Research IndicatorsGraph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: SLC43A1 (cancer-related)
Janpipatkul K, Suksen K, Borwornpinyo S, et al.Downregulation of LAT1 expression suppresses cholangiocarcinoma cell invasion and migration.
Cell Signal. 2014; 26(8):1668-79 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Currently, there is no effective treatment for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), which is the most prevalent in the northeastern part of Thailand. A new molecular target for the treatment of CCA is, therefore, urgently needed. Although L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is highly expressed in CCA cells, its role in malignant phenotypes of CCA cells remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the impact of LAT1 on proliferation, migration, and invasion of KKU-M213 cells, the CCA cells derived from Thai patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Results showed that KKU-M213 cells expressed all LAT isoforms (LAT1, LAT2, LAT3 and LAT4). The expressions of LAT1 and its associated protein 4F2hc were highest whereas those of LAT2 and LAT4 were extremely low. Treatment with 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) reduced L-leucine uptake concomitant with an inhibition of cell motility and, to a lesser extent, on cell proliferation. It also induced a time dependent up-regulation of LAT1 and 4F2hc expressions. Similarly, cell migration and invasion, but not proliferation, were reduced in LAT1 knockdown KKU-M213 cells. In addition, silencing of LAT1 inhibited the expressions of 4F2hc mRNA and protein whereas the expression of microRNA-7, the 4F2hc down-regulator, was increased. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and p70S6K were reduced after LAT1 knockdown. Collectively, these results suggest that suppression of cell invasion and migration in LAT1 knockdown KKU-M213 cells may be partly mediated through the inhibition of the 4F2hc-signaling pathway by the up-regulation of microRNA-7. Based on this finding, LAT1 may be a potential therapeutic target for treating CCA.
Betsunoh H, Fukuda T, Anzai N, et al.Increased expression of system large amino acid transporter (LAT)-1 mRNA is associated with invasive potential and unfavorable prognosis of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:509 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The system L amino acid transporter (LAT) has an important role in the transport of various amino acids, and there have been reports about the relation of this system to cancer. Although LATs are highly expressed in the kidneys, little is known about their influence on human renal cancer.
METHODS: To clarify the role of LATs in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we investigated the expression of mRNAs for LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, LAT4, and 4F2hc in clear cell RCC tissues. The mRNAs of these five genes were analyzed by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in matched sets of tumor and non-tumor tissues obtained at operation from 82 Japanese patients with clear cell RCC. We also measured phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (Ser-235/236) proteins levels in 18 paired tumor and non-tumor tissues of the patients by Western blotting.
RESULTS: Expression of LAT1 mRNA was significantly increased in tumor tissue compared with non-tumor tissue, while expression of LAT2 and LAT3 mRNAs was reduced. There was no difference in the expression of LAT4 and 4F2hc mRNAs between tumor and non-tumor tissues. Increased expression of LAT1 mRNA was associated with less differentiated tumors, local invasion, microscopic vascular invasion, and metastasis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a higher serum LAT1 mRNA level was associated with a shorter overall survival time. Phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein levels were associated with metastatic potential. LAT1 mRNA levels positively correlated with phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein proteins levels in primary tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that LAT1 mRNA is related to the invasive and progressive potential of clear cell RCC.
Xu SM, Tang K, Meng L, Tang YSuppression of amino acid transporter LAT3 expression on proliferation of K562 cells.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2013; 33(5):632-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The activity of the mTOR pathway is frequently increased in acute myeloid leukemia, and is tightly related with cellular proliferation. Leucine is tightly linked to the mTOR pathway and can activate it, thereby stimulating cellular proliferation. LAT3 is a major transporter for leucine, and suppression of its expression can reduce cell proliferation. Here, we show that suppression of LAT3 expression can reduce proliferation of the acute leukemia cell line, K562. We investigated the mRNA and protein expression of LAT3 in several leukemia cell lines and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) using RT-PCR and Western blotting. We also evaluated cell viability using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay after blocking LAT3 expression with either shRNA targeted to LAT3 or a small molecular inhibitor BCH (2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid). LAT3 mRNA and protein expression was detected in leukemia cell lines, but not in normal PBMNCs. Using K562 cells, it was found that cellular proliferation and mTOR pathway activity were significantly reduced when LAT3 was blocked with either shRNA or BCH. Our results suggest that leukemia cell proliferation can be significantly suppressed by blocking LAT3. This finding may lead to a new strategy to develop clinical therapy for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.
Wang Q, Tiffen J, Bailey CG, et al.Targeting amino acid transport in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: effects on cell cycle, cell growth, and tumor development.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013; 105(19):1463-73 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) uptake neutral amino acids including L-leucine into cells, stimulating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling and protein synthesis. LAT1 and LAT3 are overexpressed at different stages of prostate cancer, and they are responsible for increasing nutrients and stimulating cell growth.
METHODS: We examined LAT3 protein expression in human prostate cancer tissue microarrays. LAT function was inhibited using a leucine analog (BCH) in androgen-dependent and -independent environments, with gene expression analyzed by microarray. A PC-3 xenograft mouse model was used to study the effects of inhibiting LAT1 and LAT3 expression. Results were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U or Fisher exact tests. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: LAT3 protein was expressed at all stages of prostate cancer, with a statistically significant decrease in expression after 4-7 months of neoadjuvant hormone therapy (4-7 month mean = 1.571; 95% confidence interval = 1.155 to 1.987 vs 0 month = 2.098; 95% confidence interval = 1.962 to 2.235; P = .0187). Inhibition of LAT function led to activating transcription factor 4-mediated upregulation of amino acid transporters including ASCT1, ASCT2, and 4F2hc, all of which were also regulated via the androgen receptor. LAT inhibition suppressed M-phase cell cycle genes regulated by E2F family transcription factors including critical castration-resistant prostate cancer regulatory genes UBE2C, CDC20, and CDK1. In silico analysis of BCH-downregulated genes showed that 90.9% are statistically significantly upregulated in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Finally, LAT1 or LAT3 knockdown in xenografts inhibited tumor growth, cell cycle progression, and spontaneous metastasis in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Inhibition of LAT transporters may provide a novel therapeutic target in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, via suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity and M-phase cell cycle genes.
Wang Q, Bailey CG, Ng C, et al.Androgen receptor and nutrient signaling pathways coordinate the demand for increased amino acid transport during prostate cancer progression.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(24):7525-36 [PubMed
] Related Publications
L-Type amino acid transporters such as LAT1 and LAT3 mediate the uptake of essential amino acids. Here, we report that prostate cancer cells coordinate the expression of LAT1 and LAT3 to maintain sufficient levels of leucine needed for mTORC1 signaling and cell growth. Inhibiting LAT function was sufficient to decrease cell growth and mTORC1 signaling in prostate cancer cells. These cells maintained levels of amino acid influx through androgen receptor-mediated regulation of LAT3 expression and ATF4 regulation of LAT1 expression after amino acid deprivation. These responses remained intact in primary prostate cancer, as indicated by high levels of LAT3 in primary disease, and by increased levels of LAT1 after hormone ablation and in metastatic lesions. Taken together, our results show how prostate cancer cells respond to demands for increased essential amino acids by coordinately activating amino acid transporter pathways vital for tumor outgrowth.
Shikano N, Ogura M, Okudaira H, et al.Uptake of 3-[125I]iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine into colon cancer DLD-1 cells: characterization and inhibitory effect of natural amino acids and amino acid-like drugs.
Nucl Med Biol. 2010; 37(2):197-204 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: We examined 3-[(123)I]iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine ([(123)I]IMT) uptake and inhibition by amino acids and amino acid-like drugs in the human DLD-1 colon cancer cell line, to discuss correlation between the inhibition effect and structure.
METHODS: Expression of relevant neutral amino acid transporters was examined by real-time PCR with DLD-1 cells. The time course of [(125)I]IMT uptake, contributions of transport systems, concentration dependence and inhibition effects by amino acids and amino acid-like drugs (1 mM) on [(125)I]IMT uptake were examined.
RESULTS: Expression of system L (4F2hc, LAT1 and LAT2), system A (ATA1, ATA2) and system ASC (ASCT1) was strongly detected; system L (LAT3, LAT4) and MCT8 were weakly detected; and B(0)AT was not detected. [(125)I]IMT uptake in DLD-1 cells involved Na(+)-independent system L primarily and Na(+)-dependent system(s). Uptake of [(125)I]IMT in Na(+)-free buffer followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a K(m) of 78 microM and V(max) of 333 pmol/10(6) cells per minute. Neutral D- and L-amino acids with branched or aromatic large side chains inhibited [(125)I]IMT uptake. Tyrosine analogues, tryptophan analogues, L-phenylalanine and p-halogeno-L-phenylalanines, and gamma amino acids [including 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA), DL-threo-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)serine (DOPS), 4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-L-phenylalanine and 1-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexaneacetic acid] strongly inhibited [(125)I]IMT uptake, but L-tyrosine methyl ester and R(+)/S(-)-baclofen weakly inhibited uptake. The substrates of system ASC and A did not inhibit [(125)I]IMT uptake except L-serine and D/L-cysteine.
CONCLUSIONS: [(125)I]IMT uptake in DLD-1 cells involves mostly LAT1 and its substrates' (including amino acid-like drugs derived from tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine) affinity to transport via LAT1. Whether transport of gamma amino acid analogues is involved in LAT1 depends on the structure of the group corresponding to the amino acid residue. Beta-hydroxylation may confer reduction of transport affinity of tyrosine analogues via LAT1.
Pritchard C, Mecham B, Dumpit R, et al.Conserved gene expression programs integrate mammalian prostate development and tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(5):1739-47 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Studies centered at the intersection of embryogenesis and carcinogenesis have identified striking parallels involving signaling pathways that modulate both developmental and neoplastic processes. In the prostate, reciprocal interactions between epithelium and stroma are known to influence neoplasia and also exert morphogenic effects via the urogenital sinus mesenchyme. In this study, we sought to determine molecular relationships between aspects of normal prostate development and prostate carcinogenesis. We first characterized the gene expression program associated with key points of murine prostate organogenesis spanning the initial in utero induction of prostate budding through maturity. We identified a highly reproducible temporal program of gene expression that partitioned according to the broad developmental stages of prostate induction, branching morphogenesis, and secretory differentiation. Comparisons of gene expression profiles of murine prostate cancers arising in the context of genetically engineered alterations in the Pten tumor suppressor and Myc oncogene identified significant associations between the profile of branching morphogenesis and both cancer models. Further, the expression of genes comprising the branching morphogenesis program, such as PRDX4, SLC43A1, and DNMT3A, was significantly altered in human neoplastic prostate epithelium. These results indicate that components of normal developmental processes are active in prostate neoplasia and provide further rationale for exploiting molecular features of organogenesis to understand cancer phenotypes.
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis are the predominant cancer among young men. We analyzed gene expression profiles of 50 GCTs of various subtypes, and we compared them with 443 other common malignant tumors of epithelial, mesenchymal, and lymphoid origins. Significant differences in gene expression were found among major histological subtypes of GCTs, and between them and other malignancies. We identified 511 genes, belonging to several critical functional groups such as cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, to be significantly differentially expressed in GCTs compared with other tumor types. Sixty-five genes were sufficient for the construction of a GCT class predictor of high predictive accuracy (100% training set, 96% test set), which might be useful in the diagnosis of tumors of unknown primary origin. Previously described diagnostic and prognostic markers were found to be expressed by the appropriate GCT subtype (AFP, POU5F1, POV1, CCND2, and KIT). Several additional differentially expressed genes were identified in teratomas (EGR1 and MMP7), yolk sac tumors (PTPN13 and FN1), and seminomas (NR6A1, DPPA4, and IRX1). Dynamic computation of interaction networks and mapping to existing pathways knowledge databases revealed a potential role of EGR1 in p21-induced cell cycle arrest and intrinsic chemotherapy resistance of mature teratomas.
Hofer MD, Browne TJ, He L, et al.Identification of two molecular groups of seminomas by using expression and tissue microarrays.
Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11(16):5722-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Highly effective tailored clinical management of testicular germ cell tumors is based on the identification of two major histologic subtypes: seminomatous and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Expression array analysis of these two histologic subtypes using hierarchical clustering reveals two tumor groups, one composed solely of seminomas and the other containing embryonal carcinomas and seminomas. Supervised analysis between these groups identified 55 significantly dysregulated genes (false discovery rate = 2.3). The genes with the highest overexpression in the first group compared with the second included SLC43A1 (POV1), NET-7, IGF2, and JUP; down-regulated genes included GRB7, PFKP, and CDC6. In situ hybridization of SLC43A1 mRNA showed significantly increased signal intensity in the seminomas. At the protein level, expression of the immunohistochemical markers cytokeratins (pan-cytokeratin staining), placental-like alkaline phosphatase, anti-cytokeratin clone 5.2, CD30, anion exchanger 1/3, junction plakoglobulin (JUP), and POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1 (octomer-binding transcription factor 3/4) was significantly different between seminomas and embryonal tumors. Hierarchical clustering based on a refined protein expression profile identified two groups, the first consisting solely of seminomas the other of seminomas and embryonal carcinomas. No histomorphologic differences were observed between the two seminoma groups such as the presence or absence of lymphocytes or extent of stromal elements. In summary, using independent methodologies and samples, we have identified two groups of seminomas. One group of seminomas has a molecular profile similar to embryonal carcinoma. The findings in the current study may help explain aberrant immunoprofiles seen with some seminomas.
Ashida S, Nakagawa H, Katagiri T, et al.Molecular features of the transition from prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) to prostate cancer: genome-wide gene-expression profiles of prostate cancers and PINs.
Cancer Res. 2004; 64(17):5963-72 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To characterize the molecular feature in prostate carcinogenesis and the putative transition from prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) to invasive prostate cancer (PC), we analyzed gene-expression profiles of 20 PCs and 10 high-grade PINs with a cDNA microarray representing 23,040 genes. Considering the histological heterogeneity of PCs and the minimal nature of PIN lesions, we applied laser microbeam microdissection to purify populations of PC and PIN cells, and then compared their expression profiles with those of corresponding normal prostatic epithelium also purified by laser microbeam microdissection. A hierarchical clustering analysis separated the PC group from the PIN group, except for three tumors that were morphologically defined as one very-high-grade PIN and two low-grade PCs, suggesting that PINs and PCs share some molecular features and supporting the hypothesis of PIN-to-PC transition. On the basis of this hypothesis, we identified 21 up-regulated genes and 63 down-regulated genes commonly in PINs and PCs compared with normal epithelium, which were considered to be involved in the presumably early stage of prostatic carcinogenesis. They included AMACR, OR51E2, RODH, and SMS. Furthermore, we identified 41 up-regulated genes and 98 down-regulated genes in the transition from PINs to PCs; those altered genes, such as POV1, CDKN2C, EPHA4, APOD, FASN, ITGB2, LAMB2, PLAU, and TIMP1, included elements that are likely to be involved in cell adhesion or the motility of invasive PC cells. The down-regulation of EPHA4 by small interfering RNA in PC cells lead to attenuation of PC cell viability. These data provide clues to the molecular mechanisms underlying prostatic carcinogenesis, and suggest candidate genes the products of which might serve as molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of PC.
Okada K, Katagiri T, Tsunoda T, et al.Analysis of gene-expression profiles in testicular seminomas using a genome-wide cDNA microarray.
Int J Oncol. 2003; 23(6):1615-35 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To identify new diagnostic markers for testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), including seminomas, as well as potential targets of new drugs for treating the disease, we compared gene-expression profiles of cancer cells from 13 seminomas with normal human testis using laser-capture microdissection and a cDNA microarray representing 23,040 genes. We identified 347 genes that were commonly up-regulated in seminoma cells. The functions of 227 were known to some extent; the remaining 120 included 55 ESTs. On the list were cyclin D2 (CCND2), prostate cancer over-expressed gene 1 (POV1), and junction plakoglobin (JUP), all of which were already known to be over-expressed in seminomas. On the other hand, our protocol selected 593 genes as being commonly down-regulated in seminoma cells. That list included 340 functionally characterized genes; the other 253 included 131 ESTs. To confirm the expression data, we performed semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments with nine highly up-regulated genes, and the results supported those of our microarray analysis. The information provided here should prove useful for identifying genes whose products might serve as molecular targets for treatment of TGCTs.
Skotheim RI, Monni O, Mousses S, et al.New insights into testicular germ cell tumorigenesis from gene expression profiling.
Cancer Res. 2002; 62(8):2359-64 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We have shown recently that about half of the human TGCTs(3) reveal DNA copy number increases affecting two distinct regions on chromosome arm 17q. To identify potential target genes with elevated expressions attributable to the extra copies, we constructed a cDNA microarray containing 636 genes and expressed sequence tags from chromosome 17. The expression patterns of 14 TGCTs, 1 carcinoma in situ, and 3 normal testis samples were examined, all with known chromosome 17 copy numbers. The growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 (GRB7) and junction plakoglobin (JUP) were the two most highly overexpressed genes in the TGCTs. GRB7 is tightly linked to ERBB2 and is coamplified and coexpressed with this gene in several cancer types. Interestingly, the expression levels of ERBB2 were not elevated in the TGCTs, suggesting that GRB7 might be the target for the increased DNA copy number in TGCTs. Because of the limited knowledge of altered gene expression in the development of TGCTs, we also examined the expression levels of 512 additional genes located throughout the genome. Several genes novel to testicular tumorigenesis were consistently up- or down-regulated, including POV1, MYCL1, MYBL2, MXI1, and DNMT2. Additionally, overexpression of the proto-oncogenes CCND2 and MYCN were confirmed from the literature. The overexpressions were for some of the target genes closely associated to either seminoma or nonseminoma TGCTs, and hierarchical cluster analysis of the gene expression data effectively distinguished among the known histological subtypes. In summary, this focused functional genomic characterization of TGCTs has lead to the identification of new gene targets associated with a common genomic rearrangement as well as other genes with potential importance to testicular tumorigenesis.
Englert CR, Baibakov GV, Emmert-Buck MRLayered expression scanning: rapid molecular profiling of tumor samples.
Cancer Res. 2000; 60(6):1526-30 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Layered expression scanning is a new approach to comprehensive molecular analysis of tumor samples that uses a layered array of capture membranes coupled to antibodies or DNA sequences to perform multiplex protein or mRNA analysis. Cell or tissue samples are transferred through a series of individual capture layers, each linked to a separate antibody or DNA sequence. As the biomolecules traverse the membrane set, each targeted protein or mRNA is specifically captured by the layer containing its antibody or cDNA sequence. The two-dimensional relationship of the cell populations is maintained during the transfer process, thereby producing a molecular profile of each cell type present. Reduction-to-practice of the technique is demonstrated by analysis of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) protein, gelatinase A protein, and POV1 (PB39) cDNA. As layered expression scanning technology progresses, we envision a laboratory method that will have multiple applications for high-throughput molecular profiling of normal and tumor samples.
Cole KA, Chuaqui RF, Katz K, et al.cDNA sequencing and analysis of POV1 (PB39): a novel gene up-regulated in prostate cancer.
Genomics. 1998; 51(2):282-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We recently identified a novel gene (PB39) (HGMW-approved symbol POV1) whose expression is up-regulated in human prostate cancer using tissue microdissection-based differential display analysis. In the present study we report the full-length sequencing of PB39 cDNA, genomic localization of the PB39 gene, and genomic sequence of the mouse homologue. The full-length human cDNA is 2317 nucleotides in length and contains an open reading frame of 559 amino acids which does not show homology with any reported human genes. The N-terminus contains charged amino acids and a helical loop pattern suggestive of an srp leader sequence for a secreted protein. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using PB39 cDNA as probe mapped the gene to chromosome 11p11.1-p11.2. Comparison of PB39 cDNA sequence with murine sequence available in the public database identified a region of previously sequenced mouse genomic DNA showing 67% amino acid sequence homology with human PB39. Based on alignment and comparison to the human cDNA the mouse genomic sequence suggests there are at least 14 exons in the mouse gene spread over approximately 100 kb of genomic sequence. Further analysis of PB39 expression in human tissues shows the presence of a unique splice variant mRNA that appears to be primarily associated with fetal tissues and tumors. Interestingly, the unique splice variant appears in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, a microscopic precursor lesion of prostate cancer. The current data support the hypothesis that PB39 plays a role in the development of human prostate cancer and will be useful in the analysis of the gene product in further human and murine studies.
Chuaqui RF, Englert CR, Strup SE, et al.Identification of a novel transcript up-regulated in a clinically aggressive prostate carcinoma.
Urology. 1997; 50(2):302-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To identify differentially expressed genes in tumor cells of patients with prostate cancer by means of tissue microdissection and targeted differential display.
METHODS: RNA was recovered from pure populations of microdissected normal epithelium and invasive tumor from frozen tissue sections of a radical prostatectomy specimen. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using arbitrary and zinc finger PCR primers was performed.
RESULTS: A 130-base pair product was identified that appeared selectively in the tumor sample. DNA sequence analysis revealed it to be a clone from the expressed sequence tag database (GenBank accession R00504). Microdissection of normal epithelium and the corresponding invasive tumor was subsequently performed on a test panel of 10 prostate carcinoma specimens. Comparison of R00504 levels in normal epithelium and invasive carcinoma, using beta-actin as an internal control, showed the transcript to be substantially overexpressed in 5 of 10 carcinomas. Northern blotting revealed R00504 to be a 2.6-kilobase gene.
CONCLUSIONS: A novel transcript up-regulated in an aggressive prostate carcinoma was identified using degenerate zinc finger primers in microdissected tissue samples. The approach used in this study may be helpful in quantitative comparison of known genes and identification of novel genes in microdissected human tissue samples.