Gene Summary

Gene:PRDX1; peroxiredoxin 1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes, which reduce hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxides. The encoded protein may play an antioxidant protective role in cells, and may contribute to the antiviral activity of CD8(+) T-cells. This protein may have a proliferative effect and play a role in cancer development or progression. Four transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Peroxiredoxin III
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Transcriptome
  • Gene Expression
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Chromosome 1
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Xenograft Models
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Liver Cancer
  • NFE2L2
  • Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Plasmacytoma
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • Peroxiredoxin VI
  • Lung Cancer
  • Radiation Tolerance
  • Messenger RNA
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Peroxidases
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Up-Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Peroxiredoxins
  • Breast Cancer
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • rab GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Cell Movement
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Gene Expression Profiling
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PRDX1 (cancer-related)

Zhang Z, Dai DQ
MicroRNA-596 acts as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer and is upregulated by promotor demethylation.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25(10):1224-1237 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated a suppressive role of microRNA-596 (miR-596) in gastric cancer (GC). Moreover, the downregulation of miR-596 in GC cell lines was associated with an increase of miR-596 promoter methylation. We also established that miR-596 controls the expression of peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1), which has never been reported before, suggesting that this interaction could play an important role in GC progression.
AIM: To study the potential role and possible regulatory mechanism of miR-596 in GC.
METHODS: The expression levels of miR-596 and PRDX1 in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Western blot and luciferase reporter assay were used to detect the effect of miR-596 on PRDX1 expression. Then, the proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of GC cell lines transfected with miR-596 mimics were analyzed, respectively, by Cell Counting Kit-8 proliferation assay, wound healing assay, and transwell invasion assay. Meanwhile, the methylation status of the promoter CpG islands of miR-596 in GC cell lines was detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP).
RESULTS: Expression of miR-596 was decreased and PRDX1 was upregulated in GC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-596 decreased the expression of PRDX1 and luciferase reporter assays detected the direct binding of miR-596 to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of PRDX1 transcripts. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of miR-596 remarkably suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in GC cells. We further analyzed miR-596 promoter methylation by MSP and qRT-PCR, and found the downregulation of miR-596 was associated with promoter methylation status in GC cell lines. Moreover, DNA demethylation and reactivation of miR-596 after treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine inhibited the proliferative ability of GC cells.
CONCLUSION: MiR-596 has a tumor suppressive role in GC and is downregulated partly due to promoter hypermethylation. Furthermore, PRDX1 is one of the putative target genes of miR-596.

Wang R, Liu Y, Liu L, et al.
Tumor cells induce LAMP2a expression in tumor-associated macrophage for cancer progression.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 40:118-134 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor cells benefit from tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promoting tumor growth and modulating functions of other cells in tumor microenvironment (TME). However, how tumor cells regulate the property of TAMs during tumor invasion remains to be defined.
METHODS: Mouse tumor models and cancer patients' samples were analyzed to determine LAMP2a expression in TAMs. In vitro mouse primary macrophages were used to assess LAMP2a-modulated macrophage activation, and to verify LAMP2a's target proteins. The effect of LAMP2a-knockdown on tumor progression and TME maintaining was determined by using mouse tumor models.
FINDINGS: Lysosome associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) is upregulated in TAMs by tumor cells and important for tumor progression. LAMP2a expression in TAMs, but not in tumor cells, is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. LAMP2a inactivation induced by either shRNA or CRISPR/Cas9 prevents TAMs activation and tumor growth. LAMP2a degrades PRDX1 (peroxiredoxin 1) and CRTC1 (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1) to promote macrophage pro-tumorigenic activation.
INTERPRETATION: Our study suggests that tumor cells utilize LAMP2a-PRDX1/CRTC1 axis to modulate TAMs activation and promote tumor growth, reveals the role of LAMP2a in macrophage study and TAM-targeting tumor immunotherapy. FUND: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81602492); National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFA0201402).

Bajor M, Zych AO, Graczyk-Jarzynka A, et al.
Targeting peroxiredoxin 1 impairs growth of breast cancer cells and potently sensitises these cells to prooxidant agents.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(7):873-884 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our previous work has shown peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX1), one of major antioxidant enzymes, to be a biomarker in human breast cancer. Hereby, we further investigate the role of PRDX1, compared to its close homolog PRDX2, in mammary malignant cells.
METHODS: CRISPR/Cas9- or RNAi-based methods were used for genetic targeting PRDX1/2. Cell growth was assessed by crystal violet, EdU incorporation or colony formation assays. In vivo growth was assessed by a xenotransplantation model. Adenanthin was used to inhibit the thioredoxin-dependent antioxidant defense system. The prooxidant agents used were hydrogen peroxide, glucose oxidase and sodium L-ascorbate. A PY1 probe or HyPer-3 biosensor were used to detect hydrogen peroxide content in samples.
RESULTS: PRDX1 downregulation significantly impaired the growth rate of MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells. Likewise, xenotransplanted PRDX1-deficient MCF-7 cells presented a retarded tumour growth. Furthermore, genetic targeting of PRDX1 or adenanthin, but not PRDX2, potently sensitised all six cancer cell lines studied, but not the non-cancerous cells, to glucose oxidase and ascorbate.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study pinpoints the dominant role for PRDX1 in management of exogeneous oxidative stress by breast cancer cells and substantiates further exploration of PRDX1 as a target in this disease, especially when combined with prooxidant agents.

Li S, Hu X, Ye M, Zhu X
The prognostic values of the peroxiredoxins family in ovarian cancer.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Jarzabek MA, Proctor WR, Vogt J, et al.
Interrogation of transcriptomic changes associated with drug-induced hepatic sinusoidal dilatation in colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198099 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Drug-related sinusoidal dilatation (SD) is a common form of hepatotoxicity associated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy used prior to resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Recently, hepatic SD has also been associated with anti-delta like 4 (DLL4) cancer therapies targeting the NOTCH pathway. To investigate the hypothesis that NOTCH signaling plays an important role in drug-induced SD, gene expression changes were examined in livers from anti-DLL4 and oxaliplatin-induced SD in non-human primate (NHP) and patients, respectively. Putative mechanistic biomarkers of bevacizumab (bev)-mediated protection against oxaliplatin-induced SD were also investigated. RNA was extracted from whole liver sections or centrilobular regions by laser-capture microdissection (LCM) obtained from NHP administered anti-DLL4 fragment antigen-binding (F(ab')2 or patients with CRLM receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with or without bev. mRNA expression was quantified using high-throughput real-time quantitative PCR. Significance analysis was used to identify genes with differential expression patterns (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). Eleven (CCL2, CCND1, EFNB2, ERG, ICAM1, IL16, LFNG, NOTCH1, NOTCH4, PRDX1, and TGFB1) and six (CDH5, EFNB2, HES1, IL16, MIK67, HES1 and VWF) candidate genes were differentially expressed in the liver of anti-DLL4- and oxaliplatin-induced SD, respectively. Addition of bev to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy resulted in differential changes in hepatic CDH5, HEY1, IL16, JAG1, MMP9, NOTCH4 and TIMP1 expression. This work implicates NOTCH and IL16 pathways in the pathogenesis of drug-induced SD and further explains the hepato-protective effect of bev in oxaliplatin-induced SD observed in CRLM patients.

Pedro NF, Biselli JM, Maniglia JV, et al.
Candidate Biomarkers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Differential Expression of Oxidative Stress-Related Genes
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(5):1343-1349 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Alteration in the biotransformation of exogenous compounds can result in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can predispose cells to malignant transformation in the head and neck. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of genes involved in antioxidant metabolism in the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: The expression of eighty-four genes was evaluated in OSCC and non-tumor tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using the TaqMan Gene Expression Array. The biological mechanisms related to the differentially expressed genes were investigated using Gene – NCBI, KEGG, UNIPROT and REACTOME databases. Results: Twenty-one genes encoding enzymes involved in antioxidant metabolism were differentially expressed in the OSCC case. Four genes (ATOX1, PRDX4, PRNP, and SOD2) were up-regulated, and seventeen (ALOX12, CAT, CSDE1, DHCR24, DUOX1, DUOX2, EPHX2, GLRX2, GPX3, GSR, GSTZ1, MGST3, PRDX1, OXR1, OXSR1, SOD1, and SOD3) were down-regulated. We identified 14 possible novel biomarkers for OSCC. The differentially expressed genes appeared related to important biological processes involved in carcinogenesis, such as inflammation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, genomic instability, invasion, survival, and cell proliferation. Conclusions: Our study identified novel biomarkers which might warrant further investigation regarding OSCC pathogenesis since the altered expression in the genes can modulate biological processes related to oxidative stress and predispose cells to malignant transformation in the oral cavity.

Li HX, Sun XY, Yang SM, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 1 promoted tumor metastasis and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(5):655-660 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peroxiredoxin1 (Prdx1) is a member of the PrdxS family, and it regulates cellular signaling and differentiation. The role of Prdx1in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relevance of Prdx1 in the metastasis and angiogenesis of CRC. The expression of Prdx1 in 60 cases human CRC tissues was detected through immunohistochemistry. The tumors that highly expressed Prdx1 (42/60) exhibited higher tumor grade and lymph node metastasis than those with low expression of Prdx1 (18/60) (p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the survival time of thePrdx1-positive group was shorter than that of thePrdx1-negative group (p = 0.046).Moreover, a statistically significant correlation was observed between the Prdx1 expression and microvessel density (p = 0.004). Transwell migration assay revealed that Prdx1 was down-regulated in the CRC cell line HCT116, thereby suppressing the invasion and migration capacities of tumor cells, whereas Prdx1was up-regulated in HT29 cells, thereby increasing the invasion and migration capacities of tumor cells. The tube formation capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured in 3D medium was increased after conditioned medium from overexpressed Prdx1cancer cells was added relative to that when down-regulated Prdx1 cell medium was added (p < 0.05). In addition, up-regulated Prdx1 increased the protein expression of MMP2, MMP9, and VEGFA. These data suggested that Prdx1 expression predicted poor prognosis by regulating the tumor metastasis and angiogenesis of CRC. Therefore, Prdx1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target.

Wirthschaft P, Bode J, Simon AEM, et al.
A PRDX1-p38α heterodimer amplifies MET-driven invasion of IDH-wildtype and IDH-mutant gliomas.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(5):1176-1187 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) gene maps to chromosome arm 1p and is hemizygously deleted and epigenetically silenced in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH)-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted oligodendroglial tumors. In contrast, IDH-wildtype astrocytic gliomas including glioblastomas mostly lack epigenetic silencing and express PRDX1 protein. In our study, we investigated how PRDX1 contributes to the infiltrative growth of IDH-wildtype gliomas. Focusing on p38α-dependent pathways, we analyzed clinical data from 133 patients of the NOA-04 trial cohort to look for differences in the gene expression profiles of gliomas with wildtype or mutant IDH. Biochemical interaction studies as well as in vitro and ex vivo migration studies were used to establish a biological role of PRDX1 in maintaining pathway activity. Whole-brain high-resolution ultramicroscopy and survival analyses of pre-clinical mouse models for IDH-wildtype gliomas were then used for in vivo confirmation. Based on clinical data, we found that the absence of PRDX1 is associated with changes in the expression of MET/HGF signaling components. PRDX1 forms a heterodimer with p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14), stabilizing phospho-p38α in glioma cells. This process amplifies hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated signaling and stimulates actin cytoskeleton dynamics that promote glioma cell migration. Whole-brain high-resolution ultramicroscopy confirms these findings, indicating that PRDX1 promotes glioma brain invasion in vivo. Finally, reduced expression of PRDX1 increased survival in mouse glioma models. Thus, our preclinical findings suggest that PRDX1 expression levels may serve as a molecular marker for patients who could benefit from targeted inhibition of MET/HGF signaling.

Liu GY, Shi JX, Shi SL, et al.
Nucleophosmin Regulates Intracellular Oxidative Stress Homeostasis via Antioxidant PRDX6.
J Cell Biochem. 2017; 118(12):4697-4707 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play both deleterious and beneficial roles in cancer cells. Nucleophosmin (NPM) is heavily implicated in cancers of diverse origins, being its gene over-expression in solid tumors or frequent mutations in hematological malignancies. However, the role and regulatory mechanism of NPM in oxidative stress are unclear. Here, we found that NPM regulated the expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a member of thiol-specific antioxidant protein family, consequently affected the level and distribution of ROS. Our data indicated that NPM knockdown caused the increase of ROS and its relocation from cytoplasm to nucleoplasm. In contrast, overexpression or cytoplasmic localization of NPM upregulated PRDX6, and decreased ROS. In addition, NPM knockdown decreased peroxiredoxin family proteins, including PRDX1, PRDX4, and PRDX6. Co-immunoprecipitation further confirmed the interaction between PRDX6 and NPM. Moreover, NSC348884, an inhibitor specifically targeting NPM oligomerization, decreased PRDX6 and significantly upregulated ROS. These observations demonstrated that the expression and localization of NPM affected the homeostatic balance of oxidative stress in tumor cells via PRDX6 protein. The regulation axis of NPM/PRDX/ROS may provide a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4697-4707, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sperandio M, Demasi APD, Martinez EF, et al.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2017; 102(3):434-445 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterised by intense protein folding and, consequently endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The prostaglandin 15d-PGJ

Gümbel D, Gelbrich N, Napp M, et al.
Peroxiredoxin Expression of Human Osteosarcoma Cells Is Influenced by Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(3):1031-1038 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the potential involvement of redox-specific signalling pathways in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP)-induced apoptosis on human osteosarcoma cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteosarcoma cell lines were treated with CAP with or without antioxidative agents and seeded in cell culture plates. Cell proliferation was determined by counting viable cells. Carrier gas-treated cells served as control. Peroxiredoxin (PRX) 1-3 expression and secretion were assessed.
RESULTS: CAP treatment exhibited strongly attenuated proliferation rates. This effect was significantly attenuated by the addition of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). CAP-treated cells exhibited an increase of PRX 1 and 2 10 sec after treatment. The ratio of oxidized to reduced PRX1 and PRX2 was significantly altered with increasing cellular concentration of the oxidized dimer.
CONCLUSION: Antioxidant supplementation with NAC increases proliferation of CAP-treated osteosarcoma cells, implicating an involvement of redox signalling. Activation of PRX1 and -2 indicate CAP affects redox homeostasis.

Park HJ, Choi YJ, Lee JH, Nam MJ
Naringenin causes ASK1-induced apoptosis via reactive oxygen species in human pancreatic cancer cells.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2017; 99:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Naringenin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in natural citrus fruits, has been investigated for its ability to inhibit growth of breast, colon, gastric and prostate cancer cells. However, naringenin-induced cell death in pancreatic cancer is not well understood. Therefore, we analyzed the naringenin-induced apoptosis mechanism using human pancreatic cancer SNU-213 cells. Annexin V+/PI + marked cells increased from 5.10% to 8.29%, 25.06% and 35.31% in response to treatment with 200, 400, and 600 μM naringenin, respectively. Two-dimensional electrophoresis to identify possible target-related proteins of naringenin-induced apoptosis revealed seven proteins. Among these, the expression of peroxiredoxin-1 (Prdx-1), which modulates redox homeostasis of cells, was decreased. To obtain a broad understanding of the interactive mechanism of naringenin and Prdx-1, we observed changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in naringenin-treated SNU-213 cells. The ROS levels were 130.02 ± 20.21%, 182.04 ± 5.39%, and 237.21 ± 12.71% in response to 200, 400, and 600 μM naringenin treatment, respectively. Increases in ROS were followed by up-regulation of apoptosis signal-regulation kinase 1 (ASK1). Moreover, the JNK, p38 and p53 proteins were upregulated. Overall, the results of this study suggest that naringenin causes ASK1-induced apoptosis mediated by ROS.

Shi XJ, Ding L, Zhou W, et al.
Pro-Apoptotic Effects of JDA-202, a Novel Natural Diterpenoid, on Esophageal Cancer Through Targeting Peroxiredoxin I.
Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017; 27(2):73-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: Esophageal cancer (EC) is an aggressive malignancy and the most common solid tumor of gastrointestinal tract all over the world, with high incidence in Asia. The current study was designed to investigate the anticancer efficacy and mechanism that is involved in the action of a natural ent-kaurene diterpenoid, JDA-202, targeting EC.
RESULTS: We found that an antioxidant protein peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) was upregulated in human EC tissues as well as in EC cell lines. JDA-202, a novel natural compound isolated from Isodon rubescens (Labiatae), was proved to possess strong anti-proliferative activities on those cell lines. Importantly, JDA-202 does not only bind to Prx I directly and markedly inhibit the activity of Prx I in vitro, but it also significantly induces hydrogen peroxide (H

Javaheri T, Kazemi Z, Pencik J, et al.
Increased survival and cell cycle progression pathways are required for EWS/FLI1-induced malignant transformation.
Cell Death Dis. 2016; 7(10):e2419 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most frequent childhood bone cancer driven by the EWS/FLI1 (EF) fusion protein. Genetically defined ES models are needed to understand how EF expression changes bone precursor cell differentiation, how ES arises and through which mechanisms of inhibition it can be targeted. We used mesenchymal Prx1-directed conditional EF expression in mice to study bone development and to establish a reliable sarcoma model. EF expression arrested early chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation due to changed signaling pathways such as hedgehog, WNT or growth factor signaling. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing EF showed high self-renewal capacity and maintained an undifferentiated state despite high apoptosis. Blocking apoptosis through enforced BCL2 family member expression in MSCs promoted efficient and rapid sarcoma formation when transplanted to immunocompromised mice. Mechanistically, high BCL2 family member and CDK4, but low P53 and INK4A protein expression synergized in Ewing-like sarcoma development. Functionally, knockdown of Mcl1 or Cdk4 or their combined pharmacologic inhibition resulted in growth arrest and apoptosis in both established human ES cell lines and EF-transformed mouse MSCs. Combinatorial targeting of survival and cell cycle progression pathways could counteract this aggressive childhood cancer.

Im SA, Kim JW, Kim HS, et al.
Prevention of azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced mouse colon carcinogenesis by processed Aloe vera gel.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2016; 40:428-435 [PubMed] Related Publications
The preventive effect of a processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on colon carcinogenesis was examined using an azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted mouse colon carcinogenesis model. Oral administration of PAG (200, or 400mg/kg/day) significantly reduced the multiplicity of colonic adenomas and adenocarcinomas compared with the AOM/DSS only-treated mice. In the mice treated with 400mg/kg of PAG, adenoma and adenocarcinoma development was reduced to 80% and 60%, respectively, compared to 100% in the PAG-untreated AOM/DSS-treated mice. Western blot analysis using colon extracts showed that PAG reduced the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), resulting in the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. PAG appeared to inhibit the NF-κB activation through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. PAG also inhibited the expression and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which is known to connect inflammation and cancer. In addition, PAG inhibited cell cycle progression-inducing cellular factors, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, and cyclin D1. On the other hand, PAG increased the expression of Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2, which is known to be a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. These findings show that PAG suppresses colitis-related colon carcinogenesis by inhibiting both chronic inflammation and cell cycle progression in the colon.

Ding C, Fan X, Wu G
Peroxiredoxin 1 - an antioxidant enzyme in cancer.
J Cell Mol Med. 2017; 21(1):193-202 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs), a ubiquitous family of redox-regulating proteins, are reported of potential to eliminate various reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a major member of the antioxidant enzymes, PRDX1 can become easily over-oxidized on its catalytically active cysteine induced by a variety of stimuli in vitro and in vivo. In nucleus, oligomeric PRDX1 directly associates with p53 or transcription factors such as c-Myc, NF-κB and AR, and thus affects their bioactivities upon gene regulation, which in turn induces or suppresses cell death. Additionally, PRDX1 in cytoplasm has anti-apoptotic potential through direct or indirect interactions with several ROS-dependent (redox regulation) effectors, including ASK1, p66

Nassour H, Wang Z, Saad A, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 1 interacts with and blocks the redox factor APE1 from activating interleukin-8 expression.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:29389 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
APE1 is an essential DNA repair protein that also possesses the ability to regulate transcription. It has a unique cysteine residue C65, which maintains the reduce state of several transcriptional activators such as NF-κB. How APE1 is being recruited to execute the various biological functions remains unknown. Herein, we show that APE1 interacts with a novel partner PRDX1, a peroxidase that can also prevent oxidative damage to proteins by serving as a chaperone. PRDX1 knockdown did not interfere with APE1 expression level or its DNA repair activities. However, PRDX1 knockdown greatly facilitates APE1 detection within the nucleus by indirect immunofluorescence analysis, even though APE1 level was unchanged. The loss of APE1 interaction with PRDX1 promotes APE1 redox function to activate binding of the transcription factor NF-κB onto the promoter of a target gene, the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8 involved in cancer invasion and metastasis, resulting in its upregulation. Depletion of APE1 blocked the upregulation of IL-8 in the PRDX1 knockdown cells. Our findings suggest that the interaction of PRDX1 with APE1 represents a novel anti-inflammatory function of PRDX1, whereby the association safeguards APE1 from reducing transcription factors and activating superfluous gene expression, which otherwise could trigger cancer invasion and metastasis.

Niu W, Zhang M, Chen H, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 1 promotes invasion and migration by regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during oral carcinogenesis.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(30):47042-47051 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tobacco smoking is the major risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Previously, we found that nicotine up-regulates peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1), an important antioxidant enzyme, and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) in OSCC cells. However, the molecular mechanism of Prx1 in oral carcinogenesis remains obscure. To improve our understanding of the functional role of Prx1 during the cascade of tobacco-associated oral carcinogenesis, we characterized Prx1, NFκB, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including E-cadherin, vimentin and Snail in 30 primary oral tumors (15 from smokers with OSCC and 15 from non-smokers with OSCC) and 10 normal oral mucosa specimens from healthy individuals. The expression levels of Prx1, nuclear NFκB, vimentin and Snail were higher in the tumors from smokers with OSCC than in those from non-smokers with OSCC or the healthy controls. The expression levels of E-cadherin showed an opposite trend. Prx1 silencing suppressed the nicotine-induced EMT, cell invasion and migration in SCC15 cells in vitro. Furthermore, Prx1 activated the NFκB pathway in SCC15 cells. Prx1 might therefore play an oncogenic role in tobacco-related OSCC and thus serve as a target for chemopreventive and therapeutic interventions.

Minas TZ, Surdez D, Javaheri T, et al.
Combined experience of six independent laboratories attempting to create an Ewing sarcoma mouse model.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(21):34141-34163 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma (ES) involves a tumor-specific chromosomal translocation that produces the EWS-FLI1 protein, which is required for the growth of ES cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, an EWS-FLI1-driven transgenic mouse model is not currently available. Here, we present data from six independent laboratories seeking an alternative approach to express EWS-FLI1 in different murine tissues. We used the Runx2, Col1a2.3, Col1a3.6, Prx1, CAG, Nse, NEFL, Dermo1, P0, Sox9 and Osterix promoters to target EWS-FLI1 or Cre expression. Additional approaches included the induction of an endogenous chromosomal translocation, in utero knock-in, and the injection of Cre-expressing adenovirus to induce EWS-FLI1 expression locally in multiple lineages. Most models resulted in embryonic lethality or developmental defects. EWS-FLI1-induced apoptosis, promoter leakiness, the lack of potential cofactors, and the difficulty of expressing EWS-FLI1 in specific sites were considered the primary reasons for the failed attempts to create a transgenic mouse model of ES.

Codini M, Cataldi S, Lazzarini A, et al.
Why high cholesterol levels help hematological malignancies: role of nuclear lipid microdomains.
Lipids Health Dis. 2016; 15:4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diet and obesity are recognized in the scientific literature as important risk factors for cancer development and progression. Hypercholesterolemia facilitates lymphoma lymphoblastic cell growth and in time turns in hypocholesterolemia that is a sign of tumour progression. The present study examined how and where the cholesterol acts in cancer cells when you reproduce in vitro an in vivo hypercholesterolemia condition.
METHODS: We used non-Hodgkin's T cell human lymphoblastic lymphoma (SUP-T1 cell line) and we studied cell morphology, aggressiveness, gene expression for antioxidant proteins, polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and actin, cholesterol and sphingomyelin content and finally sphingomyelinase activity in whole cells, nuclei and nuclear lipid microdomains.
RESULTS: We found that cholesterol changes cancer cell morphology with the appearance of protrusions together to the down expression of β-actin gene and reduction of β-actin protein. The lipid influences SUP-T1 cell aggressiveness since stimulates DNA and RNA synthesis for cell proliferation and increases raf1 and E-cadherin, molecules involved in invasion and migration of cancer cells. Cholesterol does not change GRX2 expression but it overexpresses SOD1, SOD2, CCS, PRDX1, GSR, GSS, CAT and PNKP. We suggest that cholesterol reaches the nucleus and increases the nuclear lipid microdomains known to act as platform for chromatin anchoring and gene expression.
CONCLUSION: The results imply that, in hypercholesterolemia conditions, cholesterol reaches the nuclear lipid microdomains where activates gene expression coding for antioxidant proteins. We propose the cholesterolemia as useful parameter to monitor in patients with cancer.

Wu R, Nijland M, Rutgers B, et al.
Proteomics Based Identification of Proteins with Deregulated Expression in B Cell Lymphomas.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146624 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphomas comprise the main entities of adult B cell malignancies. Although multiple disease driving gene aberrations have been identified by gene expression and genomic studies, only a few studies focused at the protein level. We applied 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis to compare seven GC B cell non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cell lines with a lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL). An average of 130 spots were at least two folds different in intensity between NHL cell lines and the LCL. We selected approximately 38 protein spots per NHL cell line and linked them to 145 unique spots based on the location in the gel. 34 spots that were found altered in at least three NHL cell lines when compared to LCL, were submitted for LC-MS/MS. This resulted in 28 unique proteins, a substantial proportion of these proteins were involved in cell motility and cell metabolism. Loss of expression of B2M, and gain of expression of PRDX1 and PPIA was confirmed in the cell lines and primary lymphoma tissue. Moreover, inhibition of PPIA with cyclosporine A blocked cell growth of the cell lines, the effect size was associated with the PPIA expression levels. In conclusion, we identified multiple differentially expressed proteins by 2-D proteomics, and showed that some of these proteins might play a role in the pathogenesis of NHL.

Jiao L, Li DD, Yang CL, et al.
Reactive oxygen species mediate oxaliplatin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasive potential in colon cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):8413-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Therapeutic benefits offered by common chemotherapy drugs, such as oxaliplatin, are limited due to the development of resistance, which contributes to treatment failure and metastasis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key event contributing to the development of resistance to chemotherapeutics. Although the relationship between oxaliplatin and chemotherapy resistance has been described for decades, the molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of oxaliplatin-mediated metastasis. Here, we identify reactive oxygen species (ROS) as mediators that promote the oxaliplatin-induced EMT. Following oxaliplatin treatment, the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of most peroxiredoxin family genes, except for peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) gene, were constant or even decreased, resulting in ROS abundance. And the antioxidant guardian Nrf2 was unconspicuously raised both transcriptionally and translationally with oxaliplatin treatment as compared to those induced by topotecan treatment, which has been proved with no induced metastasis. In addition, the study evaluated high levels of ROS leading to EMT via activation of the known oncogenes Akt and Snail. Using the Akt inhibitor LY294002 or knocking down Snail expression via RNA interference (RNAi) reversed the effects of oxaliplatin on the EMT and metastasis. Our studies establish a role for the ROS-Akt-Snail axis as a mechanism by which chemotherapeutics induce EMT and cancer metastasis.

He T, Hatem E, Vernis L, et al.
PRX1 knockdown potentiates vitamin K3 toxicity in cancer cells: a potential new therapeutic perspective for an old drug.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:152 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many promising anticancer molecules are abandoned during the course from bench to bedside due to lack of clear-cut efficiency and/or severe side effects. Vitamin K3 (vitK3) is a synthetic naphthoquinone exhibiting significant in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity against multiple human cancers, and has therapeutic potential when combined with other anticancer molecules. The major mechanism for the anticancer activity of vitK3 is the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). We thus reasoned that a rational redox modulation of cancer cells could enhance vitK3 anticancer efficiency.
METHODS: Cancer cell lines with peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX1) gene transiently or stably knocked-down and corresponding controls were exposed to vitK3 as well as a set of anticancer molecules, including vinblastine, taxol, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, actinomycin D and 5-fluorouracil. Cytotoxic effects and cell death events were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-based assay, cell clonogenic assay, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential and annexin V/propidium iodide double staining. Global ROS accumulation and compartment-specific H2O2 generation were determined respectively by a redox-sensitive chemical probe and H2O2-sensitive sensor HyPer. Oxidation of endogenous antioxidant proteins including TRX1, TRX2 and PRX3 was monitored by redox western blot.
RESULTS: We observed that the PRX1 knockdown in HeLa and A549 cells conferred enhanced sensitivity to vitK3, reducing substantially the necessary doses to kill cancer cells. The same conditions (combination of vitK3 and PRX1 knockdown) caused little cytotoxicity in non-cancerous cells, suggesting a cancer-cell-selective property. Increased ROS accumulation had a crucial role in vitK3-induced cell death in PRX1 knockdown cells. The use of H2O2-specific sensors HyPer revealed that vitK3 lead to immediate accumulation of H2O2 in the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondrial matrix. PRX1 silencing significantly up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2, which was partially responsible for vitK3-induced ROS accumulation and consequent cell death.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that PRX1 inactivation could represent an interesting strategy to enhance cancer cell sensitivity to vitK3, providing a potential new therapeutic perspective for this old molecule. Conceptually, a combination of drugs that modulate intracellular redox states and drugs that operate through the generation of ROS could be a new therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.

Zhou J, Shen W, He X, et al.
Overexpression of Prdx1 in hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a predictor for recurrence and prognosis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):9863-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prdx1 is an important member of peroxiredoxins (Prdxs) regulating various cellular signaling and differentiation. Prdx1 confers an aggressive survival phenotype of cancer cells and drug-resistance, yet its role in hilar cholangiocarcinoma is not fully investigated. In present study, we detected the expression profile of Prdx1 in 88 hilar cholangiocarcinoma by tissue arrays and immunohistochemistry. Prdx1 level was down-regulated by specific Prdx1-shRNA in vitro and the possible mechanism was investigated. Overexpression of Prdx1 was observed in 53 of 88 cases (60.2%). Prdx1 expression was significantly associated with tumor invasion, nodal metastasis, advanced disease stage. Down-regulation of Prdx1 inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation of QBC939 cells and reduced the level of SNAT1 expression. Patients with Prdx1 overexpression had a shorter disease-free survival and overall survival than those without Prdx1 expression. Multivariate analysis showed that Prdx1 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The data indicate that Prdx1 may contribute to the development and progression of hilar cholangiocarcinoma, partially through regulating SNAT1 expression, and may be used as a biomarker in predicting the outcome of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

Yang YJ, Baek JY, Goo J, et al.
Effective Killing of Cancer Cells Through ROS-Mediated Mechanisms by AMRI-59 Targeting Peroxiredoxin I.
Antioxid Redox Signal. 2016; 24(8):453-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The intrinsic increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cancer cells after malignant transformation frequently induces redox adaptation, leading to enhanced antioxidant capacity. Peroxiredoxin I (PrxI), an enzyme responsible for eliminating hydrogen peroxide, has been found to be elevated in many types of cancer cells. Since overexpression of PrxI promoted cancer cells' survival and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, PrxI has been proposed as a therapeutic target for anticancer drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anticancer efficacy of a small molecule inhibitor of PrxI.
RESULTS: By a high-throughput screening approach, we identified AMRI-59 as a potent inhibitor of PrxI. AMRI-59 increased cellular ROS, leading to the activation of both mitochondria- and apoptosis signal-regulated kinase-1-mediated signaling pathways, resulting in apoptosis of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma. AMRI-59 caused no significant changes in ROS level, proliferation, and apoptosis of PrxI-knockdown A549 cells by RNA interference. PrxI overexpression or N-acetylcysteine pretreatment abrogated AMRI-59-induced cytotoxicity in A549 cells. AMRI-59 rendered tumorigenic ovarian cells more susceptible to ROS-mediated death compared with nontumorigenic cells. Moreover, significant antitumor activity of AMRI-59 was observed in mouse tumor xenograft model implanted with A549 cells with no apparent acute toxicity.
INNOVATION: This study offers preclinical proof-of-concept for AMRI-59, a lead small molecule inhibitor of PrxI, as an anticancer agent.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight a promising strategy for cancer therapy that preferentially eradicates cancer cells by targeting the PrxI-mediated redox-dependent survival pathways.

Sun YL, Cai JQ, Liu F, et al.
Aberrant expression of peroxiredoxin 1 and its clinical implications in liver cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21(38):10840-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the expression characteristics of peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) mRNA and protein in liver cancer cell lines and tissues.
METHODS: The RNA sequencing data from 374 patients with liver cancer were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The expression and clinical characteristics of PRDX1 mRNA were analyzed in this dataset. The Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression survival analysis was performed to determine the relationship between PRDX1 levels and patient survival. Subcellular fractionation and Western blotting were used to demonstrate the expression of PRDX1 protein in six liver cancer cell lines and 29 paired fresh tissue specimens. After bioinformatics prediction, a putative post-translational modification form of PRDX1 was observed using immunofluorescence under confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation analysis in liver cancer cells.
RESULTS: The mRNA of PRDX1 gene was upregulated about 1.3-fold in tumor tissue compared with the adjacent non-tumor control (P = 0.005). Its abundance was significantly higher in men than women (P < 0.001). High levels of PRDX1 mRNA were associated with a shorter overall survival time (P = 0.04) but not with recurrence-free survival. The Cox regression analysis demonstrated that patients with high PRDX1 mRNA showed about 1.9-fold increase of risk for death (P = 0.03). In liver cancer cells, PRDX1 protein was strongly expressed with multiple different bands. PRDX1 in the cytosol fraction existed near the theoretical molecular weight, whereas two higher molecular weight bands were present in the membrane/organelle and nuclear fractions. Importantly, the theoretical PRDX1 band was increased, whereas the high molecular weight form was decreased in tumor tissues. Subsequent experiments revealed that the high molecular weight bands of PRDX1 might result from the post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1).
CONCLUSION: PRDX1 was overexpressed in the tumor tissues of liver cancer and served as an independent poor prognostic factor for overall survival. PRDX1 can be modified by SUMO to play specific roles in hepatocarcinogenesis.

Cheng ML, Lu YF, Chen H, et al.
Liver expression of Nrf2-related genes in different liver diseases.
Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2015; 14(5):485-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The KEAP1-Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathway is important in protecting liver from various insults. However, little is known about the expression of Nrf2-related genes in human liver in different diseases.
METHODS: This study utilized normal donor liver tissues (n=35), samples from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n=24), HBV-related cirrhosis (n=27), alcoholic cirrhosis (n=5) and end-stage liver disease (n=13). All of the liver tissues were from the Oriental Liver Transplant Center, Beijing, China. The expressions of Nrf2 and Nrf2-related genes, including its negative regulator Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), its targeted gene NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modified subunit (GCLM), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX1) were evaluated.
RESULTS: The expression of Nrf2 was decreased in HCC, increased in alcoholic cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. The expression of KEAP1 was increased in all of the liver samples. The most notable finding was the increased expression of NQO1 in HCC (18-fold), alcoholic cirrhosis (6-fold), end-stage liver disease (5-fold) and HBV-related cirrhosis (3-fold). Peri-HCC also had 4-fold higher NQO1 mRNA as compared to the normal livers. GCLC mRNA levels were lower only in HCC, as compared to the normal livers and peri-HCC tissues. GCLM mRNA levels were higher in HBV-related cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. HO-1 mRNA levels were increased in all liver tissues except for HCC. Peri-HCC had higher PRDX1 mRNA levels compared with HCC and normal livers.
CONCLUSION: Nrf2 and Nrf2-related genes are aberrantly expressed in the liver in different diseases and the increase of NQO1 was the most notable finding, especially in HCC.

Kim J, Kim S, Ko S, et al.
Recurrent fusion transcripts detected by whole-transcriptome sequencing of 120 primary breast cancer samples.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(11):681-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Relatively few recurrent gene fusion events have been associated with breast cancer to date. In an effort to uncover novel fusion transcripts, we performed whole-transcriptome sequencing of 120 fresh-frozen primary breast cancer samples and five adjacent normal breast tissues using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Three different fusion-detecting tools (deFuse, Chimerascan, and TopHatFusion) were used, and the results were compared. These tools detected 3,831, 6,630 and 516 fusion transcripts (FTs) overall. We primarily focused on the results obtained using the deFuse software. More FTs were identified from HER2 subtype breast cancer samples than from the luminal or triple-negative subtypes (P < 0.05). Seventy fusion candidates were selected for validation, and 32 (45.7%) were confirmed by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Of the validated fusions, six were recurrent (found in 2 or more samples), three were in-frame (PRDX1-AKR1A1, TACSTD2-OMA1, and C2CD2-TFF1) and three were off-frame (CEACAM7-CEACAM6, CYP4X1-CYP4Z2P, and EEF1DP3-FRY). Notably, the novel read-through fusion, EEF1DP3-FRY, was identified and validated in 6.7% (8/120) of the breast cancer samples. This off-frame fusion results in early truncation of the FRY gene, which plays a key role in the structural integrity during mitosis. Three previously reported fusions, PPP1R1B-STARD3, MFGE8-HAPL, and ETV6-NTRK3, were detected in 8.3, 3.3, and 0.8% of the 120 samples, respectively, by both deFuse and Chimerascan. The recently reported MAGI3-AKT3 fusion was not detected in our analysis. Although future work will be needed to examine the biological significance of our new findings, we identified a number of novel fusions and confirmed some previously reported fusions.

Dey KK, Pal I, Bharti R, et al.
Identification of RAB2A and PRDX1 as the potential biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma using mass spectrometry-based comparative proteomic approach.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9829-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains a major health burden. Protein biomarker discovery for early detection will help to improve patient survival rate in OSCC. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has emerged as an excellent approach for detection of protein biomarkers in various types of cancers. In the current study, we have used 4-Plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based shotgun quantitative proteomic approach to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in cancerous tissues compared to normal tissues. The high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis resulted in identifying 2,074 proteins, among which 288 proteins were differentially expressed. Further, it was noticed that 162 proteins were upregulated, while 125 proteins were downregulated in OSCC-derived cancer tissue samples as compared to the adjacent normal tissues. We identified some of the known molecules which were reported earlier in OSCC such as MMP-9 (8.4-fold), ZNF142 (5.6-fold), and S100A7 (3.5-fold). Apart from this, we have also identified some novel signature proteins which have not been reported earlier in OSCC including ras-related protein Rab-2A isoform, RAB2A (4.6-fold), and peroxiredoxin-1, PRDX1 (2.2-fold). The immunohistochemistry-based validation using tissue microarray slides in OSCC revealed overexpression of the RAB2A and PRDX1 gene in 80 and 68 % of the tested clinical cases, respectively. This study will not only serve as a resource of candidate biomarkers but will contribute towards the existing knowledge on the role of the candidate molecules towards disease progression and therapeutic potential.

Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Breen EC, et al.
Tai chi, cellular inflammation, and transcriptome dynamics in breast cancer survivors with insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2014; 2014(50):295-301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mind-body therapies such as Tai Chi are widely used by breast cancer survivors, yet effects on inflammation are not known. This study hypothesized that Tai Chi Chih (TCC) would reduce systemic, cellular, and genomic markers of inflammation as compared with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I).
METHODS: In this randomized trial for the treatment of insomnia, 90 breast cancer survivors with insomnia were assigned to TCC or CBT-I for 2-hour sessions weekly for 3 months. At baseline and postintervention, blood samples were obtained for measurement of C-reactive protein and toll-like receptor-4-activated monocyte production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), with a random subsample (n = 48) analyzed by genome-wide transcriptional profiling.
RESULTS: Levels of C-reactive protein did not change in the TCC and CBT-I groups. Levels of toll-like receptor-4-activated monocyte production of IL-6 and TNF combined showed an overall reduction in TCC versus CBT-I (P < .02), with similar effects for IL-6 (P = .07) and TNF (P < .05) alone. For genome-wide transcriptional profiling of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, expression of genes encoding proinflammatory mediators showed an overall reduction in TCC versus CBT-I (P = .001). TELiS promoter-based bioinformatics analyses implicated a reduction of activity of the proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB, in structuring these differences.
CONCLUSIONS: Among breast cancer survivors with insomnia, 3 months of TCC reduced cellular inflammatory responses, and reduced expression of genes encoding proinflammatory mediators. Given the link between inflammation and cancer, these findings provide an evidence-based molecular framework to understand the potential salutary effects of TCC on cancer survivorship.

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