conserved deletion breakpoints are flanked by cryptic recombination signal sequences (cRSSs) and frequently have non-template-derived nucleotides inserted in between breakpoints, pointing to an illegitimate RAG recombination-driven activity. Identified cRSSs drive RAG-dependent recombination in a reporter system as efficiently as bona fide RSSs that flank gene segments of the T-cell receptor locus. Remarkably, equivalent microdeletions were detected in thymocytes of healthy individuals. Microdeletions strongly associate with the TALLMO subtype characterized by TAL1 or LMO2 rearrangements. Primary and secondary xenotransplantation of TAL1-rearranged leukemia allowed development of leukemic subclones with newly acquired PTEN microdeletions. Ongoing RAG activity may therefore actively contribute to the acquisition of preleukemic hits, clonal diversification, and disease progression.

Lu Y, Wu Y, Feng X, et al.
CDK4 deficiency promotes genomic instability and enhances Myc-driven lymphomagenesis.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(4):1672-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
The G1 kinase CDK4 is amplified or overexpressed in some human tumors and promotes tumorigenesis by inhibiting known tumor suppressors. Here, we report that CDK4 deficiency markedly accelerated lymphoma development in the Eμ-Myc transgenic mouse model of B lymphoma and that silencing or loss of CDK4 augmented the tumorigenic potential of Myc-driven mouse and human B cell lymphoma in transplant models. Accelerated disease in CDK4-deficient Eμ-Myc transgenic mice was associated with rampant genomic instability that was provoked by dysregulation of a FOXO1/RAG1/RAG2 pathway. Specifically, CDK4 phosphorylated and inactivated FOXO1, which prevented FOXO1-dependent induction of Rag1 and Rag2 transcription. CDK4-deficient Eμ-Myc B cells had high levels of the active form of FOXO1 and elevated RAG1 and RAG2. Furthermore, overexpression of RAG1 and RAG2 accelerated lymphoma development in a transplant model, with RAG1/2-expressing tumors exhibiting hallmarks of genomic instability. Evaluation of human tumor samples revealed that CDK4 expression was markedly suppressed, while FOXO1 expression was elevated, in several subtypes of human non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma. Collectively, these findings establish a context-specific tumor suppressor function for CDK4 that prevents genomic instability, which contributes to B cell lymphoma. Furthermore, our data suggest that targeting CDK4 may increase the risk for the development and/or progression of lymphoma.

You ZM, Zhao L, Xia J, et al.
Down-regulation of phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor enhances gensenoside Rh2 pharmacological action on leukemia KG1α cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(3):1099-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside Rh2, which exerts the potent anticancer action both in vitro and in vivo, is one of the most well characterized ginsenosides extracted from ginseng. Although its effects on cancer are significant, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we sought to elucidate possible links between ginsenoside Rh2 and phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor (PGI/AMF).
METHODS: KG1α, a leukemia cell line highly expressing PGI/AMF was assessed by western blot analysis and reverse transcription- PCR (RT-PCR) assay after transfection of a small interfering (si)-RNA to silence PGI/AMF. The effect of PGI/ AMF on proliferation was measured by typan blue assay and antibody array. A cell counting kit (CCK)-8 and flow cytometry (FCM) were adopted to investigate the effects of Rh2 on PGI/AMF. The relationships between PGI/AMF and Rh2 associated with Akt, mTOR, Raptor, Rag were detected by western blot analysis.
RESULTS: KG1α cells expressed PGI/AMF and its down-regulation significantly inhibited proliferation. The antibody array indicated that the probable mechanism was reduced expression of PARP, State1, SAPK/JNK and Erk1/2, while those of PRAS40 and p38 were up-regulated. Silencing of PGI/AMF enhanced the sensibility of KG1α to Rh2 by suppressing the expression of mTOR, Raptor and Akt.
CONCLUSION: These results suggested that ginsenoside Rh2 suppressed the proliferation of KG1α, the same as down-regulation of PGI/AMF. Down-regulation of PGI/ AMF enhanced the pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on KG1α by reducing Akt/mTOR signaling.

Stolfi C, De Simone V, Colantoni A, et al.
A functional role for Smad7 in sustaining colon cancer cell growth and survival.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1073 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Initially identified as an inhibitor of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β mainly owing to its ability to bind TGF-β receptor type I and abrogate TGF-β-driven signaling, Smad7 can interact with additional intracellular proteins and regulate TGF-β-independent pathways, thus having a key role in the control of neoplastic processes in various organs. Genome-wide association studies have shown that common alleles of Smad7 influence the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), even though the contribution of Smad7 in colon carcinogenesis is not fully understood. In this study, we assessed the expression and role of Smad7 in human and mouse models of sporadic CRC. We document a significant increase of Smad7 in human CRC relative to the surrounding nontumor tissues and show that silencing of Smad7 inhibits the growth of CRC cell lines both in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into immunodeficient mice. Knockdown of Smad7 results in enhanced phosphorylation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, accumulation of CRC cells in S phase and enhanced cell death. Smad7-deficient CRC cells have lower levels of CDC25A, a phosphatase that dephosphorylates CDK2, and hyperphosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2)α, a negative regulator of CDC25 protein translation. Consistently, knockdown of Smad7 associates with inactivation of eIF2α, lower CDC25A expression and diminished fraction of proliferating cells in human CRC explants, and reduces the number of intestinal tumors in Apc(min/+) mice. Altogether, these data support a role for Smad7 in sustaining colon tumorigenesis.

Kuiper RP, Waanders E
A RAG driver on the road to pediatric ALL.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(2):96-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic aberrations affecting genes in B cell differentiation are hallmarks of B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A new whole-genome sequencing study of ETV6-RUNX1-positive ALL has now identified RAG-mediated recombination, which specifically targets genes and regulatory elements active during B cell differentiation, as the underlying mechanism.

Papaemmanuil E, Rapado I, Li Y, et al.
RAG-mediated recombination is the predominant driver of oncogenic rearrangement in ETV6-RUNX1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(2):116-25 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
The ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene, found in 25% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases, is acquired in utero but requires additional somatic mutations for overt leukemia. We used exome and low-coverage whole-genome sequencing to characterize secondary events associated with leukemic transformation. RAG-mediated deletions emerge as the dominant mutational process, characterized by recombination signal sequence motifs near breakpoints, incorporation of non-templated sequence at junctions, ∼30-fold enrichment at promoters and enhancers of genes actively transcribed in B cell development and an unexpectedly high ratio of recurrent to non-recurrent structural variants. Single-cell tracking shows that this mechanism is active throughout leukemic evolution, with evidence of localized clustering and reiterated deletions. Integration of data on point mutations and rearrangements identifies ATF7IP and MGA as two new tumor-suppressor genes in ALL. Thus, a remarkably parsimonious mutational process transforms ETV6-RUNX1-positive lymphoblasts, targeting the promoters, enhancers and first exons of genes that normally regulate B cell differentiation.

Kroesen M, Nierkens S, Ansems M, et al.
A transplantable TH-MYCN transgenic tumor model in C57Bl/6 mice for preclinical immunological studies in neuroblastoma.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(6):1335-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Current multimodal treatments for patients with neuroblastoma (NBL), including anti-disialoganglioside (GD2) monoclonal antibody (mAb) based immunotherapy, result in a favorable outcome in around only half of the patients with advanced disease. To improve this, novel immunocombinational strategies need to be developed and tested in autologous preclinical NBL models. A genetically well-explored autologous mouse model for NBL is the TH-MYCN model. However, the immunobiology of the TH-MYCN model remains largely unexplored. We developed a mouse model using a transplantable TH-MYCN cell line in syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice and characterized the immunobiology of this model. In this report, we show the relevance and opportunities of this model to study immunotherapy for human NBL. Similar to human NBL cells, syngeneic TH-MYCN-derived 9464D cells endogenously express the tumor antigen GD2 and low levels of MHC Class I. The presence of the adaptive immune system had little or no influence on tumor growth, showing the low immunogenicity of the NBL cells. In contrast, depletion of NK1.1+ cells resulted in enhanced tumor outgrowth in both wild-type and Rag1(-/-) mice, showing an important role for NK cells in the natural anti-NBL immune response. Analysis of the tumor infiltrating leukocytes ex vivo revealed the presence of both tumor associated myeloid cells and T regulatory cells, thus mimicking human NBL tumors. Finally, anti-GD2 mAb mediated NBL therapy resulted in ADCC in vitro and delayed tumor outgrowth in vivo. We conclude that the transplantable TH-MYCN model represents a relevant model for the development of novel immunocombinatorial approaches for NBL patients.

Lukka PB, Chen YY, Finlay GJ, et al.
Tumour tissue selectivity in the uptake and retention of SN 28049, a new topoisomerase II-directed anticancer agent.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013; 72(5):1013-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: A variety of anticancer drugs, including doxorubicin and mitoxantrone, have structures in which a DNA-intercalating chromophore is linked to a positively charged side chain. These drugs generally inhibit tumour growth and survival by poisoning the enzyme DNA topoisomerase II. SN 28049, a benzonaphthyridine derivative with these properties, has curative activity against the Colon 38 tumour in mice. Previous pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated tumour-selective retention with approximately 20-fold higher area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for tumour tissue as compared to normal tissues. We have investigated here whether such retention is tumour specific.
METHODS: Plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics were assessed in the murine Lewis lung (LL3) tumour in C57 BL/6 mice and in xenografts of the NZM4, NZM10 and NZM52 human melanoma lines in Balb/c Rag-1 immunodeficient mice. The in vitro cellular localisation of SN 28049 in murine and human cell lines was studied by confocal fluorescence microscopy.
RESULTS: A 260-fold variation, from 8.9 μM h (NZM4) to 2,334 μM h (Colon 38), was found among the different tumours. Only small variations were observed in the corresponding plasma AUC (2.9-5 μM h). Moreover, in vivo activity, as measured by tumour growth delay, varied from 1 day (NZM4) to curative (Colon 38), consistent with the tumour pharmacokinetic data. In cultured cell lines, SN 28049 was found in cytoplasmic bodies, suggesting that drug sequestration could contribute to tumour pharmacokinetics.
CONCLUSION: SN 28049 shows dramatic differences in both tumour AUC and antitumour activity against different tumours. These differences point to the presence of a tumour-specific uptake and retention mechanism.

Jin HY, Oda H, Lai M, et al.
MicroRNA-17~92 plays a causative role in lymphomagenesis by coordinating multiple oncogenic pathways.
EMBO J. 2013; 32(17):2377-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been broadly implicated in cancer, but their exact function and mechanism in carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Elevated miR-17~92 expression is frequently found in human cancers, mainly due to gene amplification and Myc-mediated transcriptional upregulation. Here we show that B cell-specific miR-17~92 transgenic mice developed lymphomas with high penetrance and that, conversely, Myc-driven lymphomagenesis stringently requires two intact alleles of miR-17~92. We experimentally identified miR-17~92 target genes by PAR-CLIP and validated select target genes in miR-17~92 transgenic mice. These analyses demonstrate that miR-17~92 drives lymphomagenesis by suppressing the expression of multiple negative regulators of the PI3K and NFκB pathways and by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Accordingly, miR-17~92-driven lymphoma cells exhibited constitutive activation of the PI3K and NFκB pathways and chemical inhibition of either pathway reduced tumour size and prolonged the survival of lymphoma-bearing mice. These findings establish miR-17~92 as a powerful cancer driver that coordinates the activation of multiple oncogenic pathways, and demonstrate for the first time that chemical inhibition of miRNA downstream pathways has therapeutic value in treating cancers caused by miRNA dysregulation.

Olsson L, Castor A, Behrendtz M, et al.
Deletions of IKZF1 and SPRED1 are associated with poor prognosis in a population-based series of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnosed between 1992 and 2011.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(2):302-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the favorable prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a substantial subset of patients relapses. As this occurs not only in the high risk but also in the standard/intermediate groups, the presently used risk stratification is suboptimal. The underlying mechanisms for treatment failure include the presence of genetic changes causing insensitivity to the therapy administered. To identify relapse-associated aberrations, we performed single-nucleotide polymorphism array analyses of 307 uniformly treated, consecutive pediatric ALL cases accrued during 1992-2011. Recurrent aberrations of 14 genes in patients who subsequently relapsed or had induction failure were detected. Of these, deletions/uniparental isodisomies of ADD3, ATP10A, EBF1, IKZF1, PAN3, RAG1, SPRED1 and TBL1XR1 were significantly more common in B-cell precursor ALL patients who relapsed compared with those remaining in complete remission. In univariate analyses, age (≥10 years), white blood cell counts (>100 × 10(9)/l), t(9;22)(q34;q11), MLL rearrangements, near-haploidy and deletions of ATP10A, IKZF1, SPRED1 and the pseudoautosomal 1 regions on Xp/Yp were significantly associated with decreased 10-year event-free survival, with IKZF1 abnormalities being an independent risk factor in multivariate analysis irrespective of the risk group. Older age and deletions of IKZF1 and SPRED1 were also associated with poor overall survival. Thus, analyses of these genes provide clinically important information.

Thaker AI, Rao MS, Bishnupuri KS, et al.
IDO1 metabolites activate β-catenin signaling to promote cancer cell proliferation and colon tumorigenesis in mice.
Gastroenterology. 2013; 145(2):416-25.e1-4 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) catabolizes tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway. Although IDO1 is expressed in inflamed and neoplastic epithelial cells of the colon, its role in colon tumorigenesis is not well understood. We used genetic and pharmacologic approaches to manipulate IDO1 activity in mice with colitis-associated cancer and human colon cancer cell lines.
METHODS: C57Bl6 wild-type (control), IDO1-/-, Rag1-/-, and Rag1/IDO1 double-knockout mice were exposed to azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis and tumorigenesis. Colitis severity was assessed by measurements of disease activity, cytokine levels, and histologic analysis. In vitro experiments were conducted using HCT 116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells. 1-methyl tryptophan and small interfering RNA were used to inhibit IDO1. Kynurenine pathway metabolites were used to simulate IDO1 activity.
RESULTS: C57Bl6 mice given pharmacologic inhibitors of IDO1 and IDO1-/- mice had lower tumor burdens and reduced proliferation in the neoplastic epithelium after administration of dextran sodium sulfate and azoxymethane than control mice. These reductions also were observed in Rag1/IDO1 double-knockout mice compared with Rag1-/- mice (which lack mature adaptive immunity). In human colon cancer cells, blockade of IDO1 activity reduced nuclear and activated β-catenin, transcription of its target genes (cyclin D1 and Axin2), and, ultimately, proliferation. Exogenous administration of IDO1 pathway metabolites kynurenine and quinolinic acid led to activation of β-catenin and proliferation of human colon cancer cells, and increased tumor growth in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: IDO1, which catabolizes tryptophan, promotes colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice, independent of its ability to limit T-cell-mediated immune surveillance. The epithelial cell-autonomous survival advantage provided by IDO1 to colon epithelial cells indicate its potential as a therapeutic target.

Zhao P, Zou P, Zhao L, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of DNA double-strand break repair pathway genes and glioma susceptibility.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:234 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic variations in DNA double-strand break repair genes can influence the ability of a cell to repair damaged DNA and alter an individual's susceptibility to cancer. We studied whether polymorphisms in DNA double-strand break repair genes are associated with an increased risk of glioma development.
METHODS: We genotyped 10 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 DNA double-strand break repair pathway genes (XRCC3, BRCA2, RAG1, XRCC5, LIG4, XRCC4 and ATM) in a case-control study including 384 glioma patients and 384 cancer-free controls in a Chinese Han population. Genotypes were determined using the OpenArray platform.
RESULTS: In the single-locus analysis there was a significant association between gliomas and the LIG4 rs1805388 (Ex2 +54C>T, Thr9Ile) TT genotype (adjusted OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.87-5.71), as well as the TC genotype (adjusted OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.20-2.18). We also found that the homozygous variant genotype (GG) of XRCC4 rs1805377 (IVS7-1A>G, splice-site) was associated with a significantly increased risk of gliomas (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.12-2.80). Interestingly, we detected a significant additive and multiplicative interaction effect between the LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377 polymorphisms with an increasing risk of gliomas. When we stratified our analysis by smoking status, LIG4 rs1805388 was associated with an increased glioma risk among smokers.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate for the first time that LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377, alone or in combination, are associated with a risk of gliomas.

Chiarle R
Translocations in normal B cells and cancers: insights from new technical approaches.
Adv Immunol. 2013; 117:39-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal translocations are recurrent genetic events that define many types of cancers. Since their first description several decades ago as defining elements in cancer cells, our understanding of the mechanisms that determine their formation as well as their implications for cancer progression and therapy has remarkably progressed. Chromosomal translocations originate from double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are brought into proximity in the nuclear space and joined inappropriately by DNA-repair pathways. The frequency and pattern of translocations are influenced by perturbations of any of these events. DSB formation is heavily determined by physiologic processes, such as the activity of RAG1/2 and AID enzymes during B-cell development or maturation, or by pathologic factors, such as ionizing radiations, ROS, or fragile sites. Cellular processes of mRNA transcription, DNA replication, and repair can influence the chromosomal territories and modify the relative position and proximity of genes inside the nucleus. DNA-repair factors contribute not only to the maintenance of genome integrity but also to translocations in normal and cancer cells. Next-generation sequencing techniques provide an unprecedented and powerful tool to approach the field of chromosomal translocations. Using specific examples, we will explain how genome-wide translocation mapping methods, such as high-throughput genomic translocation sequencing (HTGTS) and translocation-capture sequencing, combined with large-scale methods to determine nuclear proximity of genes or chromosome domains, such as 4C and Hi-C, have changed our view of the factors and the rules governing translocation formation in noncancer cells. Finally, we will review chromosomal rearrangements and newly described findings, such as chromothripsis, in cancer cells based on these novel rules on translocation formation.

Wang Z, Liu JQ, Liu Z, et al.
Tumor-derived IL-35 promotes tumor growth by enhancing myeloid cell accumulation and angiogenesis.
J Immunol. 2013; 190(5):2415-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
IL-35 is a member of the IL-12 family of cytokines that is comprised of an IL-12 p35 subunit and an IL-12 p40-related protein subunit, EBV-induced gene 3 (EBI3). IL-35 functions through IL-35R and has a potent immune-suppressive activity. Although IL-35 was demonstrated to be produced by regulatory T cells, gene-expression analysis revealed that it is likely to have a wider distribution, including expression in cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-35 is produced in human cancer tissues, such as large B cell lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and melanoma. To determine the roles of tumor-derived IL-35 in tumorigenesis and tumor immunity, we generated IL-35-producing plasmacytoma J558 and B16 melanoma cells and observed that the expression of IL-35 in cancer cells does not affect their growth and survival in vitro, but it stimulates tumorigenesis in both immune-competent and Rag1/2-deficient mice. Tumor-derived IL-35 increases CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cell accumulation in the tumor microenvironment and, thereby, promotes tumor angiogenesis. In immune-competent mice, spontaneous CTL responses to tumors are diminished. IL-35 does not directly inhibit tumor Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell activation, differentiation, and effector functions. However, IL-35-treated cancer cells had increased expression of gp130 and reduced sensitivity to CTL destruction. Thus, our study indicates novel functions for IL-35 in promoting tumor growth via the enhancement of myeloid cell accumulation, tumor angiogenesis, and suppression of tumor immunity.

Zaiss DM, van Loosdregt J, Gorlani A, et al.
Amphiregulin enhances regulatory T cell-suppressive function via the epidermal growth factor receptor.
Immunity. 2013; 38(2):275-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to be critically involved in tissue development and homeostasis as well as in the pathogenesis of cancer. Here we showed that Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells express EGFR under inflammatory conditions. Stimulation with the EGF-like growth factor Amphiregulin (AREG) markedly enhanced Treg cell function in vitro, and in a colitis and tumor vaccination model we showed that AREG was critical for efficient Treg cell function in vivo. In addition, mast cell-derived AREG fully restored optimal Treg cell function. These findings reveal EGFR as a component in the regulation of local immune responses and establish a link between mast cells and Treg cells. Targeting of this immune regulatory mechanism may contribute to the therapeutic successes of EGFR-targeting treatments in cancer patients.

Sundarasetty BS, Singh VK, Salguero G, et al.
Lentivirus-induced dendritic cells for immunization against high-risk WT1(+) acute myeloid leukemia.
Hum Gene Ther. 2013; 24(2):220-37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Wilms' tumor 1 antigen (WT1) is overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a high-risk neoplasm warranting development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Unfortunately, clinical immunotherapeutic use of WT1 peptides against AML has been inconclusive. With the rationale of stimulating multiantigenic responses against WT1, we genetically programmed long-lasting dendritic cells capable of producing and processing endogenous WT1 epitopes. A tricistronic lentiviral vector co-expressing a truncated form of WT1 (lacking the DNA-binding domain), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) was used to transduce human monocytes ex vivo. Overnight transduction induced self-differentiation of monocytes into immunophenotypically stable "SmartDC/tWT1" (GM-CSF(+), IL-4(+), tWT1(+), IL-6(+), IL-8(+), TNF-α(+), MCP-1(+), HLA-DR(+), CD86(+), CCR2(+), CCR5(+)) that were viable for 3 weeks in vitro. SmartDC/tWT1 were produced with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from an FLT3-ITD(+) AML patient and surplus material from a donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and used to expand CD8(+) T cells in vitro. Expanded cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) showed antigen-specific reactivity against WT1 and against WT1(+) leukemia cells. SmartDC/tWT1 injected s.c. into Nod.Rag1(-/-).IL2rγc(-/-) mice were viable in vivo for more than three weeks. Migration of human T cells (huCTLs) to the immunization site was demonstrated following adoptive transfer of huCTLs into mice immunized with SmartDC/tWT1. Furthermore, SmartDC/tWT1 immunization plus adoptive transfer of T cells reactive against WT1 into mice resulted in growth arrest of a WT1(+) tumor. Gene array analyses of SmartDC/tWT1 demonstrated upregulation of several genes related to innate immunity. Thus, SmartDC/tWT1 can be produced in a single day of ex vivo gene transfer, are highly viable in vivo, and have great potential for use as immunotherapy against malignant transformation overexpressing WT1.

Nishioka C, Ikezoe T, Furihata M, et al.
CD34⁺/CD38⁻ acute myelogenous leukemia cells aberrantly express CD82 which regulates adhesion and survival of leukemia stem cells.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(9):2006-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
To identify molecular targets in leukemia stem cells (LSCs), this study compared the protein expression profile of freshly isolated CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells with that of CD34(+) /CD38(+) counterparts from individuals with acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 2, AML) using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). A total of 98 proteins were overexpressed, while six proteins were underexpressed in CD34(+) /CD38(-) AML cells compared with their CD34(+) /CD38(+) counterparts. Proteins overexpressed in CD34(+) /CD38(-) AML cells included a number of proteins involved in DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, gland differentiation, antiapoptosis, adhesion, and drug resistance. Aberrant expression of CD82, a family of adhesion molecules, in CD34(+) /CD38(-) AML cells was noted in additional clinical samples (n = 12) by flow cytometry. Importantly, down-regulation of CD82 in CD34(+) /CD38(-) AML cells by a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibited adhesion to fibronectin via up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP9) and colony forming ability of these cells as assessed by transwell assay, real-time RT-PCR, and colony forming assay, respectively. Moreover, we found that down-regulation of CD82 in CD34(+) /CD38(-) AML cells by an shRNA significantly impaired engraftment of these cells in severely immunocompromised mice. Taken together, aberrant expression of CD82 might play a role in adhesion of LSCs to bone marrow microenvironment and survival of LSCs. CD82 could be an attractive molecular target to eradicate LSCs.

Nishana M, Raghavan SC
A non-B DNA can replace heptamer of V(D)J recombination when present along with a nonamer: implications in chromosomal translocations and cancer.
Biochem J. 2012; 448(1):115-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
The RAG (recombination-activating gene) complex is responsible for the generation of antigen receptor diversity by acting as a sequence-specific nuclease. Recent studies have shown that it also acts as a structure-specific nuclease. However, little is known about the factors regulating this activity at the genomic level. We show in the present study that the proximity of a V(D)J nonamer to heteroduplex DNA significantly increases RAG cleavage and binding efficiencies at physiological concentrations of MgCl(2). The position of the nonamer with respect to heteroduplex DNA was important, but not orientation. A spacer length of 18 bp between the nonamer and mismatch was optimal for RAG-mediated DNA cleavage. Mutations to the sequence of the nonamer and deletion of the nonamer-binding domain of RAG1 reinforced the role of the nonamer in the enhancement in RAG cleavage. Interestingly, partial mutation of the nonamer did not significantly reduce RAG cleavage on heteroduplex DNA, suggesting that even cryptic nonamers were sufficient to enhance RAG cleavage. More importantly, we show that the fragile region involved in chromosomal translocations associated with BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) can be cleaved by RAGs following a nonamer-dependent mechanism. Hence our results from the present study suggest that a non-B DNA can replace the heptamer of RSS (recombination signal sequence) when present adjacent to nonamers, explaining the generation of certain chromosomal translocations in lymphoid malignancies.

Purwar R, Schlapbach C, Xiao S, et al.
Robust tumor immunity to melanoma mediated by interleukin-9-producing T cells.
Nat Med. 2012; 18(8):1248-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is a T cell cytokine that acts through a γC-family receptor on target cells and is associated with inflammation and allergy. We determined that T cells from mice deficient in the T helper type 17 (T(H)17) pathway genes encoding retinoid-related orphan receptor γ (ROR-γ) and IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) produced abundant IL-9, and we found substantial growth inhibition of B16F10 melanoma in these mice. IL-9-blocking antibodies reversed this tumor growth inhibition and enhanced tumor growth in wild-type (WT) mice. Il9r(-/-) mice showed accelerated tumor growth, and administration of recombinant IL-9 (rIL-9) to tumor-bearing WT and Rag1(-/-) mice inhibited melanoma as well as lung carcinoma growth. Adoptive transfer of tumor-antigen-specific T(H)9 cells into both WT and Rag1(-/-) mice suppressed melanoma growth; this effect was abrogated by treatment with neutralizing antibodies to IL-9. Exogenous rIL-9 inhibited tumor growth in Rag1(-/-) mice but not in mast-cell-deficient mice, suggesting that the targets of IL-9 in this setting include mast cells but not T or B cells. In addition, we found higher numbers of T(H)9 cells in normal human skin and blood compared to metastatic lesions of subjects with progressive stage IV melanoma. These results suggest a role for IL-9 in tumor immunity and offer insight into potential therapeutic strategies.

Gough SM, Chung YJ, Aplan PD
Depletion of cytotoxic T-cells does not protect NUP98-HOXD13 mice from myelodysplastic syndrome but reveals a modest tumor immunosurveillance effect.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e36876 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and aplastic anemia (AA) patients both present with symptoms of bone marrow failure. In many AA patients, these features are thought to result from an oligoclonal expansion of cytotoxic T-cells that destroy haematopoietic stem or progenitor cells. This notion is supported by the observation that AA patients respond to immunosuppressive therapy. A fraction of MDS patients also respond well to immunosuppressive therapy suggesting a similar role for cytotoxic T-cells in the etiology of MDS, however the role of cytotoxic T-cells in MDS remains unclear. Mice that express a NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) transgene develop a MDS that closely mimics the human condition in terms of dysplasia, ineffective hematopoiesis, and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We followed a cohort of NHD13 mice lacking the Rag1 protein (NHD13/Rag1KO) to determine if the absence of lymphocytes might 1) delay the onset and/or diminish the severity of the MDS, or 2) effect malignant transformation and survival of the NHD13 mice. No difference was seen in the onset or severity of MDS between the NHD13 and NHD13/Rag1KO mice. However, NHD13/Rag1KO mice had decreased survival and showed a trend toward increased incidence of transformation to AML compared to the NHD13 mice, suggesting protection from AML transformation by a modest immuno-surveillance effect. In the absence of functional Tcrb signaling in the NHD13/Rag1KO T-cell tumors, Pak7 was identified as a potential Tcrb surrogate survival signal.

Gazumyan A, Bothmer A, Klein IA, et al.
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase in antibody diversification and chromosome translocation.
Adv Cancer Res. 2012; 113:167-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA damage, rearrangement, and mutation of the human genome are the basis of carcinogenesis and thought to be avoided at all costs. An exception is the adaptive immune system where lymphocytes utilize programmed DNA damage to effect antigen receptor diversification. Both B and T lymphocytes diversify their antigen receptors through RAG1/2 mediated recombination, but B cells undergo two additional processes--somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR), both initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID deaminates cytidines in DNA resulting in U:G mismatches that are processed into point mutations in SHM or double-strand breaks in CSR. Although AID activity is focused at Immunoglobulin (Ig) gene loci, it also targets a wide array of non-Ig genes including oncogenes associated with lymphomas. Here, we review the molecular basis of AID regulation, targeting, and initiation of CSR and SHM, as well as AID's role in generating chromosome translocations that contribute to lymphomagenesis.

Pincha M, Sundarasetty BS, Salguero G, et al.
Identity, potency, in vivo viability, and scaling up production of lentiviral vector-induced dendritic cells for melanoma immunotherapy.
Hum Gene Ther Methods. 2012; 23(1):38-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
SmartDCs (Self-differentiated Myeloid-derived Antigen-presenting-cells Reactive against Tumors) consist of highly viable dendritic cells (DCs) induced to differentiate with lentiviral vectors (LVs) after an overnight ex vivo transduction. Tricistronic vectors co-expressing cytokines (granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF], interleukin [IL]-4) and a melanoma antigen (tyrosine related protein 2 [TRP2]) were used to transduce mouse bone marrow cells or human monocytes. Sixteen hours after transduction, the cells were dispensed in aliquots and cryopreserved for identity, potency, and safety analyses. Thawed SmartDCs readily differentiated into highly viable cells with a DC immunophenotype. Prime/boost subcutaneous administration of 1×10(6) thawed murine SmartDCs into C57BL/6 mice resulted into TRP2-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses and protection against lethal melanoma challenge. Human SmartDC-TRP2 generated with monocytes obtained from melanoma patients secreted endogenous cytokines associated with DC activation and stimulated TRP2-specific autologous T-cell expansion in vitro. Thawed human SmartDCs injected subcutaneously in NOD.Rag1(-/-).IL2rγ(-/-) mice maintained DC characteristics and viability for 1 month in vivo and did not cause any signs of pathology. For development of good manufacturing practices, CD14(+) monocytes selected by magnetic-activated cell separation were transduced in a closed bag system (multiplicity of infection of 5), washed, and cryopreserved. Fifty percent of the monocytes used for transduction were recovered for cryopreservation. Thawed SmartDCs produced in two independent runs expressed the endogenous cytokines GM-CSF and IL-4, and the resulting homogeneous SmartDCs that self-differentiated in vitro contained approximately 1.5-3.0 copies of integrated LVs per cell. Thus, this method facilitates logistics, standardization, and high recovery for the generation of viable genetically reprogrammed DCs for clinical applications.

Henare K, Wang L, Wang LC, et al.
Dissection of stromal and cancer cell-derived signals in melanoma xenografts before and after treatment with DMXAA.
Br J Cancer. 2012; 106(6):1134-47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The non-malignant cells of the tumour stroma have a critical role in tumour biology. Studies dissecting the interplay between cancer cells and stromal cells are required to further our understanding of tumour progression and methods of intervention. For proof-of-principle of a multi-modal approach to dissect the differential effects of treatment on cancer cells and stromal cells, we analysed the effects of the stromal-targeting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid on melanoma xenografts.
METHODS: Flow cytometry and multi-colour immunofluorescence staining was used to analyse leukocyte numbers in xenografts. Murine-specific and human-specific multiplex cytokine panels were used to quantitate cytokines produced by stromal and melanoma cells, respectively. Human and mouse Affymetrix microarrays were used to separately identify melanoma cell-specific and stromal cell-specific gene expression.
RESULTS: 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid activated pro-inflammatory signalling pathways and cytokine expression from both stromal and cancer cells, leading to neutrophil accumulation and haemorrhagic necrosis and a delay in tumour re-growth of 26 days in A375 melanoma xenografts.
CONCLUSION: 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid and related analogues may potentially have utility in the treatment of melanoma. The experimental platform used allowed distinction between cancer cells and stromal cells and can be applied to investigate other tumour models and anti-cancer agents.

Waanders E, Scheijen B, van der Meer LT, et al.
The origin and nature of tightly clustered BTG1 deletions in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia support a model of multiclonal evolution.
PLoS Genet. 2012; 8(2):e1002533 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Recurrent submicroscopic deletions in genes affecting key cellular pathways are a hallmark of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To gain more insight into the mechanism underlying these deletions, we have studied the occurrence and nature of abnormalities in one of these genes, the B-cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1), in a large cohort of pediatric ALL cases. BTG1 was found to be exclusively affected by genomic deletions, which were detected in 65 out of 722 B-cell precursor ALL (BCP-ALL) patient samples (9%), but not in 109 T-ALL cases. Eight different deletion sizes were identified, which all clustered at the telomeric site in a hotspot region within the second (and last) exon of the BTG1 gene, resulting in the expression of truncated BTG1 read-through transcripts. The presence of V(D)J recombination signal sequences at both sites of virtually all deletions strongly suggests illegitimate RAG1/RAG2-mediated recombination as the responsible mechanism. Moreover, high levels of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), which is known to tether the RAG enzyme complex to DNA, were found within the BTG1 gene body in BCP-ALL cells, but not T-ALL cells. BTG1 deletions were rarely found in hyperdiploid BCP-ALLs, but were predominant in other cytogenetic subgroups, including the ETV6-RUNX1 and BCR-ABL1 positive BCP-ALL subgroups. Through sensitive PCR-based screening, we identified multiple additional BTG1 deletions at the subclonal level in BCP-ALL, with equal cytogenetic distribution which, in some cases, grew out into the major clone at relapse. Taken together, our results indicate that BTG1 deletions may act as "drivers" of leukemogenesis in specific BCP-ALL subgroups, in which they can arise independently in multiple subclones at sites that are prone to aberrant RAG1/RAG2-mediated recombination events. These findings provide further evidence for a complex and multiclonal evolution of ALL.

Nambiar M, Raghavan SC
Mechanism of fragility at BCL2 gene minor breakpoint cluster region during t(14;18) chromosomal translocation.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(12):8688-701 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
The t(14;18) translocation in follicular lymphoma is one of the most common chromosomal translocations. Breaks in chromosome 18 are localized at the 3'-UTR of BCL2 gene or downstream and are mainly clustered in either the major breakpoint region or the minor breakpoint cluster region (mcr). The recombination activating gene (RAG) complex induces breaks at IgH locus of chromosome 14, whereas the mechanism of fragility at BCL2 mcr remains unclear. Here, for the first time, we show that RAGs can nick mcr; however, the mechanism is unique. Three independent nicks of equal efficiency are generated, when both Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) are present, unlike a single nick during V(D)J recombination. Further, we demonstrate that RAG binding and nicking at the mcr are independent of nonamer, whereas a CCACCTCT motif plays a critical role in its fragility, as shown by sequential mutagenesis. More importantly, we recapitulate the BCL2 mcr translocation and find that mcr can undergo synapsis with a standard recombination signal sequence within the cells, in a RAG-dependent manner. Further, mutation to the CCACCTCT motif abolishes recombination within the cells, indicating its vital role. Hence, our data suggest a novel, physiologically relevant, nonamer-independent mechanism of RAG nicking at mcr, which may be important for generation of chromosomal translocations in humans.

Schneider C, Teufel A, Yevsa T, et al.
Adaptive immunity suppresses formation and progression of diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer.
Gut. 2012; 61(12):1733-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical inflammation-associated cancer, but may also provoke antitumour immune responses whose significance and underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood.
OBJECTIVE: To characterise immune responses in the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-liver cancer mouse model.
DESIGN: Tumour development and immune cell functions upon DEN treatment were compared between C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), chemokine scavenging receptor D6-deficient, B cell- (Igh6), CD4 T cell- (MHC-II) and T-/B cell-deficient (Rag1) mice. Relevance for human HCC was tested by comparing gene array results from 139 HCC tissues.
RESULTS: The induction of premalignant lesions after 24 weeks and of HCC-like tumours after 42 weeks by DEN in mice was accompanied by significant leucocyte infiltration in the liver and upregulation of distinct intrahepatic chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL9). Macrophages and CD8 (cytotoxic) T cells were most prominently enriched in tumour-bearing livers, similar to samples from human HCC. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) increased in extrahepatic compartments of DEN-treated mice (bone marrow, spleen). The contribution of immune cell subsets for DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis was functionally dissected. In D6(-/-) mice, which lack the chemokine scavenging receptor D6, hepatic macrophage infiltration was significantly increased, but tumour formation and progression did not differ from that of WT mice. In contrast, progression of hepatic tumours (numbers, diameters, tumour load) was strikingly enhanced in T-/B cell-deficient Rag1(-/-) mice upon DEN treatment. When mice deficient for B cells (Igh6(-/-), μMT) or major histocompatibility complex II were used, the data indicated that T cells prevent initial tumour formation, while B cells critically limit growth of established tumours. Accordingly, in tumour-bearing mice antibody production against liver-related model antigen was enhanced, indicating tumour-associated B cell activation. In agreement, T and B cell pathways were differentially regulated in gene array analyses from 139 human HCC tissues and significantly associated with patients' survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Distinct axes of the adaptive immune system, which are also prognostic in human HCC, actively suppress DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by controlling tumour formation and progression.

Mirandola L, Yu Y, Jenkins MR, et al.
Tracking human multiple myeloma xenografts in NOD-Rag-1/IL-2 receptor gamma chain-null mice with the novel biomarker AKAP-4.
BMC Cancer. 2011; 11:394 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a fatal malignancy ranking second in prevalence among hematological tumors. Continuous efforts are being made to develop innovative and more effective treatments. The preclinical evaluation of new therapies relies on the use of murine models of the disease.
METHODS: Here we describe a new MM animal model in NOD-Rag1null IL2rgnull (NRG) mice that supports the engraftment of cell lines and primary MM cells that can be tracked with the tumor antigen, AKAP-4.
RESULTS: Human MM cell lines, U266 and H929, and primary MM cells were successfully engrafted in NRG mice after intravenous administration, and were found in the bone marrow, blood and spleen of tumor-challenged animals. The AKAP-4 expression pattern was similar to that of known MM markers, such as paraproteins, CD38 and CD45.
CONCLUSIONS: We developed for the first time a murine model allowing for the growth of both MM cell lines and primary cells in multifocal sites, thus mimicking the disease seen in patients. Additionally, we validated the use of AKAP-4 antigen to track tumor growth in vivo and to specifically identify MM cells in mouse tissues. We expect that our model will significantly improve the pre-clinical evaluation of new anti-myeloma therapies.

Qiu Y, Korteweg C, Chen Z, et al.
Immunoglobulin G expression and its colocalization with complement proteins in papillary thyroid cancer.
Mod Pathol. 2012; 25(1):36-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Except for the well-known immunoglobulin G (IgG) producing cell types, ie, mature B lymphocytes and plasma cells, various non-lymphoid cell types, including human cancer cells, neurons, and some specified epithelial cells, have been found to express IgG. In this study, we detected the expression of the heavy chain of IgG (IgGγ) and kappa light chain (Igκ) in papillary thyroid cancer cells. Using in situ hybridization, we detected the constant region of human IgG1 (IGHG1) in papillary thyroid cancer cells. With laser capture microdissection followed by RT-PCR, mRNA transcripts of IGHG1, Igκ, recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1), RAG2, and activation-induced cytidine deaminase genes were successfully amplified from isolated papillary thyroid cancer cells. We further confirmed IgG protein expression with immunohistochemistry and found that none of the IgG receptors was expressed in papillary thyroid cancer. Differences in the level of IgGγ expression between tumor size, between papillary thyroid cancer and normal thyroid tissue, as well as between papillary thyroid cancer with and without lymph node metastasis were significant. Taken together, these results indicate that IgG is produced by papillary thyroid cancer cells and that it might be positively related to the growth and metastasis of papillary thyroid cancer cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that IgGγ colocalized with complement proteins in the same cancer cells, which could indicate that immune complexes were formed. Such immune complexes might consist of IgG synthesized by the host against tumor surface antigens and locally produced anti-idiotypic IgG with specificity for the variable region of these 'primary' antibodies. The cancer cells might thus escape the host tumor-antigen-specific immune responses, hence promoting tumor progression.

Zhang L, Hu S, Korteweg C, et al.
Expression of immunoglobulin G in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and its association with tumor grade and Ki67.
Hum Pathol. 2012; 43(3):423-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
We and other research groups have previously shown that various cancer types can express immunoglobulin G, but investigation on of immunoglobulin G expression in esophageal cancer, a highly malignant tumor, and its biological significance has been lacking. In this study, we examined immunoglobulin G protein and its messenger RNA, as well as the expressions of recombination-activating gene 1, recombination-activating gene 2, and activation-induced cytidine deaminase in 142 cases of esophageal cancer tissues, and 2 esophageal cancer cell lines (Eca109, SHEEC). We also compared their expressions with tumor grade and a proliferation marker, Ki67. We used immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization, laser microdissection coupled with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. We detected transcripts of immunoglobulin G 1 heavy-chain constant region, immunoglobulin-κ and λ-light chains, immunoglobulin G variable region, and recombination-activating genes 1 and 2 in both esophageal cancer tissues and cell lines, whereas activation-induced cytidine deaminase was not detected. No immunoglobulin G receptor subtypes were detected. Statistic analysis revealed that immunoglobulin G expression correlated well with tumor grades (P < .001) and with the proliferation marker Ki67 (P < .001). Our results indicate that human esophageal cancer cells are capable of synthesizing immunoglobulin G, which is likely involved in the growth and proliferation of this highly malignant cancer and might also be used as a prognostic indicator in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.

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