Gene Summary

Gene:PGK1; phosphoglycerate kinase 1
Aliases: PGKA, MIG10, HEL-S-68p
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate. The encoded protein may also act as a cofactor for polymerase alpha. Additionally, this protein is secreted by tumor cells where it participates in angiogenesis by functioning to reduce disulfide bonds in the serine protease, plasmin, which consequently leads to the release of the tumor blood vessel inhibitor angiostatin. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. Deficiency of the enzyme is associated with a wide range of clinical phenotypes hemolytic anemia and neurological impairment. Pseudogenes of this gene have been defined on chromosomes 19, 21 and the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:phosphoglycerate kinase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PGK1 (cancer-related)

Yang H, Geng YH, Wang P, et al.
Extracellular ATP promotes breast cancer invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via hypoxia-inducible factor 2α signaling.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(8):2456-2470 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extracellular ATP has been shown to play an important role in invasion and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in breast cancer; however, the mechanism is unclear. Here, by using a cDNA microarray, we demonstrated that extracellular ATP could stimulate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling and upregulate hypoxia-inducible factor 1/2α (HIF-1/2α) expression. After knocking down HIF-1/2α using siRNA, we found that ATP-driven invasion and EMT were significantly attenuated via HIF2A-siRNA in breast cancer cells. By using ChIP assays, we revealed that the biological function of extracellular ATP in invasion and EMT process depended on HIF-2α direct targets, among which lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mediated ATP-driven invasion, and E-cadherin and Snail mediated ATP-driven EMT, respectively. In addition, using silver staining and mass spectrometry, we found that phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) could interact with HIF-2α and mediate ATP-driven HIF-2α upregulation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that expressions of HIF-2α and its target proteins could be regulated via ATP by AKT-PGK1 pathway. Using a Balb/c mice model, we illustrated the function of HIF-2α in promoting tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Moreover, by exploring online databases, we found that molecules involved in ATP-HIF-2α signaling were highly expressed in human breast carcinoma tissues and were associated with poor prognosis. Altogether, these findings suggest that extracellular ATP could promote breast carcinoma invasion and EMT via HIF-2α signaling, which may be a potential target for future anti-metastasis therapy.

Cai Q, Wang S, Jin L, et al.
Long non-coding RNA GBCDRlnc1 induces chemoresistance of gallbladder cancer cells by activating autophagy.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer is the most common biliary tract malignancy and not sensitive to chemotherapy. Autophagy is an important factor prolonging the survival of cancer cells under chemotherapeutic stress. We aimed to investigate the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in autophagy and chemoresistance of gallbladder cancer cells.
METHODS: We established doxorubicin (Dox)-resistant gallbladder cancer cells and used microarray analysis to compare the expression profiles of lncRNAs in Dox-resistant gallbladder cancer cells and their parental cells. Knockdown or exogenous expression of lncRNA combined with in vitro and in vivo assays were performed to prove the functional significance of lncRNA. The effects of lncRNA on autophagy were assessed by stubRFP-sensGFP-LC3 and western blot. We used RNA pull-down and mass spectrometry analysis to identify the target proteins of lncRNA.
RESULTS: The drug-resistant property of gallbladder cancer cells is related to their enhanced autophagic activity. And we found a lncRNA ENST00000425894 termed gallbladder cancer drug resistance-associated lncRNA1 (GBCDRlnc1) that serves as a critical regulator in gallbladder cancer chemoresistance. Furthermore, we discovered that GBCDRlnc1 is upregulated in gallbladder cancer tissues. Knockdown of GBCDRlnc1, via inhibiting autophagy at initial stage, enhanced the sensitivity of Dox-resistant gallbladder cancer cells to Dox in vitro and in vivo. Mechanically, we identified that GBCDRlnc1 interacts with phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and inhibits its ubiquitination in Dox-resistant gallbladder cancer cells, which leads to the down-regulation of autophagy initiator ATG5-ATG12 conjugate.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings established that the chemoresistant driver GBCDRlnc1 might be a candidate therapeutic target for the treatment of advanced gallbladder cancer.

Fu D, He C, Wei J, et al.
PGK1 is a Potential Survival Biomarker and Invasion Promoter by Regulating the HIF-1α-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process in Breast Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(5):2434-2444 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glycolysis, a multi-step enzymatic reaction, is considered to be the root of cancer development and progression. The aim of this study is to figure out which glycolysis enzyme participates in the progression of breast cancer and its possible mechanisms.
MATERIALS: We firstly screened out PGK1 by performing an RT-PCR array of glycolysis-related genes in three paired breast cancer samples, and further investigated PGK1 using TCGA and our own database. The effect and mechanism of PGK1 on cell invasion was further explored both in vitro and using patient samples.
RESULTS: PGK1 was most upregulated in T3N0 with distant metastases compared to those with no metastases. In the TCGA database, high PGK1 expression predicted poor overall survival (OS) in breast cancer and some other cancers (P< 0.001). In the validation cohort, high PGK1 expression was significantly correlated with larger tumor size (P=0.011) and advanced TNM stage (P=0.033), and PGK1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for OS and disease free survival (DFS) in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses (P< 0.05). Functional studies indicated that knockdown of PGK1 expression significantly inhibited invasion and reversed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process in breast cancer cells (P< 0.05). Mechanistically, PGK1 increased HRE luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner, while silencing PGK1 expression decreased HRE activity.
CONCLUSION: High PGK1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, because PGK1 and HIF-1α formed a positive feed-forward loop and thus stimulated breast cancer progression and metastases. Based on these results, PGK1 may serve as a promising biomarker and target therapy for breast cancer.

Dong W, Li H, Wu X
Rab11-FIP2 suppressed tumor growth via regulation of PGK1 ubiquitination in non-small cell lung cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019; 508(1):60-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mounting evidence has shown that the Rab11-FIP2 has critical roles in cancer cell growth. However, the clinical significance of Rab11-FIP2 in Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the expression of Rab11-FIP2 using immunohistochemistry in 150 patients with NSCLC. We found that its expression level in NSCLC was much lower than that in the corresponding adjacent normal tissues. The DNA methylation data revealed that Rab11-FIP2 were significantly hypermethylated in NSCLC. The methylation level in the gene body was negatively correlated with the expression level of Rab11-FIP2 in NSCLC. Furthermore, enforced expression of Rab11-FIP2 dramatically reduced cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, indicating a tumor suppressor role of PGK1 in NSCLC progression. Mechanistic investigations showed that Rab11-FIP2 interacted with the glycolytic kinase PGK1 and promoted its ubiquitination in NSCLC cells, leading to inactivation of the oncogenic AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Overall, our data indicate that reduced expression of Rab11-FIP2 by DNA hypermethylation plays an important role in NSCLC tumor growth.

Fang E, Wang J, Hong M, et al.
Valproic acid suppresses Warburg effect and tumor progression in neuroblastoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019; 508(1):9-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Altered glucose metabolism is a hallmark for cancer, which is characterized by a unique metabolic phenotype known as Warburg effect or aerobic glycolysis. Emerging studies show that valproic acid (VPA), an established histone deacetylase inhibitor, possesses tumor suppressive properties. However, the effects of VPA on the regulation of Warburg effect in neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial malignancy in childhood, still remain elusive. In this study, we show that VPA inhibits the aerobic glycolysis in NB cells by decreasing glucose uptake and reducing lactate and ATP production. Mechanistically, VPA suppresses aerobic glycolysis via reducing the levels of E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), resulting in repressed expression of glycolytic genes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) and phosphoglycerate pinase 1 (PGK1). Rescue experiments show that VPA inhibits the aerobic glycolysis and NB progression through down-regulation of E2F1. These results demonstrate that VPA suppresses the Warburg effect and tumor progression, indicating a novel therapeutic strategy for NB.

Chen J, Cao S, Situ B, et al.
Metabolic reprogramming-based characterization of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):127 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), an advantageous target of liquid biopsy, is an important biomarker for the prognosis and monitoring of cancer. Currently, detection techniques for CTCs are mainly based on the physical and/or epithelial characteristics of tumor cells. However, biofunctional activity markers that can indicate the high metastatic capacity of CTCs are lacking.
METHODS: Functional microarray, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot were used on five prostate cancer cell lines with different metastatic capacities to identify the metastasis-related metabolic genes. The identified genes were detected in the CTCs of 64 clinical samples using the RNA in situ hybridization. A multi-criteria weighted model was used to determine the optimal metabolic markers for the CTCs test. Based on five fluorescent signals targeting DAPI, CD45, metabolic, epithelial (EpCAM/CKs), and mesenchymal (Vimentin/Twist) markers, the filtration-enriched CTCs were classified as GM
RESULTS: Eight metastasis-related metabolic genes were identified, including HK2, PDP2, G6PD, PGK1, PHKA1, PYGL, PDK1, and PKM2. Among them, PGK1 and G6PD were determined as optimal glucose metabolic (GM) markers for CTCs. GM
CONCLUSIONS: The metabolic marker (PGK1/G6PD) is determined as the indicator for the biofunctional activity analysis of CTCs, compared with the existing morphological (EMT) classification on CTCs. The metabolic characterization of CTCs demonstrates that hypermetabolic GM

Janik ME, Szwed S, Grzmil P, et al.
RT-qPCR analysis of human melanoma progression-related genes - A novel workflow for selection and validation of candidate reference genes.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 101:12-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to identify a normalizer or combination of normalizers for quantitative evaluation of the expression of a target gene of interest during melanoma progression. Adult melanocytes, uveal primary melanoma cells and cutaneous primary and metastatic melanoma cells were used to construct a panel of 14 experimental models reflecting cancer promotion and progression. Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), glucuronidase beta (GUSB), ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein progression. Adult melanocytes, uveal primary melanoma cells and cutaneous primary and metastatic melanoma cells were used to construct a panel of 14 experimental models reflecting cancer promotion and progression. Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), glucuronidase beta (GUSB), ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide A (SRNPA) were chosen as candidate housekeeping genes. NormFinder software was used to identify the best reference gene or pair of reference genes from five candidate housekeeping genes, on the basis of expression stability in a given experimental model. The suitability of references was validated by normalizing the transcriptional activities of E-cadherin (CDH1), N-cadherin (CDH2) and endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) target genes. It has been shown that the relative expression of CDH2 and ERAP1 target genes in a given cell line may vary between experimental models, leading to biological misinterpretation. In view of this, we devised a strategy for improved selection of the best stable reference and for obtaining biologically consistent results. This strategy avoided experimental model- and normalizer-dependent conclusions concerning the relative expression of target gene, in the examined cell lines.

Martín-Lorenzo A, Auer F, Chan LN, et al.
Loss of Pax5 Exploits Sca1-BCR-ABL
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(10):2669-2679 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Preleukemic clones carrying

Deryusheva IV, Tsyganov M, Garbukov EY, et al.
Genome-wide association study of loss of heterozygosity and metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients.
Exp Oncol. 2017; 39(2):145-150 [PubMed] Related Publications
One of the factors providing the diversity and heterogeneity of malignant tumors, particularly breast cancer, are genetic variations, due to gene polymorphism, and, especially, the phenomenon of loss of heterozygosity (LOH). It has been shown that LOH in some genes could be a good prognostic marker.
AIM: To perform genome-wide study on LOH in association with metastasis-free survival in breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 68 patients with breast cancer. LOH status was detected by microarray analysis, using a high density DNA-chip CytoScanTM HD Array (Affymetrix, USA). The Chromosome Analysis Suite 3.1 (Affymetrix, USA) software was used for result processing.
RESULTS: 13,815 genes were examined, in order to detect LOH. The frequency of LOH varied from 0% to 63%. The association analysis identified four genes: EDA2R, PGK1, TAF9B and CYSLTR1 that demonstrated the presence of LOH associated with metastasis-free survival (log-rank test, p < 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: The presence of LOH in EDA2R, TAF9B, and CYSLTR1 genes is associated with metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients, indicating their potential value as prognostic markers.

Lu Z, Hunter T
Metabolic Kinases Moonlighting as Protein Kinases.
Trends Biochem Sci. 2018; 43(4):301-310 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein kinases regulate every aspect of cellular activity, whereas metabolic enzymes are responsible for energy production and catabolic and anabolic processes. Emerging evidence demonstrates that some metabolic enzymes, such as pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), ketohexokinase (KHK) isoform A (KHK-A), hexokinase (HK), and nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 and 2 (NME1/2), that phosphorylate soluble metabolites can also function as protein kinases and phosphorylate a variety of protein substrates to regulate the Warburg effect, gene expression, cell cycle progression and proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, exosome secretion, T cell activation, iron transport, ion channel opening, and many other fundamental cellular functions. The elevated protein kinase functions of these moonlighting metabolic enzymes in tumor development make them promising therapeutic targets for cancer.

Yu X, Geng W, Zhao H, et al.
Using a Commonly Down-Regulated Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Promoter for High-Level Expression of Ectopic Gene in a Human B Lymphoma Cell Line.
Med Sci Monit. 2017; 23:5943-5950 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Vectors are widely used to drive gene expression using a promoter. However, not all promoters are able to drive ectopic gene expression efficiently, including CMV promoter. Here, we report our data using CMV promoter for high-level gene expression in a B lymphoma cell line DG75. MATERIAL AND METHODS A plasmid (pcDNA3.1(+)) containing the CD21 gene driven under CMV promoter was constructed. The plasmid was stably transfected into a human B lymphoma cell line DG75 for cellular surface CD21 expression, and flow cytometry was used to monitor CD21 expression. CD21+ cells in the stable cell line were purified using anti-CD21 antibody-coupled Dynabeads for CD21-mediated antigen presentation experiment. RESULTS The percentage of CD21+ cells in newly generated stable DG75-pcDNA3.1(+)-CD21 cells was only 6.5% as determined by flow cytometry, which was unexpected and did not fit the requirements for further experiments. However, CD21+ cells could be purified to 100% using anti-CD21 antibody-coupled beads. The percentage of CD21+ cells in purified cells can be kept at 95%, 82%, 42%, 15%, and 42% at 7 d, 14 d, 34 d, and 42 d after purification, respectively. Specific T cell response against CD21-mediated antigen presentation can be activated successfully only when surface CD21 expression remains high. CONCLUSIONS A commonly down-regulated CMV promoter can be used to drive ectopic gene expression at a high-level in stable cell lines. Our results should facilitate future experimental design using other down-regulated promoters containing vectors such as SV40 and PGK1.

Mangraviti A, Raghavan T, Volpin F, et al.
HIF-1α- Targeting Acriflavine Provides Long Term Survival and Radiological Tumor Response in Brain Cancer Therapy.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):14978 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor progression, limited efficacy of current standard treatments, and the rise in patient mortality are associated with gene expression caused by the synergistic action of intratumoral hypoxia and HIF-1α activation. For this reason, recent investigations have focused on HIF-targeting therapeutic agents, with encouraging preclinical and clinical results in solid tumors. Here we describe the efficacy of a HIF-1α inhibitor, Acriflavine, and demonstrate its potency against brain cancer. This safe antibacterial dye induces cell death and apoptosis in several glioma cell lines, targets HIF-1α-mediated pathways, and decreases the level of PGK1, VEGF and HIF-1α in vitro and in vivo. Administered locally via biodegradable polymers, Acriflavine provides significant benefits in survival resulting in nearly 100% long term survival, confirmed by MRI and histological analyses. This study reports preclinical evidence that this safe, small molecule can contribute to brain tumor therapy and highlights the significance of HIF-1α-targeting molecules.

Srivastava C, Irshad K, Dikshit B, et al.
FAT1 modulates EMT and stemness genes expression in hypoxic glioblastoma.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 142(4):805-812 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is characterized by the presence of hypoxia, stemness and local invasiveness. We have earlier demonstrated that FAT1 promotes invasiveness, inflammation and upregulates HIF-1α expression and its signaling in hypoxic GBM. Here, we have identified the role of FAT1 in regulating EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and stemness characteristics in GBM. The expression of FAT1, EMT (Snail/LOX/Vimentin/N-cad), stemness (SOX2/OCT4/Nestin/REST) and hypoxia markers (HIF-1α/VEGF/PGK1/CA9) was upregulated in ≥39% of GBM tumors (n = 31) with significant positive correlation (p ≤ 0.05) of the expression of FAT1 with LOX/Vimentin/SOX2/HIF-1α/PGK1/VEGF/CA9. Furthermore, positive correlation (p ≤ 0.01) of FAT1 with Vimentin/N-cad/SOX2/REST/HIF-1α has been observed in TCGA GBM-dataset (n = 430). Analysis of cells (U87MG/A172) exposed to severe hypoxia (0.2%O

Yu T, Zhao Y, Hu Z, et al.
MetaLnc9 Facilitates Lung Cancer Metastasis via a PGK1-Activated AKT/mTOR Pathway.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(21):5782-5794 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) participate in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in lung cancer. Here, we report the identification of a lncRNA signature associated with metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In particular, elevated expression of LINC00963 (MetaLnc9) in human NSCLC specimens correlated with poor prognosis, promoted migration and invasion of NSCLC cells

Xu D, Aka JA, Wang R, Lin SX
17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 is negatively correlated to apoptosis inhibitor GRP78 and tumor-secreted protein PGK1, and modulates breast cancer cell viability and proliferation.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017; 171:270-280 [PubMed] Related Publications
17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17β-HSD5) is an important enzyme associated with sex steroid metabolism in hormone-dependent cancer. However, reports on its expression and its prognostic value in breast cancer are inconsistent. Here, we demonstrate the impact of 17β-HSD5 expression modulation on the proteome of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cells. RNA interference technique (siRNA) was used to knock down 17β-HSD5 gene expression in the ER+ breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the proteome of the 17β-HSD5-knockdown cells was compared to that of MCF-7 cells using two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was additionally used to assess functional enrichment analyses of the proteomic dataset, including protein network and canonical pathways. Our proteomic analysis revealed only four differentially expressed protein spots (fold change > 2, p<0.05) between the two cell lines. The four spots were up-regulated in 17β-HSD5-knockdown MCF-7 cells, and comprised 21 proteins involved in two networks and in functions that include apoptosis inhibition, regulation of cell growth and differentiation, signal transduction and tumor metastasis. Among the proteins are nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (NME1), 78kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1). We also showed that expression of 17β-HSD5 and that of the apoptosis inhibitor GRP78 are strongly but negatively correlated. Consistent with their opposite regulation, GRP78 knockdown decreased MCF-7 cell viability whereas 17β-HSD5 knockdown or inhibition increased cell viability and proliferation. Besides, IPA analysis revealed that ubiquitination pathway is significantly affected by 17β-HSD5 knockdown. Furthermore, IPA predicted the proto-oncogene c-Myc as an upstream regulator linked to the tumor-secreted protein PGK1. The latter is over-expressed in invasive ductal breast carcinoma as compared with normal breast tissue and its expression increased following 17β-HSD5 knockdown. Our present results indicate a 17β-HSD5 role in down-regulating breast cancer development. We thus propose that 17β-HSD5 may not be a potent target for breast cancer treatment but its low expression could represent a poor prognosis factor.

Pang Y, Yang C, Schovanek J, et al.
Anthracyclines suppress pheochromocytoma cell characteristics, including metastasis, through inhibition of the hypoxia signaling pathway.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(14):22313-22324 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare, neuroendocrine tumors derived from adrenal or extra-adrenal chromaffin cells, respectively. Metastases are discovered in 3-36% of patients at the time of diagnosis. Currently, only suboptimal treatment options exist. Therefore, new therapeutic compounds targeting metastatic PHEOs/PGLs are urgently needed. Here, we investigated if anthracyclines were able to suppress the progression of metastatic PHEO. We explored their effects on experimental mouse PHEO tumor cells using in vitro and in vivo models, and demonstrated that anthracyclines, particularly idarubicin (IDA), suppressed hypoxia signaling by preventing the binding of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and 2 (HIF-1 and HIF-2) to the hypoxia response element (HRE) sites on DNA. This resulted in reduced transcriptional activation of HIF target genes, including erythropoietin (EPO), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), endothelin 1 (EDN1), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA), which consequently inhibited the growth of metastatic PHEO. Additionally, IDA downregulated hypoxia signaling by interfering with the transcriptional activation of HIF1A and HIF2A. Furthermore, our animal model demonstrated the dose-dependent suppressive effect of IDA on metastatic PHEO growth in vivo. Our results indicate that anthracyclines are prospective candidates for inclusion in metastatic PHEO/PGL therapy, especially in patients with gene mutations involved in the hypoxia signaling pathway.

Cao H, Yu H, Feng Y, et al.
Curcumin inhibits prostate cancer by targeting PGK1 in the FOXD3/miR-143 axis.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017; 79(5):985-994 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Curcumin is a potent antitumor agent. The objective of this study was to explore the interaction between curcumin and PGK1, an oncogene in the FOXD3/miR-143 axis, in prostate cancer therapy.
METHODS: MiRNA microarray analysis was used to identify miRNAs upregulated by curcumin treatment. MiR-143 was dramatically upregulated by curcumin. Cells were treated with antimiR-143 in combination to curcumin, followed by examining cell viability and migration. Bioinformatics analysis was used to investigate target genes of miR-143. The interaction between miR-143 and PGK1 was evaluated with dual-luciferase assay. Since FOXD3 is important in the regulation of miR-143, we explored whether curcumin regulated FOXD3 expression. FOXD3 was also ectopically overexpressed to investigate its effects on curcumin's regulation of miR-143.
RESULTS: Curcumin treatment significantly upregulated miR-143 and decreased prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration. Those effects were attenuated by anti-miR-143 transfection. Both miR-143 overexpression and curcumin treatment inhibited PGK1 expression and ectopic expression of PGK1 antagonized curcumin's antitumor effects. FOXD3 was upregulated by miR-143. Ectopic expression of FOXD3 synergized with curcumin in upregulating miR-143 expression.
CONCLUSION: Curcumin inhibits prostate cancer by upregulating miR-143. PGK1 is downregulated by miR-143, and FOXD3 upregulation is essential for the antitumor effect of curcumin.

Taylor E, Alqadri N, Dodgson L, et al.
MRL proteins cooperate with activated Ras in glia to drive distinct oncogenic outcomes.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(30):4311-4322 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Mig10/RIAM/Lpd (MRL) adapter protein Lpd regulates actin dynamics through interactions with Scar/WAVE and Ena/VASP proteins to promote the formation of cellular protrusions and to stimulate invasive migration. However, the ability of MRL proteins to interact with multiple actin regulators and to promote serum response factor (SRF) signalling has raised the question of whether MRL proteins employ alternative downstream mechanisms to drive oncogenic processes in a context-dependent manner. Here, using a Drosophila model, we show that overexpression of either human Lpd or its Drosophila orthologue Pico can promote growth and invasion of Ras

Wan W, Peng K, Li M, et al.
Histone demethylase JMJD1A promotes urinary bladder cancer progression by enhancing glycolysis through coactivation of hypoxia inducible factor 1α.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(27):3868-3877 [PubMed] Related Publications
High aerobic glycolysis not only provides energy to cancer cells, but also supports their anabolic growth. JMJD1A, a histone demethylase that specifically demethylates H3K9me1/2, is overexpressed in multiple cancers, including urinary bladder cancer (UBC). It is unclear whether JMJD1A could promote cancer cell growth through enhancing glycolysis. In this study, we found that downregulation of JMJD1A decreased UBC cell proliferation, colony formation and xenograft tumor growth. Knockdown of JMJD1A inhibited glycolysis by decreasing the expression of genes participated in glucose metabolism, including GLUT1, HK2, PGK1, PGM, LDHA and MCT4. Mechanistically, JMJD1A cooperated with hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), an important transcription factor for glucose metabolism, to induce the glycolytic gene expression. JMJD1A was recruited to the promoter of glycolytic gene PGK1 to demethylate H3K9me2. However, the JMJD1A (H1120Y) mutant, which loses the demethylase activity, failed to cooperate with HIF1α to induce the glycolytic gene expression, and failed to demethylate H3K9me2 on PGK1 promoter, suggesting that the demethylase activity of JMJD1A is essential for its coactivation function for HIF1α. Inhibition of glycolysis through knocking down HIF1α or PGK1 decelerated JMJD1A-enhanced UBC cell growth. Consistent with these results, a positive correlation between JMJD1A and several key glycolytic genes in human UBC samples was established by analyzing a microarray-based gene expression profile. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that JMJD1A promotes UBC progression by enhancing glycolysis through coactivation of HIF1α, implicating that JMJD1A is a potential molecular target for UBC treatment.

Hu H, Zhu W, Qin J, et al.
Acetylation of PGK1 promotes liver cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.
Hepatology. 2017; 65(2):515-528 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) is an important enzyme in the metabolic glycolysis pathway. In this study, we observed a significant overexpression of PGK1 in liver cancer tissues and a negative correlation between PGK1 expression and liver cancer patient survival. Furthermore, depletion of PGK1 dramatically reduced cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, indicating an oncogenic role of PGK1 in liver cancer progression. Moreover, we identified acetylation at the K323 site of PGK1 as an important regulatory mechanism for promoting its enzymatic activity and cancer cell metabolism. And we further characterized P300/cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein-binding protein-associated factor (PCAF) and Sirtuin 7 as the enzymes regulating K323 acetylation from both directions in liver cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate a novel regulation of PGK1 as well as its important role in liver cancer progression. (Hepatology 2017;65:515-528).

Applebaum MA, Jha AR, Kao C, et al.
Integrative genomics reveals hypoxia inducible genes that are associated with a poor prognosis in neuroblastoma patients.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(47):76816-76826 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is notable for its broad spectrum of clinical behavior ranging from spontaneous regression to rapidly progressive disease. Hypoxia is well known to confer a more aggressive phenotype in neuroblastoma. We analyzed transcriptome data from diagnostic neuroblastoma tumors and hypoxic neuroblastoma cell lines to identify genes whose expression levels correlate with poor patient outcome and are involved in the hypoxia response. By integrating a diverse set of transcriptome datasets, including those from neuroblastoma patients and neuroblastoma derived cell lines, we identified nine genes (SLCO4A1, ENO1, HK2, PGK1, MTFP1, HILPDA, VKORC1, TPI1, and HIST1H1C) that are up-regulated in hypoxia and whose expression levels are correlated with poor patient outcome in three independent neuroblastoma cohorts. Analysis of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and ENCODE data indicate that at least five of these nine genes have an increase in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and a more open chromatin structure in hypoxia versus normoxia and are putative targets of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) as they contain HIF binding sites in their regulatory regions. Four of these genes are key components of the glycolytic pathway and another three are directly involved in cellular metabolism. We experimentally validated our computational findings demonstrating that seven of the nine genes are significantly up-regulated in response to hypoxia in the four neuroblastoma cell lines tested. This compact and robustly validated group of genes, is associated with the hypoxia response in aggressive neuroblastoma and may represent a novel target for biomarker and therapeutic development.

Harami-Papp H, Pongor LS, Munkácsy G, et al.
TP53 mutation hits energy metabolism and increases glycolysis in breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(41):67183-67195 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Promising new hallmarks of cancer is alteration of energy metabolism that involves molecular mechanisms shifting cancer cells to aerobe glycolysis. Our goal was to evaluate the correlation between mutation in the commonly mutated tumor suppressor gene TP53 and metabolism. We established a database comprising mutation and RNA-seq expression data of the TCGA repository and performed receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to compare expression of each gene between TP53 mutated and wild type samples. All together 762 breast cancer samples were evaluated of which 215 had TP53 mutation. Top up-regulated metabolic genes include glycolytic enzymes (e.g. HK3, GPI, GAPDH, PGK1, ENO1), glycolysis regulator (PDK1) and pentose phosphate pathway enzymes (PGD, TKT, RPIA). Gluconeogenesis enzymes (G6PC3, FBP1) were down-regulated. Oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates were measured in TP53 wild type and mutant breast cell lines with a microfluorimetric analyzer. Applying metabolic inhibitors in the presence and absence of D-glucose and L-glutamine in cell culture experiments resulted in higher glycolytic and mitochondrial activity in TP53 mutant breast cancer cell lines. In summary, TP53 mutation influences energy metabolism at multiple levels. Our results provide evidence for the synergistic activation of multiple hallmarks linking to these the mutation status of a key driver gene.

Peruzzo P, Comelli M, Di Giorgio E, et al.
Transformation by different oncogenes relies on specific metabolic adaptations.
Cell Cycle. 2016; 15(19):2656-2668 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metabolic adaptations are emerging as common traits of cancer cells and tumor progression. In vitro transformation of NIH 3T3 cells allows the analysis of the metabolic changes triggered by a single oncogene. In this work, we have compared the metabolic changes induced by H-RAS and by the nuclear resident mutant of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). RAS-transformed cells exhibit a dominant aerobic glycolytic phenotype characterized by up-regulation of glycolytic enzymes, reduced oxygen consumption and a defect in complex I activity. In this model of transformation, glycolysis is strictly required for sustaining the ATP levels and the robust cellular proliferation. By contrast, in HDAC4/TM transformed cells, glycolysis is only modestly up-regulated, lactate secretion is not augmented and, instead, mitochondrial oxygen consumption is increased. Our results demonstrate that cellular transformation can be accomplished through different metabolic adaptations and HDAC4/TM cells can represent a useful model to investigate oncogene-driven metabolic changes besides the Warburg effect.

Valcz G, Galamb O, Krenács T, et al.
Exosomes in colorectal carcinoma formation: ALIX under the magnifying glass.
Mod Pathol. 2016; 29(8):928-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that have important roles in transporting a great variety of bioactive molecules between epithelial compartment and their microenvironment during tumor formation including colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. We tested the mRNA expression of the top 25 exosome-related markers based on ExoCharta database in healthy (n=49), adenoma (n=49) and colorectal carcinoma (n=49) patients using Affymetrix HGU133 Plus2.0 microarrays. Most related genes showed significantly elevated expression including PGK1, PKM, ANXA5, ENO1, HSP90AB1 and MSN during adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Surprisingly, the expression of ALIX (ALG 2-interacting protein X), involved in multivesicular body (MVB) and exosome formation, was significantly reduced in normal vs adenoma (P=5.02 × 10(-13)) and in normal vs colorectal carcinoma comparisons (P=1.51 × 10(-10)). ALIX also showed significant reduction (P<0.05) at the in situ protein level in the epithelial compartment of adenoma (n=35) and colorectal carcinoma (n=37) patients compared with 27 healthy individuals. Furthermore, significantly reduced ALIX protein levels were accompanied by their gradual transition from diffuse cytoplasmic expression to granular signals, which fell into the 0.6-2 μm diameter size range of MVBs. These ALIX-positive particles were seen in the tumor nests, including tumor-stroma border, which suggest their exosome function. MVB-like structures were also detected in tumor microenvironment including α-smooth muscle actin-positive stromal cells, budding off cancer cells in the tumor front as well as in cancer cells entrapped within lymphoid vessels. In conclusion, we determined the top aberrantly expressed exosome-associated markers and revealed the transition of diffuse ALIX protein signals into a MVB-like pattern during adenoma-carcinoma sequence. These tumor-associated particles seen both in the carcinoma and the surrounding microenvironment can potentially mediate epithelial-stromal interactions involved in the regulation of tumor growth, metastatic invasion and therapy response.

Ayakannu T, Taylor AH, Willets JM, et al.
Validation of endogenous control reference genes for normalizing gene expression studies in endometrial carcinoma.
Mol Hum Reprod. 2015; 21(9):723-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique used for the relative quantification of target genes, using reference (housekeeping) genes for normalization to ensure the generation of accurate and robust data. A systematic examination of the suitability of endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in endometrial cancer tissues is absent. The aims of this study were therefore to identify and evaluate from the thirty-two possible reference genes from a TaqMan(®) array panel their suitability as an internal control gene. The mathematical software packages geNorm qBasePLUS identified Pumilio homolog 1 (Drosophila) (PUM1), ubiquitin C (UBC), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1), mitochondrial ribosomal protein L19 (MRPL19) and peptidylpropyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A) (PPIA) as the best reference gene combination, whilst NormFinder identified MRPL19 as the best single reference gene, with importin 8 (IPO8) and PPIA being the best combination of two reference genes. BestKeeper ranked MRPL19 as the most stably expressed gene. In addition, the study was validated by examining the relative expression of a test gene, which encodes the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). A significant difference in CB1 mRNA expression between malignant and normal endometrium using MRPL19, PPIA, and IP08 in combination was observed. The use of MRPL19, IPO8 and PPIA was identified as the best reference gene combination for the normalization of gene expression levels in endometrial carcinoma. This study demonstrates that the arbitrary selection of endogenous control reference genes for normalization in qRT-PCR studies of endometrial carcinoma, without validation, risks the production of inaccurate data and should therefore be discouraged.

Mariz FC, Coimbra EC, Jesus AL, et al.
Development of an IP-Free Biotechnology Platform for Constitutive Production of HPV16 L1 Capsid Protein Using the Pichia pastoris PGK1 Promoter.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:594120 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein, which forms the basis of the currently available vaccines against cervical cancer, self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed heterologously. We report the development of a biotechnology platform for HPV16 L1 protein expression based on the constitutive PGK1 promoter (PPGK1) from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The L1 gene was cloned under regulation of PPGK1 into pPGKΔ3 expression vector to achieve intracellular expression. In parallel, secretion of the L1 protein was obtained through the use of an alternative vector called pPGKΔ3α, in which a codon optimized α-factor signal sequence was inserted. We devised a work-flow based on the detection of the L1 protein by dot blot, colony blot, and western blot to classify the positive clones. Finally, intracellular HPV VLPs assembly was demonstrated for the first time in yeast cells. This study opens up perspectives for the establishment of an innovative platform for the production of HPV VLPs or other viral antigens for vaccination purposes, based on constitutive expression in P. pastoris.

Sun S, Liang X, Zhang X, et al.
Phosphoglycerate kinase-1 is a predictor of poor survival and a novel prognostic biomarker of chemoresistance to paclitaxel treatment in breast cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(8):1332-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (PGK1) has been recently documented in various malignancies; however, the molecular mechanisms of the variable PGK1 expression and its clinical significance in terms of survival status remain unclear.
METHODS: Real-time quantitative PCR (real-time qPCR) and western blotting were used to verify PGK1 expression in 46 fresh breast cancer tissues and matched normal tissues. A tissue microarray (TMA) comprising 401 breast cancer tissues and 123 matched normal tissues was investigated by immunohistochemistry for PGK1 expression. Then, the correlation between PGK1 expression and the clinicopathologic features was analysed.
RESULTS: PGK1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased in breast cancer tissues compared with that in normal breast tissues. High PGK1 expression was significantly associated with higher histologic grade (P=0.009) and positive status of ER (P=0.004), Her-2 (P=0.026) and P53 (P=0.012). High levels of PGK1 expression were associated with worse overall survival (OS, P=0.02). Furthermore, patients who underwent paclitaxel chemotherapy with high levels PGK1 expression had shorter OS than did those with low levels of PGK1 expression (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that PGK1 (P=0.001) was an independent predictor in the patients treated with paclitaxel.
CONCLUSIONS: PGK1 is a prognostic biomarker of chemoresistance to paclitaxel treatment in breast cancer.

Irshad K, Mohapatra SK, Srivastava C, et al.
A combined gene signature of hypoxia and notch pathway in human glioblastoma and its prognostic relevance.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0118201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia is a hallmark of solid tumors including glioblastoma (GBM). Its synergism with Notch signaling promotes progression in different cancers. However, Notch signaling exhibits pleiotropic roles and the existing literature lacks a comprehensive understanding of its perturbations under hypoxia in GBM with respect to all components of the pathway. We identified the key molecular cluster(s) characteristic of the Notch pathway response in hypoxic GBM tumors and gliomaspheres. Expression of Notch and hypoxia genes was evaluated in primary human GBM tissues by q-PCR. Clustering and statistical analyses were applied to identify the combination of hypoxia markers correlated with upregulated Notch pathway components. We found well-segregated tumor-clusters representing high and low HIF-1α/PGK1-expressors which accounted for differential expression of Notch signaling genes. In combination, a five-hypoxia marker set (HIF-1α/PGK1/VEGF/CA9/OPN) was determined as the best predictor for induction of Notch1/Dll1/Hes1/Hes6/Hey1/Hey2. Similar Notch-axis genes were activated in gliomaspheres, but not monolayer cultures, under moderate/severe hypoxia (2%/0.2% O2). Preliminary evidence suggested inverse correlation between patient survival and increased expression of constituents of the hypoxia-Notch gene signature. Together, our findings delineated the Notch-axis maximally associated with hypoxia in resected GBM, which might be prognostically relevant. Its upregulation in hypoxia-exposed gliomaspheres signify them as a better in-vitro model for studying hypoxia-Notch interactions than monolayer cultures.

Ali H, Du Z, Li X, et al.
Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in lung cancer in vitro.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(5):3767-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study aimed to examine 10 housekeeping genes (HKGs), including 18s ribosomal RNA (18S), glyceraldehyde‑3‑phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein large P0 (RPLP0), β‑actin (ACTB), peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), phosphoglycerate kinase‑1 (PGK1), β‑2‑microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal protein LI3a (RPL13A), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase‑1 (HPRT1) and TATA box binding protein (TBP) in order to identify the most stable and suitable reference genes for use in expression studies in non‑small cell lung cancer. The mRNA expression encoding the panel of the 10 HKGs was determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR (RT‑qPCR) in human lung cancer cell lines. Three software programs, BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm, were used to ascertain the most suitable reference genes to normalize the RNA input. The present study examined three lung cancer cell lines (A549, NCI‑H446 and NCI‑H460). The analysis of the experimental data using BestKeeper software revealed that all 10 HKGs were stable, with GADPH, followed by 18S being the most stable genes and PPIA and HPRT1 being the least stable genes. The NormFinder software results demonstrated that PPIA followed by ACTB were the most stable and B2M and RPLP0 were the least stable. The geNorm software results revealed that ACTB and PGK1, followed by PPIA were the most stable genes and B2M and RPLP0 were identified as the least stable genes. Due to discrepancies in the ranking orders of the reference genes obtained by different analyzing software programs, it was not possible to determine a single universal reference gene. The suitability of selected reference genes requires unconditional validation prior to each study. Based on the three analyzing programs, ACTB, PPIA and PGK1 were the most stable reference genes in lung cancer cell lines.

Cheng YJ, Ding H, Du HQ, et al.
Downregulation of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 by shRNA sensitizes U251 xenografts to radiotherapy.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(4):1513-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) has been demonstrated to be involved in radioresistance. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of PGK1 on the radioresistance in vivo. U251 glioma cells were transfected with the short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-PGK1 and pcDNA3.1-PGK1 using Lipofectamine 2000. The radiosensitivity of U251 xenografts was observed by tumor growth curve following radiotherapy. Quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate PGK1 expression in the xenografts from the different tumor models. The expression of PGK1 was maximally inhibited in response to shRNA4 at 24 h after the transfection in vitro. Tumor growth of the U251 xenografts was significantly inhibited following treatment with shRNA-PGK1 and radiotherapy. The expression of PGK1 in vivo at the mRNA and protein levels was downregulated by the treatment of shRNA1 when compared to levels following treatment with shNC and PBS after radiotherapy. The results showed that suppression of PGK1 enhanced the radiosensitivity of U251 xenografts and suggest that PGK1 may serve as a useful target in the treatment of radioresistant glioma.

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