Gene Summary

Gene:PRDX1; peroxiredoxin 1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes, which reduce hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxides. The encoded protein may play an antioxidant protective role in cells, and may contribute to the antiviral activity of CD8(+) T-cells. This protein may have a proliferative effect and play a role in cancer development or progression. Four transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PRDX1 (cancer-related)

Gong F, Liu H, Li J, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 1 is involved in disassembly of flagella and cilia.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 444(3):420-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cilia/flagella are evolutionarily conserved cellular organelles. In this study, we demonstrated that Dunaliella salina Peroxiredoxin 1 (DsPrdx1) localized to the flagella and basal bodies, and was involved in flagellar disassembly. The link between DsPrdx1 and flagella of Dunaliella salina (D. salina) encouraged us to explore the function of its human homologue, Homo sapiens Peroxiredoxin 1 (HsPrdx1) in development and physiology. Our results showed that HsPrdx1 was overexpressed, and cilia were lost in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells compared with the non-cancerous esophageal epithelial cells Het-1A. Furthermore, when HsPrdx1 was knocked down by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentivirus in ESCC cells, the phenotype of cilia lost can be reversed, and the expression levels of tumor suppressor genes LKB1 and p-AMPK were increased, and the activity of the oncogene Aurora A was inhibited compared with those in cells transfected with scrambe-shRNA lentivirus. These findings firstly showed that Prdx1 is involved in disassembly of flagella and cilia, and suggested that the abnormal expression of the cilia-related gene including Prdx1 may affect both ciliogenesis and cancernogenesis.

Sun QK, Zhu JY, Wang W, et al.
Diagnostic and prognostic significance of peroxiredoxin 1 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(1):786 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prdx1) is a member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes and implicated in cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression and diagnostic and prognostic significance of Prdx1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Prdx1 expression was examined in 76 HCC patients and 20 healthy volunteers. The relationships between Prdx1 expression and clinicopathological features were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to calculate the diagnostic accuracy of serum Prdx1, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and their combination. The prognostic impact of Prdx1 on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of HCC patients was investigated. Prdx1-positive rate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in HCC (77.1 %) than in adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues (18.4 %). Prdx1 immunoreactivity was positively correlated with tumor vascular endothelial growth factor expression and microvessel density. Prdx1 expression was significantly associated with tumor size, microvascular invasion, Edmondson grade, tumor capsula status, serum AFP, and tumor-node-metastasis stage. The combination of serum Prdx1 and AFP had a markedly higher area under the curve than serum Prdx1 alone. Positive Prdx1 expression was associated with unfavorable OS (p = 0.004) and DFS (p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed intra-tumoral Prdx1 staining as an independent poor prognostic marker for OS (p = 0.006) and DFS (p = 0.002). Taken together, our data suggest that increased Prdx1 expression is associated with tumor angiogenesis and progression in HCC and serves as a promising biomarker for detection and prognosis of this malignancy.

Hrdinka M, Horejsi V
PAG--a multipurpose transmembrane adaptor protein.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(41):4881-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (PAG), also known as Csk-binding protein (Cbp), is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane adaptor protein present in lipid rafts and involved in a number of signaling pathways. It helps recruit cytoplasmic C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) to lipid raft-associated Src kinases, mediates a link to actin cytoskeleton and interacts with several other important cytoplasmic and plasma membrane-associated proteins. In recent years, PAG has been implicated in various aspects of cancer cell biology. Our review covers all so far published data on this interesting protein.

Ren P, Ye H, Dai L, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 1 is a tumor-associated antigen in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(5):2297-303 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prdx1) is an antioxidant and plays an important role in H2O2-mediated cell signaling. We previously found that the expression level of Prdx1 was elevated in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissue using a proteomics approach. Since overexpressed protein can induce an autoimmune response, to further examine whether serum from ESCC patients exhibits immunoreactivity against Prdx1, autoantibody responses to Prdx1 were evaluated by ELISA, western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from patients with ESCC and normal individuals. Immunohistochemical study with tissue array slides and western blot analysis with cancer cell lines were also performed to analyze the protein expression profiles of Prdx1 in ESCC tissues and cancer cell lines. The results demonstrated that the positive rate of autoantibody against Prdx1 in ESCC sera was 13.2% (9/68), whereas this rate was 0% (0/89) in normal individuals. Data also showed that expression of Prdx1 was significantly increased in ESCC tissues when compared to expression in paired adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). The data indicate that Prdx1 may contribute to malignant transformation of the esophagus, and may be used as a biomarker in the immunodiagnosis of ESCC.

Guo QJ, Mills JN, Bandurraga SG, et al.
MicroRNA-510 promotes cell and tumor growth by targeting peroxiredoxin1 in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2013; 15(4):R70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in the post-transcriptional negative regulation of mRNAs. MicroRNA 510 (miR-510) was initially shown to have a potential oncogenic role in breast cancer by the observation of its elevated levels in human breast tumor samples when compared to matched non-tumor samples. Few targets have been identified for miR-510. However, as microRNAs function through the negative regulation of their direct targets, the identification of those targets is critical for the understanding of their functional role in breast cancer.
METHODS: Breast cancer cell lines were transfected with pre-miR-510 or antisense miR-510 and western blotting and quantitative real time PCR were performed. Functional assays performed included cell growth, migration, invasion, colony formation, cytotoxicity and in vivo tumor growth. We performed a PCR assay to identify novel direct targets of miR-510. The study focused on peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) as it was identified through our screen and was bioinformatically predicted to contain a miR-510 seed site in its 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). Luciferase reporter assays and site-directed mutagenesis were performed to confirm PRDX1 as a direct target. The Student's two-sided, paired t-test was used and a P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.
RESULTS: We show that miR-510 overexpression in non-transformed and breast cancer cells can increase their cell growth, migration, invasion and colony formation in vitro. We also observed increased tumor growth when miR-510 was overexpressed in vivo. We identified PRDX1 through a novel PCR screen and confirmed it as a direct target using luciferase reporter assays. The reintroduction of PRDX1 into breast cancer cell lines without its regulatory 3'UTR confirmed that miR-510 was mediating its migratory phenotype at least in part through the negative regulation of PRDX1. Furthermore, the PI3K/Akt pathway was identified as a positive regulator of miR-510 both in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we provide evidence to support a role for miR-510 as a novel oncomir. We show that miR-510 directly binds to the 3'UTR of PRDX1 and blocks its protein expression, thereby suppressing migration of human breast cancer cells. Taken together, these data support a pivotal role for miR-510 in breast cancer progression and suggest it as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer patients.

Wiestler B, Claus R, Hartlieb SA, et al.
Malignant astrocytomas of elderly patients lack favorable molecular markers: an analysis of the NOA-08 study collective.
Neuro Oncol. 2013; 15(8):1017-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The number of patients age >65 years with malignant gliomas is increasing. Prognosis of these patients is worse compared with younger patients. To determine biological differences among malignant gliomas of different age groups and help to explain the survival heterogeneity seen in the NOA-08 trial, the prevalence and impact of recently established biomarkers for outcome in younger patients were characterized in elderly patients.
METHODS: Prevalences of mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and histone H3.3 (H3F3A), the glioma cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), and methylation of alkylpurine DNA N-glycosylase (APNG) and peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) promoters were determined in a representative biomarker subset (n = 126 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma) from the NOA-08 trial.
RESULTS: IDH1 mutations (R132H) were detected in only 3/126 patients, precluding determination of an association between IDH mutation and outcome. These 3 patients also displayed the G-CIMP phenotype. None of the IDH1 wild-type tumors were G-CIMP positive. Mutations in H3F3A were absent in all 103 patients sequenced for H3F3A. MassARRAY analysis of the APNG promoter revealed generally low methylation levels and failed to confirm any predictive properties for benefit from alkylating chemotherapy. Neither did PRDX1 promoter methylation show differential methylation or association with outcome in this cohort. In a 170-patient cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas database matched for relevant prognostic factors, age ≥65 years was strongly associated with shorter survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite an age-independent stable frequency of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter hypermethylation, tumors in this age group largely lack prognostically favorable markers established in younger glioblastoma patients, which likely contributes to the overall worse prognosis of elderly patients. However, the survival differences hint at fundamental further differences among malignant gliomas of different age groups.

Seibold P, Hall P, Schoof N, et al.
Polymorphisms in oxidative stress-related genes and mortality in breast cancer patients--potential differential effects by radiotherapy?
Breast. 2013; 22(5):817-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
We assessed whether variants in 22 oxidative stress-related genes are associated with mortality of breast cancer patients and whether the associations differ according to radiotherapy. Using a prospective cohort of 1348 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for 109 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Validation of results was attempted using two Scandinavian studies. Eleven SNPs in MT2A, NFE2L2, NQO1, PRDX1, and PRDX6 were significantly associated with overall mortality after a median follow-up of 5.7 years. Three SNPs in NQO1 (rs2917667) and in PRDX6 (rs7314, rs4916362) were consistently associated with increased risk of dying across all three study populations (pooled: HRNQO1_rs2917667 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44, p = 0.051; HRPRDX6_rs7314 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.35, p = 0.056, HRPRDX6_rs4916362 1.14 95% CI 1.00-1.32, p = 0.062). Potential effect modification by radiotherapy was found for CAT_rs769218. In conclusion, genetic variants in NQO1 and PRDX6 may modify breast cancer prognosis.

Galazis N, Docheva N, Nicolaides KH, Atiomo W
Proteomic biomarkers of preterm birth risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a systematic review and biomarker database integration.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53801 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Preterm Birth (PTB) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) are at high risk of PTB. There is a need for research studies to investigate the mechanisms linking PCOS and PTB, to facilitate screening, and develop novel preventative strategies.
OBJECTIVE: To list all the proteomic biomarkers of PTB and integrate this list with the PCOS biomarker database to identify commonly expressed biomarkers of the two conditions.
SEARCH STRATEGY: A systematic review of PTB biomarkers and update of PCOS biomarker database. All eligible published studies on proteomic biomarkers for PTB and PCOS identified through various databases were evaluated.
SELECTION CRITERIA: For the identification of the relevant studies, the following search terms were used: "proteomics", "proteomic", "preterm birth", "preterm labour", "proteomic biomarker" and "polycystic ovary syndrome". This search was restricted to humans only
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A database on proteomic biomarkers for PTB was created while an already existing PCOS biomarker database was updated. The two databases were integrated and biomarkers that were co-expressed in both women with PCOS and PTB were identified and investigated.
RESULTS: A panel of six proteomic biomarkers was similarly differentially expressed in women with PTB and women with PCOS compared to their respective controls (normal age-matched women in the case of PCOS studies and women with term pregnancy in the case of PTB studies). These biomarkers include Pyruvate kinase M1/M2, Vimentin, Fructose bisphosphonate aldolase A, Heat shock protein beta-1, Peroxiredoxin-1 and Transferrin.
CONCLUSIONS: These proteomic biomarkers (Pyruvate kinase M1/M2, Vimentin, Fructose bisphosphonate aldolase A, Heat shock protein beta-1, Peroxiredoxin-1 and Transferrin) can be potentially used to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms linking PCOS and PTB. This would help to identify subgroups of women with PCOS at risk of PTB and hence the potential of developing preventative strategies.

Riddell JR, Maier P, Sass SN, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 1 stimulates endothelial cell expression of VEGF via TLR4 dependent activation of HIF-1α.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e50394 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic inflammation leads to the formation of a pro-tumorigenic microenvironment that can promote tumor development, growth and differentiation through augmentation of tumor angiogenesis. Prostate cancer (CaP) risk and prognosis are adversely correlated with a number of inflammatory and angiogenic mediators, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NF-κB and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) was recently identified as an endogenous ligand for TLR4 that is secreted from CaP cells and promotes inflammation. Inhibition of Prx1 by CaP cells resulted in reduced expression of VEGF, diminished tumor vasculature and retarded tumor growth. The mechanism by which Prx1 regulates VEGF expression in normoxic conditions was investigated in the current study. Our results show that incubation of mouse vascular endothelial cells with recombinant Prx1 caused increases in VEGF expression that was dependent upon TLR4 and required hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) interaction with the VEGF promoter. The induction of VEGF was also dependent upon NF-κB; however, NF-κB interaction with the VEGF promoter was not required for Prx1 induction of VEGF suggesting that NF-κB was acting indirectly to induce VEGF expression. The results presented here show that Prx1 stimulation increased NF-κB interaction with the HIF-1α promoter, leading to enhanced promoter activity and increases in HIF-1α mRNA levels, as well as augmented HIF-1 activity that resulted in VEGF expression. Prx1 induced HIF-1 also promoted NF-κB activity, suggesting the presence of a positive feedback loop that has the potential to perpetuate Prx1 induction of angiogenesis. Strikingly, inhibition of Prx1 expression in CaP was accompanied with reduced expression of HIF-1α. The combined findings of the current study and our previous study suggest that Prx1 interaction with TLR4 promotes CaP growth potentially through chronic activation of tumor angiogenesis.

Kalinina EV, Berezov TT, Shtil' AA, et al.
Expression of peroxiredoxin 1, 2, 3, and 6 genes in cancer cells during drug resistance formation.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012; 153(6):878-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied the expression of peroxiredoxin genes (PRDX1, PRDX2, PRDX3, and PRDX6) in human erythroleukemia K652, human breast carcinoma MCF-7, and human ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 cells during cisplatin resistance development. It was found that drug resistance formation was accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of PRDX1, PRDX2, PRDX3, PRDX6 genes in all cancer cell strains, which confirms the important contribution of redox-dependent mechanisms into the development of cisplatin resistance of cancer cells.

Yu W, Wang Y, Gong M, et al.
Phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid microdomains 1 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of human prostate cancer cells in vitro through suppression of Ras activation.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 28(2):606-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid microdomains 1 (PAG) is an important negative regulator of immune signaling in T lymphocytes. However, newly emerging evidence has indicated that PAG may play important roles in tumor cells. Our previously reported cDNA microarray experiments identified PAG as a gene down-regulated in the high metastatic potential prostate cancer cell line PC-3M-1E8. In this study, we investigated the role of PAG in the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. We confirmed that the expression of PAG at both the mRNA and protein levels was low in PC-3M-1E8 and DU145 cells compared to low metastatic potential prostate cancer cells PC-3M-2B4. In addition, we demonstrated that the reintroduction of PAG to PC-3M-1E8 and DU145 cells led to reduced proliferation through cell cycle arrest, decreased anchorage-independent growth and reduced invasion ability of tumor cells in vitro. This is the first report demonstrating that PAG inhibits the proliferation and invasion potential of prostate cancer cells via the interaction with RasGAP to recruit RasGAP to the cell membrane, where RasGAP hydrolyzes GTP to GDP, reduces the level of activated Ras, and ultimately suppresses the activation of ERK1/2, cyclin D1 and other effectors of the Ras signaling pathway. Morphologically, we observed that PAG could diminish the formation of pseudopodia on the cell surface and redistribute the intracellular F-actin in PC-3M-1E8 cells, which directly leads to the decreased invasion and metastasis potential of tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PAG acts to inhibit the development and metastasis of prostate cancers and represents a novel therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

Ha B, Kim EK, Kim JH, et al.
Human peroxiredoxin 1 modulates TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition through its peroxidase activity.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 421(1):33-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), is an important event that allows cancer cells to obtain invasive and metastatic characteristics. Although human peroxiredoxin 1 (hPrx1) has been implicated in tumor progression (e.g., invasion and metastasis), little is known about the role of hPrx1 in the EMT process during tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the regulatory effect of hPrx1 during TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. We observed that high hPrx1 levels downregulated E-cadherin expression, and low hPrx1 levels upregulated E-cadherin expression, suggesting that the hPrx1 level may be correlated with EMT. Knockdown of hPrx1 significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration, whereas hPrx1 overexpression enhanced TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. In contrast to wild-type hPrx1, a peroxidase-inactive hPrx1 mutant (hPrx1-C51S) resulted in markedly increased E-cadherin expression. Moreover, hPrx1 regulated the expression of two E-cadherin transcriptional repressors, Snail and Slug. These findings provide new insight into the role of hPrx1 in regulating TGF-β1-induced EMT.

Charytonowicz E, Terry M, Coakley K, et al.
PPARγ agonists enhance ET-743-induced adipogenic differentiation in a transgenic mouse model of myxoid round cell liposarcoma.
J Clin Invest. 2012; 122(3):886-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myxoid round cell liposarcoma (MRCLS) is a common liposarcoma subtype characterized by a translocation that results in the fusion protein TLS:CHOP as well as by mixed adipocytic histopathology. Both the etiology of MRCLS and the mechanism of action of TLS:CHOP remain poorly understood. It was previously shown that ET-743, an antitumor compound with an unclear mechanism of action, is highly effective in patients with MRCLS. To identify the cellular origin of MRCLS, we engineered a mouse model in which TLS:CHOP was expressed under the control of a mesodermally restricted promoter (Prx1) in a p53-depleted background. This model resembled MRCLS histologically as well as functionally in terms of its specific adipocytic differentiation-based response to ET-743. Specifically, endogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing TLS:CHOP developed into MRCLS in vivo. Gene expression and microRNA analysis of these MSCs showed that they were committed to adipocytic differentiation, but unable to terminally differentiate. We also explored the method of action of ET-743. ET-743 downregulated TLS:CHOP expression, which correlated with CEBPα expression and adipocytic differentiation. Furthermore, PPARγ agonists enhanced the differentiation process initiated by ET-743. Our work highlights how clinical observations can lead to the generation of a mouse model that recapitulates human disease and may be used to develop rational treatment combinations, such as ET-743 plus PPARγ agonists, for the treatment of MRCLS.

Dittmann LM, Danner A, Gronych J, et al.
Downregulation of PRDX1 by promoter hypermethylation is frequent in 1p/19q-deleted oligodendroglial tumours and increases radio- and chemosensitivity of Hs683 glioma cells in vitro.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(29):3409-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deletions of chromosomal arms 1p and 19q are frequent in oligodendroglial tumours and linked to radio- and chemotherapy response as well as longer survival. The molecular mechanisms underlying this clinically important association are as yet unknown. Here, we studied the peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) gene at 1p34.1 for promoter methylation and expression in primary gliomas and investigated its role in radio- and chemosensitivity of glioma cells in vitro. In total, we screened primary glioma tissues from 93 patients for methylation of the 5'-CpG island of PRDX1 by sodium bisulfite sequencing. PRDX1 mRNA and protein expression levels were determined in subsets of the tumours by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. PRDX1 hypermethylation and reduced expression were frequently detected in oligodendroglial tumours and secondary glioblastomas, but not in primary glioblastomas. In oligodendroglial tumours, both PRDX1 hypermethylation and reduced mRNA expression were significantly associated with 1p/19q-deletion. Stable knockdown of PRDX1 by lentiviral transduction of short-hairpin (sh)RNA constructs significantly increased apoptosis and reduced cell viability of Hs683 glioma cells exposed to ionizing irradiation or temozolomide in vitro. Taken together, our findings indicate that epigenetic silencing of PRDX1 is frequent in 1p/19q-deleted oligodendroglial tumours and likely contributes to radio- and chemosensitivity of these tumours.

Cao JY, Mansouri S, Frappier L
Changes in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma nuclear proteome induced by the EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus reveal potential roles for EBNA1 in metastasis and oxidative stress responses.
J Virol. 2012; 86(1):382-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is causatively associated with a variety of human cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The only viral nuclear protein expressed in NPC is EBNA1, which can alter cellular properties in ways that may promote oncogenesis. Here, we used 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DiGE) to profile changes in the nuclear proteome that occur after stable expression of EBNA1 in the EBV-negative NPC cell line CNE2. We found that EBNA1 consistently altered the levels of a small percentage of the nuclear proteins. The identification of 19 of these proteins by mass spectrometry revealed that EBNA1 upregulated three proteins affecting metastatic potential (stathmin 1, maspin, and Nm23-H1) and several proteins in the oxidative stress response pathway, including the antioxidants superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1). Western blot analysis verified that EBNA1 expression upregulated and EBNA1 silencing downregulated these proteins. In addition, transcripts for stathmin 1 were induced by EBNA1, whereas EBNA1 only affected Prx1 and SOD1 at the protein level. Further investigation of the EBNA1 effects on the redox pathway showed that long-term EBNA1 expression in NPC resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased levels of the NADPH oxidases NOX1 and NOX2, known to generate ROS. In addition, EBNA1 depletion in EBV-positive cells decreased NOX2 and ROS. The results show multiple roles for EBNA1 in the oxidative stress response pathway and suggest mechanisms by which EBNA1 may promote NPC metastases.

Zhang J, Wang K, Zhang J, et al.
Using proteomic approach to identify tumor-associated proteins as biomarkers in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Proteome Res. 2011; 10(6):2863-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers in China. The lower survival rate of ESCC is attributed to late diagnosis and poor therapeutic efficacy; therefore, the identification of tumor-associated proteins as biomarkers for early diagnosis, and the discovery of novel targets for therapeutic intervention, seems very important for increasing the survival rate of ESCC. To identify tumor-associated proteins as biomarkers in ESCC, we have analyzed ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. The results showed that a total of 104 protein spots with different expression levels were found on 2DE, and 47 proteins were eventually identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Among these identified proteins, 33 proteins including keratin 17 (KRT17), biliverdin reductase B (BLVRB), proteasome activator subunit 1 (PSME1), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), high-mobility group box-1(HMGB1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), peroxiredoxin (PRDX1), keratin 13 (KRT13), and so on were overexpressed, and 14 proteins including cystatin B (CSTB), tropomyosin 2 (TPM2), annexin 1 (ANX1), transgelin (TAGLN), keratin 19 (KRT19), stratifin (SFN), and so on were down-expressed in ESCC. Biological functions of these proteins are associated with cell proliferation, cell motility, protein folding, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. In the subsequent study using immunoassay on ESCC serum samples and tissue-array slides, two representative proteins, HSP70 and HMGB1, were selected as examples for the purpose of validation. The results showed that both HSP70 and HMGB1 can induce autoantibody response in ESCC sera and have higher expression in ESCC tissues. Especially, the frequency of antibodies to HSP70 in ESCC sera was significantly higher than that in normal human sera. The preliminary results suggest that some of these identified proteins might contribute to esophageal cell differentiation and carcinogenesis, certain proteins could be used as tumor-associated antigen (TAA) biomarkers in cancer diagnosis, and further studies on these identified proteins should provide more evidence of how these proteins are involved in carcinogenesis of ESCC.

Kossler N, Stricker S, Rödelsperger C, et al.
Neurofibromin (Nf1) is required for skeletal muscle development.
Hum Mol Genet. 2011; 20(14):2697-709 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multi-system disease caused by mutations in the NF1 gene encoding a Ras-GAP protein, neurofibromin, which negatively regulates Ras signaling. Besides neuroectodermal malformations and tumors, the skeletal system is often affected (e.g. scoliosis and long bone dysplasia) demonstrating the importance of neurofibromin for development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Here, we focus on the role of neurofibromin in skeletal muscle development. Nf1 gene inactivation in the early limb bud mesenchyme using Prx1-cre (Nf1(Prx1)) resulted in muscle dystrophy characterized by fibrosis, reduced number of muscle fibers and reduced muscle force. This was caused by an early defect in myogenesis affecting the terminal differentiation of myoblasts between E12.5 and E14.5. In parallel, the muscle connective tissue cells exhibited increased proliferation at E14.5 and an increase in the amount of connective tissue as early as E16.5. These changes were accompanied by excessive mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation. Satellite cells isolated from Nf1(Prx1) mice showed normal self-renewal, but their differentiation was impaired as indicated by diminished myotube formation. Our results demonstrate a requirement of neurofibromin for muscle formation and maintenance. This previously unrecognized function of neurofibromin may contribute to the musculoskeletal problems in NF1 patients.

Gao MC, Jia XD, Wu QF, et al.
Silencing Prx1 and/or Prx5 sensitizes human esophageal cancer cells to ionizing radiation and increases apoptosis via intracellular ROS accumulation.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011; 32(4):528-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate whether down-regulation of peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) and/or peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5) sensitizes human esophageal cancer cells to ionizing radiation (IR).
METHODS: Human esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca-109 and TE-1 were used. Prx mRNA expression profiles in Eca-109 and TE-1 cells were determined using RT-PCR. Two highly expressed isoforms of Prxs, Prx1 and Prx5, were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). Following IR, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were measured using flow cytometry, the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured, and the radiosensitizing effect of RNAi was observed. Tumor xenograft model was also used to examine the radiosensitizing effect of RNAi in vivo.
RESULTS: Down-regulation of Prx1 and/or Prx5 by RNAi does not alter the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, but made human tumor cells more sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. When the two isoforms were decreased simultaneously, intracellular ROS and apoptosis significantly increased after IR.
CONCLUSION: Silencing Prx1 and/or Prx5 by RNAi sensitizes human Eca-109 and TE-1 cells to IR, and the intracellular ROS accumulation may contribute to the radiosensitizing effect of the RNAi.

Lee KW, Lee DJ, Lee JY, et al.
Peroxiredoxin II restrains DNA damage-induced death in cancer cells by positively regulating JNK-dependent DNA repair.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(10):8394-404 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prx) belong to a family of antioxidant enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and are distributed throughout the intracellular and extracellular compartments. However, the presence and role of 2-Cys Prxs in the nucleus have not been studied. This study demonstrates that the PrxII located in the nucleus protects cancer cells from DNA damage-induced cell death. Although the two cytosolic 2-Cys Prxs, PrxI and PrxII, were found in the nucleus, only PrxII knockdown selectively and markedly increased cell death in the cancer cells treated with DNA-damaging agents. The increased death was completely reverted by the nuclearly targeted expression of PrxII in an activity-independent manner. Furthermore, the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole did not influence the etoposide-induced cell death. Mechanistically, the knockdown of Prx II expression impaired the DNA repair process by reducing the activation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway. These results suggest that PrxII is likely to be attributed to a tumor survival factor positively regulating JNK-dependent DNA repair with its inhibition possibly sensitizing cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents.

Basu A, Banerjee H, Rojas H, et al.
Differential expression of peroxiredoxins in prostate cancer: consistent upregulation of PRDX3 and PRDX4.
Prostate. 2011; 71(7):755-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are emerging as regulators of antioxidant defense, apoptosis, and therapy resistance in cancer. Because their significance in prostate cancer (PCa) is unclear, we investigated their expression and clinical associations in PCa.
METHODS: Transcript expression of PRDX1-6 in PCa was evaluated in cancer gene microarray datasets, whereas protein expression was evaluated by immunoblotting in prostate cell lines, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in prostate tissue microarrays (TMAs) containing tumor (n = 80) and control (n = 17) tissues. PRDX3 was also analyzed in TMAs containing PCa tissues from African-American and Caucasian patients (n = 150 per group). PRDX expression was correlated with patients' clinicopathologic characteristics.
RESULTS: Analysis of PRDX expression in cancer microarray datasets revealed consistent upregulation (tumor vs. normal) of PRDX3 and 4. All PRDXs exhibited elevated protein expression in PCa cell lines, compared with non-tumor cells. IHC revealed significant overexpression of PRDX3 and 4 in PCa, associated with age, increased prostate specific antigen (PSA), tumor stage, or Gleason score. High PRDX3 staining was associated with early age and elevated Gleason score at time of radical prostatectomy in African-American but not in Caucasian patients with PCa. PSA recurrence free survival in patients with low PRDX3 tumor expression was significantly longer in Caucasians compared to African-Americans, but no difference was detected for high expression.
CONCLUSIONS: PRDXs exhibit differential expression in prostate tumors, with PRDX3 and 4 consistently upregulated. Their role in PCa development, and their potential as biological determinants of PCa health disparities and novel therapeutic targets, deserve further investigation.

Chen MF, Lee KD, Yeh CH, et al.
Role of peroxiredoxin I in rectal cancer and related to p53 status.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010; 78(3):868-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is widely accepted for the treatment of localized rectal cancer. Although peroxiredoxin I (PrxI) and p53 have been implicated in carcinogenesis and cancer treatment, the role of PrxI and its interaction with p53 in the prognosis and treatment response of rectal cancer remain relatively unstudied.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: In the present study, we examined the levels of PrxI and p53 in rectal cancer patients using membrane arrays and compared them with normal population samples. To demonstrate the biologic changes after manipulation of PrxI expression, we established stable transfectants of HCT-116 (wild-type p53) and HT-29 (mutant p53) cells with a PrxI silencing vector. The predictive capacities of PrxI and p53 were also assessed by relating the immunohistochemical staining of a retrospective series of rectal cancer cases to the clinical outcome.
RESULTS: The membrane array and immunochemical staining data showed that PrxI, but not p53, was significantly associated with the tumor burden. Our immunochemistry findings further indicated that PrxI positivity was linked to a poor response to neoadjuvant therapy and worse survival. In cellular and animal experiments, the inhibition of PrxI significantly decreased tumor growth and sensitized the tumor to irradiation, as indicated by a lower capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species and more extensive DNA damage. The p53 status might have contributed to the difference between HCT-116 and HT-29 after knockdown of PrxI.
CONCLUSION: According to our data, the level of PrxI combined with the p53 status is relevant to the prognosis and the treatment response. We suggested that PrxI might be a new biomarker for rectal cancer.

Wang X, He S, Sun JM, et al.
Selective association of peroxiredoxin 1 with genomic DNA and COX-2 upstream promoter elements in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells.
Mol Biol Cell. 2010; 21(17):2987-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In a search for proteins differentially cross-linked to DNA by cisplatin or formaldehyde in normal breast epithelial and breast cancer cell lines, we identified peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) as a protein preferentially cross-linked to DNA in estrogen receptor negative (ER-) MDA-MB-231 but not in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF7 breast cancer cells. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopic analyses showed that PRDX1 was located in the cytoplasm and nucleus of normal and breast cancer cells, with nuclear PRDX1 associated with promyelocytic leukemia protein bodies. We demonstrated that PRDX1 association with the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in MDA-MB-231 but not in MCF7 cells contributed to PRDX1-selective recruitment to MDA-MB-231 genomic DNA. Furthermore, PRDX1 was associated with the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 upstream promoter region at sites occupied by NF-kappaB in ER- but not in ER+ breast cancer cells. PRDX1 knockdown attenuated COX-2 expression by reducing NF-kappaB occupancy at its upstream promoter element in MDA-MB-231 but not in MCF7 cells. A phosphorylated form of PRDX1 was only present in ER- breast cancer cells. Because PRDX1 phosphorylation is known to inhibit its peroxidase activity and to promote PRDX1 oligomerization, we propose that PRDX1 acts as a chaperone to enhance the transactivation potential of NF-kappaB in ER- breast cancer cells.

Wright CM, Larsen JE, Hayward NK, et al.
ADAM28: a potential oncogene involved in asbestos-related lung adenocarcinomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010; 49(8):688-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Asbestos-related lung cancer accounts for 4-12% of all lung cancers worldwide. Since putative mechanisms of carcinogenesis differ between asbestos and tobacco induced lung cancers, tumors induced by the two agents may be genetically distinct. To identify gene expression biomarkers associated with asbestos-related lung tumorigenicity we performed gene expression array analysis on tumors of 36 patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, comparing 12 patients with lung asbestos body counts above levels associated with urban dwelling (ARLC-AC: asbestos-related lung cancer-adenocarcinoma) with 24 patients with no asbestos bodies (NARLC-AC: non-asbestos related lung cancer-adenocarcinoma). Genes differentially expressed between ARLC-AC and NARLC-AC were identified on fold change and P value, and then prioritized using gene ontology. Candidates included ZNRF3, ADAM28, PPP1CA, IRF6, RAB3D, and PRDX1. Expression of these six genes was technically and biologically replicated by qRT-PCR in the training set and biologically validated in three independent test sets. ADAM28, encoding a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain protein that interacts with integrins, was consistently upregulated in ARLC across all four datasets. Further studies are being designed to investigate the possible role of this gene in asbestos lung tumorigenicity, its potential utility as a marker of asbestos related lung cancer for purposes of causal attribution, and its potential as a treatment target for lung cancers arising in asbestos exposed persons.

Chhipa RR, Lee KS, Onate S, et al.
Prx1 enhances androgen receptor function in prostate cancer cells by increasing receptor affinity to dihydrotestosterone.
Mol Cancer Res. 2009; 7(9):1543-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a critical role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. It has been reported previously that peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx1), a member of a novel family of peroxidases, interacts physically with AR to enhance AR transactivation of target genes. In the present study, we evaluated the biological significance of Prx1 in modulating dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-stimulated growth and AR target gene expression of prostate cancer cells. We also investigated the mechanism by which Prx1 might potentiate AR signaling. The contribution of Prx1 was assessed mainly by using the approach of stable Prx1 knockdown. The major observations are as follows: (a) A low level of Prx1 desensitizes cells to growth stimulation and AR target gene induction by DHT, such that exposure to a higher level of DHT is required to reach the same magnitude of response when Prx1 is depressed; (b) Prx1 increases the affinity of AR to DHT and decreases the rate of DHT dissociation from the occupied receptor; (c) Prx1 enhances the NH2 terminus and COOH terminus interaction of AR; a stronger N-C interaction is consistent with a more robust AR activation signal by keeping DHT tight in the ligand-binding pocket; (d) the stimulatory effects of Prx1 on AR ligand binding affinity and AR N-C interaction are manifested regardless of a wild-type or mutant AR. The above findings led us to believe that Prx1 may be a therapeutic target in blocking the transition of prostate cancer from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-refractory phenotype.

Luo Y, Pang H, Li S, et al.
Production and radioimmunoimaging of novel fully human phage display recombinant antibodies and growth inhibition of lung adenocarcinoma cell line overexpressing Prx I.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2009; 8(14):1369-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) is a member of the Peroxiredoxin family, which is overexpressed in many diverse tumor types and is an anti-apoptosis protein for tumor cell proliferation and survival. Therapeutic strategies targeting the Prx I may therefore be effective broad-spectrum anticancer agents. We constructed a phage display single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library and sieve out the fully human, lung adenocarcinoma-sepcific monoclonal antibodies. The selection on Prx I was performed using above-mentioned lung adenocarcinoma-sepcific monoclonal antibodies with high affinity to Prx I overexpressing lung adenocarcinoma cells. The candidate scFv sequences, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening data, were chosen for soluble expression, and a 30 kDa band was observed on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as predicted. The purified antibodies were characterized by immunoblotting and showed high specificity to Prx I-overexpressing lung adenocarcinoma cells A549. Radioimmunoimaging was taken to evaluate specificity and distribution of antibodies in vivo. The radiolocalization index (RI) of tumor/serum and tumor/muscle gradually increased, reaching its peak (4.06 +/- 0.13 and 5.17 +/- 0.97, respectively) at 48 h postadministration. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging showed the radioactivity was aggregated in tumor locations and tumor imaging was clearly observed. The internalized scFv resulted in antibody-mediated cell apoptosis and downregulation of Prx I expression. These results demonstrate that the scFv possesses strong antitumor activity on lung adenocarcinoma and may therefore be an effective therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cancers that are dependent on Prx I for growth and survival.

Kita K, Sato M, Suzuki T, Ochi T
Structure-effect relationship in the down-regulation of glutaminase in cultured human cells by phenylarsenic compounds.
Toxicology. 2009; 258(2-3):157-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diphenylarsinic acid [DPAA(V)] was detected in ground water used as drinking water after a poisonous incident in Kamisu, Japan. An approach to define the target molecules of DPAA(V) with a high throughput analysis of proteins from cultured human cells demonstrated down-regulation of glutaminase C (GAC). GAC is a splicing variant of the kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) gene and has the enzyme activity of phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG). To gain some insights into the mechanism of arsenic intoxication in Kamisu, the effects of various arsenic compounds, including arsenicals that were detected in ground water ([DPAA(V)], phenylarsonic acid [PAA(V)] and bis(diphenylarsine)oxide [BDPAO(III)]) and rice (phenylmethylarsinic acid [PMAA(V)]), were investigated for the expression of GAC and PAG activity. When cultured human HepG2 cells were incubated with arsenicals for 24h, the pentavalent phenylarsenic form of PAA(V) and PMAA(V) as well as DPAA(V) suppressed the expression of GAC protein and PAG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the trivalent phenylarsenic form of BDPAO(III) had no suppressive effect on GAC and PAG. In addition, trivalent phenylarsenic compounds, such as the glutathione (GSH) conjugate of DPAA(V) [DPA-GS (III)] and triphenylarsine [TPA(III)], and the inorganic arsenics, iAs(V) and iAs(III), and methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenics, dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)] and dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)], had no suppressive effect on glutaminase. Likewise, methyl substituents of the hydroxyl groups of DPAA(V), PAA(V) and PMAA(V), diphenylmethylarsine oxide [DPMAO(V)] and phenyldimethylarsine oxide [PDMAO(V)], did not have any suppressive effects. These results suggest that pentavalent arsenic compounds with both phenyl groups and hydroxyl groups are effective in the suppression of glutaminase. In addition, the fact that it was only the arsenicals detected in Kamisu that were effective in suppressing glutaminase provides insights into the cause of the arsenic intoxication at Kamisu.

Shiota M, Izumi H, Miyamoto N, et al.
Ets regulates peroxiredoxin1 and 5 expressions through their interaction with the high-mobility group protein B1.
Cancer Sci. 2008; 99(10):1950-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peroxiredoxins (Prdxs) are thiol-specific antioxidant proteins that are highly expressed in human cancer cells. Prdxs have been shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation under conditions of microenvironmental stress such as hypoxia. We hypothesized that Prdxs could be categorized into two groups, stress-inducible and non-inducible ones. In this study, we analyzed the promoter activity and expression levels of five Prdx family members in human cancer cells. We found that both Prdx1 and Prdx5 are inducible after treatment with hydrogen peroxide or hypoxia, but that Prdx2, Prdx3, and Prdx4 are not or are only marginally inducible. We also found that Ets transcription factors are the key activators for stress-inducible expression. High-mobility group protein HMGB1 was shown to function as a coactivator through direct interactions with Ets transcription factors. The DNA binding of Ets transcription factors was significantly enhanced by HMGB1. Silencing of Ets1, Ets2, Prdx1, and Prdx5 expression sensitized cells to oxidative stress. These data indicate that transcription of Prdx genes mediated by Ets/HMG proteins might protect cells from oxidative stress.

Bar-Am O, Weinreb O, Amit T, Youdim MB
The novel cholinesterase-monoamine oxidase inhibitor and antioxidant, ladostigil, confers neuroprotection in neuroblastoma cells and aged rats.
J Mol Neurosci. 2009; 37(2):135-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
The current therapeutic advance in which future drugs are designed to possess varied pharmacological properties and act on multiple targets has stimulated the development of the multimodal drug, ladostigil (TV3326; (N-propargyl-(3R) aminoindan-5yl)-ethyl methyl carbamate). Ladostigil combines neuroprotective effects with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and MAO-B and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitory activities in a single molecule, as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Lewy body disease. In the present study, we demonstrate that ladostigil (10(-6)-10 muM) dose-dependently increased cell viability, associated with increased activity of catalase and glutathione reductase and decrease of intracellular reactive oxygen species production in a cytotoxic model of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In addition, ladostigil significantly upregulated mRNA levels of several antioxidant enzymes (catalase, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 and peroxiredoxin 1) in both H(2)O(2)-treated SH-SY5Y cells, as well as in the high-density human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cultured apoptotic models. In vivo chronic treatment with ladostigil (1 mg/kg per os per day for 30 days) markedly upregulated mRNA expression levels of various enzymes involved in metabolism and oxidation processes in aged rat hippocampus. In addition to its unique combination of ChE and MAO enzyme inhibition, these results indicate that ladostigil displays neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis, which might be valuable for aging and age-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

Demasi AP, Magalhães MH, Furuse C, et al.
Peroxiredoxin I is differentially expressed in multiple myelomas and in plasmablastic lymphomas.
Oral Dis. 2008; 14(8):741-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are B cell-derived malignancies that share many morphologic and immunophenotypic traits, making the differential diagnosis particularly complicated. We have recently demonstrated that peroxiredoxin I (PrdxI) is expressed in plasma cells but not in B lymphocytes, suggesting that its expression is development-associated.
AIM: To analyze PrdxI expression in PBL and in MM in order to study its utilization as an additional diagnostic molecular tool.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight cases of PBL and nine of MM were studied by immunohistochemistry. We have demonstrated that PrdxI expression is closely connected with the immunoglobulin production capacity of the cells, which means high in MM, but absent in PBL cases, except one, wherein few cells were stained.
CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize PrdxI as a component of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive pathway essential for plasma cell differentiation. As we have not detected immunoglobulin in our PBL cases, we suggest that UPR was not activated in the cells, accounting for the impediment of the developmental process, and for the inhibition of PrdxI expression observed. PrdxI could be considered an additional plasma cell functional marker and could also be speculated as a therapeutic target in the treatment of MM.

Rho JH, Qin S, Wang JY, Roehrl MH
Proteomic expression analysis of surgical human colorectal cancer tissues: up-regulation of PSB7, PRDX1, and SRP9 and hypoxic adaptation in cancer.
J Proteome Res. 2008; 7(7):2959-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal adenocarcinoma is one of the worldwide leading causes of cancer deaths. Discovery of specific biomarkers for early detection of cancer progression and the identification of underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are important tasks. Global proteomic approaches have thus far been limited by the large dynamic range of molecule concentrations in tissues and the lack of selective enrichment of the low-abundance proteome. We studied paired cancerous and normal clinical tissue specimens from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas by heparin affinity fractionation enrichment (HAFE) followed by 2-D PAGE and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) identification. Fifty-six proteins were found to be differentially expressed, of which 32 low-abundance proteins were only detectable after heparin affinity enrichment. MS/MS was used to identify 5 selected differentially expressed proteins as proteasome subunit beta type 7 (PSB7), hemoglobin alpha subunit (HBA), peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX1), argininosuccinate synthase (ASSY), and signal recognition particle 9 kDa protein (SRP9). This is the first proteomic study detecting the differential expression of these proteins in human colorectal cancer tissue. Several of the proteins are functionally related to tissue hypoxia and hypoxic adaptation. The relative specificities of PSB7, PRDX1, and SRP9 overexpression in colon cancer were investigated by Western blot analysis of patients with colon adenocarcinomas and comparison with a control cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry on tissue sections was used to define the specific locations of PSB7, PRDX1, and SRP9 up-regulation within heterogeneous primary human tumor tissue. Overexpression of the three proteins was restricted to the neoplastic cancer cell population within the tumors, demonstrating both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of PSB7 and predominantly cytoplasmic localization of PRDX1 and SRP9. In summary, we describe heparin affinity fractionation enrichment (HAFE) as a prefractionation tool for the study of the human primary tissue proteome and the discovery of PSB7, PRDX1, and SRP9 up-regulation as candidate biomarkers of colon cancer.

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